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Design Concept of Antennas for Small

Mobile Terminals and the
Future Perspective
Hisashi Morishita', Yongho Kim', and Kyohei Fujimoto2
'Department of Electrical Engineering, National Defense Academy
1-10-20 Hashirimizu, Yokosuka 239-8686 Japan
Tel: +81 468-41-3810 ext. 2261; Fax: +81 468-44-5911; E-mail:

*FAIS, University of Tsukuba
589-6 Akatuka, Ushigabuchi, Tsukuba 305-0062 Japan

With the recent progress and rapid increase in mobile terminals, the design of antennas for small mobile terminals is acquiring
great importance. In view of this situation, the design concept of antenna systems for small mobile terminals and its future
perspective are discussed, referring to the trends in modern mobile communications and the demands for the antenna sys-
tem. The design concept of antenna systems has changed along with the progress of mobile systems. In the conventional
design, the conducting material of the equipment case, existing near the antenna element, is included as a part of the radiator
in the antenna system, without regard to whether or not it has been considered. In the latest mobile phones, the design con-
cept has been advanced to aim at improving the antenna's performance, and the treatment of the case, etc., has become a
part of this. Some particular considerations for the design are to relieve the degradation of the antenna's performance due to
the human-body effect, to overcome the SAR problems, and yet to make the size small. Furthermore, it is now time to pro-
ceed to the more-advanced concept, in which implementation of adaptive control and software is considered, even in small
mobile terminals. Typical trends in modern communications systems are discussed, and the demands of these trends -which
are summarized as down-sizing, function, and intelligence - are taken up for future antenna structures. Small-antenna tech-
nology and the application of the integration technology to antenna systems are essential for realizing such future structures.

Keywords: Antennas; portable radio communication; telephone sets; antenna proximity factors; electromagnetic radiation
effects; land mobile radio cellular systems; land mobile radio cellular equipment

1. Introduction of the progress of small mobile terminals, the design of antennas is
acquiring great importance. The antennas are required to be small,
and yet to have prescribed characteristics and performance, such as

T he rapid growth of the cellular phone market has been
observed worldwide, particularly in Asian countries, like
China and Japan. One of the trends in cellular-phone technology in
wide bandwidth, operation in dual or triple frequency bands, diver-
sity, and so forth. In addition, further advanced design is required
for improving the antenna's performance in recent, small mobile
the last decade has been to dramatically decrease the size and the systems.
weight of the handset. In the initial offering (1984), the typical
portable cellular phone was nearly 600 cc in volume, and about With these considerations in mind, this paper discusses the
850 g in weight. In 1999, cellular handsets having a volume of less design concept of antennas for small mobile terminals, and intro-
than 60 cc and a weight of less than 60 g appeared. This remark- duces its latest examples. The future perspective for the antenna
able reduction in weight and volume has necessitated a rapid evo- structure is also discussed. These discussions are aimed at provid-
lution of the antennas used for the handsets. Accordingly, antenna ing a clear comprehension of the design concept, so that it can
designers encountered difficulty in designing antennas that could contribute to developing well-grounded and well-chosen antenna
maintain their performance unchanged, even though the antenna systems for future small mobile terminals.
size became smaller, as a degradation of the gain and bandwidth
was inherently observed in small antennas. Discussions are presented referring to changes in the design
concept along with the progress in mobile systems. Mobile termi-
In conjunction with such recent trends in mobile communica- nals defined here as small, portable equipment, such as the hand-
tions as personalization, mobile terminals have advanced to be not sets used in cellular systems, and wireless data terminals, such as
only smaller, but also instrumental for acquiring various voice and used in PDAs (personal data assistants), for GPS, and so forth.
non-voice information, without regard to time and place. In view First, the parameters necessary for designing antennas used in

30 IEEE Antenna's and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 44,No. 5,October 2002

and the SAR value in the operator’s head is possi. func- tional. The majority of handsets is that in almost all small mobile terminals. the changes in the design concepts of antennas for small mobile terminals are reviewed. the prime considerations . have conventionally been taken into account . In addition to these. the normal-mode helix conditions.. Case or GP as a part of radiator light weight.--diversity delay bly lowered. all of these parameters are con- sidered in conventional handset-antenna design. Vol. these conducting materials and the antenna element constitute the electromagnetic system of the mobile terminal.and the meander line. Parameters that utilized positivcly should be taken into consideration when an antenna system is designed are summarized in Figure 1. A feature of this concept is that it makes the improvement of the antenna’s performance feasible: That is. Regarding the progress in modern mobile systems. the future per- spective of antenna design for small mobile terminals is described. and the major changes relate to whether or not the body of the I equipment has been included in the antenna system as a part of radiator. 5. and flexibility. low profile. Examples of the design concepts in each stage are shown. The parameters related to mobile antenna system cussed is the fact that small-antenna technology is essential for design.- . In fact. beginning from the early days of mobile communications to the present. Figure 1. is introduced. October 2002 31 . Hence. propagation problems. rectangular loop. using a small.. this type of antenna structure can be interference. low-profile. compact structure. durability against the user’s rough handling. It is shown that three stages in the changes have been observed in the past. An example. Also dis.-L. The implementation of signal processing Figure 2.which. and environmental conditions. are discussed. low cost. where they are classified into communication systems. the demands are considered to be down-sizing. Design Parameters for Small Mobile Antenna Terminal Antennas In designing antennas for small mobile terminals. for which sophisticated antenna performance is required. the influence of the human-body effect on the antenna’s perform- ance is reduced.are small size. Here. The words “antenna system” are often used herein to (NMHA) [2]. environmental conditions. robustness. cept. based on these trends. so far. /€€€Antenna’s and Propagation Magazine. down-sizing. propagation. No. ground plane 2. 44. and so forth should be taken into account.-. multipath-----. Following this review. the radiation currents in the PDC (Personal Digital Cellular) systems in Japan use a excited by the antenna element flow on the conducting materials existing in the equipment. having a balanced structure. Antenna structures in the future are dis- cussed in the context of these key words. /- (a) a--- _ . and environmental nals are the monopole (MP) [ 11. which is applied to the latest mobile terminals. an advanced design concept. is discussed. the planar inverted-F (PIFA) [3]. when a certain function is required. function. and intelligence. such as temperature variations. Next. Finally. Three stages in the change of the antenna-design con- would be an example. and the demands. antenna. and intelligent antenna systems. in conjunction with the expected future mobile systems. The reason for this patch (MSA) [4]. When systems require particular specifications. and the application of integration concepts to antenna systems is the key technology for realizing novel. small. These are summarized in Typical antenna elements used so far for small mobile termi- terms of the system requirements.--atiaptive control employed as a built-in antenna in small mobile phones._ -__ . the dipole. additional parameters required for the design are used. the microstrip mean antennas used in small mobile terminals. small mobile terminals are explained. and yet the concept may also be applied to future mobile terminals. five typi- cal trends are taken up. In addition.

