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ASSIGNMENT 2

ME341A

 1) An electrical current of 700 A flows through a stainless steel cable having a diameter of 5mm and an electrical resistance of 6X10 -4 Ω/m (i.e. perimeter of cable length). The cable is in an environment having temperature of 30 ◦ C, and the total coefficient associated with convection and radiation between the cable and the environment is approximately 25W/m 2 K. (a) If the cable is bare, what is its surface temperature? (b) If a very thin coating of electrical insulation is applied to the cable, with a contact resistance of

0.02m 2 K/W, what are the insulation and cable surface temperature?

(c) There is some concern about the ability of the insulation to withstand elevated temperatures. What

thickness of this insulation (k=0.5W/mK) will yield the lowest value of the maximum insulation

temperature? What is the value of the maximum temperature when the thickness is used?

2) Consider a portable solid oxide fuel cell, operating at a temperature of T fc 800°C. The fuel cell is housed within a cylindrical canister of diameter D = 75 mm and length L= 120 mm. The outer surface of the canister is insulated with a low-thermal-conductivity material. For a particular application, it is desired that the thermal signature of the canister be small, to avoid its detection by infrared sensors. The degree to which the canister can be detected with an infrared sensor may be estimated by equating the radiation heat flux emitted from the exterior surface of the canister (E s s σT s 4 ) to the heat flux emitted from an equivalent black surface, (E b = σT b 4 ). If the equivalent black surface temperature, T b , is near the surroundings temperature, the thermal signature of the canister is too small to be detected— the canister is indistinguishable from the surroundings.

(a) Determine the required thickness of insulation to be applied to the cylindrical wall of the canister to ensure that the canister does not become highly visible to an infrared sensor (i.e., (T b - T sur ) < 5 K). Consider cases where (i) the outer surface is covered with a very thin layer of dirt (ɛ s = 0.90) and (ii) the outer surface is comprised of a very thin polished aluminum sheet (ɛ s = 0.08). Calculate the required thicknesses for two types of insulating material, calcium silicate (k = 0.09 W/m K) and aerogel (k = 0.006 W/mK). The temperatures of the surroundings and the ambient are T sur = 300 K and T amb = 298 K, respectively. The outer surface is characterized by a convective heat transfer coefficient of h = 12 W/m 2 K.

(b) Calculate the outer surface temperature of the canister for the four cases (high and low thermal

conductivity; high and low surface emissivity).

(c) Calculate the heat loss from the cylindrical walls of the canister for the four cases.

3) Derive the formula for critical thickness of insulation for sphere. Clearly state all the assumptions involved.

4) Two long copper rods of diameter D = 10mm are soldered together end to end, with solder having a

melting point of

What is the minimum power input needed to effect the soldering?

650

0

C

. The rods are in air at

25

0

C

with a convection coefficient of

10

W

/

2

m

K

.

[Conductivity of copper is 379W / m K ]

5) Finned passages are frequently formed between parallel plates to enhance convection heat transfer in compact heat exchanger cores. An important application is in electronic equipment cooling, where one or more air-cooled stacks are placed between heat-dissipating electrical components. Consider a single stack of rectangular fins of length L and thickness t, with convection conditions corresponding to h and T

 (a) Obtain expressions for the fin heat transfer rates, q f, o and q f, L in terms of base temperatures, T 0 & T L . (b) In a specific application, a stack that is 200 mm wide and 100 mm deep contains 50 fins, each of

length L = 12 mm. The entire stack is made from Aluminum, which is everywhere 1.0 mm thick. If temperature limitations associated with electrical components joined to opposite plates dictate maximum allowable plate temperature of T 0 =400 K and T L =350 K, what are corresponding maximum power dissipation if h=150 W/m 2 .K and T = 300 K? Take thermal conductivity for Aluminium as 240 W/m.K 6) As more components are placed on a single integrated circuit (chip), the amount of heat that is dissipated continues to increase. However, this increase is limited by the maximum allowable chip operating temperature, approximately 75°C. To maximize heat dissipation, it is proposed that a 4 X 4 array of copper pin fins be metallurgically joined to the outer surface of a square chip that is 12.7 mm on a side.

