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THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

Proposed
Western Engineering Green Building

Preliminary information and design concepts

http://www.engga.uwo.ca/

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THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

Proposed Western Engineering


Green Building

“Designed by Students for Students”

Preliminary Research Report and Proposal

July 2004

Prepared by

Rebecca Brownstone
Co-op Student, A.B. Lucas Secondary School
bekx@rogers.com

Patricia Medina
Volunteer Architect
jordicome@yahoo.com

Jon Schlemmer
Second Year Civil and Environmental Engineering Student
The University Of Western Ontario
jschlem2@uwo.ca

James Skutezky
Third Year Civil and Environmental Engineering Student
The University Of Western Ontario
jskutezk@uwo.ca

Faculty Advisor and Project Supervisor

Dr. Ernest K. Yanful, P.Eng.


Professor and Chair, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
The University Of Western Ontario
eyanful@eng.uwo.ca

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Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION

2. THE CONCEPT OF “GREEN”

2.1 Overview of The “Green Concept” of Building Design

2.2 Examples of Existing Green Building


Chicago Center for Green Technology
York University Computer Science Building
Mountain Equipment Co-op

2.3 Incentives - Commercial Building Incentive Program (CBIP)

2.4 LEED and C2000 Rating Systems

3. REVIEW OF GREEN TECHNOLOGIES AND BUILDING FEATURES

3.1 Displacement Ventilation

3.2 Green House

3.3 Radiant / Passive Heating

3.4 Day Lighting / Passive Lighting

3.5 Computerized Windows

3.6 Smart Lighting/ Power Saving Electronics

3.7 Photo Voltaic and solar panel system

3.8 Wind Turbine

3.9 Green Roof

3.10 Water Use Reduction

3.11 Rainwater Collection System

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Table of Contents Cont’d

4. PROPOSED WESTERN GREEN BUILDING

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Proposed Biosphere

4.3 Students Designed and Engineered

4.4 Advantages of a Western Engineering Green Building

4.5 Envisioned Features of the Proposed Green Building

4.6 Proposed Location of Green Building

4.7 Summary of Building Use

4.8 Possible Students’ Design and Research Topics

5. PLAN FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN BUILDING

5.1 Waste Recycling

5.2 Recycled Materials

5.3 Preliminary Budget Estimates

6. FUNDING

7. CONCLUSIONS

8. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES

9. LISTING OF SOFTWARE FOR ANALYZING GREEN BUILDINGS

10. CONTACTS

11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

12. APPENDICES

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1. INTRODUCTION

This is an exciting time in the life of Western (The University of Western


Ontario). While in the 125th year of the University’s existence, it is not only a time to
celebrate how far the institution has come, but it is also a time to look ahead to where
Western might be 50 years from now. It is also an exciting time for the Faculty of
Engineering, because the year 2004 is the 50th year of existence. During this period, the
Faculty has grown from a non-departmentalized engineering school to a full-fledged
engineering institution with six accredited programs in Chemical, Civil, Electrical,
Integrated, Mechanical, and Software Engineering. The current student population stands
at 1560 full-time undergraduate students and 380 graduate students. The number of
faculty has also grown exponentially.

During the last 125 years Western has grown into a large university with
numerous buildings that provide the institution with the necessary and state-of –art
facilities for teaching, and research. In the future there will be a need for more spaces to
meet the increasing number of students. Space is particularly a major problem for the
Faculty of Engineering, because of the growth mentioned above.

The Bio-Engineering Building, located behind the current Spencer Engineering


building (shown in Figure 1), was built some 30 years ago to provide temporarily housing
(three years) for Western Engineering’s large wind tunnel units while the permanent
Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel was built. After the wind tunnel units were moved to their
current location the building was not torn down, but was converted into laboratory space
and office accommodation for faculty and students engaged in research in biochemical
engineering.

The Bio-Engineering Building is a one-storey building that was originally


expected to be in use for only three years. Since it was originally only intended to last
three years, the Bio-Engineering Building was not built to the same standard as other
buildings at Western. Over the years, the building deteriorated further and currently has
many problems associated with its operation, including a leaky roof and poor insulation
and hence poor energy efficiency. As a result, the building is in constant repair, which
has inevitably contributed to increasingly high maintenance and operational costs.
However, given the current pressure on space dues to the unprecedented growth in the
Faculty of Engineering in the last five years, it has become necessary to tear down the
building and replace it with a new, but environmentally friendly, state-of-the art building,
or a Green Building.

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(Figure 1) – Bio-Engineering Building behind the Spencer Engineering Building,
Proposed site for a Western Engineering Green Building

2. THE CONCEPT OF “GREEN”

2.1 Overview of “Green Concept” in Building Design

There are large amounts of materials used and energy consumed during the
construction and operation of an average building. One of the growing areas of interest
for many North American universities and colleges is the implementation of green
technologies when constructing new facilities in order to produce buildings that are more
energy efficient and have less impact on the natural environmentally during operation.

The world’s population has grown exponentially since the second world war, and
there is currently pressure on available land and natural resources. As a society, we will
eventually be faced with the depletion of our most widely used source of energy, the non-
renewable fossil fuels. Many people and organizations are coming to the conclusion that
the average person’s daily energy consumption in North America will not be sustainable
in the future. There are many ways in which these organizations are taking steps to
reduce consumption such as developing new types of vehicles, energy sources, recycled
materials, and designing environmentally friendly buildings. These environmentally
friendly buildings are also known as “green” buildings and have been in use for over 30
years in North America since the birth of the environmentalists’ movement in the 1960s.

As leaders of innovation and knowledge dissemination, Canadian Universities are


one of the most logical places to start researching, developing and implementing new
practices that will help to alleviate the burden on our planet. We can reduce our

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dependence on fossil fuels and other resources by constructing buildings that use recycled
materials in their construction, are more energy efficient, produce oxygen, purify
pollutants, and generate energy on site using environmentally friendly means.

The University Of Western Ontario has much to gain from exploring green
concepts in the design and construction of new buildings with the goal of decreasing the
University’s demand on energy and non-renewable resources. One of the major benefits
of green buildings is that they require less energy to operate. This has the effect of
lowering energy costs and reducing dependence on the local utility. Some technologies
may have a higher initial cost than the conventional alternatives, but the increased
efficiency of a green building can offset this cost over the lifetime of the building.

2.2 Examples of Existing Green Buildings

To illustrate the benefits of integrating green concepts in building design,


construction and operation, a few examples of green buildings are provided. These
examples also help to answer the question “what is a green building?” These building
examples are relatively close to London, Ontario, so they experience similar climates.

The Chicago Centre For Green Technology (CCGT), Chicago, U.S.A.

Figure 2 - The Chicago Centre for Green Technology


(http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html)

In 1999 the Chicago Department of Environment embarked on an ambitious


project known as The Chicago Centre for Green Technology (CCGT). The Department
gathered a team of architects and engineers who produced the final designs and oversaw
the construction of a building that would serve as an example for companies and

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homeowners all over North America. An amount of $5.4 million was spent renovating an
existing two-storey, 40 000 ft2 building, that was to be converted into a green building.

The project team incorporated many of the most advanced green technologies
available at the time in the design of the CCGT. The idea was to design a building that
would reduce the demand on natural resources and energy while decreasing the
production of pollution and waste. The building was to do this without forcing occupants
to change their habits drastically. The teams design focuses on four major areas:
lighting, water, earth, and air.

The following is a brief summary of the compilation of green technologies used in


Chicago.

Lighting

Figure 3 - Solar Panels on CCGT


(http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html)

Purpose: to reduce fossil fuel emissions released when electricity is produced.

CCGT design includes:

● Photovoltaic cells.
● Passive light designs including a green house with heat absorbing tiles and
skylights.
● Smart lighting, which adjusts the electrical lights according to the
available natural light, thus lowering electricity requirements.
● Motion-sensitive lights that turn themselves off when the room is empty.

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Water

Figure 4 - Green roof


(http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html)

Rain Water Run Off Cistern (figure 6)

Purpose: To reduce pollution due to stormwater run off water and to reduce the demand
on the municipal sewer system.

CCGT design includes:

● Green roof (with succulent plant stores water in its roots and leaves and
therefore does not need to be watered during drought)
● Cisterns (holding tanks used to collect rain water)
● Disconnected downspouts (drain to soil not sewer)

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● Bioswales (ditches with water-loving plants which filter pollutants)

Earth

Purpose: To reduce the demand on natural resources provided by such as oil, wood, and
minerals.

CCGT Design includes:

● Promotion of alternate forms of transportation by providing bike racks,


showers, electrical outlets in the parking lot for electric cars, and close to
major bus routes.
● Demolition waste was recycled when possible.
● Use of recycled materials in the furnishings in the building

Air

Figure 6 - Ground Source Heat Pump


(http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html)

Purpose: Reduce air pollution and the need for heating and cooling using non-renewable
resources.

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CCGT design includes:

● A ground source heat pump and pipe system that carries a (non-toxic)
liquid similar to antifreeze through a series of looped pipes 200 feet (61
m) below ground level. The liquid is used to regulate the temperature in
the building.
● Highly effective insulation, including the green roof, that lowers heating
and cooling costs.
● Use of natural gas to heat the building
● Use of local materials in the construction and operation of the building.
This reduces pollution related to transportation and helps the local
economy.
● Use of less harmful chemical products both for the construction and for
the maintenance of the building.
● The green roof atmospheric carbon dioxide to oxygen through the natural
process (photosynthesis) of the plant life. The roof also absorbs rainwater
and thus reduces the amount of water released into the city’s sewer
system.

Farr Associates was the leading architectural firm involved in the design of the Chicago
Center for Green Technology construction and design.

Further information about the Chicago Center for Green Technology can be found at
http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html

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The York University Computer Science Building, Toronto

The York Computer Science Building, located in Toronto Ontario, is a good


example of what can be done with a university building in Ontario’s extremely variable
climate. The , three-story 9,282m2 building designed mainly for energy efficiency, has a
number of additional “green” features.

Green Features of Note:

The building was designed to be energy efficient in the winter and summer by
being highly insulated and having lots of natural light. As a result the temperature can be
maintained more easily and the natural light lessens the need for electric lighting in the
middle of the day.

The architects who designed the York computer sciences building wanted to
reduce the reliance on the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVAC) as
much as possible. To do this end, they used an open concept design with a central atrium
and exhaust columns to allow natural venting and natural lighting. This type of natural
ventilation is possible because of the “thermal chimney effect”, produced by rising hot
air. As the air in the building warms during the day, it naturally floats up to the ceiling if
there is other cooler air available to take its place. At the ceiling the warm air is siphoned
off using fans at the top of the exhaust columns and by computerized windows at the top
of the atrium. The hot air is replaced by fresh air, which is collected at ground level on
the shaded north side of the building. This efficient design allows the building operators

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to turn off the HVAC system during most of the spring and fall days, when the external
temperatures are relatively moderate. The designers’ attention to the climate control has
resulted in an energy consumption rating that is 50% less than the ASHRAE
requirements of 600 MJ/m2/yr, for a building of its size.