Figure 4c. instead of using a monopole that sticks out monopole. The monopole and its image in the ground plane. 5. I Figure 3. 32 /E€€ Antenna’s and Propagation Magazine. practical PDC handsets and other mobile phones employ a built-in planar inverted-F antenna that has been variously modified from the basic principle. treated as a dipole. Presently.I Figure 4b. No. mounted on the top of a piece of portable equipment. 111. of the equipment case. Recently.which is a very small.has become popular. A monopole antenna. October 2002 . 44. There is a growing tendency in recent mobile phones to employ Figure 4a. along with a normal-mode helix and a planar inverted-F antenna. ceramic encapsulated antenna . which are used as element pairs with the monopole to comprise a diversity antenna. The monopole on a ground plane. the use of a chip antenna . monopole as the main element. A model of a piece of portable equipment with a only a built-in antenna. I n. Vol.

Historical Review of Mobile Terminal only of vertical polarization. Vol. This antenna can be modeled as an asymmetric dipole. both theoretically and experimentally. Through the analysis. lEEE Antenna’s and Propagation Magazine. a short monopole was about 1/50 wavelength long. as a part of the radiator. the antenna-design concept had advanced to include the case in the antenna system. 5. as shown in Figure 4c. was simply treated as a ground plane (GP). Antenna Design Concepts although this depends on the dimensions of the case. because radia- tion currents flow on it as well as on the antenna element. may contribute to producing fields that are not 3. being composed of a long and thin element on one side. it was simply considered as a ground plane. which was used in small. the case. The mobile terminal case is hereafter simply called the “case. as shown in Figure 7c. and the contribution of the case to the radiation was clarified [l]. -Unit allel combination of a two-dipole system. both standing against the ground plane. but simply a quarter-wavelength element was generally used. It should be noted that the design of antennas used for almost all PDC handsets is based on this concept. The change in the design concepts is mainly attributed to whether or not the mobile terminal case is considered to be a part of the antenna system. However. October 2002 33 . antenna design had advanced to include the case in an antenna system. for various dimensions of the antenna element and the Figure 6. No. and the metal case was about 1/250 wavelength. as shown in Figure 3. The results led to the estab- lishment of a logical and practically useful design method. Thus. A monopole was usually mounted on the top of the equipment case. This was the second stage. the dependence of the antenna’s performance on the dimensions of the case and on the antenna element was analyzed. no Antennay particular attention was paid to designing this sort of antenna at element that time. This model can be further divided into two systems: a short and thick monopole and a long and thin mono- pole. antenna element. Figure 5. as shown in Fig- ure 7b. as shown by Figure 4b.” In the early days of mobile communications. No par- ticular attention was paid on the antenna design. In this example. The more interesting result was that almost no current flow on the case was The essential parameters shown in Figure 1 have been used observed in the system where a half-wavelength element was used. In the second stage. Later. The model shown in Figure 5 equivalently illustrates an antenna system that is composed of a monopole and the case. portable VHF equipment [ 5 ] . this concept was not recognized until the detailed analy- sis of the antenna system was introduced. It was clarified that currents on the case. This is recognized as the concept of the third stage. This was the first stage. but also of horizontal polarization. and just a quarter-wavelength element was used. being made of metal. In other words. between 1950 and 1960. Figure 4a equivalently illustrates a model of this type of I antenna. 44. illustrated in Figure 2. Since the case was made of metal in those days. this antenna system is treated as a par. As a consequence. the design concepts have This was advantageous in reducing the influence of the user’s hand changed as mobile systems have made progress. By taking the image of the antenna element into account. the current distributions on the case as well as on the antenna element were shown. excited by the ment. There was a change in treating thc case as the flow of radia- tion currents on the case became involved in the design of an antenna. in practical antenna designs. However. as shown in Figure7a. the model was treated as a half-wave dipole. Fig- ure 6 shows an example of this type of an antenna system. An example of a piece of small VHF portable equip- case. An antenna model for a piece of small portable The changes of the three stages in the design concepts are equipment. In the first stage. and a short and thick element on the other side. This was the first treatment that had shown the concept in which the case was considered to be a part of the radiator [ 5 ] . the antennas used in small portable equipment were mostly a sim- ple monopole of about a quarter wavelength.

