Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

REPORT

Steam Power Plant


Muhammad Ali

BME143055
Submitted to Dr Khawar Hussain
Abstract

A steam power plant has been designed consisting of 4 closed feed water heaters, 1 Dereater and

3 Turbines i.e High pressure, Low Pressure and Intermediate. Enthalpies at every point have been

calculated and totat work done by turbine, Heat Rate and steam flow rate have also been

determined. Temperature profile diagram of each heat exchanger has been drawn with respective

TTD.
Contents
Schematic Diagram ....................................................................................................................................... 3
T-S Diagram……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
Enthalpy Calculations .................................................................................................................................... 4
Mass Fractions .............................................................................................................................................. 9
Work Done by Turbine……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
Work Done by Pump……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....7
Net Work…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
Heat Rate…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
Steam Mass Flow Rate……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8
Mass Flow Rates of Extracted Steams………………………………………………………………………………………………………9
Temperature profile of 𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟1 ...................................................................................................... 10
Temperature profile of 𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟2 ...................................................................................................... 10
Temperature profile of 𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟3 ...................................................................................................... 10
Temperature profile of 𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟4 ...................................................................................................... 11
Schematic Diagram

There are 3 turbines, 4 CFW Heaters and 1 Dearater

T-S Diagram
Enthalpy Calculations

The pressure and temperature used will be 160 𝑏𝑎𝑟 and 540℃

By interpolation at 160 𝑏𝑎𝑟 and 540℃

𝑘𝑗
𝑠1 = 6.4442
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

𝑘𝑗
ℎ1 = 3409.35
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
𝑠2 = 𝑠1 = 6.4442
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

𝑘𝑗
𝑠2 = 6.4442
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

As,

𝑠𝑔 𝑎𝑡 80 𝑏𝑎𝑟 < 𝑠2

So, point ‘2’ is in superheated region

𝑘𝑗
By interpolation at 80 𝑏𝑎𝑟 and 𝑠2 = 6.4442 𝑘𝑔.𝑘

𝑇2 = 420.77℃

𝑘𝑗
ℎ2 = 3194.278
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
𝑠3 = 𝑠2 = 𝑠1 = 6.4442
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

𝑘𝑗
𝑠3 = 6.4442
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

𝑠𝑔 𝑎𝑡 20 𝑏𝑎𝑟 < 𝑠3

So, point ‘3’ is in superheated region

𝑘𝑗
Interpolating at 20 𝑏𝑎𝑟 and 𝑠3 = 6.4442 𝑘𝑔.𝑘
𝑇3 = 230.88℃

𝑘𝑗
ℎ3 = 2851.05
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
𝑠4 = 𝑠3 = 𝑠2 = 𝑠1 = 6.4442
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

𝑘𝑗
𝑠4 = 6.4442
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

𝑠𝑔 𝑎𝑡 10 𝑏𝑎𝑟 > 𝑠4

So, point ‘4’ is in the Liquid-vapor mixture region (inside dome)

𝑠4 = 𝑠𝑓 + 𝑥4 (𝑠𝑔 − 𝑠𝑓 )

6.4442 = 2.1387 + 𝑥4 (4.4476)

𝑥4 = 0.968

ℎ4 = 2015.3 + 0.968(762.8)

𝑘𝑗
ℎ4 = 2753.69
𝑘𝑔

Now reheating takes place from point ‘4’ (𝑝4 = 10 𝑏𝑎𝑟 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇4 = 179.9℃) to point ‘5’ (𝑇5 =

500℃ and 𝑃5 = 10 𝑏𝑎𝑟)

𝑘𝑗
𝑠5 = 7.7622
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

𝑘𝑗
ℎ5 = 3478.5
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
𝑠6 = 𝑠5 = 7.7622
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

𝑠𝑔 𝑎𝑡 7 𝑏𝑎𝑟 < 𝑠6

So, point ‘6’ is in superheated region

𝑘𝑗
Interpolating at 7 𝑏𝑎𝑟 and 𝑠6 = 7.7622 𝑘𝑔.𝑘
𝑇6 = 441.77℃

𝑘𝑗
ℎ6 = 3357.1
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
𝑠7 = 𝑠6 = 𝑠5 = 7.7622
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