This image shows one of the halls in the York University Computer Science Building.
The lit oval area in the ceiling is one of the exhaust columns that vents hot air and lets
natural light into the building.

Additional Building Features:

● The York Computer Science Building’s roof is almost completely covered with
natural vegetation that requires very little maintenance and is irrigated with
collected rainwater. This green roof is used by faculty and students as a
recreational area.
● Substantial perimeter glazing on the windows makes it easier to control the heat
in the building in warm seasons.
● HVAC system is 50% smaller than is typically required for this size of building.
● Natural lighting accesses many parts of the building
● There are manually operable windows throughout the building.
● A large atrium in the centre of the building brings light into the centre of the
building and houses tropical plants which flourish all year.

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● Computer-controlled wind and temperature sensors control the windows, which
are programmed for efficiency but can also be adjusted manually.
● The building is acoustically sealed to diminish echoes and noise. (This is an issue
for an open concept design with an atrium or large lecture halls)
● To promote alternate transportation, covered bicycle racks and shower rooms are
provided.
● 50% fly ash concrete was used instead of standard concrete. York has
subsequently decided that all future construction on campus will be done using
50% fly ash concrete.

Personal communication with York University tour guides and a computer


science student during a visit indicated that there have been a few problems with the
operation of the building. These include:

● Workers find maintenance of the building challenging because many of the


building’s operational mechanisms are unique and require extra attention.
● The building’s temperature varies greatly depending on what side of the building
a reading is taken. The south side is very warm and the north side is very cold,
because of the large amounts of glass.
● The basement was reportedly “very musky” when the building was first opened,
however the moisture levels have since been reduced.

The York University green building may have a few minor problems with is
operation but, overall, the university has taken many large steps towards sustainability.

Architect: Busby and Associates Architects and Van Nostrand di Castri Architects
Engineers: KEEN Engineering (Mechanical), Yolles (Structural), Carinci Burt Rogers
(Electrical)

York Computer Science Building green roof

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York University Computer Science Building atrium

Mountain Equipment Co-op

The Mountain Equipment Co-op (MEC) was founded in 1971 by a group in B.C.
and was set up as a non-profit, Co-operative organization that provides products and
services to customers interested in wilderness oriented recreation. Most of the Co-op’s
owners believe that, although building an environmentally friendly building may not
always be have a low initial capital cost, it is an ethical endeavour because green
buildings are good for the community’s heath and preservation of resources. The owners
of MEC decided that they would like to house their stores in environmentally friendly
buildings, so they began constructing new stores one after the other.

Located at 400 King Street in Toronto, the MEC retail store is built from 50%
recycled materials and has a green roof. The outdoor enthusiast’s equipment chain is
working to ensure all their stores are located in green buildings. The Toronto store was
the first of MEC’s green buildings; MEC has since built green buildings in Ottawa,
Montreal, and Vancouver. The store chain is a demonstration that green technologies can
be unobtrusive.

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The Toronto MEC green building features include a green roof, environmentally
friendly large buildings, thermal siphoning, solar panels, and a computerized building
management system.

The MEC building’s green roof has 4” of soil, consisting mostly of volcanic ash,
moss, and topsoil because these growing mediums are light. The green roof is not open to
the public, allowing the company to save materials by using a lightweight roof. The roof
top garden promotes wildlife such as ducks, insects and birds. The green roof’s
temperature is 20 – 30˚C in the summer, compared to a normal tar roofs temperature of
30-50˚C. In the winter the layer of soil on the roof helps to insulate the building.

Vegetation and soil help to filter rainwater runoff and to increase the amount of
time taken to reach storm sewers. Finally the roof top garden converts carbon dioxide
into oxygen and reduces the heat in the city, reducing the “Heat Island” effect.

Material Considerations

Constructed from 50% recycled material, MEC building stairs are made from
recycled car metal and the wooden beams were reclaimed from waterlogged and sunk
logs from the Ottawa River. The carpet is made from recycled carpet that can be sold
back to the manufacturer when it becomes worn out. The concrete aggregate is made
from recycled concrete. Below the poured concrete of the underground parking garage is
a gravel bed that was made from the previous foundation, which was crushed on site.

Every effort is made to reduce the amount of materials used in construction. The
building mechanics ventilation pipes, structures, wires, and lights are all exposed. The
interior, for the most part, is left unpainted because many paints emit harmful compounds
(for example, Volatile Organic Compounds or VOCs) while drying.

Additional Building Features:

● A small solar panel mounted on the roof is used to run lights in the store or charge
a large battery when the lights are not in use.
● A computerized building management system (BMS) is in use.
● The building is Canada 2000 or C2000 compliant. This is a Canadian green
building rating system discussed in Section 2.4.

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Toronto MEC building green roof Toronto MEC building interior

401 Richmond

This building in Toronto is not a green building but it may be worth mentioning
because of its roof top garden that serves as a public eating area. It includes tables,
benches, and a small green house.

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401 Richmond roof top garden

401 Richmond composting tumbler

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Further Case Study resources are available in the resources section

2.3 Incentives

The Canadian Government offers tax incentives designed to encourage the use of
green technology in new buildings. Investors can write-off costs associated with
sustainable building practices. The Government allows an accelerated write-off rate for
expenditures related to green technologies. The cost of the equipment is up to 30% tax
deductible. Certain expenses, such as the cost of site analysis, cost of negotiations and
cost of site approval may also be eligible for these tax benefits. Additional information
may be found at:

http://www.energyalternatives.ca/PDF/NRCAN_tax_incentives.pdf

Commercial Building Incentive Program (CBIP)

The CBIP is a program run by National Resources Canada. The program will
award up to $60 000 to any building project that meets certain requirements. The
program will began in April of 1998 and will run until March of 2007. The following
web link provides additional information:

http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/newbuildings/cbip-pebc/index_e.cfm?PrintView=N&Text=N

2.4 LEED and C2000 Rating systems

LEED Accreditation

http://www.cagbc.ca/building_rating_systems/leed_project_registration.php

In the United States the most prominent green building accreditation program is the
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system. This is a
program defining and rating green buildings. A Canadian equivalent rating system is
currently under development. It is expected to focus on the same major areas that the
LEED rating system does.

These areas are:

● Sustainable Site Planning


● Safeguarding Water and Water Efficiency
● Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
● Conservation of Materials and Resources
● Indoor Environmental Quality

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The LEED rating system awards points for how a building’s design deals with
specific solutions for the above-mentioned issues. The checklist and rating system
information for the American LEED program can be found at
https://www.usgbc.org/Docs/LEEDdocs/LEED-NC_checklist-v2.1.xls

The United States Green Building Council (USGBC) uses the LEED checklist to
rate a building. Depending on the total points achieved for solutions related to the above
areas, a rating for the building is awarded as follows:

Certified 26-32 points


Silver 33-38 points
Gold 39-51 points
Platinum 52-60 points

Benefits

The benefits of receiving a rating from LEED include increased publicity and
promotion of high quality design. The rating also gives designers’ a method of
comparing new designs to old designs in order to determine their success.

Drawback

Application for a LEED assessment costs the builder extra money and it does not
change the building once it is built. Additional information on the LEED, USGBC and
Canada 2000 (C2000) programs may be found at:

https://www.usgbc.org/Docs/Resources/usgbc_intro.ppt

http://www.greenbuilding.ca/C2000/abc-2kpd.htm

https://www.usgbc.org/LEED/Project/certprocess.asp#cert

www.ashrae-mtl.org/text_pdf/pope.pdf

http://www.greenbuilding.ca/C2000/abc-2kpd.htm#PERF-REQ

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3. REVIEW OF GREEN BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES

3.1 Displacement Ventilation

A displacement ventilation system uses 100% outdoor air to ventilate the


building. Introducing fresh air at floor level, the air rises as it warms until it reaches
exhaust ducts at the ceiling. Air moves slowly enough that it does not displace dirt from
the floors. Any air pollutants that are produced within the building are not re-circulated.
Heat is transferred from outgoing air to incoming air, and so that very little energy is
wasted.

Benefits: Excess heat is removed from the building efficiently. Air pollutants are
removed from the environment. Fresh air is circulated through the building making for a
more comfortable working environment.

Drawbacks: This system is fairly complicated to install and may be difficult to


incorporate with other systems. The incoming air must be maintained at approximately
the same temperature as the room to avoid excessive cooling/heating.

Resources:
Advanced Buildings, Technology and Practises Web Page
Canadian Architect Web Page
Healthy Buildings International Web Page

3.2 Atrium

A greenhouse atrium may be incorporated in a green building. The atrium houses


growing plants and water features. The glass ceiling allows daylight to filter down
through the levels of the building. The atrium also acts as a route for air within the
building. Stale, hot air flows into the atrium, rises to the ceiling level, where it is readily
exhausted. The atrium allows natural light to penetrate the core of the building, reducing
lighting expenses. An example of a green building with a greenhouse atrium is the York
University Computer Science Building.

Resources:
York Computer Sciences Building

3.3 Radiant / Passive Heating

Radiant solar heating is a way to save on heating costs within a building. In this
system dense tiles or concrete are used as flooring or as wall paneling. During the day the
floors and walls absorb heat produced by the sun. As the building cools at night, the tiles
release the heat energy retained from the day.

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A passive heating system would greatly reduce heating expenses within the
building for a little extra initial cost. This system increases the building’s temperature in
the summer, and therefore slightly increases air conditioning expenses. However, this is a
minor concern because the heat is released at night when the building is cooler, and
during the summer the building is not as extensively used as in winter. Also, shades can
be put into place during the summer to block direct sunlight and reduce heat into the
building.

Resources:
Square One http://www.squ1.com/
Chicago Centre for Green Technology

3.4 Day lighting / Passive Lighting

A green building would typically have many large windows that maximize the
amount of light admitted into the building. Passive lighting works well with smart
lighting; the two systems work together to reduce energy consumption while providing
ample light to the occupants of the building. This reduces the building’s demand on
natural resources and save money.

Benefits: Daylighting reduces reliance on electric lighting, reducing the cost of electricity
in the long run. Daylighting also improved the light quality within the building; electric
lights only produce a partial light spectrum, while daylight brings the full light spectrum
into the building giving better illumination of spaces. Also studies are available that show
increased productivity for people working in naturally lit buildings.

Drawbacks:
Shades will need to be installed to reduce direct sunlight penetrating the building in the
summer causing the building to heat up. Also shades will be needed so that rooms can be
made dark for presentations. If cheaper windows are installed the building will not be as
energy efficient because windows may allow in extra heat. Large amounts of natural light
also produce glare that may be uncomfortable to the building’s occupants, steps need to
be taken to reduce glare.