No. because the feed-point impedance becomes very high. As a ground plane performs as a part of a radiator. Fortunately. instead of the equipment case. thick monopole and a long. because almost all of the equipment cases these 7 days are made of plastics. Usually a built-in antenna element is placed on this plate or box. and it is the “conducting materials” existing in the equipment that act as a radiator. and yet the current flow on the case is very small. when a small antenna element is placed on it and induces currents on it. which contributed to radiation as a part of the radiator. 5. Equivalent expressions of a small portable-equip- ment antenna: an asymmetric dipole. Vol. Figure 7c. Another example is a case where a built-in. on the antenna’s performance. although that of a planar inverted-F antenna in free space ment antenna: a short. It is very significant to say that the analysis shown in I [5] and [6] provided the essential design concept for developing antennas for PDC handsets and other small mobile terminals pres- ently used. but their contribution to loss is rather greater. Hence. Equivalent expressions of a small portable-equip. observed.” Other electronic components on the ground plane have more or less effect on the antenna’s performance.October 2002 . The gain and bandwidth may be increased. the antenna’s size is equivalently enlarged and. however. achieved. thin mono. it is a serious problem for antenna designers. as the antenna design should be such that the antenna’s performance should remain unchanged. is ordinarily only 1% to 2%. as the antenna’s performance was not as significantly degraded as was expected. small chip 34 /€€€Antenna’s and Propagation Magazine. since it has the appropriate input imped- ance for matching to the load. both standing against the ground plane. the antenna’s performance is enhanced. The down-sizing of mobile terminals is beneficial for users. even though the antenna’s size becomes smaller. a half-wavelength element that is fed between the element and the case cannot be used.except for monopole elements - was also forced to be made smaller. There was the assistance of the conducting materials existing in the equipment.r r ZI Figure 7a. “the equipment case” is replaced by “conducting materials” existing in the equipment.from the 1980s to the present . because the variation of impedance or frequency due to the handheld effect can be made small as a result of a reduction of the currents on the case. 44. The typical conducting material in the equipment is a rectangular shielding plate or box. Equivalent expressions of a small portable-equip- ment antenna: a parallel combination of a two-dipole system. how- ever. A bandwidth of up to 17% can be Figure 7b. because of the current flow induced on them. accord- ingly. v.the down- sizing of mobile terminals made remarkable progress and. In the next stage . the size of the antennas . Several dB increase in gain is also pole. although this depends on the size of the ground plane and the type of the antenna. where a planar inverted-F antenna is used as a built-in antenna. Instead. not of metals. hence. In practice. and it acts as a ground plane. However. A typical example of ground-plane performance can be observed in PDC handsets. Here. hereafter these are called the “ground plane. they have not really suffered from this problem. a monopole with a length of 318 or 5/8 wavelength has been employed in practice for PDC handsets or other mobile terminals. where RF and other circuits are included. their contribution to radiation is small.

hence becomes almost omni-directional as a result of the combined patterns of the loop and that of the dipole. such as gain and bandwidth. when the handset is in a talk position. 91. No. ally done for the purpose of producing the dipole mode in the antenna system. The effective use of a ground plane can be seen in another case.the use of a dual mode. say about -6 dB omnidirectional. like the loop and dipole . and a dipole mode was produced in addition to the loop mode. which has a 90-degree phase difference. By this used. The radiation pattern. ceramic-encapsulated normal-mode helix antenna . vertical and horizontal EM modes. and then flow into both the ground parts (ground plane) of the printed-circuit board and the surface of the loop element. The “dual mode” may be a combination of electric and magnetic modes. The advantage Figure 8c. the combination of both the dipole and loop modes produces receiving patterns that allow the pager to have appreciable sensitivity in various situations: for example. where the direct connection of a coaxial cable a-b to the loop input terminal c-d. [7] and [SI) have reported human- body effects on mobile phone handset antenna performance. The gain of this antenna is fairly low. unbalanced currents I . A pager antenna system. with the pager unit being laid down. Printed circuit Another disadvantage is the possible increase of SAR [specific board . is shown. enhanced antenna perform- ance. when it is placed on a ground plane inside the handset. however. and so would Figure 8a. as Fig- ures 8b and SC show. pager antenna system. ‘-. which is actually the receiving pattern. It is rather interesting to note that this design con- cept . Vol.-. These unbalanced currents lead to producing a dipole mode in addition to the loop mode. The direct connection of an unbalanced system (a coaxial cable) to a balanced system (the loop Figure 8b. also varies antenna performance in the same way as does the hand. 5. Papers (for example. be applied in designing antennas for any other small mobile terminals. which absorb radiation power. The human head. this connection was intention. and so on. the gain is raised to about -2 dB very useful for creating small antennas. so that a prac- tically useful small antenna may be realized. The circuit associated with the dipole mode of the terminals) is not common. Modal increase is one of the significant concepts for developing a small antenna. may be expected. 44. body. mainly due to the effect of a user’s hand. or placed so as to stand erect on a desk. The circuit associated with the loop mode of the is the enhancement of antenna performance. I- the radiation toward the human head may increase. To reduce the undesired radiation toward the human /E€€ Antenna’s and Propagation Magazine. Le. are pro- duced on the terminals a-b and c-d. It can. October 2002 35 . where the radiation mode is increased with the help of cur- rents on the ground plane. This concept was applied to a pager antenna system. By introducing multi- modes into a small antenna system. There are both advantages and disadvantages in utilizing cur- rents on the ground plane inside mobile terminals. In fact. antenna .’ absorption rate] values in the human head [7. so that antenna gain and efficiency deteriorate.had been used without any conscious effort. Figure Sa shows the antenna model. With the increase in the current distribution on the ground plane inside the handsets. This is a favorable pattern for receiving paging signals.. . and thus the impedance and frequency. more than 6 dB gain degradation has been observed I in the talk position of mobile phones. including the human c* r--. the pager antenna system. To the contrary. without using a balun.. where a small rectangular-loop antenna was used [6]. it had not necessarily been applied on purpose to design small handset antennas.such as a very small. This concept . however. the SAR. A hand holding a handset varies the currents on the Loop element ground plane. of course. Also.the use of a ground plane as a part of the radiator . disadvantage is the possible degradation of the antenna’s perform- ance due to the effect of adjacent materials. A decrease in the antenna’s gain is also caused by both the hand and the head.