(a) Sketch the equivalent thermal circuit for the pin chip-board assembly, assuming one-dimensional,

steady-state conditions and negligible contact resistance between the pins and the chip. In variable

form, label appropriate resistances, temperatures, and heat rates.

(b) At outer surface, h o =1000W/m 2 .K and T ,o = 20 o C. Thermal contact resistance between chip and

respectively. The other surface of the board is exposed to ambient air for which h i = 40W/m 2 .K and T ,i =

20 o C

For these conditions, what is the maximum rate at which heat can be dissipated in the chip when the pins are in place? That is, what is the value of q c for T c = 75°C? The pin diameter and length are D p = 1.5 mm and L P = 15 mm. Take thermal conductivity for Copper as 400 W/m.K 7) Circular copper rods of diameter D=1mm and Length L=25mm are used to enhance heat transfer from a surface that is maintained at T s,1 =100 C.One end of the rod is attached to this surface (at x=0) while the other end (x=25mm) is joined to a second surface ,which is maintained at(T s,2 =0 C,and a convection coefficient of h=100W/m 2 .K is maintained.

(a) What is the rate of heat transfer by convection from a single copper rod to the air?

(b)What is the rate of total heat transfer from a 1m×1m section of the surface at 100 C,if a bundle of rods in installed on 4mm centers?

8) The extent to which the tip conditions affects the thermal performance of an fin depends on the fin geometry and thermal conductivity, as well as convection coefficient .Consider an alloyed aluminum (k=180W/m.K)rectangular fin of length L=10mm,thickness t=1mm and width w>>t.the base temperature of the fin is T b =100 C and the fin is exposed to a fluid of temperature T =25 C

(a)Assuming a uniform convection coefficient of h=100W/m 2 .K over the entire fin surface ,determine the fin heat transfer rate per unit width q f , efficiency η f , effectiveness ξ f, ξ f, thermal resistance per unit width and the tip temperature T(L) for case (A) and (B) of table below

.Contrast your results with those based on infinite fin approximation. (b)Explore the effect of variations in the h on the heat rate for 10<h<1000 W/m 2 .K.Also consider the effect of such variations on stainless steel fin (k=15W/m.K)

9) Annular aluminium fins ( 240 / ) of rectangular profile are attached to a circular tube having an outside diameter of 50mm and an outside surface temperature of 200 . The fins are 4mm thick and 15mm long. The system is in ambient air at a temperature of 20 and the surface convection coefficient is 40 / . Use the chart given below.

(a) What are the fin efficiency and effectiveness?

(b) If there are 125 such pins per metre of tube length , what is the rate of heat transfer per unit length of the tube? 1. a) T s =778.7◦C

b) T s =11453◦C, T i =778.7◦C

c) t=0.0175m, T i =318.2◦C

2.

 ɛ s k (W/mK) t(m) T s (K) q(W) 0.08 0.09 0.0875 573.5 135 0.9 0.09 0.963 313.1 33.75 0.08 0.006 0.0008 573.5 108.4 0.9 0.006 0.015 313.1 10.2

3.

r cr =2k/h

4. Assume infinitely long rod.

q

min

=

120.9W

5. a) ,

,

b) , 5995 , −4278 350

6. b) 50.9W

7. (a) 0.374W (b)1.037×10 5 W

 8. CASE q f ” (W/m) η f ξ f R t,f ’ (m.K/W) T(L) (Degree C) A 151 0.96 20.1 0.50 95.6 B 144 0.92 19.2 0.52 96 D 450 0 60 0.167 25 9. η f = 0.97 ε f = 11.05

q′ = 6.82kW / m