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Tribal Movements

19th AND 20th CENTURIES


1768 &1832

1820, 1822,1827 & 1832


Chuars
Nanbhum and
Bhils
Khandesh (Baswara and
Hos
Singhbhum and

1817-19,1825,1831,1847
Barabhum Dungarpur in S.Rajasthan) Chota Nagpur
(West Bengal) Sewaram; (Bihar,Odisha,MP)
Govind Guru(1913) Raja Parahat(1827)

Bengal famine of 1760- British occupation of Occupation of Singbhum


increased revenue demand khandesh (1818) and by the British and
and economic distress; agrarian hardship; defied exploitation of tribals,
defiance of British authority the Company for 30 years; hence revolt; its suppression
by Chuars; suppression of final suppression through after extensive military
the revolt by the British military operations and operations.
through use of force conciliatory measures.
and conciliatory measures.

1829 - 1832
Singphos Khasis Kolis

1824, 1829,1839 & 1844 - 48


Khasi Hills Sahyadri Hills
Assam
(Assam and Meghalaya) (Gujarat and Maharashtra)
1843 revolt-Nirang Phidu Tirut Singh and Bar Manik
(Chiefs of Nounklow & Molim)

Suppression of 1830 revolt Company planned to build Imposition of British rule;


1830-39,1843

by captain Neuville; murder a road linking Brahmaputra dismantlement of the forest


of Colonel White(British Valley with Sylhet; Tirut Singh of Koli tribals; Repeated
political Agent of Assam) by resented the occupation of revolts of Kolis and their final
Singphos in 1839;1843 Jaintia and Garo by the suppression.
uprising led by Chief Nirang British; Failed to drive away
Phidu involving attack on the British from their territory;
British garrison and death of surrender of all Khasi chiefs
many soldiers. Ultimately in 1832.
defeated by the British.
1831 – 1832

1846-48,1855 & 1914

Koyas
1840, 45, 58, 61-62, 79-80, 86,1916 & 1922-24

Kols Rampa (Godavari region


Khonds
Chota Nagpur Khondmals
of Andhra Pradesh)
(Orissa)
Buddho Bhagat Alluri Sitaramaraju
(1922-24) Chakra Bisoi

Kols resisted the transfer of Repeated revolts of the Against new taxes &
land to outsiders such as Koyas, the major ones being customs; The first two revolts
Muslims, Sikhs etc; the 1879-80 and 1922-24 led by Bisoi were put down
Suppressed; death of revolts; capture and with great difficulty by the
Bhagat. execution of Raju by the British.
British in May 1924; were put
down with great difficulty by
the British.
1882
1855-56;1870's
Santhals Naikdas Kacha Naga
Cachar (Assam)
Rajmahal Hills-Santhal Panch Mahals
Paragana(Bihar) (Gujarat) Sambhudan
Sido & Kanho Rup Singh and Joria
Bhagat Resented British activities in
their areas.
Initially against outsiders Initially against Zamindars &
called 'Dikus'(Zamindars & money lenders, later anti-
money-lenders),later anti- British (British ban on the use
British. Revolt of Santhals of forest),Naikdas wanted to
and establishment of their establish 'Dharma Raj'; Revolt Mundas
own government (July,1855); under Rup Singh(1858)and ChotaNagpur

1858-59 & 1868


defeat of British under Major conclusion of peace in 1859; Birsa Munda
Burrough by Santhals; revolted again in 1868,
transfer of the disturbed establishment of a kingdom
area to the military and final with Joria as spiritual head
suppression of the revolt by and Rup Singh as temporal Known as 'Ulgulan'; Against
the end of 1856; creation of head; suppression of the the erosion of their Kuntkatti
a separate district of Santhal revolt; Rupsingh and Joria land system, recruitment of
Paraganas to prevent captured and executed. forced labour (Beth Begar)
Santhals from revolting again and against the activities of
in future. Christian missionaries.
Foundation of a new relig-
ious sect, with Singh Bonga
as their only true god by
Birsa (1895); British fears over