A hand model for use with the loop antenna of Fig- ure 9a. and it has been shown that there have been three stages. there is a growing tendency for the monopole. and 3. 36 IEEE Antenna’s and Propagation Magazine. I t head. the appropriate selection of antenna type. in order to improve the antenna performance for the latest mobile terminals. Item 1 aims to create a built-in antenna by making an antenna small and of low profile. Possible antenna characteristics. A balanced type. Vol. the method of feeding it. as Fig- ure 2 illustrates. A balanced loop antenna for a handset. 44. progress in the design concepts has been reviewed. built-in antenna. Design Considerations for Antennas for Figure 9c. Having two polarization components. Having a magnetic current as a radiating source. and thus the SAR value in the head.for example.5. Figure 9d. adaptive control for environmental conditions. A balanced feed for the loop of Figure 923. should all be seriously considered. are 1. desired for the latest mobile terminals. Figure 9a. the Latest Small Mobile Terminals So far. October 2002 . A head model for use with the loop antenna of Fig. These are concerned with reduction of the human-body effect. Figure 9e. An unbalanced feed for the loop of Figure 9a. the reduction of interference. 2. which has long been used in mobile terminals. A magnetic-current source . and so forth. No. further advanced considerations. such that the source current is in parallel with the ground plane. Although the concept classified as the third stage is still being generally applied to design antennas for present-day mobile terminals. 4. are needed. reduction of the SAR value in the human effectively used by being placed on the ground plane ure 9a. Figure 9b. to be replaced by a small. and the place and II method of mounting the antenna element on the equipment. In addition to these. mitigation of multipath fading. a loop .

are not shown here. as will be described in the next section. with so that no unbalanced current flow is generated on the feed line dielectric properties of a relative permittivity of 54. The current distribution on the antenna system of environmental conditions. This is shown in Figure 10.can be used for this purpose. This fact suggests that the human-body effect and 3 with the conventional design concept. If there existed any cur- rents other than those of the antenna. the antenna performance truly required could hardly be obtained. The user’s finger may touch the handset antenna. and a con- and on the ground plane . In turn. 2. low profile. An L-shaped loop [I 11 can be used as one of the candidates impedance were also found to be relatively small. In this of low profile. antenna designers would again encounter another difficulty in realizing an antenna system that should have enough gain and bandwidth with- out the assistance of the ground plane. October 2002 37 . a meander-line which correspond to brain tissue. mental conditions include not only the reduction of the user’s influence on the antenna performance.204 Sim. Figure lob. By means of item 2. As a result. It should be noted that the conventional design concept (the third stage. This is because the cur- rents on the ground plane.30. is considered to be an advanced concept. Figure 2c) could not be used if reduction of the human- body effect should be strongly required. can. 44. for cases where the with an antenna system in free space. The current distribution on the antenna system of The fifth-stage concept will follow. and because of smaller influences on the patterns due to the antenna system can have diversity gain. In parallel with the design consideration of mitigating the human-body effect. several antennas are usually used. currents on the ground plane [12]. of a relative permittivity of 43. yet the antenna is small and effects of both the human head and hand are included.and any other type of antenna having a balanced structure. by combining any one or all of items 1. The patterns of both source current. in both vertical and horizontal polarization [ 161. Hence. signal processing. This problem has been dis- small. such as those on the ground plane. but also phase terms.448 S/m (in [8]). a layer of muscle that covered three sides of the handset unit. such as both vertical and horizontal components. are almost eliminated. In prac. which has degrade the antenna’s performance. when functional antennas - which the functions of adaptive control. The significant advantages of this concept may be recognized even in future systems. In these antenna sys- tems. This because the plane. The head model had dielectric properties reduced. which are positively utilized to enhance the antenna’s performance. the improvement of the performance in a multipath propagation environment. No. with employment of Figure 9a. when an antenna system is made with a balanced structure. Now.37. Vol. the antenna gain is doubled. that the balanced system is useful compared to the unbalanced ponents. The radiation patterns have also plane is doubled [6] by the additional field due to the image of the been analyzed. because of the much lower current flowing on the ground some extent. as shown in Fig. as expressed in Fig- ure 12. the EM field produced in front of the ground unbalanced system. respectively. cussed in a recent paper [14]. and so forth. it has been shown that an antenna having two polarization com.which are generated by the antenna element . an advanced antenna on the antenna’s performance in small mobile terminals would be system can be developed. Figures 10 and 11 give evidence 3. An analysis has shown a remarkable reduction in the human head has also been treated in [15]. reduce multipath fading [lo]. although they for this purpose. Optimized design implies that the highest achievable performance can be realized under complicated Figure loa. The hand was simply modeled as dipole . where the ground plane is essen- tially separated from the antenna system. the models of the human head and hand shown in Fig- plane . to system. but also the reduction of the SAR in the human head. where Figures loa and 10b show the current distributions on the This method of antenna design. The reduction of SAR values in the ures 9a-9c. tice. so that the human-body effect can be mitigated. As for item ductivity of 1. the currents on the ground analysis. With this structure. a loop. Variations in the gain and high. for an unbalanced feed. concept. when a very small antenna element is used. and a conductivity of 1. for a balanced feed (the color scale is the same as adaptive control into the optimization process in the fourth-stage shown in Figure loa). made very small. and are shown in Figure 11.can be ures 9d and 9e were used. a normal-mode helical-antenna dipole. which employs the above ground plane and the antenna element in the balanced and the items 1. one example of design recently being studied is the pursuit of how to improve the gain by modifying radiation patterns. It is classified to be the fourth stage. 5. The design con- /€€€Antenna’s and Propagation Magazine. although it is not very human head and hand models [13]. and a balanced structure. taking into account not only amplitude. the significance of the fourth-stage design concept should be understood to be the realization that performance optimized to the practical environmental conditions is essential. compared unbalanced and balanced systems are shown. 2. As for the antenna’s performance in a multipath environment. and 3.are introduced in mobile terminals. the optimization of antenna performance for handsets is being investigated. and so forth . and An example is a small rectangular-loop antenna. Problems pertaining to the environ- Figure 9a.

