Engineeri ng Plasticity
Theory and Application to Metal
Forming Processes
R. A. C. Slater
Department of Mechanical Engineering
The City University, London
M
© R. A. C. Slater 1977
Preface viii
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Definition and Scope of the Subject 1
1.2 Nature of Engineering Plasticity 2
1.3 A Brief Historical Account 3
1.4 Classification of Metal Forming Processes 5
1.5 Forming Limits 7
2. Stress Analysis 11
2.1 Specification of Stress at a Point 11
2.2 Differential Equations of Equilibrium in the Neighbour
hood of a Point 16
2.3 ThreeDimensional Stress Analysis 20
3. Strain Analysis 37
3.1 Infinitesimal Deformation 37
3.2 Finite Deformation 51
5. StressStrain Relations 90
5.1 Elastic StressStrain Relations 91
5.2 Elastic Strain Energy Functions 93
5.3 Plastic StressStrain Relations 95
5.4 StressStrainRate Equations 100
5.5 Plastic Work and StrainHardening Hypotheses 100
5.6 Experimental Verification of the PrandtlReuss
Equations 103
5.7 Derivation of the Generalised Plastic StressStrain
Relations 105
5.8 The Principle of Maximum Work Dissipation 115
Appendices 410
1 The Rule of Sarrus for the expansion of thirdorder
determinants 410
2 The characteristics of partial differential equations 412
Subjectlndex 419
Preface
Except for castings, which are formed from the liquid state, all metal products
are subjected to at least one metal forming process during their manufacture.
In such processes the desired change in shape of the metal is effected without
metal removal. The deformation is permanent and involves predominantly
large plastic strains. The elastic strains are then of lesser significance.
With the current rapid technological progress, the theory of plasticity
has been brought forcibly into the forefront of engineering application
and design. The facts of economic life have made the efficient utilisation
of material, labour and time and a more efficient approach to design a
necessity even for the less sophisticated industrial applications. Today there
is, therefore, a greater need for all mechanical and manufacturing engineers
to be familiar with the fundamentals of metal forming analysis, not only to
be more numerate and hence reduce the extent of empirical approach
to problems, but also to close the gap which exists at the interface between
design and manufacture.
Although the theory of plasticity has advanced considerably in the last
few decades, rigorous solutions to all metal forming problems are still not
available. However, simplified versions of practical processes assuming
idealised materials and boundary conditions give valuable insight into the
effects of various parameters such as the extent of deformation, tool profile,
speed and lubrication on the force, energy and power requirements. The
resulting temperature changes, forming limits and the final properties of the
manufactured products can be assessed.
This particular text is based on lectures relating to the theory of plasticity
and its specific application to metal forming processes which have been
given during my university career at one time or another. They have been
addressed to advanced undergraduates commencing in the second year
of their studies and also to postgraduate students in mechanical engineering
and manufacturing engineering.
My principal aim in producing this text is, therefore, to bring within
the scope of advanced undergraduates and those studying for higher degrees
PREFACE ix
in mechanical engineering and manufacturing engineering, at universities
and polytechnics, a compilation of information and some analytical methods
in the subject of ENGINEERING PLASTICITY and its specific application
to metal forming processes. In addition, it is hoped that the account presented
of the principles of metal forming theory and application will be ofbenefit to
all practising engineers and metallurgists who are directly concerned with
improving design and efficiency in the manufacturing industry.
In the preparation of this book it was obviously impossible to include
all aspects of the metal forming processes. Rather than attempt to cover the
whole field in a cursory manner I have preferred to consider a wide range
of selected topics and present the treatment of these as complete and factual
as possible. All the theory of plasticity necessary for this purpose is included.
The textbook is not intended to be a mathematical treatise but, equally,
it contains little descriptive detail of the many complexities of modem metal
forming processes. For these reasons a mainly technological approach to
the subject is adopted and it is hoped that this is reflected in the choice
of title.
