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DRILLING ENGINEERING

LAB REPORT: DRILLING FLUID


EXPERIMENT TITLE: EXPERIMENT 3 - FILTRATION, WALL BUILDING, AND
RESISITIVITY

NAME : SHAFFIQ BIN AZHAR RIZAL 22891


MUHAMMAD NASRUL AMRI BIN MUHAMAD ZAIDI 22835
MOHAMAD ZAFRAN RIFQIE BIN ROSLAN 22834
AZWAN FARIS QUISYREEN BIN AZLAN 22825
HARITHARAN MURLI HARAN 24743

COURSE : PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

GROUP NO :

EXPERIMENT DATE : 7/6/2018

SUBMISSION DATE : 22/6/2018


INTRODUCTION

The filtration and wall building characteristics of a drilling mud are important for providing a

relative measure of the amount of mud filtrate invasion into a porous and permeable formation

and the amount of filter cake that will be deposited on the wall of the well bore wherever

filtration occurs. From a drilling viewpoint these properties give an indication of the amount

of water (or oil) wetting that can take place in filtrate sensitive formations and the potential for

tight hole or differential sticking problems. For productive, hydrocarbon bearing formations

these properties give an indication of the amount of filtrate invasion and permeability damage

that can be expected.

OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENT

To monitor the rate at which fluid is forced from a filter press under specific conditions of time,

temperature and pressure, then measuring the thickness of the residue deposited upon the filter

paper.

Apparatus of experiment
PROCEDURE

FILTRATION RATE AT 100 PSI & ROOM TEMPERATURE

1. Mud cell from filter press frame was detached.

2. Bottom of filter cell was removed and place right size filter paper in the bottom of

the cell.

3. Introduce mud to be tested into cup assembly, putting filter paper and

screen on top of mud tighten screw clamp.

4. With the air pressure valve closed, clamp the mud cup assembly to the

frame while holding the filtrate outlet end finger tight.

5. Graduated cylinder underneath was placed to collect filtrate.

6. Air pressure valve was opened and timing was started at the same timw

7. Filtrate collected for specified intervals up to 30 minutes was taken and reported.

8. Results was tabulted in an appropriate table


WALL BUILD

MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE FOR MUD CAKE THICKNESS (32nd of an inch or cm)

It should be reported in thirty-second of an inch in whole number. Vernier

caliper could be used to measure the thickness, however, while measuring care should be taken

not to press vernier jaw on mud cake to penetrate through.

Results on mud cake thickness are reported in whole number.

Example: 0.75/32” should be reported as as 1/32.

i.e closest to whole number

Likewise 1.75/32” should be reported as 2/32”

RESULTS

Amount of Filtrate

Time Amount of Filtrate (cc) Amount of Filtrate (cc)

(minutes)
8.6 g/cc mud 10.0 g/cc mud

1 3.5 3.0

2 4.5 4.0

3 6.0 5.5
4 7.5 6.5

5 8.0 7.5

6 8.5 8

7 9.0 8.5

8 9.5 9.5

9 10.5 10.0

10 11 10.5

11 11.4 10.9

12 11.8 11.3

13 12.2 11.7

14 12.6 12.1

15 13 12.5

16 13.4 12.9

17 13.8 13.3

18 14.2 13.7
19 14.6 14.1

20 15 14.5

21 15.4 14.9

22 15.8 15.3

23 16.2 15.7

24 16.6 16

25 17 16.3

26 17.4 16.6

27 17.8 16.9

28 18.1 17.2

29 18.4 17.5

30 18.7 17.7
Graph of Amount of Filtrate vs Time
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

8.6 g/cc mud 10 g/cc mud

Mud Cake Thickness

Types of Mud/ First Reading Second Reading Third Reading

Thickness(mm)

8.6 g/cc mud 2.00 2.26 2.86

10.0 g/cc mud 2.60 2.36 2.36

DISCUSSION

As time increase ,the amount of filtrate collected also increase.