Expense Estimate:
Inert Gas filled windows (Argon/Krypton) cost CAN $3-5/m2 of window.
Costs for blinds vary by material, style and size. Blinds can be purchased for CAN $30-
100/m2.

Resources:
Advanced Buildings, Technology and Practises Web Page
Lower Manhattan Development Corporation
Mountain Equipment Co-op Store
York Computer Sciences Building

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3.5 Smart Lighting/ Power Saving Electronics

Smart lighting and power saving electronics are a simple way to save energy.
These devices are designed to shut down when not in use. Smart lights have photo
sensors that read how much natural light is in the building and dim electric lights when
there is substantial natural light. Smart lights are often equipped with motion sensors so
that when there is no one in a room the lights automatically shut off. Power saving
electronics shut down after not being used for a set amount of time.
The major benefit to smart lighting and power saving electronics is the reduction in
energy consumption. The reduction in energy implies reduced electricity costs. Also the
sensors may increase security in the building.

Drawback: increased initial cost of the devices.

Expenses:
Infrared occupancy sensors cost CAN $75-200. The cost of the sensors can be expected
to payback in approximately two years.

Resources:
Douglas Lighting Controls
http://www.douglaslightingcontrol.com/
Pass & Seymour, Wiring Devices and Accessories
http://www.passandseymour.com/
Advanced Buildings, Technology and Practises Web Page
Mountain Equipment Co-op Store

3.6 Computerized Windows

Computerized windows add to the HVAC system by opening automatically when


the building reaches extreme temperatures. Computerized windows are often installed
above large atriums and open to allow hot air to escape from the top of the building. Fans
are not needed to push the air out because this system takes advantage of the natural
motion of air within the building.

Benefits: Computerized windows reduce air conditioning costs as the windows open
automatically when the building becomes too hot.
Drawbacks: Computerized window systems have slightly high initial costs. Also this
system is not yet standard and can be a challenge for maintenance personnel, as they must
learn how the new system operates.

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Expenses: cost of heat sensors, mechanical window openers and computer system.

Resources:
Mountain Equipment Co-op Store
York University Computer Sciences Building

3.7 Photo Voltaic (PV) Cells, Battery system, and solar panels

Energy efficiency in photovoltaic system means using the building's individual


components to do the same job as less efficient components for less money over the long-
term. Energy-efficiency applies to everything from the building skin or shell, which
includes energy efficient windows, lighting, insulation, foundation, and the roof, to
equipment that have built-in power management features. It also applies to space heating
and cooling systems, whose efficiency may be improved by automated controls,
ventilation, improved duct systems, and other advanced technologies.

Energy efficiency can also apply to water heating, which can be improved using
solar panels, combined with water-efficient appliances.

Benefits of Photovoltaics

Unlike any other known forms of electricity production, photovoltaics, or PV has


no moving parts, is noiseless, produces no emissions during use and is completely
scaleable from very small to very large electrical generators in a totally modular way. It is
therefore the only form of electrical energy generation that has the potential to be placed
at the far end of the electricity distribution chain.

Mounting photovoltaic cells on buildings means there are is additional cost for
installation, unlike solar generators. Nearly all photovoltaics in buildings (PVIB) systems
are grid-connected. The dc electricity from the photovoltaic array is converted into
mains-compatible ac by a special inverter, and the ac electricity is fed into the building's
main electricity supply. Any excess not used within the building is exported to the
electrical supply network (grid). As the electricity is generated where it is consumed,
transmission and distribution losses are avoided, which reduces the utility's capital and
maintenance costs. The value of the photovoltaic-generated electricity is equal to the
avoided cost per kWh of the grid electricity that is saved (i.e. higher than the normal
buying price of a utility).

The greatest challenge to all energy production is its impact on the environment.
Solar power is one of the friendliest ways of producing electricity. In grid-connected
systems, solar power has no effect on the environment, because the system does not
include batteries that would need to be replaced.

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Use of photovoltaics on buildings

Modern architecture increasingly attempts to combine aesthetic, ecological and


technical issues. Architecturally well-executed and integrated photovoltaic systems lend
themselves ideally for this purpose, especially with the new thin photovoltaic films,
which can be attached to the facades or be part of windows.

Designing photovoltaics as architectural features into new buildings often


presents a challenge. Here the photovoltaic elements are required to fit into the building
skin itself (i.e true building integration) and the need to fit into closely defined
dimensions often means that special size photovoltaic modules are required.

Examples of situations where photovoltaic elements can be incorporated into a


new building are:

● Non-transparent facades forming the wall structure of a new building.


● Glazed atria / daylighting areas of new buildings which require some
transparency.
● Sloping roofs of new buildings, where the photovoltaics are required to form part
of the weatherproof roof.
● As part of windows.
● Sun shading over windows.

Mounting methods:

Photovoltaics are normally mounted over walls using standard module sizes and
specially developed mounting structures. This reduces the module operating temperature
and increases the working efficiency. Sloping roofs can be fitted with standard size
framed photovoltaic modules and with a special mounting profile. An air gap is provided
between the modules and the roof to aid module cooling.

Roofs may have an area where the normal roofing material is replaced by
photovoltaic modules. Normally this involves modules with special frames and matching
mounting profiles, or special laminates that are mounted on standard building profiles.
Wiring options for a facade are inside or outside wiring, while for a roof, outside wiring
is preferred. Cell spacing is normally between 10 and 100 mm.

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Integration of special glazed roofs and atria into new buildings require large glass-
glass laminates that fit into standard building profiles. They may also include an
insulating air gap and/or laminated back glass. Normally the cells are spaced more widely
than in normal photovoltaic modules, to provide increased light transmission. Attention is
needed to avoid profiles that can build up dust, snow, water, at the edges.

Film Photovoltaics Solar Electric Modules

Film photovoltaics solar electric modules were born with the idea of creating
structures in which the same surface would both provide shelter and power. To
accomplish this, the buildings should integrate photovoltaic (PV) panels into their design.

Borrowing a technique developed in the production of silicon chips for the


computer industry, manufacturers began producing a new breed of PV panels that
employed a thin film of silicon and lightweight conductors fused onto materials such as
sheet metal or glass, which can withstand the high temperature necessary to prepare the
silicon coating.

As an example of this new technology, the first pavilion in the Cooper-Hewitt


Garden in the United States, takes advantage of a thin-film PV on a flexible metal
substrate, a combination that, so far, is produced by only one manufacturer (Iowa Thin
Films). Constructed of a polyester mesh in the shape of two hyperbolic paraboloids (one
of the basic building shapes of tensile architecture), the pavilion's membrane both
diffuses sunlight into a fine, stippled pattern and allows air to vent. The power is
produced by thin-film amorphous-silicon panels on a flexible stainless-steel substrate
bonded to a PVC coating on the mesh. The near-seamless integration of the PV panels
into the curvilinear form evinces the versatility of the advancing technology.

The dispersion of the panels over the pavilion's curved surface also represents a
shift in philosophy from the days of the flat PV array. Here, orientation of the panels at
various angles allows the structure to harvest energy from all sunlight, and not just the
strongest rays. This approach has become feasible in part because thin-film PVs are far
less expensive than crystal PVs.

Thirty years ago, a single panel cost approximately $1,000, the price of PVs is
now comparable to that of conventional building materials and less than that of a material
like granite. PVs are also approaching standard building-module size. Improvements in
the technology have also made it more worthwhile to collect even weaker rays of
sunlight. PVs will only continue to become cheaper and more efficient.

As sunlight enters its translucent, boxy structure, thin-film PV panels, which


range in density from opaque to semitransparent, become design elements themselves,
blocking, patterning, and filtering light while simultaneously producing electricity to
power an air-conditioning unit for example.

26
As an alternative, PVs can be used, just as tinted glass is, to filter or deflect
sunlight from entering a space, with the obvious advantage of using that same sunlight to
create energy for the building's systems rather than "wasting" it and relying on energy
generated by outside sources.

PV Systems:

An important first step when considering the purchase of a photovoltaic system


for an institutional building is whole-building design because it can save time and money.

Whole-building design takes into account the building structure and systems as a
whole and examines how these systems work best together to save energy and reduce
environmental impact. Whole-building design can also be beneficial by improving
comfort for occupants.

Passive solar features incorporated into a building design can have a significant
impact on a building's energy consumption. Using a lot of natural light reduces electricity
and release of thermal energy given off by lighting fixtures, allowing for a smaller air
conditioning system. A smaller air-conditioning system needs less electrical power to
operate, and therefore, fewer solar panels will be required for cooling the building, which
translates into cost savings.

Benefits:

By designing a building that uses less energy and has less power demand, it is
possible to achieve robust of the building as well as power grid for the building.
Consequently the dependence on fossil fuels and impact on the environment will be
lower. Other possible benefits of photovoltaic whole-building design include:

● Reduce energy use by 50% or more.

● Provides thermal insulation on the roof or walls.

● Protects the roof from weather and UV radiation, extending roof life.

● Decreases heating and cooling energy costs.

● Reduces environmental impact.

● Reduces maintenance and capital costs.

If done correctly, whole-building design need not cost more than a building
designed using conventional systems. It can even eliminate or reduce unnecessary
building space and reduce construction costs. However, because all the pieces must fit
together, it is essential that the design team be fully integrated from the beginning of the
design process. The building design team can include architects, engineers, and

27
specialists in areas such as indoor air quality, materials, and energy use. For institutional
buildings, it is essential to bring energy consultants into the design process from the
beginning and keep them involved throughout the process so they can advise how
changes to design will affect a building's energy performance.

Costs

The cost of a simply mounted photovoltaic system using standard photovoltaic


modules (including modules, mounting, cabling and inverter) is approximately US$6,57
per Wp. Per square metre, an a-Si BIPV system costs around US$354 per sq m. This is
about the same cost per sq metre as an expensive over cladding system (e.g. double
glass). A crystalline silicon grid-connected photovoltaic system costs between US$ 708-
1062 per square metre. For comparison, roofing materials sell for about US$23.6-59 per
square metre and normal wall materials range from about US$82.6 to US$236 per square
metre.
Prestige facade materials (e.g. marble or other dressed stone) cost US$708 to
US$1416 per sq m. They could be replaced at about the same price by crystalline silicon
photovoltaic. If one considers the avoided cost of the marble, and cladding, and the fact
that solar electricity is essentially free of charge, then it is easy to make an economic case
for using photovoltaic systems.