without a human model: . 44. The radiation pattern for the balanced system of Figure 9a. The radiation pattern for the balanced system of Figure 9a. with a human head model (markings as in Fig- (measured). Figure 9% with a human hand model (markings as in Fig- ure lla). The radiation pattern for the balanced system of Figure l l e . without a human model (markings as in Fig. E. Vol. with a human head model (markings as in Fig. with a human hand model (markings as in Fig- ure lla). 0 Ed Figure 9a. Figure 9a. 5. October 2002 . 38 /€€E Antenna's and Propagafion Magazine. The radiation pattern for the unbalanced system of Figure l l f . x E. ure lla). The radiation pattern for the unbalanced system of Figure l l d . ure lla). No. ure lla). (calculated). 0' 180" 180" Figure l i b .Ed (calculated). 180" 180" Figure l l a . (measured). The radiation pattern for the unbalanced system of Figure 9a. e d . 0" 0' 180" 180" Figure l l c .

however. in relation to these keywords. Among these. worldwide areas. a semi-spherical radiation 5. a link by which mobile systems are Systems and Antenna Structures for connected to the wire networks (such as IP-cored and ISDN-cored Small Mobile Terminals networks) has been gaining attention. along with the pro. positioning. but also high-speed data. nection with these trends are described. not only eration. The ple access) system. instead of satellite systems. Figure 12. MMW aiitenna 1 communications. Regardless of the quality of the other parts of the system software iiiitcm~a design. Typical Trends in Modern Mobile pattern. mobile terminals are used. video transmission. 5. and so forth. . Presently. wideband code-division multi. Globalization is another important trend in mobile communi- cations. mobility in communications has promoted this as a matter of course. an eyeglasses frame. a satellite-tracking function. the services are extended to cover Cellular mobile systems have now advanced to the third gen. may appear sooner or later. which may have such structures as a pen. has been demanded. In practical systems that employ small antennas. A mobile satellite system is the most typical approach advancement and progress of mobile systems.has also acted as a spur to personalization. there would be short-range control and data-transmission systems for computers. handy. function. No. expanded from domestic use. October 2002 39 . Again. as people trav- gress of mobile systems. wireless broadband systems.. terminals greatly depends on small-antenna tech- nology.1 1 1 1 . voice. The most significant key-. to realize mobile global communication. recent down-sized. Antennas in the microwave and types of wireless systems. advanced antenna design concepts will be called for. Trends and demands in modern mobile systems and antenna structures for small mobile terminals.such as short- message exchange. Increase of multimedia services. It is a common understanding that the smaller the mobile terminals become. By linking mobile systems with these fixed networks. still and moving video. and intelligence. separated The typical trends in modern mobile systems are considered to be [17] Personalization. video. the realization of small antennas without deterioration of the sys- tem's performance will become a great concern of antenna engi- 'I'owaitl Mul1. limited areas. The services include multimedia: Le. in Japan. Internet access. a small notebook. etc. Globalization. Vol. these trends and the demands for antennas in con- concept. low-cost mobile terminals have accelerated it further. cept for antenna systems has made progress. to satisfy the required performance. In other words.b a i i d aiiteniiii MW. but also to control. Antennas used for such systems should naturally be small in size. Antenna structural aspects to be considered are also listed in the figure. and such. which started services in April. The recent trend is to construct a global data-transmission system through a satellite. a pendant. In addition. words demanded for antennas are down-sizing. Antennas for such mobile terminals require a small size. in which small. and yet functional. the increase in personal services provided through mobile phones . and other advanced capabilities. the IMT-2000 (W-CDMA.i- neers. communication access). small antennas. 44. This trend will not be changed in the eling worldwide feel the necessity of this availability in business or future. music delivery. such as MMCA (multimedia mobile millimeter-wave mobile systems differ in some points from anten- /€€E Antenna's and Propagation Magazine. and so forth. and so forth. 2001. Figure 13. and so forth . management systems. Antenna 0 Proceeding to a multi-dimensional network. it can hardly be expected that degraded antenna perform- J ance (because of small size) will be compensated for by them. the greater the contribution of the antenna to the system's performance will be. a wristwatch. use either microwave (MW) or millimeter-wave (MMW) systems. Other which cover small. Such mobile terminals would be applied not only to p . and the design concept will continuously follow the private use. The fourth stage in the change of the antenna-design In Figure 13. As new systems will require novel. The down-sizing of mobile terminals is further expected in the new personal mobile systems. the performance will almost depend on the antenna's performance. In terms of per- sonalization. Bluetooth. etc. home appliances. transmission capability. link connecting the mobile networks with the wired networks may It features various new services with higher data rates. the successful development of small mobile. and 0 Implementation of software into antenna systems. Wide-spread availability of mobile-phone systems.