Metal forming, like all engineering activities, is essentially interdisciplinary.
It is therefore necessary, for example, for readers to be familiar with the
relevant metallurgical aspects. The various implications of physical metal
lurgy or materials science which affect the applications of plasticity should
be borne in mind. However, it has proved impossible to include such infor
mation in the present text but excellent textbooks are now available on this
subject.
It is often assumed that readers who have an interest in plasticity theory
and its various applications are familiar with the basic concepts of stress
and strain analyses. Nevertheless, it is my experience that this is not always
the case. Chapter 2 (Stress Analysis) and chapter 3 (Strain Analysis) are
consequently presented in some detail so as to avoid the need to refer to
other texts and also to refresh the memory of those readers who have,
indeed, previously studied these concepts.
Stress and strain as well as being vector quantities are also secondorder
tensors. Although there is no intention to be mainly concerned with tensors
and their properties as such, it is important that readers are at least familiar
with the subscript notation known as 'tensor' notation. This notation is
not only a convenient and shorthand way of stating mathematical expres
sions, but is also extremely useful in derivations and in the proof of some
theorems. Many research papers employ this type of notation. It is assumed
that the reader has acquired sufficient knowledge to interpret this notation
without much difficulty.
For the development of a plasticity theory, the stress states at which
plastic flow or yielding will occur, and the flow rules or relations between
stress and strain when plastic flow does occur, are necessary. Chapter 4
discusses yield criteria and their experimental verification but is restricted
X ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
London, 1977 R. A. c. s.
1
Introduction
stress. On the other hand, the physical explanation of the elastic and plastic
properties of solids, from a microscopic viewpoint, in relation to their
crystal structure is the subject of materials science. Nevertheless it is hoped
that the two approaches may eventually be merged into a unified theory of
plasticity.
Metal processing generally may be defined as that branch of engineering
which is concerned with the manufacture of components, assemblies,
machines and structures by the various processes of metal forming, machin
ing, joining such as welding and bonding, and also casting of metal from
the liquid state. The content of this textbook is mainly confmed to analyses
of those metal forming processes in which the shape of the workpiece is
altered to the required shape by plastic deformation without material removal.
The general term 'workpiece' denotes the part on which the metal forming
process is performed. Specific terms such as 'billet' in extruding, 'blank'
in deep drawing are also used when discussing the specific processes. The
role of the metal forming specialist is to provide the designer and the manu
facturing engineer with the information required to design and efficiently
operate metal forming equipment and control the products. The information
required includes the nature and extent of the deformation involved and
the forming parameters such as forming force, energy and power. It is thus
evident that for an understanding of the mechanics of metal forming proces
ses, where plastic deformation is the principal mechanism by means of
which the workpiece is transformed into the desired shape, a knowledge
of the theory of plasticity is required.
The theory of plasticity can conveniently be divided into two ranges
depending upon the extent of plastic deformation. In one there are the
metal forming processes such as forging, drawing, extrusion and rolling,
etc., involving large plastic strains and where the elastic strains can be
considered as negligible. In the other there is a considerable number of
problems at the interface between elastic and plastic behaviour involving
small plastic strains of the same order as the elastic strains. However, these
elastoplastic problems, which are of considerable importance to the structural
designer, are not the subject of the present treatise.
of plasticity. The von Mises yield criterion was interpreted later by Hencky6
as implying that yielding occurred when the elastic shear strain energy
attained a critical value. Stressstrain equations similar to those presented
by Levy were independently proposed by von Mises.
The plane plastic strain problem was shown by PrandtC in 1920 to be
hyperbolic and he determined the pressure required to indent a plane
surface by a smooth flat punch. Three years later, Hencky 8 produced the
general theory applicable to the special solutions by Prandtl and also defined
the geometrical properties of slip line fields for plane strain deformation.