Performance

One peak kW of amorphous silicon photovoltaic is about 25 square metres. One


peak kW of crystalline silicon photovoltaic is about 8 to 8.5 square metres. A vertical
facade (South facing) will produce around 75-90 kWh/sq m per year (crystalline) or 25-
30 kWh/sq m per year (amorphous). These figures apply, more or less, worldwide. Often
the East and West facing walls produce nearly as much as the South wall. Tilted arrays
(eg roofs at optimum tilt) can produce 100-200 kWh/sq m per year (crystalline) or 30-70
kWh/sq m per year (amorphous).

It should be noted that the above ‘maximum’ figures can be quite severely
reduced by shadowing from nearby buildings and trees. Normally, the expected useful
life is at least 20 – 30 years for a crystalline module, and 15 - 20 years for specially
encapsulated aSi facade module. The useful lifetime of an inverter is probably around 10
years.

Energy payback time


How long does it take a photovoltaic system to produce more energy from the sun
than what went into its manufacture? Estimates vary widely, but using averaged
published data, the following energy payback times are quite typical for vertical facades
in the Nordic countries:

● 5 to 6 years considering the photovoltaic modules alone.


● 6 to 7 years if the other components (mounting structure, cables, and inverters)
are included.

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The above energy payback times would be reduced for sunnier locations at lower
latitude, for photovoltaic systems mounted at more favourable tilt angles, and for future
thin-film photovoltaic technologies.

Reduced emissions

The issue of reduced CO2 emissions due to the use of photovoltaic systems is
quite complicated. If the photovoltaic-produced electricity were replacing electricity that
would be otherwise generated by fossil fuels such as coal or oil, then the ‘CO2 payback
time’ for a photovoltaic facade system in the Nordic countries would be approximately 4
- 5 years. That takes into account the emissions associated with manufacture of the
photovoltaic system. One peak kW of photovoltaics system mounted on a building in a
Northern country can result in elimination of CO2 emissions of up to 1 tonne per year.
This type of emission reduction projection is probably too simplistic, as there are many
other factors that have to be considered for each system. Thus each installation must be
evaluated on its own merit.

Other examples of Photovoltaics:

New Solar-Powered Window:

Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed the first solar-


powered, integrated window system. Designed to function as a shading system, the
Dynamic Shading Window System (DSWS)
uses a newly developed solar-energy technology
to convert sun’s light into storable energy that
can be used to efficiently heat, cool, and
artificially light the same office building, and
block the harshest solar rays while allowing the
most pleasant daylight to stay in a building’s
interior.

The system can be incorporated into new


buildings or into existing buildings. This could
save utility costs and significantly reduce the
need for fossil fuels.

The DSWS system is made of clear plastic panels that fit in between two glass
panes. On each panel are dozens of small, pyramid-shaped units, or “modules,” made
from semi- translucent focusing plastic lenses that track the sun’s motion. Sensors,
embedded in the walls or roof, ensure that the units are always facing the sun to capture
all incoming rays while at the same time deflecting harsh, unwanted rays from a
building’s interior.
Each unit holds a miniature photovoltaic (PV) or solar-cell device used to collect
light and heat that is then transferred into useable energy to run motors, also embedded in

29
the building’s interior walls. The remaining energy is used for heating, air conditioning,
and artificial lighting. The surplus energy can be directly and automatically distributed
through wires inside a building’s walls, or can be stored in a group of batteries, for later
use.
This solar-powered technology can provide institutional buildings, for example, a
university building, with the superior lighting, that is, natural daylight. It will allow for
better views outside the windows, which are no longer hidden by a standard shade or
obscured by penetrating glare.

California State University, Hayward, California. A good example of PV use:

An example of beneficial uses of photovoltaic systems is available at the


California State University, Hayward, California. This is the largest solar electric system
at any university in the world and one of the largest solar energy systems in the United
States. The 1.05-megawatt solar electric system will provide a clean, reliable, cost-
effective source of electricity, leveraging the area's abundant sunlight. The solar
generation system will deliver approximately 30 percent of the campus' peak electricity
demands.

California State Hayward's solar system will cover more than 75,600 square feet,
and will feature rooftop arrays on four of the university's largest buildings. The $7.11
million project will generate roughly 1,450,000 kilowatt hours annually, producing
enough electricity in the daytime to power more than 1,000 homes. A total of 5,260 solar
tiles will be laid.

The cost of the new solar energy system to the university will be approximately
$3.55 million, which is being financed over 15 years through utility savings from the
project. Another $3.55 million will be paid through a rebate from the California Public
Utilities Commission to the university through Pacific Gas and Electric.

With this solar electric installation, California State Hayward will have a cost-
effective, reliable, non-polluting system that will reduce their electricity bill by $200,000
annually. Solar energy will provide the university with operational flexibility, by
enabling it to generate its own power especially during the summer months when
electricity prices are the highest and the grid is most constrained. The system will give
the university a hedge against the fluctuating costs of energy and related supplies and will
lower annual maintenance costs and increase the life of the buildings.

Over the next 25 years, the solar-generated electricity will reduce emissions of
carbon dioxide by nearly 8,700 tons. These emission reductions are equivalent to planting
2,450 acres of trees or removing 1,700 cars from highways.

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Resources:
www.fortum.com
“Pv for Buildings”. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). USA.
http://www.solarbuzz.com/News/NewsNAPT40.htm
http://koulut.etela-karjala.fi/kimppe/pv-system/BIPVwhitepaperENG.pdf
http://www.metropolismag.com/html/content_0598/ma98bd.htm

Solar Panels (water heating)

Solar Water Heating

Solar water heating panels are a system that uses the sun's energy rather than
electricity or gas to heat water. Water heating accounts for about 7% of institutional
energy use. A solar water heater uses glazed collectors that are roof-mounted and
connected to a preheat storage tank. Fluid is pumped to the collectors where it is warmed
by the sun is energy, and returned to a heat exchanger where heat from the fluid is used to
heat the water in a preheat storage tank. A backup water heater is installed in series with
the preheat tank to maintain the desired water temperature during extended cloudy
periods. A typical system will provide 50 to 75% of the water-heating load.

Benefits

● Provides a large proportion of a building's water heating requirements.


● Operates at minimal cost.
● Reduces the use of electricity or fossil fuels.
● Reduces energy costs.

Limitations
● A conventional backup system is needed to boost the water temperature during
the night and/or on cloudy days.
● Storage tank and the pump may need to be replaced after 10 years.
● Controllers may require servicing during the life of the system.
● Solar collectors should perform well for more than 20 years.

Application

Solar water heaters are best suited to buildings with high hot water loads. Systems
can be easily retrofitted to existing buildings although flat roof buildings will require a
support rack to angle the collectors towards the sun. Ideally collectors are mounted facing
south and sloped at an angle equal to the location latitude. However, orientations of up to
20 degrees away from this optimum have little impact on performance. It is essential that
the collectors are not shaded, especially between the hours of 9AM and 3PM when the
sun's rays are most intense.

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As a rough guide, the solar system should
have one square metre of collector area for every 50
L/day of hot water usage and the storage tank
should have 50 L/m2 of collector. This corresponds
to 4 m2 of collector for every apartment suite in
multi-unit residential buildings and 1 m of collector
for every five office workers in an office building.

Experience

Solar water heating systems have been used in a number of institutional buildings
in Canada. In most cases the systems have performed reliably. The systems require an
annual maintenance check of the controller and pump operation and the pH level of the
glycol solution (if used).

Example Buildings

The Landmark Condominium in Kingston Ontario has installed a solar hot water
system that provides the building's 150 apartments with hot water. Additional tanks have
been installed to store excess hot water gathered during particularly sunny days. The
entire system cost $32,000 to install and returns annual energy savings of around $3,600.

Cost

The cost of solar water heating systems has dropped over the past 20 years. The
installed cost of commercial systems is about C$500/m2. The payback on solar heating
systems ranges from 7 to 20 years depending on the cost of fuel displaced and the
complexity of the system (For example, whether support racks and storage tank are
needed). The REDI program of Natural Resources Canada provides an incentive of 25%
to reduce the inital cost of the system. The RETScreen computer program can be used to
quickly assess the economics of a proposed installation.

An excellent application for solar energy is producing hot water. Solar hot water
has excellent commercial, institutional and industrial applications. Solar energy is
environmentally friendly, renewable and sustainable. A solar water heating system is
efficient, clean, easy to install, friendly and virtually maintenance-free. Hot water counts
for as much as 40% of the energy requirements of an average house. Solar water heating
systems can drastically cut the costs for heating hot water by 40 to 60%, even 100% for a
cottage.

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The Canadian solar industry offers a range of systems and configurations, all
designed to utilize solar energy and to produce hot water at high efficiency and low cost.
The closed-loop antifreeze solar heating system has a solar loop containing antifreeze,
which provides protection from freezing. The passive solar or thermo siphon system
utilizes the density difference between the warm water in the collector and the cooler
water in the tank mounted above the collector. The solar system ties into the existing hot
water tank to preheat the domestic hot water used for washing dishes, clothes and baths.
Financing of solar water heaters can be arranged so the interest costs less than the
savings.

Commercial Solar Hot Water Systems: The solar collectors are located where
they are exposed to the sun all day, typically on a roof. A fluid is circulated between the
collectors and a heat exchanger or water storage tank where the heat is utilized or stored.
The distinction between different systems is in the working fluid, the method of heat
transfer, and control strategy resulting in technical terms such as closed loop, drainback,
draindown and thermosiphon.

Applications for solar water heating include manufacturing or process heat


applications. Institutional systems are similar to large residential systems in their basic
form. The most suitable applications for institutional solar systems are those using low
temperature water. Many institutional applications have site specific needs that lend
themselves to a good solar application. The roof may be at a suitable angle so the panels
can be installed without the need for a special rack, which keeps the costs down.
Generally, the larger the system the less expensive is the unit cost of energy delivered.

Institutional applications that do not really require hot water are the most cost-
effective because the solar panels will operate more efficiently. For example, universities
are one of the best potential applications for commercial or institutional solar water
heating, primarily because they are a low temperature application. They need warm water
somewhere between 90°F (32°C) and 100°F (38°C) and not at 140°F (60°C). The source
of heat is available when there is a demand for it and there is little requirement for
storage. It can even be a direct circulation system with no heat exchangers.

Maintenance:

The collectors may get dusty but rain will wash them off so it is not usually a
problem. In the fall if there is not much rain, however as soon as the first snow comes
along in winter, the snow will accumulate on the collectors for a time but will then slide
down and clean off the collectors when the sun comes out. There may be a problem with
dirt building up on the collectors in some regions, which may make it necessary to wash
them a few times through the summer. A hot solar panel must not be washed with cold
water.

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Expected performance:

There is no well-defined standard performance to be achieved but there are typical


performance figures. Generally, the solar fraction of institutional solar hot water systems
is usually between 10 to 35%.

The long-term investment must be considered rather than payback. If a solar hot
water system is installed on a new building and included in the mortgage, it may be
financially attractive. There are also the environmental benefits.