Structure (1) aims to construct a small antenna in a signals for computer systems. a spe. 44. and current. an antenna system is expressed as a transducer that transforms EM parameters . which provides traffic and road information to tion of structure (2) is intended to develop a small antenna having drivers. However.which homes. there have been common generally been used as the simplest and lowest-cost antenna. E and i? - Antennas used in such advanced systems are desired to have into circuit parameters: voltage. and cellular systems. there width. Software implementation is the defines the relationship between the EM fields ( E and E?) and the most sophisticated method. This sort of network is then considered to have a multi. handy. in this section. linked with fixed wide. The introduction of small mobile terminals in of the approaches for down-sizing include constructing antennas very limited areas. October 2002 . at least fairly wide bandwidth or multi-band characteristics can be ETC (electronic toll collection) systems. so far. which are formed with an inte. nas in the lower-frequency regions. data and video Small Mobile Terminal Antennas transmission. the unification of systems and also of antennas will be the realization of wideband and/or enhanced radiation in small antennas is intended. VHFIUHF communication systems. one pos- Mobile networks are now being put forward to be unified sible way of creating a small antenna with wide bandwidth is to into multi-dimensional networks. are essential to make antennas small. a dipole mode and a loop mode. so that no large reactance component . In these systems. V. Since a practical antenna structure can not be ideal. and. apply integration technology to the antenna system. (2) complementary. wide band. the example is a combination of a dipole.the field components. I [25]. This concept can be explained by using Fig- ure 14a.can band systems with optical-fiber systems. will appear before long. are combined within an antenna system. to cover the spectrum of several necessary in the matching circuit. Functional operations. has loss. Some naturally desired. achieved in small antennas. and a slot having structure demand for down-sizing the systems and their antennas increases. bandwidth. or such that functions such as amplification. the demand is for down-sized antennas. which is expressed as sophisticated concept are called software antennas. the Space Domain and the implementing adaptive signal processing and control. and light weight. z= L [ J ] 40 /E€€ Antenna’s and Propagation Magazine. the antenna structure in conjunction and light in weight. How. software and Immittance Domain. Various new services. appropriate gain and bandwidth. Various new wire. Nevertheless. there seems to be a need for further discussion of the limita- in which an antenna element and the RF circuits are unified. it is’ adaptive control. These are typically realized by ducer is further divided into two parts. and (3) dual modes. and so forth. Antennas for these systems in modern mobile systems have been discussed in the previous require wide bandwidth. The require. multi-beam. be used. home appliances. tion. with graphic display along with voice. such as multi-mode. which degrades the antenna’s efficiency . in order to achieve good quality-of-service. perfect fre- AMIFMITV receivers. less systems may be used on a vehicle. The applica- (R-to-V) system. multi-transmission tion implies the unification of some devices. are brought into dimensional structure. GPS receivers. mode increase. and also with satellite be enhanced. Nowadays. Active antennas. One example is the roadside-to-vehicle against the antenna impedance in the antenna system. Unfortunately. including antenna media.such as gain. microwave and millime. gation systems. control and manage with such structures as (1) conjugate. systems tend to increase rather urgently. 211. An regions. possibly. mobile computing systems. based on the self-complementary principle [ 191. Bluetooth. As the systems to be mounted on a vehicle increase. In smaller systems. 5. a constant impedance structure. mobile which can be produced by modification of current distributions on the antenna structure. and so forth. not infinite and not perfectly self-complementary. compact. The increase of multimedia services using mobile systems has become notable in the past few years. and so forth. This trans- both function and intelligence. both an electric-current ter-wave systems. been dis- patterns that cover specified areas of a required zone. complementary to the dipole [20. Examples of these include R- to-V and V-to-R (vehicle to roadside) systems. and multi-frequency- band capabilities will be realized by software antennas. and net-commerce have already been made available by some types of PDC and PHS handsets. circular polarization. into the antenna system. Another way is to develop antennas that have wide bandwidth. Examples include radiation cation of these advanced antenna systems have. integra- grated structure of multi-information media. the smaller the antenna limitation according to the theory of small antennas [22-241. and is called a multi-dimensional network the antenna system. navi- quency-independent characteristics can not be expected. 6. The appli. More advanced multimedia services are offered by the IMT 2000IUMTS Major keywords for describing demands based on the trends and other wireless broadband systems. the smaller the equipment becomes. since modules are often used ever. Future Perspective of such as sound delivery. in addition to conventional Le. Vol. A resonance condition within the antenna Multimedia transmission is also required in ITS (intelligent structure can easily be obtained by placing a conjugate element transportation systems). in addition to needing to be of small size section.. a monopole antenna has With regard to small antennas. net-banking. There. in must be cases where small mobile terminals may also need which active devices are integrated into the antenna structure. in order to transmit data. The antenna may be constructed by combin- promoted. ing two modes: for example. will advanced functionality and intelligent performance. Here. For down-sizing. The Space Domain so forth. Functions such as interference rejection and with these demands will be discussed. ments for high-data-rate transmission by small. In practice. however. Henceforth. By means of structure (3). quency conversion. and a magnetic-current source that is self-complementary these systems covers from the HF regions to the millimeter-wave to the electric source. cussed mostly in connection with base stations. How- system should be. Now. mobile systems elements. No. and so forth . as shown in Figure 14b. Typical examples of these are PDAs (personal data assistants). into an antenna system in such a way that either the tend to be combined with wire networks. The frequency spectrum for all of source. fre- systems. and radar. and antennas developed with this current distribution on the antenna system. discussions of this problem are beyond the scope of this paper. and to reconsider how to realize desired. antenna performance . Again. small antennas with cific design for the antenna is needed. slow video display. and multi-layered networks. understandings that the gain and bandwidth are restricted below a ever. games. These limited areas include small offices and resonance condition.

respectively.would be such. and the circuit parameters. No. where Figure 15a shows the concept of the integration of devices. increasing channel capacity. 7 . may be created by integrating either active or passive devices into an antenna system. The Immittance Domain defines the relationships between the current distributions. channel selection. signal processing. Figure 14b. By integrating devices . 44. a system. the antenna's performance is modified. lEEE Anfenna's and Propagation Magazine. bandwidth. J . or so w Soilw arL' uiii f ied that multiple beams can be adaptively controlled toward mobile terminals. which can transform the impedance in (b) unified the antenna system so as to create a wideband matching condition. Since the environment in which an Antenna antenna system is used is not necessarily well defined or station- ary. The equivalent expression for an antenna system Accordingly. the improvement of signal quality. which have intelligence. Another feature in the integration technology is the possibil- n ity of developing functional antennas. [Y].into an antenna system. Space Domain Immittance Domain functions. and so forth. It is expressed in Figure 15. Antenna structures having conjugate.signal processing with time-variable status. The design of an antenna system by applying integration technology is described as a concept advanced to the fifth stage. Future mobile networks will evolve into a revolutionary advanced system: for example. and VLSI circuits in the microwave regions. More sophisti- cated systems. complementary. Adaptive control in mobile terminals may be performed in cooperation with the base station. and the ble for the deployment of integrated antenna systems. which should be exploited by functional and intelligent I I antenna systems. to perform pattern control. An antenna system as a transducer. Vol. active. As a result. caused by Figure 15. D/A (digital/analog converters). in which channel assign- I I I 1 ment is done autonomously by distributed mobile terminals. corresponding to the system's performance. Again. environmental conditions such as the influence of adjacent materi- als. but also with the environmental conditions. mentioned before. efficiency. It should and be noted that the development of such devices as A/D (ana- logldigital converters). Adaptive controls in various means . and dual modes. com- munications with multiple modes. antennas should be functional and intelligent in order as a transducer. Small size and compactness are naturally required at the same time. Figure 15c shows this concept. The antenna design concept of the fifth stage. as (3) unified where parameters are treated as scalar quantities. the parameters in the Immittance Domain are varied. The bandwidth of a small antenna may be widened by appro- priately integrating devices. like the human body. Adaptive antennas are generally understood to be a system that adaptively steers a null. and signal processing. The adaptive ability here is concemed not only with signals coming into the antenna system. [ Z ] . and so forth . adaptive control for environmental conditions. and thus so are the currents. or both . the integrated antenna structure will play an important role for creating such functional and intelligent antenna systems.or the admittance matrix. are inevita- where L is the operator and C' is the inverse operator. which perform adaptive control. Further useful applications of adaptive control should be recognized in functions that recover deteriorated gain. DSP (digital signal processors). V and I. the concept of adaptive control should a further advanced con- H System cept. October 2002 41 . menting software into antenna structures. These overhead bar denotes a vector quantity. or a new function is implemented into the antenna sys- tem. as well as software. LNA (low noise amplifiers). and so forth. and Figure 15b shows the integration of Space Circuit the function into an antenna system. so that either the receiving-signal quality can be maximized. These are expressed by using either the impedance matrix. will be realized by imple- Figure 14a.either passive. 5.

