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1.

-Learning is a fundamental topic for psychologists and plays a certain role in almost every specialty area of psychology.
-Learning a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience.
-Learning is a process that depends on experience and leads to longterm changes in behavior potential. Behavior potential
designates the possible behavior of an individual, not actual behavior. The main assumption behind all learning psychology is that
the effects of the environment, conditioning, reinforcement, etc. provide psychologists with the best information from which to
understand human behavior.
As opposed to short term changes in behavior potential (caused e.g. by fatigue) learning implies long term changes. As opposed to
long term changes caused by aging and development, learning implies changes related directly to experience.
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1. to acquire knowledge of or skill in by study, instruction, orexperience: to learn french; to learn to ski.
2.
to become informed of or acquainted with; ascertain: tolearn the truth.
3.
to memorize: He learned the poem so he could recite it atthe dinner.
4.
to gain (a habit, mannerism, etc.) by experience, exposure toexample, or the like; acquire: She learned patience from herfather.
5.
(of a device or machine, esp. a computer) to perform ananalogue of human learning with artificial intelligence.
6.
Nonstandard . to instruct in; teach.

3. examples:
a. when you smell your favorite food cooking, you may automatically feel hungry.
the FOOD is an example of Unconditioned stimulus the food triggered the response to feel hungry
bFor example, if the smell of food is the unconditioned stimulus, the feeling of hunger in response to the smell of food is the
unconditioned response.

c. For example, suppose that the smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus and a feeling of hunger is the unconditioned response.
Now, imagine that when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is unrelated to
the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually trigger the
conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the whistle is the conditioned stimulus.

d. For example, let's suppose that the smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus, a feeling of hunger in response the the smell is a
unconditioned response, and a the sound of a whistle is the conditioned stimulus. The conditioned response would be feeling
hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle.

4. examples:
a. For example:
A hungry rat presses a bar in its cage and receives food. The food is a positive condition for the hungry rat. The
rat presses the bar again, and again receives food. The rat's behavior of pressing the bar is strengthened by the
consequence of receiving food.
b. For example:
A rat is placed in a cage and immediately receives a mild electrical shock on its feet. The shock is a negative
condition for the rat. The rat presses a bar and the shock stops. The rat receives another shock, presses the bar again, and
again the shock stops. The rat's behavior of pressing the bar is strengthened by the consequence of stopping the shock.

(a1). Positive - If you do your homework - Here's a cookie!
(a2). If you don't do your homework - I'm going to smack you with this belt.

5.
a. Examples of Classical Conditioning

Your romantic partner always uses the same shampoo. Soon, the smell of that shampoo makes you feel happy.

The door to your house squeaks loudly when you open it. Soon, your dog begins wagging its tail when the door squeaks.

The nurse says “Now this won’t hurt a bit” just before stabbing you with a needle. The next time you hear “This won’t hurt”
you cringe in fear.

The next time you see a sign for that restaurant. This potential for punishment may lead to a decrease in disruptive behaviors. . A child is allowed one-half hour of TV time for each hour she spends doing homework. Your professor grades your term paper even though it was handed in two days past the deadline For example. a mother and father ignore the infant's crying at bedtime. a child may be told they will lose recess privileges if they talk out of turn in class. resulting in her parents helping her dress. Examples of Operant Conditioning and Reinforcement Contingencies A waiter is polite and attentive to customers. which results in larger tips. you feel nauseous. After being sure that the infant's diapers are dry and that he has been recently fed. A child engages in self injurious behavior (hand biting) when asked to get dressed. b. You have a meal at a fast food restaurant that causes food poisoning. Your professor refuses to grade your term paper because you handed it in two days past the deadline. You avoid talking about the problems between Israel and Palestine with your roommate. because it always results in an argument.