Tax considerations:

The Income Tax Regulations were revised in February 1994 to encourage


business and industry to reduce energy waste and to use alternative and renewable energy
sources. Previously, renewable energy was under Class 34 at 50%; with the half-year rule
this was 25% in year 1, 50% in year 2 and the remaining 25% in year 3. Wind energy and
most other renewable energy technologies are now under Class 43.1 CCA without
exception and solar energy is sometimes under Class 43.1. Solar heating is included
under 43.1 CCA of the Income Tax Act for manufacturing and processing (M&P)
industries, which means it does not qualify for most applications. There are applications
for solar water heating in manufacturing or process heat, but there are many more
commercial, industrial and institutional applications such as car washes, nursing homes
or apartment buildings. The same equipment can be used in the latter applications,
commercial, industrial or institutional, and have only 4% CCA, because they are
considered part of the building, but when used in manufacturing or processing have 30%
CCA. The lifetime of the equipment will be the same for all these applications.

The Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative (REDI) is a federal government


program introduced in 1998 for renewable energy applications that are not eligible under
class 43.1 CCA, such as solar air and water heating. Funds have been allocated to Natural
Resources Canada (NRCan) to stimulate a domestic market for Canadian solar products.
Some of the money will fund a 25% contribution for businesses that invest in solar
heating.

Solar water heating is not included under 43.1 CCA for many of the applications.
Solar water heating is included under 43.1 CCA for fish processing plants and for milk
processing plants or slaughterhouses (manufacturing and processes).

Wind energy and small hydro plants and most other renewable energy
technologies are under Class 43.1 CCA without exception, although most of these
technologies produce electricity. Photovoltaic systems are under Class 43.1 at 30% if
they are larger than 3 kW but anything less than that is written off under Class 8 CCA at
20%.

Solcan installed a solar water heating system at the Royal Ontario Museum in
Toronto in 1987. The system includes 24 solar panels (72 m2) mounted on the penthouse

34
and supplying heated water to the hot water storage tanks nine stories below. The total
cost of equipment and installation was $40,000. It was designed to deliver 210 GJ
(58,380 kWh) of energy per year. After commissioning, an independent consultant
verified that the system was delivering over 60,000 kWh per year. The annual
maintenance cost is about $150 per year averaged over ten years. The system should last
20 years before it needs a major overhaul, although it may need a new pump during that
time.

Ontario: PST Rebate (Dec 2003). There is a Provincial Sales Tax Rebate on all solar
equipment sold in Ontario. More information can be found at www.trd.fin.gov.on.ca.

Grid-Tied PV System

A grid-tied photovoltaic system takes energy produced in solar cells and converts
the energy into electricity that can be used either within the structure or can be fed into
the electricity grid. An agreement may be made with the local utility provider, say
London Hydro, to buy surplus electricity produced by the solar cells. In the London area
the cells would receive 5-6 hours per day of useful sunlight in summer and 1.5 hours per
day of useful sunlight in winter. This would provide the user with approximately 8 000
kWh/year of electricity.

Benefits:

A building saves electricity costs from producing it’s own electricity


(approximately $100/year for a 10 KW system). Also, if the utility company would allow,
the system can be grid connected so that the electricity company buys surplus electricity
generated. A photovoltaic system would also reduce emissions of green house gases. In
the winter the cooling system would rarely need to be turned on because snow will act as
a coolant. Snow melts off the panels quickly because the panels reach high temperatures
when in use.

Drawbacks:

A photovoltaic system can be rather costly to install initially. Also a cooling


system would need to be installed so that the panels, which are very hot when in use, do
not over heat.

Cost Estimates:

Cost can vary depending on the size of the system, type of photovoltaic cells used,
and whether the system is grid connected or has a battery unit to store surplus energy for
later use.
A 10kW system will cost CAN $100 000 - $300 000. Panels from ARISE Technologies
can supply panels that have a 20 or 25 year warranty, depending on the type of cell. This

35
warranty guarantees that the cells will produce at least 80% of original efficiency during
the aforementioned 20/25-year period. The cells have an expected life of 50 years.

Current electricity rates in London are 4.7 cents/KWhr for < 750 KWhr per month, and
5.5 cents/KWhr after that. This rate has been frozen until 2006.

3.8 Wind Turbine

Intro: Wind turbines are powered by the wind to produce energy. They do not use up
natural resources and do not produce greenhouse gases. They are an efficient, clean way
to produce energy.
Benefits: Wind turbines are relatively low-cost when compared to other green
technologies (i.e. PV cells). A 50-kW turbine would not only provide power to the
proposed Western Engineering Green Building, but could also send surplus electricity
into the Thompson and Spencer buildings as well.
Drawbacks: Wind turbines are rather site-specific; an extensive site study would need to
be performed to determine if winds are constant and strong enough to make a wind
turbine worthwhile. A wind turbine will increase the insurance costs of the building.
Expenses: A new, 50kW wind turbine would cost C$150-161 000, including installation.
A cement contractor would need to be hired to pour a platform to mount the turbine on.
Conclusions: A site study should be performed to see if a site has enough wind to make a
turbine a feasible option. If there is enough wind at the site then a wind turbine is an
inexpensive way to produce energy for the building.

3.9 Green Roof

Introduction: An effective green roof system is lightweight, low cost and low
maintenance. A green roof has low maintenance plants and can be accessible as a rooftop
garden, or can be left inaccessible to the building’s occupants.
Benefits: The green roof could serve as a research centre for botany students; the plants
and soil could be used in research. A green roof would save energy because they increase
the insulation of the roof. Green roofs tend to last longer than standard roofing; the
components can last up to twice as long as conventional roofing. A green roof also
improves air quality around the building, and acts as a habitat for local birds. Also, green
roofs slow storm water run off, taking load off municipal storm sewers during rainy
seasons. Green roofs slow the urban heat island effect.

Drawbacks: green roofs have certain maintenance requirements that must be met to
insure a successful green roof. Knowledgeable maintenance staff would need to be hired
to keep it in good condition. Green roofing has a higher initial material cost than the cost
of a standard roof. A small irrigation system would also need to be installed to ensure that
the plants get enough water to stay alive. Also, if the green roof is made accessible to the
occupants of the building certain safety precautions need to be taken, for example, the
provision of guard rails.

36
Expenses: Cost to install a green roof is CAN$80-100/m2.

Resources:
Green Roofs for Healthy Cities:
http://peck.ca/grhcc/
Greenbacks from Green Roofs, Status Report:
http://www.greenroofs.ca/grhcc/Greenbacks.pdf
Soprema:
http://www.soprema.ca/

3.10 - Water Use Reduction

Waterless urinals are urinals designed with a non-stick coating that eliminates the
need to flush after use. The urinal has a trap in the base that contains a light liquid. The
liquid creates a seal between the pipeline and the facility. The seal is designed to prevent
bacterial growth and odours. These urinals require the same daily maintenance as flush
urinals.

Benefits: These urinals use no water and therefore result in a 100% savings in water.
Within a few years, these fixtures pay back their initial cost in water savings. There are
no moving parts in these fixtures, therefore, they breakdown much less often. Also, since
these urinals do not need to be flushed, there are no handles that can potentially transmit
bacteria between users.

Drawbacks: These urinals are slightly more expensive than classic models and so will
have a higher initial cost than lavatories fitted with flush urinals. After approximately
every 7,000 uses, the liquid trap must be changed.
Expenses: The cost of each urinal is approximately $250-350 per unit. Rental of a urinal
costs approximately $6.50-11.50 per unit per month, based on a five year contract. The
installation is optional. Cartridge replacements cost approximately $30-40 each
depending on how many are bought at a time. The urinals rarely breakdown, so repair
costs are negligible.

Resources:
No-FlushTM Urinals:
www.waterless.com
Falcon Waterfree Technologies:
www.falconwaterfree.com
FacilitiesNet:
www.facilitiesnet.com/ms/feb04

Dual-Flush Toilets are Australian innovated fixtures that have two buttons, that
release different amounts of water for either liquid or solid waste.
Benefits:

37
These toilets use 6L of water for solid waste and only 3L for liquid. This results in an
average flush volume of approximately 3.8L/flush. This can be compared to older models
that can use up to 13L/flush or newer low-flow models that use on average 6L/flush,
resulting in up to a 67% savings in water. These fixtures use substantially less water and
so, within a few years of installation, they would pay back their cost in water savings.

Drawbacks:
These fixtures cost more than traditional models depending on the quality and make of
the toilet.

Expenses:
Cost of fixtures: Caroma dual-flush toilets by model
Caravelle 270 US $484.36
Caravelle 305 US $445.22
Tasman 270 US $280.16
Fixtures will require the same daily maintenance as standard facilities.
Resources:
Caroma Industries Ltd.:
http://www.caroma.com.au/
Research Highlights, Dual-Flush Toilet Testing:
http://www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/publications/en/rh-pr/tech/02-124-e.pdf
Environmental Home Centre:
http://www.environmentalhomecentre.com/

Aerated Faucets
Aerated faucets use a simple screen at the faucet to add air to the water stream increasing
pressure and lessening water consumption.
Benefits: Aerated faucet heads can potentially slow water from up to fifteen gallons per
minute down to less than three gallons per minute.
Expenses: Faucet aerators on average cost less than $5 each.

There are many different ways to reduce water consumption. The fixtures
investigated above are a few of the many possible ways to decrease the amount of fresh
water the proposed Green Building will require. Waterless urinals, dual/low-flush toilets
and aerated faucets are well known ways to reduce water use.

3.11 Rainwater Collection

A rainwater collection system is a simple way for the operation of a building to


conserve water use. The rainwater would be collected as it runs off the building and
would be stored in cisterns until it is needed. The water can be used to water the rooftop
garden, or treated for potable uses within the building.
Benefits: A rainwater collection system if installed, would reduce water use and utility
bills. There are also many environmental benefits such as less stress or load on municipal
storm sewers and less demand on freshwater resources.

38
Drawbacks: The system would need to be highly insulated if it is to be kept in working
order during the winter months; conversely, the system could be shut down during the
winter months, this seems somewhat impractical because winter is the time of year when
the building would be getting the most use.
Expenses: The rainwater collection system would have to be designed and built to suit
needs. The cost of cistern construction ranges by size and material type and whether or
not a purification system is installed to make the water potable. For example a 20 000
gallon cistern, with a pump and purification system can cost up to $15 000 (USD). The
cistern alone can cost as little as $6 000 (USD).