Some time elapsed before Geiringer 9 obtained the velocity compatibility
equations for flow along slip lines. It is believed that the first application
of plasticity theory to technological processes was that by von Karman 10
who, in 1925, analysed the stress distribution during the rolling of metal
strip by an elementary method. Similar theories for wire drawing using
this socalled slab method were presented later by Sachs 11 and Siebel 12 .
It was not until 1926 that the Levyvon Mises stressstrain relations
were shown to be valid to a first approximation when Lode 13 carried out
experiments on various metal tubes subjected to combined tension and
internal pressure and measured the resulting deformation. However, his
results indicated certain discrepancies which were confirmed in 1931 by
the meticulous work of Taylor and Quinney 14• The theory of plasticity
was further generalised when Reuss 15 in 1930 introduced the elastic strain
component into the stressstrain relations and Schmidt 16 in 1932 and
Odquist 17 in 1933 indicated how the Levyvon Mises equations could
be modified to take into account the effect of strainhardening.
The 193945 War stimulated research, especially in the USA and the
United Kingdom. An excellent account of the advances made in the period
up to about 1949 is given in the classical textbook on the mathematical
theory of plasticity by HilF 8 • The last twenty years have seen the establish
ment and consolidation of a well defined knowledge in the plasticity of
metals with particular reference to both the design of structural elements
and the metal forming processes. Techniques for analysing and predicting
the forming parameters and deformation have been reasonably well defined
for a number of metal forming processes using the slip line field theory.
The theory is applicable to plane strain, plane stress and to axial symmetry.
It can be applied to isotropic materials, anisotropic materials and to materials
such as soil. However, it is the plane strain application which has been
most successfully exploited for metal forming processes. The number of
slip line field solutions has steadily increased during the last decade and
the problems solved are becoming more complex. The number of plane
stress and axisymmetric problems of practical importance that have been
solved is small.
A series of plane strain solutions presented in the early 1950s by A. P.
Green 19  2 \ for example, are notable achievements. Some other contri
butions to plane strain slip line field solutions are those by Alexander 22
INTRODUCTION 5
and Johnson 23 .An extensive bibliography of published work concerned
with plane strain slip line field theory is given in the monograph by Johnson,
Sowerby and Haddow 24• The introduction of the hodograph or velocity
diagram by Prager25 in 1953 introduced a simplification into slip line field
solutions and a further innovation by Prager was the use of the cycloid
in the stress plane.
In 1951, Drucker, Greenberg and Prager 26 stated three socalled limit
theorems from which upper and lower bound estimates, that is, overestimates
and underestimates, may be established for the forming parameters in metal
forming processes. It is, however, recognised that these theorems were
deducible from the work principles published in the textbook by Hill 27 ,
and it appears that the earliest reference to the theorems of limit analysis
was probably due to Gvozdev in 1936. A translation of the paper from the
Russian is given by Haythomthwaite 28 • Numerous examples of the use
of the upper bound and lower bound theorems in the field of metal forming
processes are presented in the textbook by Johnson and Mellor 29 • Upper
bound solutions for plane strain problems were obtained by Kudo 30 by
introducing the concept of the unit rectangular deforming region. Several
types of admissible velocity field in the deforming regions were considered
and it appears that the rigid triangle velocity field is the best in which the
deformation zones are bounded by plane surfaces. The technique was later
extended by Kudo 31 to axisymmetric problems of forging and extrusion.
An improvement of the Kudo upper bound solutions for axisymmetric
problems was achieved by KobayashP 2 , who assumed the surfaces of
discontinuity to be curved instead of plane for the admissible velocity fields
in the unit deforming regions.
to plastic deformation. Most of the complex stress states can then be approxi
mated by their principal stress components, that is, by the normal stresses
acting on planes on which shear stresses are absent.
Thomsen, Yang and KobayashP 3 have suggested, based on a scheme
originally proposed by Kienzle, that the kind of stress involved may be the
best choice, thus dividing the major industrial metal forming processes
into four main groups:
~">
~,
____/s
. ., I ~
I A ' , rPart removed
~ .............._ I/ cSF '
\ .