As amount of filtrate increase ,the amount of mud accumulate at the filter paper increase thus

formed a layer what we called as mud cake


The amount of mud accumulated at the filter paper increase, it will gradually lead to decrease

in flow of mud filtrate as the layer of mud cake thicken

The higher the weight of the mud the faster the mud filtrate flow due to high density of mud

that will increase the pressure in flowing mud adaptation from hydrostatic pressure formula.

From this experiment we can see that, as the time goes by the thickness of the cake increases,

as more solids are filtered. This results in a corresponding increase of the pressure resistance

across the cake. If the cake is incompressible (it does not change its volume as pressure builds

up) the pressure resistance increases proportionally to the cake thickness. However, since most

cakes are compressible the pressure across the cake typically increases even faster than the

cake build-up.

Effect of mud filtration on formation damage:

Formation damage is an undesirable operational and economic problem that can occurs during

the various phases of oil and gas recovery from subsurface reservoirs including production,

drilling, hydraulic fracturing and work-over operations. Formation damage assessment, control

and remediation are among the most important issues to be resolved for efficient exploitation

of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Deep bed filtration of fines with capture and permeability damage takes place near to

production wells, in drilling operation. The particles in drilling fluid are captured by size

exclusion (straining) or by different attachment mechanisms (electric forces, gravity

segregation and diffusion).


Mud cake:

Mud cake occur when the residue deposited on a permeable medium when a slurry, such as

drilling fluid is forced against the medium under a pressure. Filtrate is the liquid that passes

through the medium, leaving the cake on the medium. Drilling muds are tested to determine

filtration rate and filter -cake properties. Cake properties such as cake thickness, toughness,

slickness and permeability are important because the cake that forms on permeable zones in

the wellbore can cause the pipe to stuck and other drilling problems. Reduced oil and gas

production can result from reservoir damage when a poor filter cake allows deep filtrate

invasion. A certain degree of cake build up is desirable to isolate formations from drilling

fluids. In opne hole completions in high-angle or horizontal holes, the formation of an external

filter cake is preferable to a cake that forms partly inside the formation. The latter has a higher

potential for formation damage.

Problems cause by excessive filtration and thick filter cake build up:

Tight hole, causing excessive barrier. Increase pressure, due to reduced hole diameter.

Differential sticking, due to an increased pipe contact in filter cake.\

Pressure affects filtration by:

Compressing the filter cake, reducing its permeability and therefore reducing the filtrate.

Temperature affects on filtration by:

Reducing the viscosity of the liquid phase and hence increasing filtration.

Time affects on filtration:


With all other factors being constant, it has been found in early work that the volume of fluid

lost is roughly proportional to the square root of the time for filtration. Form of mud cake and

mud filtration with time cause to occur of formation damage. Formation damage is defined as

the impairment to reservoir (reduced production) caused by wellbore fluids used during

drilling/completion and workover operations. It is a zone of reduced permeability within

vicinity of the wellbore (skin) as a result of foreign-fluid invasion into the reservoir rock.

Preventing formation damage:

1. Ability to recover fluids from the reservoir is affected very strongly by the hydrocarbon

permeability in the near-wellbore region.

2. Although we do not have he ability to control reservoir rock properties and fluid

properties, we have some degree of control over drilling, completion, and production

operations.

The errors that may occurs:

Parallax Errors

The eyes is not proportional to the measuring cylinder scale when taking the reading of the

amount of filtrate. This will cause errors in the trend change of the filtrates over time.

Systematic Errors
The instruments is not properly calibrated.

REFERRENCES

Payatakes,A.c.etal.,”Aplication of Porous Medium models to the Study of Deep Bed

Filtration,” Can.J.Chem.Eng.,52,727(1974).

Jiao,D.and M. M. Sharma,” Mechanism of Cake Buildup in Crossflow Filtration of Colloidal

Suspensions,” Journal of Colloidal and Interfacial Science,1994.162:p. 454-462.

Fisk,J.V. and Jamison, D.E., “Physical Properties of Drilling Fluids at High Temperature and

Pressure,” SPE Drilling Engineering, December 1989,pp. 342-46.