Resources:
RainwaterHarvesting.Org:
http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/
Canadian Architect Web Page
International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association Web Page

4. PROPOSED WESTERN ENGINEERING GREEN BUILDING

4.1 Introduction

As previously mentioned, the existing Bio-Engineering Building is very old and


inefficient. It has a leaky roof and poor climate control as well as being old and
unattractive. It is expensive to operate and maintain since the building continues to be in
constant repair. The goal of the proposed Western Engineering Green Building project is
to demolish the existing Bio-Engineering building and replace it with a modern, state-of-
the-art, environmentally friendly and energy efficient building. The building will be used
as a Western Engineering Students Centre with new facilities to meet the needs of current
and future students.
The building will feature state-of-the-art undergraduate student laboratories,
classrooms, and design studios for support of teaching and learning needs in all
disciplines of Engineering at Western. A dedicated Engineering Library and Reading
Room – complete with wireless Internet connectivity – will provide students with an
ideal place to study and conduct library-based engineering research. A complete
Cafeteria Facility, managed and run in part by the students, will offer a wide selection of
nutritious foods within a conservation-minded, paperless and waste-free environment.
The close proximity of the classrooms, laboratories, library, reading room and cafeteria,
combine with garden atrium area, will provide students with an environment that
supports the pursuit of individual academic excellence and effective team building-
making for a superior educational experience at Western Engineering.

4.2 The Proposed Biosphere

The centrepiece of the Green Building will be a beautiful glass-domed “green”


garden atrium featuring growing plants, running water and tranquil ponds. This common
area will not only provide a stimulating natural environment conducive to student

39
socialization and study, but will also provide a unique educational opportunity. Within
this mini-biosphere, students will study and learn how the engineering design of the
building itself impacts the fragile natural environment. As students conduct water
management, biochemical, thermal energy, and other studies, they will learn what it
means to create efficient and ecologically sustainable integrated engineering designs.

4.3 Student Designed and Engineered

The fourth year Engineering design projects will outline the technical
requirements of the proposed Green Building. The students will have faculty advisors and
professional advisors from the architectural and engineering fields associated with
environmentally friendly building design. The students will be required to complete
extensive research, prepare a final proposal, and present this proposal to a panel of judges
in order to receive their grades for the course and for their design to be considered in the
final design of the Green Building. There is also the option of awarding prize money to
the group members who produce the top designs.

In order to allow engineering students to produce design proposals for the new
building, a comprehensive fourth year project outline would be necessary. The outline
could include: green technology history, research references, and technical requirements
for this specific project. The Western Engineering Faculty would use this project outline
to present an alternative option for the fourth year design projects, to the engineering
students from each discipline. This would provide Western with its student designed
green building proposals.

The Building will represent the only facility of its kind on a university campus in
Canada designed by students for students. The conceptual design phase of the three-year
project will begin in September 2004, with the initial design work to be performed by
students as part of their 4th Year Design Project course. In 2005, supervised students will
conduct detailed integrated design work in collaboration with industry, including
architects and engineering consulting firms, to tackle the structural, mechanical and
electrical requirements. The Centre is tentatively scheduled for completion in late 2006
and will be located adjacent to Western’s main Spencer Engineering Building and the
new Thompson Engineering Building. The centre will be connected to the Thompson
Engineering Building via a 2nd floor passageway, greatly enhancing ease of movement
between key areas of Western Engineering.

The Western Green Building conceptual design will have many new
environmentally friendly features that the old Western buildings do not have. The design
may have more vegetation, natural lighting, open water, and wood incorporated into an
open concept design, as well as energy saving features and renewable energy producers.
However the textures and features on the outer walls of a future Green Building should
coincide with the original styles present on both the Spencer Engineering Building and
the Thompson Engineering Building to fit in with the classic stone and ivy “feel” of
Western’s campus.

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4.4 Advantages of a Western Engineering Green Building

● The project will allow students from each engineering discipline to work together
in an integrated effort on a real project, directly on campus.
● The final product will be a building that is more energy efficient and less harmful
to the environment.
● Western’s Green Building could be used as a student activity centre, thus
improving the student’s quality of life.
● This building could serve as a test site for energy efficient technologies that could
be employed in other parts of the university in future construction or retrofits.
● Simply having a building as distinctive as this would promote the quality of
Western’s engineering program, and increase environmental awareness.
● The Green Building project could benefit Western by attracting extra donations,
sponsors, students, and faculty.

This project is an opportunity to employ the resources of the City of London and
area as well as those of the University. Efforts should be made to maximize the use of
local businesses and local materials. This will promote growth in the emerging green
technology sector, which will be beneficial to the local community.

Constructing a green building would enhance Western’s reputation for leading-


edge innovation. Many Canadian universities already have green buildings or residences
well into the design process. Sustainability on campuses is fast becoming a significant
issue.

There are presently students creating a Campus Sustainability Assessment


Framework for Canadian schools. This is a tool, which analyzes the sustainability of a
university, and its buildings, based on hundreds of factors, from the source of energy that
is used in the physical plant to the packaging of cafeteria food. In fact this assessment
tool could conceivably be integrated into the MacLean’s ranking of universities. A
Western engineering green building could be a catalyst to prompt other forms of
environmentally friendly activities on campus.

Technology used in this building can be employed with the goal that some of it
could eventually ‘filter down’ to the other areas of construction. For example, if the
technology works very well, it will likely be considered in the construction of future
campus buildings, and future buildings in the community at large.

This Green Building Project requires an immense amount of research and


planning in order to fully maximize the efficiency and economic gains of such a complex
system. There are a large number of new and innovative technologies, environmental
materials, and aesthetic design considerations and equipment supplies that must be
reviewed. This will result in a sizeable compilation of research data that have to be
organized and analyzed so that the most technically feasible and cost-effective design
recommendation can be made. One of the advantages of this project is that it will
educate all Western engineering disciplines about green buildings, through fourth year

41
design projects similar to the existing City of London design projects in the Department
of Civil and Environmental Engineering.

4.5 Envisioned Features of The Proposed Green Building:

Technical Requirements

• Three Floors
• 1048 m2 Per Floor (11275 ft2 Per floor)
• The Green building will be joined to the existing Spencer Engineering Building.
• The building is to be connected to the Thompson Engineering Building, which is to the
south. The road running between the Thompson Building and the future Green Building
will remain.
• Building should be designed to facilitate future construction at its northern face.
• Design should incorporate the “chimney effect”, heat sink, and thermo siphoning.

Visible Features

• Water cistern
• Green Roof/Roof top garden
• Biosphere or Green house, which is used as a place to eat work and interact
• Connection between the new Thompson Engineering Building and the UWO Green
Building. (Possibly a second floor walk way to allow cars to drive in between the two
buildings and park at the Boundary Wind Tunnel)
• Natural lighting
• Windmill
• Photovoltaic cells shading windows (with or without batteries)
• Vegetation and Bioswales surrounding building. (To integrate nature with the
structure itself and to purify any runoff)
• Open concept design to help with natural lighting, air circulation, aesthetics, and future
building use changes.
• Covered bike racks and seating.

Non-Visible Features

Washrooms on every floor


Elevator at the back of the atrium
Stairs at the front or the atrium
No Basement

First Floor – 11275 ft2, materials lab, machine shop, design studios, and a cafeteria that
opens to the atrium (greenhouse/biosphere), workshop or design shop for
Sunstang/Formua SAE.

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Second Floor – 11275 ft2, Concentric seating lecture theatres with and advanced laptop
computer access for taking lecture notes; faculty, and administration offices.

Third Floor – 11275ft2, State-of-the art library, lounge with wireless Internet access,
offices for library staff, reading rooms with low-flux lighting, academic offices, and
students activity offices (for example, Student clubs, Sunstang and Formula SAE)

Other features

• Computerized access and operation (for example, elevators, etc.)


• Geothermal energy regulating temperatures
• Wastewater and grey water treatment
• Smart lighting (with automated dimming and motion censors)
• Smart electronics (computers, fax machines, photocopiers, etc. that go into power
saving mode when not in use)
• High Efficiency HVAC, highly insulated. The building should perform as a “cold
climate” insulated building in the winter and like a naturally ventilated “tropical”
building in the summer.
• Waterless, low flow, composting, or biomass treating system for toilets and sinks
• Recycled Materials used in construction
• Incorporate wood into the structure of the building

The design of the new building should focus on the following key green principles:

Use of integrated design process, eco-friendliness, minimal ecological footprint, energy


efficiency, use of renewable energy sources, rain and snow harvesting, zero stormwater
release and hence minimum impact on municipal stormwater sewer system, efficient
indoor air quality control, conservation, waste recycling and reuse, and ‘green’ material-
based construction

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4.6 Proposed Location of Green Building

4.7 Summary of Building Use

The Green Building will be a Students’ Activities Centre. It will have three stories
covering approximately 3144m2 (33825ft2). The main floor will house laboratories for
undergraduate courses, such as materials, engineering statistics, introduction to
engineering design and innovation, and design studios for first and upper year courses in
all branches of engineering, It will also house a light-duty students’ machine shop for
individual/group projects, and other engineering projects such as Sunstang and Formulae
SAE. The machine shop will be operated by trained, certified students working part-time.

Thus the building will contain:

• Offices
• Laboratories
• Cafeteria
• Student study area
• Atrium/biosphere (interactive green house)
• Lecture theatres (possibly in a concentric style)

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• Meeting rooms
• Computer labs
• Computerized access (for example, wheelchairs and elevator) with a public
building efficiency viewing station)
• Geothermal energy regulating temperatures
• Wastewater and grey water treatment
• Smart lighting (with automated dimming and motion censors)
• Smart electronics (computers, fax machines, photocopiers, etc. that go into power
saving mode when not in use)
• High Efficiency HVAC, highly insulated. The building should perform as a “cold
climate” insulated building in the winter and like a naturally ventilated “tropical”
building in the summer.
• Waterless, low flow, composting, or biomass treating system for toilets and sinks
• Recycled Materials used in construction
• Incorporate wood into the structure of the building

45
A conceptual rending of the proposed Green Building is as shown in the two figures
presented below:

Proposed Green Building showing green roof, biosphere (green house) and a hypothetical
windmill. The Spencer Engineering Building is in the background.

46
Proposed Green Building showing the second-floor passageway to the Thompson
Engineering (left)

4.4 Possible Students’ Design and Research Topics

The following is a list of topics and questions that the fourth-year students design groups
may want to consider in their projects:
● Are there “environmentally friendly” materials that are economical to use
in construction and maintenance of the building?
● Can we reuse or recycle waste from the old building?
● Can we find sponsors to supplement the cost of the building?
● Are there any tax incentives or Government subsidies that can be
acquired?
● Is Green Technology practical here in London, in terms of: efficiency,
cost, maintenance, climate, and availability of manufacturers.
● An analysis of the building site may be performed.
● Are there any situations where Green Technology has failed and why?
● What are the Safety codes and safety issues associated with this new
technology?
● Analyze the aesthetic and psychological factors involved with the design
(Ex. What is the Effect of having live plants and lots of windows)
● Can UWO’s Green Technology Building be certified by a green building
rating system?
● What is the effect on the environment?