""i ' Section plane
I _ _,!.,r7r7'tl.
I
I
I
F.,
Figure 2.1. Internal forces in a continuous body
which is considered positive when tensile and hence negative when com
pressive in nature. The shear stress
lim [~F8 /~AJ
bAo
is designated r.
However, to completely specify the stress at a point it is necessary to
specify the component stresses at that point acting on three orthogonal
planes passing through the point. The stress acting on any arbitrary plane
through the point can then be determined in terms of the stress components
acting on the three specified orthogonal planes.
Figure 2.2. Normal and shear force components of the resultant force bF acting
on an elemental area bA at a point P
14 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
(a)
fry
X
z z
frz frz
(b) '~"zx (c l '~"zy
"Xz '~"yz
'~"xz "Yz
X 0 0 y
'~"zx '~"zy
frz frx frz
'~"xy
0 y
'~"yx
'~"yx
'~"xy
frx
X
Figure 2.3. Convention for stress components referred to a cartesian system
of axes
For this purpose, it is often found convenient to use the cartesian system
of coordinate axes when the three mutually orthogonal planes are XOZ,
YOZ and XOY as shown in figure 2.3(a). The component stresses acting
on these planes at their point of intersection are then shown, in detail,
in figures 2.3(b), (c) and (d), respectively, and are all shown as being positive.
A double subscript notation is employed to define the direction of each
of the normal stress components a, and the shear stress components r.
The first subscript designates the direction of the normal to the plane on
which the stress acts and the second subscript designates the sense of the
stress. Thus, axx• denotes a normal stress acting on the face of the element
which is parallel to the YOZ plane, the normal to which is parallel to the
x axis and the sense of the stress is in the OX direction. For simplicity,
it is customary to delete the second subscript for normal stresses so that
axx• ayy and azz become ax, ay and az, respectively. Also, 'txy• is a shear
stress component acting on the face of the element which is parallel to the
STRESS ANALYSIS 15
YOZ plane, the normal to which is parallel to the x axis and the sense of
this shear stress is in the OY direction.
It will now be seen that the complete specification of the stress at a point
is defined by the nine component stresses
~'7Xy cS
'Txy+ bx • x
82 w
Az = pbx.by.bz ot 2
Resolving forces exerted on the element in the OX direction gives
that is LFx = 0( = 02
p Ot2u bV )
18 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
If the forces exerted on the element are also resolved in the OY and OZ
directions, respectively, then the following three differential equations
of force equilibrium are obtained:
or
(2.6)
or
or
(2.7)
During plastic deformation there are many cases where body 1 forces
are insignificant or absent and where the motion can be regarded as 'steady
motion without inertia forces being involved. In such cases, equations (2.6)
reduce to
(2.11)
( Tzy + 8rzy
8z uz
s: ) s: s: (jz
uXuy 2 + Tzyuxuy 2 ( Tyz + 8ryz
s: s: (jz
8y uy
s: ) s: s:
uXuZ 2by
.:5y
 Tyz(jx(jz 2 =0 (2.12)
Neglecting quantities of the fourth order and simplifying gives Tzy  Tyz = 0,
that is, Tzy = Tyz.
By considering moments of the forces exerted on the element about a
line passing through the point P and parallel to the OY and OZ axes, res
pectively, two other similar equations are obtained:
Tzy = Tyz)
Txz = Tzx
(2.13)
Tyx = Txy
or (Jij = (Jji
Equations (2.13) express the condition that, if a pair of orthogonal shear
stress components are present at the point P on one plane, there will be
complementary shear stress components on the other planes to establish
20 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
z
Area ABC=unity
(a) (b)
(2.14)
(2.19)
3 x 3 matrix (direction of the normal to the plane on which the stress acts)
andj be the column (sense of stress action).