𝑠𝑔 𝑎𝑡 3 𝑏𝑎𝑟 < 𝑠7

So, point ‘7’ is in superheated region

𝑘𝑗
Interpolating at 3 𝑏𝑎𝑟 and 𝑠7 = 7.7622 𝑘𝑔.𝑘

𝑇7 = 317.013℃

𝑘𝑗
ℎ7 = 3103.97
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
𝑠8 = 𝑠7 = 𝑠6 = 𝑠5 = 7.7622
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

𝑠𝑔 𝑎𝑡 1.5 𝑏𝑎𝑟 < 𝑠8

So, point ‘8’ is also in superheated region

𝑘𝑗
Interpolating at 1.5 𝑏𝑎𝑟 and 𝑠8 = 7.7622 𝑘𝑔.𝑘

𝑇8 = 229.38℃

𝑘𝑗
ℎ8 = 2931.51
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
𝑠9 = 𝑠8 = 𝑠7 = 𝑠6 = 𝑠5 = 7.7622
𝑘𝑔. 𝑘

𝑠𝑔 𝑎𝑡 0.7 𝑏𝑎𝑟 > 𝑠9

So, point ‘9’ is in liquid-vapor region (inside dome)

𝑠9 = 𝑠𝑓 + 𝑥9 (𝑠𝑔 − 𝑠𝑓 )

7.7622 = 0.5568 + 𝑥9 (7.7228)


𝑥9 = 0.933

ℎ9 = ℎ𝑓 + 𝑥9 (ℎ𝑔 − ℎ𝑓 )

ℎ9 = 162.705 + 0.933(2409.5)

𝑘𝑗
ℎ9 = 2410.77
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
ℎ𝑓 𝑎𝑡 0.7 𝑏𝑎𝑟 = ℎ10 = 376.7
𝑘𝑔

ℎ11 = ℎ10 + 𝑣10 (𝑝11 − 𝑝10 )

ℎ11 = 376.7 + 1.036(0.7𝑀𝑝𝑎 − 0.07𝑀𝑝𝑎)

𝑘𝑗
ℎ11 = 377.4
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
ℎ𝑓 𝑎𝑡 1.5 𝑏𝑎𝑟 = 467.11 = ℎ23
𝑘𝑔

ℎ23 = ℎ12

ℎ23 = ℎ24 (𝑇ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠)

𝑘𝑗
ℎ12 = ℎ23 = ℎ24 = 467.11
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
ℎ𝑓 𝑎𝑡 3 𝑏𝑎𝑟 = 561.47 = ℎ21
𝑘𝑔

ℎ21 = ℎ13

ℎ21 = ℎ22 (𝑇ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠)

𝑘𝑗
ℎ13 = ℎ21 = ℎ22 = 561.47
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
ℎ𝑓 𝑎𝑡 7 𝑏𝑎𝑟 = 697.22
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
ℎ14 = 697.22
𝑘𝑔
ℎ15 = ℎ14 + 𝑣14 (𝑝15 − 𝑝14 )

ℎ15 = 697.22 + 1.108(16𝑀𝑝𝑎 − 0.7𝑀𝑝𝑎)

𝑘𝑗
ℎ15 = 714.17
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
ℎ𝑓 𝑎𝑡 20 𝑏𝑎𝑟 = 908.79 = ℎ19
𝑘𝑔

ℎ19 = ℎ16

ℎ19 = ℎ20 (𝑇ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠)

𝑘𝑗
ℎ16 = ℎ19 = ℎ20 = 908.79
𝑘𝑔

𝑘𝑗
ℎ𝑓 𝑎𝑡 80 𝑏𝑎𝑟 = 1316.6 = ℎ19
𝑘𝑔

ℎ17 = ℎ25

ℎ17 = ℎ18 (𝑇ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐𝑒𝑠𝑠)

𝑘𝑗
ℎ17 = ℎ18 = ℎ25 = 1316.6
𝑘𝑔
Mass Fractions

Closed feed water heater 1

𝑦(ℎ2 − ℎ17 ) = 1(ℎ17 − ℎ16 )

1316.6 − 908.79
𝑦=
3194.278 − 1316.6

𝑦 = 0.2172 𝑘𝑔

Closed feed water heater 2

𝑦 ′ (ℎ3 − ℎ19 ) + 𝑦(ℎ17 − ℎ19 ) = 1(ℎ19 − ℎ15 )

(908.79 − 714.1724) − 0.2172(1316.6 − 714.1724)


𝑦′ =
(2851.05 − 908.79)