47
Possible Tasks

● Produce a detailed comparison of individual energy savings between a


standard building and a green technology building.
● Compare intangible benefits, such as any promotion, recognition, or
environmental benefits that may be gained from this project.
● Prepare a final Western green building design and present it.
● Calculate and present a comparison between the cost of
the green building design over its lifetime and a standard building.
● Develop a realistic timeline for the Western green building project.

Universities are a concentrated area of experts in various fields. There is a trend


recently towards various people with different skills collaborating on large projects. In a
project of this magnitude and complexity, it would be prudent to use the skills of many
different people toward a common goal. The emphasis should be on cooperation, good
communication and integration of the respective disciplines.

One of the advantages of having an ongoing project of this type is the potential
for engineering students to play a role. For example, a team of electrical engineers could
design a system that adjusts the artificial light in a room in accordance with the amount of
natural light that is present. Students would be pleased to see their efforts employed
usefully as well as leaving their mark on their school. The building does not have to be
completed all at one time. The funding for some features may not be available right from
the beginning of the program. Therefore this building could be an ongoing platform for
student projects over the next several years.

This project could also be a basis for new direction and new courses, which could
supplement the environmental engineering program, taking it beyond wastewater,
emissions and solid waste management. With new environmental requirements arising,
the need for environmental engineers versed in the latest technology is only going to
increase. The project impacts engineering students by providing interested
environmentally conscious students the chance to work on a real project in the areas of
design, construction, and research.

5. PLAN FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GREEN BUILDING PROJECT

5.1 Waste Recycling

Every time a new green building is built the designers find new ways to recycle
the demolition waste. Recycling material can save money, help the environment, and
increase the chance of receiving a positive green building rating. It would be the fourth
year students’ design responsibility to determine what could be recycled from the old
Bio-Engineering Building and to include their choices in their proposals.

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5.2 Recycled Materials

As well as recycling demolition waste, green building designers often tend to use
recycled materials in the new construction or renovation of a green building. The list of
recycled materials is always growing and the products them selves are becoming less
expensive. The choice of what materials to use often depends on availability as much as
anything else. Because of the energy used, shipping recycled materials from far away
can defeat the purpose or trying to be environmentally friendly.

Resource on Materials:
https://www.usgbc.org/Docs/LEEDdocs/LEEDfaq-materials2.pdf

Environmental and health claims can be certified or reviewed by


organizations such as Scientific Certification Systems (www.scs1.com), Forest
Stewardship Council (www.fscus.org), Green Seal (www.greanseal.org), Green Guard
(www.greenguard.org), Carpet & Rug Institute (www.carpet-rug.org), Building Green
Inc. (www.buildinggreen.com), Energy Star Roof program (www.energystar.gov) and
others.

5.3 Preliminary Budget Estimates

The estimated budget for the proposed Western Engineering Green Building is
approximately $7 million. This estimate includes the demolition costs for the existing
building and costs of ‘green technologies’.

Estimating for a 3-storey building with 11 650 ft2 per floor.

Demolition Cost: 11650ft2/floor @$ 80/ft2 = $ 932 000


Scrap metal from the demolition can be recycled and sold at $275/tonne. China is a hot
market for scrap metal.

Estimated cost of construction (Hard Cost): $240/ft2


Estimated cost of demolition, site analysis, design, permit: $80/ft2
Estimated furnishing cost: $700 000/11000ft2
Total Building Cost= ($320/ft2)*(11000ft2) + $700 000 = $4,220 000

*Note: This does not include the cost of green technologies

Estimated furnishing cost: $700 000/11650ft2

Engineering students designs at no cost

49
Professional engineering costs
Architectural costs

Construction/demolition cost
Furnishing
Maintenance costs

Some of the environmentally friendly technologies are more expensive to install on a


building than it would be to exclude them from the building design. However in most
cases, through energy savings and tax exemptions, they pay for themselves throughout
the lifetime of the building. For example, solar panels add to the initial cost of the
building by approximately $100 000 for a 10-kW system, but at current Ontario
electricity prices, the solar panel array has would have an payback period of 50 years.
(Research communication with personnel at ARISE Technologies Corporation,
Kitchener, Ontario.) It is also worth noting that although it may be more work to design
a building that is energy efficient and uses recycled materials, through making these
changes there are great benefits to the environment and a decreased demand on utilities.
Western stands to benefit from this type of research when it considers future building
designs.

The goal of the project is to design a building that is energy efficient, environmentally
friendly, and cost-effective. Fourth year engineering students will compete to submit
designs for the proposed Western Engineering Green Building. If a student design is
chosen because it successfully meets the criteria mentioned above, then the costs
associated with energy consumption of the building will be lower than a comparable
building on campus.

Another large saving for Western comes from the fourth year engineering design
project, which has engineering students producing the preliminary designs at no cost to
the Faculty of Engineering. It may also be possible to get environmental design
companies from the community to volunteer some professional time in advising the
students design groups. Enermodal, a Green Building design firm, and Arise
Technologies, a solar panel system supplier, have already discussed the possibility of
volunteering personnel time to help Western in its efforts to design an environmentally
friendly building.

6. FUNDING

Given the potential visibility and positive environmental effects of a Green


Building project, there should not be great difficulty in finding alumni and philanthropists
that may be interested in making donations to help fund the project. A fundraising
incentive would have to be undertaken by the University to secure funding for the
project. A preliminary budget of $7 million in 2004 is proposed.

50
The savings that a green building can offer will be different for each design.
There are many types of available software or design firms that can analyze a design to
estimate savings. The forth year engineering student will have to be creative and
innovative to produce the best alternative.

7. CONCLUSIONS

In Canada, companies, governments, and citizens in general, are becoming more


aware of the potential dangers facing humans if resources are consumed and wasted at the
rates they are today. As a result it is likely that there will be a move towards designing
more efficient buildings and communities. The University of Western Ontario will
benefit greatly from any research that is done now in the areas of constructing energy
efficient buildings and adopting environmentally friendly construction practices.
Through beginning research now UWO can sooner reduce its energy expenses, as well as
any negative impact it may impose on the environment.

One area that Western can focus its effort on and improve is to move in a more
environmentally friendly direction by decreasing the Universities dependence on energy
and resources and by decreasing the amount of waste produced. The engineering faculty
would benefit in many ways if given the opportunity to research, design and eventually
construct a new building that not only adds to the quality of life of the students but also
employs many of the latest Green Building technologies.

A Western green building will serve as an asset to UWO in other ways, it can be
used to promote Western and to draw out new sponsors and donations. A green building
would be a great way to boost Western’s environmental engineering program’s profile.
Any design would draw on the talents and expertise of all disciplines of engineering and
would be a great learning experience for the students.

Currently the engineering cafeteria, computer labs, and study room are completely
packed at peak times of the day, forcing students to look elsewhere for areas to do their
work. A Western green building would provide space to meet the demand on classroom
and study areas caused by the increasing numbers of students coming to UWO every year

8. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES

The Chicago Centre for Green Technology


(http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html)

Chicago Center for Green Technology home page,


http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html

51
Cover Logo - www.ggrhba.com/ about_issues_green.htm

Figure – 1
UWO Engineering Home Page, http://www.engga.uwo.ca/

Figure 3 – 8
Chicago Center for Green Technology home page,
http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html

Stats Canada
http://www.statcan.ca

Chicago Center for Green Technology


http://www.ci.chi.il.us/Environment/GreenTech/sub/about.html

LEED Web Page


http://www.usgbc.org/leed/leed_main.asp

International
http://www.oja-services.nl/iea-pvps/cases/ita_01.htm

Canadian
http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/highperformance/case_studies/overview.cfm?Proje
ctID=44

Examples of Green Buildings


Very good green resources from USGBC
http://www.usgbc.org/Resources/links.asp

http://www.cstctd.org/CSTwhatsnew.htm

http://www.energyefficiency.org/eecentre/eecentre.nsf/internetE/B1D61EAA4874658385
2569B800564275?opendocument

http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/

http://www.advancedbuildings.org/index.htm

http://www.city.london.on.ca/Planning/Building/buildingcode.htm

http://www.sustainable.doe.gov/buildings/gbprogrm.shtml

http://www.greenbuilder.com/

52
http://www2.aud.ucla.edu/energy-design-tools/

http://www.city.london.on.ca/

http://www.ledc.com/businessdirectories/

http://www.ec.gc.ca/envhome.html

http://www.habitat.org/env/

http://www.arisetech.com/

LEED Green Building Rating System (Version 2.1)

Solar Panel Resources

D.Y. Goswami, S. Vijayaraghavan, S. Lu and G. Tamm


New and emerging developments in solar energy
Solar Energy, 76 (2004) 33-43

http://www.usgbc.org/Resources/links.asp

Advanced Buildings Technologies and Practises:


http://www.advancedbuildings.org/
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers
http://www.ashrae.org/
Arise Technologies Corporation
http://www.arisetech.com/
Canada Green Building Council
http://www.cagbc.ca/
Canadian Architect
http://www.cdnarchitect.com/
Canadian Wind Energy Association
http://www.canwea.ca/
Danish Wind Industry Association
http://www.windpower.org/
Healthy Buildings International
http://www.healthybuildings.com/
International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association
http://www.ircsa.org/
Lower Manhattan Development Corporation
http://www.renewnyc.com/

53
Pass & Seymour, Wiring Devices and Accessories
http://www.passandseymour.com/

http://www.nrel.gov./

http://www.cansia.ca/solarheat.html

http://www.advancedbuildings.org/main_t_plumbing_solar_dhw.htm
http://www.trd.fin.gon.ca.on.ca/userfiles/page attachments/Rsie f0298.pdf?N ID+3

9. LISTING OF SOFTWARE FOR ANALYZING GREEN BUILDINGS

Benefits: Advanced green buildings technologies reduce energy use; improve indoor and
outdoor environmental quality; lower our fuel bills; improve living and work
environments; and improve economic competitiveness by reducing energy imports.

Detailed Performance: Once preliminary viability for green buildings has been
established, it will eventually be necessary to evaluate system performance, to generate
more precise engineering data and economic analysis. This can be accomplished based on
hourly simulation software or by hand correlation methods based on the results of hourly
simulations. Following you will find a list of possible software to be use accordingly
with your needs. There is much more software which can be find in the web. Some of
this programs can be downloaded for free.

Atrium Performance: from the (IRC –Canada), Atrium buildings combine attractive
aesthetics and delighting features and are proliferating in new and renovated buildings in
Canada. Being often complex in their design, atriums have been reported to have high
overall energy consumption. Through field-monitoring and computer simulations, IRC
investigates ways to reduce these energy costs, while maximizing the atrium delighting,
thermal, acoustical and smoke performance.