The stress tensor of equation (2.19) is a symmetric tensor because of the
equality of shear stresses. However, there are some peculiar conditions
for which the stress tensor will not be symmetric, as in the case when body
moments are present 1•
(2.20)
and if these values of sx, sY and sz are substituted into equations (2.14)
(O'x sn)l + 'ryxm + 'tzxn = 0}
(O'y sn)m + 'txyl + 'tzyn = 0 (2.21)
(O'z sn)n + 'tyzm + r:xzl = 0
To determine the principal stress represented by sn, it is necessary to
eliminate the direction cosines l,m and n from equations (2.21). Rewriting
equations (2.21) gives
J1=a1+a2+a3 }
J2 =  (a1a2 + a2a3 + a3a1) (2.29)
J3 = a1a2a3
When az = <yz = •zx = 0, the cubic equation (2.26) reduces to
s~ s~(ax + ay) + sn(axay <;y) = 0
or s~  sn(ax +a)+ (axay .;y) = 0 (2.30)
which is the quadratic equation for the twodimensional stress state, then
or (2.31)
By using the principal directions as reference axes the matrix of the stress
tensor becomes
0
~] (2.32)
Figure 2.8. Particular states of stress in terms of principal stresses: (a) triaxial;
(b) cylindrical; (c) spherical
stress and shear stress on some oblique plane having direction cosines with
respect to these axes of l,m and n are given by equation (2.17) and equation
(2.18~ respectively.
0 0 ±1 0 ± (1/2)1/2 ± (1/2)1/2
m 0 ±1 0 ± (1/2)1/2 0 ± (1/2)1/2
n ±1 0 0 ± (1/2)1/2 ± (1/2)1/2 0
The first three columns give the direction cosines of the principal planes
on which the shear stresses are a minimum, that is, zero. The last three
columns give direction cosines for angles of ± n/4 such that these planes
bisect the angles between the principal planes. The shear stresses on these
planes will then have extremum values.
If these particular values of the direction cosines from the last three
columns of the table are substituted into equation (2.36) the extremum values
of the shear stresses are then given as
"C 1 : ± 1((J 2  (J 3) }
•2 ± 2(u1 u3) (2.38)
•3= ±!(u1u2)
which are usually referred to as the principal shear stresses. If u 1 is the
algebraic maximum principal stress, u 3 the algebraic minimum principal
stress and u 2 the intermediate principal stress such that u 1 > u 2 > u 3 , then
the maximum value of shear stress designated •max is given by
(2.39)
It will then be seen that the maximum shear stress, •max' acts on the
plane which bisects the angle between the planes of maximum and minimum
principal stress and is equal in magnitude to half the difference between
these principal stresses.
If the values of the direction cosines for the planes on which the principal
shear stresses occur are substituted into equation (2.33) the normal stresses
on these planes are given, respectively, as
N 1 = !(u2 + u 3) }
N 2 = !(ut + u3) (2.40)
N3=!(ut +u2)
(2.41)
The shear stress on the octahedral plane which is referred to as the octahedral
shear stress, tocT• is thus given by
tocT = s"(l=m=n) = t[ (a 1  a2)2 +(a2 a3)2 + (a3 a 1)2]112 (2.43)
Equation (2.41) can be written as
3
ii = (2)112 ·'ocT= [1{2 (a1  a2) 2 + (a2  a3) 2 + (a 3  a 1f }]1/2(2.46)
!<\11kk = 0
~11m 0
11m
0J
0 =
ll110 0
11 2 = 11 1
0
0
J (2.52)
0 0 11m 0 0 11 3 =11 1
Then solving for a;j, the defining equation of the deviator stress tensor is
n
given by
r·
!xy 0
a;j = !yx
!zx
11y
!zy
'!yzuJ  r·m00
11z
11m
0
(2.53)
However J~ = u~ + u~ + u; = 0
Therefore J 2 =  { (11I(12
I 11+11+32}
+ (12(13 (13(11 (Jm
=J~ J~
u!J 1 = 01
(b)
Figure 2.9. (a), (b) Representation of a state of plane stress at a point P: (a)
physical diagram for an arbitrary plane AC; (b) physical diagram for rotation of axes
facts and equations and can assist in the study of slipline field theory which
is discussed in chapter 7.