This indicates a new step to proceed to the fifth stage 14. Andersen. N. along with the progress of mobile systems. 83.” Proceed- handsets. Finland. pp. and K.. and for reducing the SAR problem. A step. Hirasawa. Fujimoto.” 2000 IEEE International Symposium on systems will be the most pertinent candidate for making an antenna Antennas and Propagation Digest. Ide. 739-746.” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technol- stage concept. Fujimoto. J79-B-11. H. 1998. and intelligence. 1982. 10. Morishita.” stage. 1. 34. No. Niigata. S. pp. Morishita. N. Kuboyama. small. R. Kuster and G. Taga and K. Salt Lake. The equipment case.” IEICE multi-dimensional networks. Second Edition.. James.. Henderson. Utah. pp. “Analysis of the design concept. It has then progressed to the third Antennas Mounted on Portable Equipment Near Human Body. in turn. Implementation of software into 2000. 0. Conclusion lar Technology. problems is a severe challenge for antenna engineers. H. pp. 17. Requirements for antennas based on these trends are considered to be down-sizing. B. M. Agboraw. H. pp. B. “Miniature Dielectric- Loaded Personal Telephone Antennas with Low User Exposure. and intelligent. Tsunekawa. Small terminals has been discussed. April Communications. the movement toward “A Balance-Fed Loop Antenna Systems for Handset. pp. fourth-stage concept adopts a balanced structure to the antenna system. K. Furuuchi. Fujimoto. Peter Pereginus Ltd. Planar Inverted F Antenna for 800 MHz Band Portable Radio Japan. 9. Down-sizing is and will 13. Cho and Y. pp. July 1999. A. global. K. Leisten. on Antennas and Propagation. “EM Interaction of Handset In order to improve the antenna’s performance in the latest Antennas and a Human in Personal Communications.17.” IEICE Trans. Rosenberger. pp. “Characteristics of Wire Antenna Fourth International Workshop on Multi-Dimensional Mobile on a Rectangular Conducting Body. Hand and promise in the development of new antenna systems. Furuuchi and K. and software implementation. R. K. 921-929. Morishita. K. 1994. has meant the optimization of ogy. there will be considerable of Built-in Antennas for Handset using Human (Head. 8. C.6. pp. S. Schmid. Ito and K. T. all of which. functional. Fujimoto and J. a Balance-Fed Loop Antenna System for Handsets in the Vicinity nology is essential for realizing down-sizing. Hornsleth and J. In turn. Nonvood. 1628-1629.” Proceedings of the First International Workshop on 3. 2001. 5. Nakagawa. The design concept of antenna systems for small mobile 6. Volume 4. pp. “Effects on. 1. 109-116. 1999. Nicolaidis. H. A. Hayashida. VT-17. Hall. “Characteristics of be required for many cases in mobile systems. 1138-1143. H. MA. 7. Poli. iii. Hirasawa and K. VT-36. 42 /€€€Antenna’s and Propagation Magazine. James and P. 1 I . January 1968.” IEEE Transactions on Vehicu- 7. small.” Electronics Letters.March 1987. was treated as a part of the radiator in the second 8. simply considered as a ground plane in the early days of mobile communications. J65-B. Handbook of Microstrip Antennas. Volume 3. “Impedance Characteristics of the book. Recent trends in modern mobile systems are described as personalization. Furuuchi. London.” IEEE Transactions part of the radiator in the antenna system. pp. H. Ogawa. ization. antenna design to the environmental conditions. James. Netherlands. J. 892-900. S. Vardaxoglou. Hirasawa and K. the fourth. N. Lee and K. 2002. “Performance Analysis of a Built-In Multi-Dimensional Mobile Communications MDMC. pp. light weight. Nishikawa. In this new stage. 1999 IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference. Tofgard. and J. Fujimoto. to appear in May. E82-A. May 1990. January 1995. 1133-1139.” Proceedings of the 1. Y . 2254-2257. Sato. 4. by-step effort will be necessary to overcome the difficulty. J73-B-11. an advanced design concept has been introduced. June 1993. November 1996. Fujimoto. As such.5. 17. Integrated antenna of Human Head or Hand. “A Loaded Antenna System Applied to VHF Port- able Communication Equipment. extensive analysis. antenna engineers will encounter many problems to be solved in the development of antennas for small mobile terminals. T. 5. Jensen and Y . Suzuki and A.” Proceedings of the Although the concept has made changes. 15. 12. taken into consideration in designing antennas.11: Receiving Perform- effect. K. Tanaka and K. 5. H. “ Balance-Fed L- Type Loop Antenna Systems for Handset. Small-antenna tech. References 16. 1346-1350. in which the antenna system has been designed based on IEICE Trans. It has been shown that the design Antennas. devices and software will determine the success of future antenna Units. K. pp. Rhamat-Samii. antenna systems is also made feasible by means of the integration technology. H. depending on whether or not the equipment case was treated as a Portable Antenna of the Presence of a Person. Overcoming these 4. 2001. Mobile Antenna Systems Hand- 2.. K. Morishita.. 18. concept has made progress. 44.. may conflict to some extent in making the antenna functional and intelligent.” IECE Trans. MDMC. Y . Research Studies Press LTD. 1987. ance in Urban Areas. Fujimoto. function. R. 250-256. This ings ojtke IEEE. AP-41. J. Mobile terminals need to be simple. K. The steps were perceived as 7. “Message from the General Chairs. and low cost. “New Antenna Evaluation Method with Polariza- tion Characteristics for Small Zone Cellular. Normal Mode Helical Antenna with a Nearby Conduction Plate. 7. the increase of multimedia services. K. H. Fujimoto. pp. in a general sense.” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication. Amster- ters for small mobile terminals first described should basically be dam. Trans. 129-134. taking three steps until now. SAC- systems. Fujimoto. “UHF-Bent Slot dation of the antenna performance caused by the human-body Antenna System for Portable Equipment . Yamada. J85-B. Finger) Model. 5 .” IEICE Trans. 1987. E. the design parame. 1989. “Analysis of stage of the design concept. in order to realize the highest achievable performance I 1 . Z . W. Vol. 5-12. It has been shown to be effective for relieving the degra. October 2002 . Artech House. J.. Fujimoto.