Daylight-linked Lighting Control Systems: from the (IRC –Canada), IRC investigates
the effect of manual and automatic venetian blinds on the performance of two types of
automatic lighting control systems: on/off and continuous dimming. Measured data will
provide information on the field performance of existing daylighting technologies and the
basis for guidelines for proper installation and calibration in Canadian buildings.

Daysim (Dynamic Daylight Simulations): from the (IRC –Canada), Description and
source code for various validated and easy-to-use daylight simulation tools to predict the
annual daylight availability and artificial lighting demand in a building. The tools are
based on the RADIANCE raytracing engine, the concept of daylight coefficients and the
Perez sky model.

54
Adeline: lighting software in simulating the daylight distribution and the electrical
lighting consumption of an existing atrium building.

Cost-effective Open-Plan Environments (COPE): from the (IRC –Canada), Lighting is


just one of the indoor environment aspects addressed in this multidisciplinary project.
COPE will look at the effects of open-plan office design (e.g. workstation size, partition
height) on the indoor environment and occupant satisfaction. One outcome will be a
software tool to enable designers to perform cost-benefit analyses on different design
options.

SkyVision: SkyVision is a new WINDOWS software tool from the IRC –Canada, to
calculate the optical and daylighting performance of various shapes and types of
conventional and tubular skylights. Currently available for beta testing, the software is a
useful tool for engineers, architects or building designers.

BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability):


Powerful technique for selecting cost-effective, environmentally preferable building
products. Tool from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), for
builders, designers, engineers and architects. Strengths: Offers a unique blend of
environmental science, decision science, and economics. It uses life-cycle concepts, is
designed to be practical, flexible, and transparent. Weaknesses: Includes environmental
and economic performance data for only 200 building products covering 23 building
elements.

HOT2000: Is an energy analysis and design software. Up-to-date heat loss or gain and
system performance models provide an accurate way of evaluating building designs. This
evaluation takes into account the thermal effectiveness of the building and its
components, the passive solar heating owing to the location of the building and the
operation and performance of the building's ventilation, heating and cooling systems.
Helps to build comfort, sustained energy performance and lower operating costs into
new buildings and major renovation construction projects.

Energy-10: a user-friendly computer software program from (NREL)/USA. designed to


make it easier for architects, engineers and builders to integrate solar technologies and
energy efficiency features into the design of commercial and institutional buildings

SERIRES: a simulation tool from (NREL)/USA, to assist in the design of passive solar
residential buildings.

STEM: a short term monitoring method from (NREL)/USA, for verifying building
performance in the field.

BESTEST: a building energy software test method from (NREL)/USA, that is being
adopted as the industry standard.

55
Swift: is a design tool from canREN (Canada), that uses an hour-by-hour energy balance
to calculate building ventilation loads and predict the thermal performance of one or
more solar wall system planned for the building. It may also be used to estimate the cost
of the system, the fuel cost savings available from its operation and the economics of
investing in it.

Federal Renewable Energy Screening Assistant (FRESA): Developed by NREL-USA,


this Windows-based software tool screens federal renewable energy projects for
economic feasibility. It is able to evaluate many renewable technologies including solar
hot water, photovoltaics, and wind.

TRNSYS: software, available from the University of Wisconsin. Main applications


include: solar systems (solar thermal and photovoltaic systems), low energy buildings
and HVAC systems, renewable energy systems, cogeneration, fuel cells TRNSYS has
become reference software for researchers and engineers around the world.

WATSUN: software, available from the University of Waterloo -Canada. Used to


simulate behaviour of solar heating systems.

WATSUN-PV: software, available from the University of Waterloo - Canada. Used to


simulate behaviour of solar photovoltaic.

FCHART: correlation method, available from the University of Wisconsin - USA.


System Types: Water storage heating, pebble bed storage heating, building storage
heating, domestic Water Heating, passive direct-gain, passive collector-storage wall.
Features: Life-cycle economics with cash flow, weather data for over 300 locations,
weather data can be added, monthly parameter variation, 2-D incidence angle modifiers,
english and SI units.

http://www.nrel.gov/documents/building_energy.html

http://www.canren.gc.ca/prod_serv/index.asp?CaId=174&PgId=989

http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/oae/bees.html
http://www.buildingsgroup.nrcan.gc.ca/software/hot2000_e.html

http://www.architectureweek.com/cgi-bin/wlk?http://www.daysim.com

10. CONTACTS

List of Western Contacts

Sue Mark, Mechanical engineer at UWO specializes in environmental technologies.

56
Dave Riddell, – Plans for UWO Buildings

Orlando Zamprogna, Physical Plant – Special Projects:

Joe Dolezel, Architect

John Hampson, CAD Operator

UWO Sunstang Office


Room 1067 Engineering building
661-2111 (Ex. 88312)

Flemming Galberg, Director, Facilities Engineering Physical Plant& Capital Building


1-519-661-2111 (Ex. 88880)
Room 102, UWO Services building
Email Ggalberg@uwo.ca

Professor Anand Prakash


Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

Professor Moncef Nehdi


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

List of External Contacts

Indoor Environment Program


Institute for Research in Construction
National Research Council of Canada
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6
Tel.: (613) 993-9580
Fax.: (613) 954-3733
E-mail: IE.EI@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

BEE SOFTWARE. Contact:


Barbara C. Lippiatt
National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Office of Applied Economics, Building and Fire
100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8603
Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8603
Telephone: (301) 975-6133
fax: (301) 975-5337
e-mail: BLippiatt@nist.gov

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Stone Kohn McQuire Vogt Architecture
400 King Street West
Toronto, Ontario
416-340-2667
www.mec.ca
2 Story Green Building
Contact: Dave Robinson

KEEN Engineering Co Ltd.


Gerry A, Faubert, CET (Principal)
Toronto Ont.
Phone: (416)-366-0220

ARISE Technologies
Mr. Dave Elzinga
http://www.arisetech.com/

Enermodal Engineering Limited


650 Riverbend Drive, Kitchener, Ontario Canada
N2K 3S2
Phone (519) 743-8777 Ext. 27
Fax (519) 743-8778
Contact: Steve Carpenter, M.A.Sc., P.Eng. President
Email: scarpenter@enermodal.com
Web Page: http://www.enermodal.com/

Joanne McCran, B.Tech., M.Sc.


Email: JMcCran@halsall.com
Halsall Associates Limited
2300 Young Street
Toronto, ON
M4P 1E4
Phone: 1 – 416-487-5257 ext. 206
Fax: 416-487-9766
Toll free 1-888-HALSALL
www.Halsall.com

Jeff Westeindy – Quantum


http://www.quantumgroup.ca/

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Smart Lighting
Occupancy Sensor Manufacturer:
Pass & Seymour, Wiring Devices and Accessories
448 North Rivermede Rd.
Concord, ON, L4K 3M9
Tel: 905-738-9195
Fax: 905-738-9721

Photo Sensor Manufacturer:


Douglas Lighting Controls
4455 Juneau St.
Burnaby, BC, V5C 4C4
Tel: 514-342-6581
Fax: 514-342-0133
E-mail: Lighting@DouglasEast.com

Wind Turbines:
Canadian Wind Energy Association
Suite #750, 130 Slater St.
Ottawa, ON, K1P 6E2
Tel: 1-800-9-CANWEA (1-800-922-6932)
E-mail: info@CanWEA.ca

Green Roof Manufacturer:


Soprema Inc. (Head Office)
1675 Haggerty St.
Drummondville, QU, J2C 5P7
Tel: 1-800-567-1492
Local Sales Office
Soprema Inc.
151 York St.
London, ON, N6A 1A8
Tel: 519-672-5561

Waterless Urinal Distributors:


Falcon, East Canada Contact
JMG Waterfree, Inc.
Tom Cummins
P.O. Box #305
Biddeford, ME 04005, USA
Tel: 207-286-3733
Fax. 207-286-3666
E-mail: info@jmgwaterfree.com

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No-Flush, Canada Contact
Matrix Environmental Partners Inc.
331 Trowers Road, Suite #3
Woodbridge, ON, L4L 6A2
Tel: 1-800-668-4420
Fax: 905-850-9100
E-mail: Canada@waterless.com

Caroma Dual-Flush Toilets, Canadian Distributor:


Armco Agencies, Inc.
3240 Lenworth Drive
Mississauga, ON, L4X 2G1
Tel: 905-238-8448

Tax Incentives:
Income Tax Rulings and Interpretations Directorate
Revenue Canada
25 Nicholas St.
Ottawa, ON, K1A 0L5
Tel: 613-957-8953
Fax: 613-957-2088

Commercial Building Incentive Program


Office of Energy Efficiency
Natural Resources Canada
580 Booth St., 18th Floor
Ottawa, ON, K1A 0E4
Tel: 1-877-360-5500
Fax: 613-947-0373
E-mail: cbip.pebc@nrcan.gc.ca

Bill Ruth, B.Arch., M.R.A.I.C. at


Tillmann Ruth Mocellin Architectural firm

11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors and their supervisor would like to thank Dean Franco Berruti, Chantal Gloor
and Lonnie Wickman for supporting the initial phase of this exciting project. They would
like to acknowledge the tremendous support of the listed Western staff and faculty and
external contacts who shared their knowledge about existing buildings and future green
building technologies. Bill Ruth and Patrick Trottier of the architectural firm, Tillman,
Ruth and Mocellin (TRM) have been particularly helpful. Mischa Schlemmer, an

60
architectural student contributed a lot of possible ideas for the proposed building. TRM
developed the beautiful conceptual rendering of the proposed Green Building.

12. APPENDICES

ELECTRICITY
ONTARIO’S ELECTRICITY ONTARIO’S END-USE
GENERATION 2001 ELECTRICITY DEMAND 2001
By source (percentage of total) By source (percentage of total)

41.3 34.4
Nuclear Industrial
% %
25.3 33.2
Coal Commercial
% %
24.3 32.2
Hydro Residential
% %
Natural Transportation 0.2 %
7.6 %
Gas
Other 0.9 % Total end-use demand – 497 petajoules
Oil 0.6 %

Total input energy – 1,577 petajoules


Total end-use and losses – 553 petajoules

http://www.oeb.gov.on.ca/html/en/abouttheoeb/statsandmaps.htm

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http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/0/85256d7a00686a5a85256bfe0057a212?
OpenDocument

http://www.advancedbuildings.org/Daylighting Guide for Canadian Buildings Final6.pdf

62
http://www.advancedbuildings.org/_frames/fr_t_vent_displ_vent.htm

http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/nlpip/tutorials/photosensors/comp.asp

63
http://peck.ca/grhcc/

http://peck.ca/grhcc/

Daylighting Model

64
http://www.squ1.com/site.html

65