For convenience, it will be assumed that the plane stress state existing
at a point P in a deforming body is present in the XOY plane and is as
shown in figure 2.9(a). Since the normal stresses present during metal forming
processes are predominantly compressive it will be assumed that the normal
stresses ux and uY are both compressive and that ux < uY algebraically.
An arbitrary plane AC is inclined at an angle 4>, anticlockwise, to the
plane BC on which the normal stress ux and the shear stress rxy act. Let
u and r be the normal stress and shear stress, respectively, acting on this
arbitrary plane with the senses as shown in figure 2.9(a).
Resolving forces exerted on the element ABC in a direction normal to
theplaneAC
uAC uxBC cos 4> + 't"xyBC sin 4> uYAB sin 4> + 't"yxAB cos 4> = 0
32 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
or rJ rJx cos 2 cp + Txy cos cp sin cp rJY sin 2 cp + Tyx sin cp cos cp = 0
and therefore, rJ = rJx cos 2 cp + rJY sin 2 cp  Txy sin 2cp (2.61)
which can be rewritten as follows
rJ = !rJx(2 cos 2 c/J) + !rJY(2 sin 2 c/J) Txy sin 2cp
= !rJx(cos2 c/J) + 1 sin 2 c/J) + !rJy(sin 2 cp + 1 cos 2 cp) Txysin 2cp
= !(rJx + rJY) + !rJx(cos 2 cp sin 2 c/J) !rJy(cos 2cp sin 2 c/J) Txy sin 2cp
(2.62)
Resolving forces exerted on the element ABC in a direction parallel to
the plane AC
1:AC TxyBC cos cp  rJxBC sin cp + TyxAB sin cp + rJYAB cos cp = 0
or 1: Txy cos 2 cp  rJx cos cp sin cp + Tyx sin 2 cp + rJY sin cp cos cp = 0
and therefore, 1: = !(rJx rJY) sin 2cp + Txy cos 2cp (2.63)
Squaring equation (2.62) produces
rJ 2 = {t(rJx + rJy} }2 + !(rJ;  rJ;) cos 2cp  (rJx + rJy)Txy sin 2cp
+ {t(rJx rJy) COS 2cp }2  !((Jx (Jy)Txy Sin4cp + (Txy Sin 2cp) 2 (2.64)
Squaring equation (2.63) produces
1: 2 = {t(rJx rJy} sin 2c/J }2 + !(rJx  rJy)Txy sin 4cp + (1:xy cos 2cpf (2.65)
Adding equations (2.64) and (2.65) then gives
(J 2 + 1: 2 = {t((Jx + (Jy) y + !((J; (J;) COS 2cp (rJx + (Jy)Txy Sin 2cp
+ {t((Jx (Jy) y + 'l:;y
and therefore
rJ 2  {t(rJx + rJy) Y !(rJ; rJ;) cos 2cp + (rJx + rJy)Txy sin 2cp + 1: 2
= {t((Jx (Jy) Y + 'l:;y
Or rJ 2  (rJx + (Jy){t((Jx + (Jy) + !((Jx (Jy) COS 2cp Txy Sin 2cp} + {t((Jx + (Jy) y + 1: 2
= {t((Jx (Jy) y
+ 'l:;y
which reduces to
(J2 _ (rJx + (Jy)(J + {t((Jx + (Jy} }2+ 1:2 = {t((Jx _ (Jy) }2 + 1:;y
or {(J !((Jx + (Jy) V + '1: 2 = {t((Jx (Jy} Y + 1:;y (2.66)
and this can be written in the form
(rJ Af + Tz = Rz (2.67)
which is the equation of a circle in the TrJ plane having a radius
STRESS ANALYSIS 33
R = [ {!(ax ay) }2 + .;Y] 1/2 (2.68)
with its centre at !(ax+ ay), 0.