𝑦 ′ = 0.0328 𝑘𝑔

Dereator

𝑦 ′′ (ℎ6 − ℎ14 ) + (𝑦 + 𝑦 ′ )(ℎ19 − ℎ14 ) = (1 − 𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ − 𝑦 ′′ )(ℎ14 − ℎ13 )

48.92
𝑦 ′′ =
2524.13

𝑦 ′′ = 0.01938 𝑘𝑔

Closed feed water heater 3

𝑦 ′′′ (ℎ7 − ℎ21 ) = (1 − 𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ − 𝑦 ′′ )(ℎ21 − ℎ12 )

(1 − 0.2172 − 0.0328 − 0.01938)(561.47 − 467.11)


𝑦 ′′′ =
(3103.97 − 561.47)

𝑦 ′′′ = 0.02712 𝑘𝑔

Closed feed water heater 3

𝑦 ′′′′ (ℎ8 − ℎ23 ) + 𝑦 ′′′ (ℎ21 − ℎ23 ) = (1 − 𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ − 𝑦 ′′ − 𝑦 ′′′ − 𝑦 ′′′′ )(ℎ23 − ℎ11 )

60.5454
𝑦 ′′′′ =
2554.11
𝑦 ′′′′ = 0.02371 𝑘𝑔

Work Done by Turbine

𝑊𝑇 = (ℎ1 − ℎ2 ) + 1 − 𝑦(ℎ2 − ℎ3 ) + 1 − 𝑦 ′ − 𝑦 ′′ (ℎ3 − ℎ4 ) + (1 − 𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ )(ℎ5 − ℎ6 )

+ (1 − 𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ − 𝑦 ′′ )(ℎ6 − ℎ7 ) + (1 − 𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ − 𝑦 ′′ − 𝑦 ′′′ )(ℎ7 − ℎ8 ) + (1 − 𝑦

− 𝑦 ′ − 𝑦 ′′ − 𝑦 ′′′ − 𝑦 ′′′′ )(ℎ8 − ℎ9 )

𝐾𝐽
𝑊𝑇 = 1308.09
𝐾𝑔

Work done by Pump

𝑊𝑃 = (ℎ15 − ℎ14 ) + (1 − 𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ − 𝑦 ′′ − 𝑦 ′′′ − 𝑦 ′′′′ )(ℎ11 − ℎ10 )

𝑘𝐽
𝑊𝑝 = 17.43
𝐾𝑔

Net Work

𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑊𝑇 − 𝑊𝑃

𝐾𝑗
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 1290.66
𝑘𝑔

Heat Rate

𝑄1 = (ℎ1 − ℎ25 ) + (1 − 𝑦 − 𝑦 ′ )(ℎ5 − ℎ4 )

𝐾𝐽
𝑄1 = 2622.59
𝐾𝑔

𝑄1
𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑒 = × 3600
𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡

𝐾𝐽
𝐻. 𝑅 = 7315.113
𝐾𝑊ℎ

So required objective of minimum heat rate is achieved


Steam Mass Flow Rate

𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝑚. × 𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡

𝐾𝐽 𝐾𝐽
110 × 1000 = 𝑚. × 1290.66
𝑠𝑒𝑐 𝐾𝑔

𝐾𝑔
𝑚. = 85.23
𝑠𝑒𝑐

Mass Flow Rates of Extracted steams

𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟1 = 85.23 × 𝑦

𝐾𝑔
𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟1 = 18.512
𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟2 = 85.23 × 𝑦 ′

𝐾𝑔
𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟2 = 2.796
𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝑂𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 85.23 × 𝑦 ′′

𝐾𝑔
𝑂𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 1.652
𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟3 = 85.23 × 𝑦 ′′′

𝐾𝑔
𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟3 = 2.31
𝑠𝑒𝑐

𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟4 = 85.23 × 𝑦 ′′′′

𝐾𝑔
𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟4 = 2.021
𝑠𝑒𝑐
Temperature profile of 𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟1

𝑇𝑇𝐷 = 𝑇𝑠𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑡 80 𝑏𝑎𝑟 − 𝑇25

Temperature profile of 𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟2

𝑇𝑇𝐷 = 𝑇𝑠𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑡20 𝑏𝑎𝑟 − 𝑇16

Temperature profile of 𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟3

𝑇𝑇𝐷 = 𝑇𝑠𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑡 3 𝑏𝑎𝑟 − 𝑇13


Temperature profile of 𝐶𝐹𝑊 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟4

𝑇𝑇𝐷 = 𝑇𝑠𝑎𝑡 𝑎𝑡 1.5 𝑏𝑎𝑟 − 𝑇12