1913
Ahom Bhils
Banswara and Suthi
Birsa's preaching among
Mundas and arrest and
imprisonment of Birsa(1895-
Assam Dungarpur-Raj 97) release of Birsa and
Gomadhar Konwar (Southern Rajasthan) revival of his doctrine (1898)
Govind Guru ; revolt of Mundas and their
attack on churches and
police stations (1899);

1899-1900
Against non-fulfillment of Began as a temperance defeat of Mundas by British
pledges by the company and purification movement (Jan,1900) and capture of
after the Burmese war; British but later developed into a
1828 - 1833

Birsa (he died of cholera in


attempt to incorporate political movement for jail in June 1900).
Ahom territory; Company 'Bhil Raj'; failed due to
suppressed revolt by dividing British armed Intervention.
the kingdom handing Upper
Assam to Purander Singh.

Zeliangrong
Manipur
1920

Zemi, Liangmei &


Kukis Reangs
Tripura
Rongmei tribes
1917 - 19

Manipur Parikshit Jama a(1863) Against failure of the British


to protect them during Kuki
Ratnamani (1942-43)
Jadonang violence of 1917-19.
Bhar singh
1905 - 1913

Resented British policy of Against hike in house tax


recruiting forced labour
and ban on shifting
rates & settlement of
outsiders; Reangs revolt led
Naga
Manipur
cultivation during WW I. by Ratnamani (1942-43)
Jadonang
1863,1942-43

;final revolt led by Bharti


Singh.
Movement began as a
reform Movement. But
developed into a political
struggle against the British
rule and for setting up of a
Naga Raj.
1860’s
1930’s
Heraka cult Pahariyas Naikda
Manipur Raj mahal hills, Bihar Madhya Pradesh & Guj
Gaidinliu Pahariyas

A martial race, the


Movement suppressed in Pahariyas revolted against Against British & casu
1932.But it gave rise to tribal British expansion into their
organizations such as the territory; British ushered in
'Kabui Naga Association'

1778
peace by declaring their
(1946). territory as Damni-Kol area.

1817-19 & 1913


Bhuyan ,Kals Khanda dora Kharwars
Dabur region / Bihar
& Juang visakhapatnam Kharwar
Keonjhar,Orissa
Ratna Nayak, Korra Mallaya
Dharani Dhar Nayak Advocated monotheism
and reform started a
1867-68, 1891-93

Against the installation of a campaign to oppose


British protégé on the throne revenue settlement

1778
after the death of their Raja activities in the 1870's.
in 1867;1867-168 revolt led
by Ratna Nayak;1891-93
revolt led by Dharani Dhar
Nayak; forced the king to

1914 - 15
take protection in Cuttack.
Bastar Oraons
Jagdalpur Chotanagpur
Jatra Bhagat,Tana Bhagat
1879 -1886

Koya
1910

Against new feudal &


forest levies Started by Jatra Bhagat for
Andhra Pradesh
monotheism, abstention
from meat, liquor(signs of
1916, 1922-124

koyas & konda sara chief's


Rampa Sanskritisation) and return to
shifting cultivation; among
Andhra Pradesh Mundas & Oraon's against
Led by in 1879-80 and by
Alluri Sitaramraju outsiders' interference;
Raja Anantayar(E.Godavari)
believed god will help free
in 1886 against police /
them.
forest areas & oppression by Against British interference
money lenders.
1920’s -1930’s

Jharkhand Gond
uprising Forest
1920 onwards

Chotanagpur region / Satyagrahas uprising


parts of Bihar / odisha /WB

Adivasi Mahasabha was


1940's

To bring together believers


formed 1937 (became Chenchus (1920's) /Guntue of Gond Dharma
Regional Jharkhand party karwars (1930's) of palamu
1949)
TM