His research is concerned with mobile communication and small antennas. “Fundamental Limitation in Antennas. R. 2000. 44.” J. 1970. L. and also in the Depart- 25. then a Professor at the Institute of Applied Physics. No.” communications. 1996. Chu. He is currently working on Springer-Verlag. educational engineering. He received the BS degree in Electrical Engineering International Symposium on the Multidimensional Mobile Com- from the National Defense Academy of Japan in 1980. “Performance of Antenna Sys- tem having Complementary Structure using a Monopole and a Slot. 1163-1175. and antennas. Foundation for Advancement of International Science. he has been with the National Communications (in Japanese). Japan. 8. and Chairman of the International and DrEng degrees from Tsukuba University in 1987 and 1990. He is presently a Professor Emeritus.. from 1961 to 1964. He was General Chairman of the 16. Chapter 2. in 2001. He was Journal ofIEICE. “Physical Limitation of Omni-Directional Anten- nas. in 1979. 170-182. and several other books. University of Tsukuba. respectively. “Characteristics of Monopole Antenna System with Self-complementary Struc- ture. several times since 1987. App. Hansen. Japan. Mushiake. Tokyo Institute of Technology. Niigata University. University of Digest. Department of Electrical Engineering. China. Japan. His research includes problems in the fields of EMC.” ment of Information Engineering. a Lecturer and a Guest Professor at Technische Hochschule Achen. Advisory Committee of the MDMC since 1996. a co-author of Small development officer at the Air Research and Development Com. between 1985 and 1993. Yongho Kim received the BA degree from the Military Academy of Korea in 1995.” Proceedings of the Internationul Symposium on Antennas and Propagation ISAP2000. ITS. S. K. pp. 1977. the Ohio State University.2. Tsukuba. and at the Northwestern Poly- technic University. from 1970 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation 1993 to 1995. a Consultant Professor. 45-50.. Tsukuba. Y . 69-72. Germany. on August in 1983 and 1984. 5. Japan. 20. and S Lin. where he was concerned with research and development on 24. respectively. J. and Research Scientist. 1995. Pu Xu. and K. China. and the MS degree from the National /E€€Antenna’s and Propagation Magazine. an editor and author of Antenna Systems for Mobile mand of JSADF. He is a co-editor respectively. Vol. 120-123. 69. retired from the Matsushita Communication Ind. BME. 1948. 1987. Xi’an. K. in 1953 and 1966. Canada. University of Tsukuba. Japan. and 1981. C. pp. McMaster University. 19. Fujimoto. He was a Visiting Research Associate at the Antenna Laboratories. and is currently an Associate Professor in the Wave (in Japanese). Bulgaria. Antennas. AP94-102. USA. Co. in 1985. London. 22. Fujimoto. Kyohei Fujimoto received the BS and DrEng degrees from 23. 70. particularly small antennas and Introducing the Feature Article Authors integrated antennas.” Pro. Japan. pp. an author of Applications of Radio Defense Academy. Fukuoka. and mobile communications. and the MS munications (MDMC) in 1994. 830-838. entering a DrEng course. Takezawa. “A Review of Research on Small Antennas. and a Life Fellow of the IEEE. Northwestern Polytechnic Uni- versity. transportation systems. pp. 7-1 1. Y. He served as Vice Chair and Chair of the IEEE AP-S Tokyo Chapter Hisashi Morishita was born in Hokkaido. K. He ceedings of the IEEE. Japan. His research interests are antennas. Fujimoto. 21. Since 1992. From 1996 to 1997. Dr. October 2002 43 . pp. Nakayama.” IEICE Technical Report. From 1990 to 1992. Phys. pp. at the Higher Institute of Mechanical and Electri- cal Engineering. 19. he worked as a research and of the Mobile Antenna Systems Handbook. He acted as a Director of the Educational Media Center. pp. he was 11111111111111111111lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll~ a Visiting Researcher at the Communications Research Labora- tory. He is a member of the IEEE. Japan. Defense Academy. February 1981. Self-Complementary Antennas. between 1979 and 1993. Fujimoto is a Fellow of the IEICE. “A Treatment of Integrated Antenna Systems. 1957. Fujimoto. in 1972.