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11.

1B Graphs of Sine and Cosine

Objectives:
F.IF.7: Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in
simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.
F.TF.5: Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified
amplitude, frequency, and midline.
F.BF.3: Identify the effect on the graph of repleacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for
specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs…

For the Board: You will be able to graph trigonometric functions.

Application:
Sine and cosine functions can be used to model real-world phenomena, such as sound waves.
Different sounds create different waves.
Sounds are distinguished by their frequency.
Frequency is the number of cycles in a given unit of time.
It is the reciprocal of the period of a function.
Hertz (Hz) is the standard measure of frequency and represents one cycle per second.

Example: A sound has a frequency of 400 Hz. What is the period of the wave?
The wave repeats 400 times in 1 second and the period of the function is
1/400 or 0.0025.

White Board Activity:


Practice: A sound has a frequency of 800 Hz. What is the period of the wave?
The wave repeats 800 times in 1 second and the period of the function is 1/800
or 0.00125.

Open the book to page 756 and read example 3.


Example: Use a sine function to graph a sound wave with a period of
0.002 s and an amplitude of 3 cm. Find the frequency in 3
hertz for this sound wave.
x y
0.002 = 2/1000
0 0
Frequency = 1000/2 = 500 Hz 0 0.001 0.002
.0005 3 0 π/2 π 3π/2 2π
/
.001 0 3π/2 2π
-3
.0015 -3
.002 0
White Board Activity:
Practice: Use a sine function to graph a sound wave with a period of
0.004 s and an amplitude of 3 cm. Find the frequency in 3
hertz for this sound wave.
x y
0.004 = 4/1000
0 0
Frequency = 1000/4 = 250 Hz 0 0.002 0.004
.001 3 / 0 π/2 π 3π/2 2π

.002 0 3π/2 2π
-3
.003 -3
.004 0
Sine and cosine can be translated vertically and horizontally.
The horizontal translation of a periodic function is called a phase shift.

General Form of the Sine Function


y = a sin b(x – h) + k
a is the amplitude: vertical stretch or compression
b is used to determine the period: 2π/b
h is the phase shift: horizontal translation
Since x represents an angle in degrees or radians, h will also be expressed in
degrees or radians.
k is the vertical translation
Since y represents a number, k will also be expressed as a number.

Open the book to page 757 and read example 4.


Example: Using f(x) = sin x as a guide, graph x y
g(x) = 3 sin (x – π/4). Identify the x-intercepts 0 0 3
and phase shift. π/2 3
x-intercepts: π/4 + n π π 0
phase shift: right π/4 3π/2 -3
O π/2 π 3π/2 2π
0 π/2 π 3π/2 2π
3π/2
2π 0 2π
-3

White Board Activity:


Practice: Using f(x) = cos x as a guide, graph
x y 2
g(x) = cos (x – π). Identify the x-intercepts
0 1
and the phase shift. 1
x-intercepts: π/2 + nπ π/2 0
phase shift: right π π -1
0 π 2π 3π 4π
3π/2 0
-1
2π 1
-2

Open the book to page 758 and read example 5.


Example: The number of people, in thousands, employed in a
8
resort town can be modeled by
g(x) = 1.5 sin π/6(x + 2) + 5, where x is the month of 6
the year.
a. Graph the number of people employed in the 4
town for one complete period.
2
2π 2π π
Period :   x y
π 1 6
6 0 0 0 3 6 9 12

2π 6 3 1.5
   12 6 -1
1 π
9 -1.5
12 1
Translate the curve up 5. Translate the curve left 2.
b. What is the maximum number of people employed?
In the basic function the maximum occurs at 3 and is 1.5.
Adjusting for the shift up of 5 and the shift left of 2, the maximum occurs at 1
and is 6.5. 6.5 x 1000 is 6500 people are employed in January.

White Board Activity:


Practice: Suppose that a Ferris wheel in feet can be modeled
π 40
by H(t) = -16 cos t + 24, where t is the time in
45
30
seconds.
a. Graph the height of a cabin for two 20
complete periods.
x y
π 10
Period : 2π  0 -16
45 22.5 0 0 45 90 135 180
45 45 16
 2π   90 -10
π 67.5 0
90 -16

Translate the curve up 24.


b. What is the maximum height of a cabin?
In the basic function the maximum occurs at 45 and is 16.
Adjusting for the shift up of 40, the maximum occurs at 45 seconds and 135
seconds and is 16 + 24 = 40 feet.

Assessment:
Question student pairs.

Independent Practice:
Text: pg. 759 prob. 7 – 11, 18 – 23, 25 – 28.