The circle is the locus of points such as <,a in a stress plane for which the
coordinate axes are chosen to be the shear stress • as the ordinate and the
normal stress a as the abscissa.
To define the location of the points (<xy• ax) and (•yx' ay) on the Mohr
circle it is necessary to adopt a convention for the sense of shear stresses.
It will be assumed here that if the couple due to a shear stress is clockwise
in effect then the shear stress is considered positive. Thus, <yx is positive
whilst •xy is negative. Both ax and aY are compressive and therefore considered
negative and are plotted as abscissae to the left of the origin 0 in the Mohr
stress circle diagram of figure 2.9(c) such that OB represents the magnitude
of ax and OE represents the magnitude of aY to some scale. The shear stress
•xy• which is negative, is given by BD and <yx• which is positive, is given
by EF to the same scale. The resultant stresses on the planes PY and PX
are then represented by OD and OF, respectively. The radius of the circle,
R, is thus given by CD = CF.
The centre ofthe circle, C, is on the a axis at !(ax+ ay) from the origin 0.
Therefore OC = f(ax + ay)
lei
Figure 2.9. (c) Mohr stress circle diagram
34 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Therefore a
a 1 = _l.(a
2 X
+a)+
y 
[{.l(a
2 X
_ay )}2 + ,2xy ]1/2
2
=  f(ax + ay) ± R
hence a 1 = OC  CG = OG }
(2.71)
and a 2 = OC + CG = OC + CH = OH
in the Mohr stress circle diagram of figure 2.9(c).
These principal stresses act on orthogonal planes where the shear stresses
are zero. The shear stress, r, on any arbitrary plane AC is given by equation
(2.63). Thus, r = f(ax ay) sin 24> + 'xy cos 24> = 0 if the plane AC is a
principal plane. Therefore, f(ax ay) sin 24> =  'xy cos 24>
STRESS ANALYSIS 35
or (2.72)
REFERENCES
1. Sokolnikoff, I. S., Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, 2nd ed., p. 42,
McGrawHill, New York (1956)
2. Mohr, 0., Abhandlungen aus dem Gebeit der technischen Mechanik,
2nd ed., p. 192, Wilhelm Ernst, Berlin (1914)
3
Strain Analysis
(X +6XI+\Uul,
ly+6yl+lv+6v),
lz +6zl+lw+6w)
z L
lx+6x, y+<Sy, z+6z l
M
.Sz
A
(X,¥,Z)
Ia) (b)
Figure 3.l. Components of displacement at a point
Ia) (b)
z
Figure 3.2. Direct strains, engineering shear strain and rotation in the xz plane
STRAIN ANALYSIS 39
z
side CD elongates to C'D' and has an angular movement KC'D' and the
side DB elongates to D'B' and has an angular movement LD'B'.
By referring to figures 3.2(a) and 3.4 it will be appreciated that the angle
JA'C' has a component parallel to the plane XOZ and also to the plane
XOY and similarly for all other angles. The displacement of B relative to A
is thus compounded of all these motions. For the sake of clarity, the displace
ments shown in the various figures have been grossly exaggerated.
The coordinates of B are x + c5x, y + c5y and z + c5z and after straining
become (x + c5x) + (u + c5u), (y + c5y) + (v + c5v), (z + c5z) + (w + c5w), where
c5u, c5v and c5w are evidently the projections of the displacement of B relative
to A into the planes XOZ, XOY, YOZ parallel to the axes OX, OY and OZ,
respectively.
Since u is assumed to be a continuous function of x, y and z, (u + c5u) will
be the same function of (x + c5x), (y + c5 y), (z + c5z). Thus, if u = f(x, y, z),
(u + bu) = f {(x + t5x), (y +by), (z + bz)} and this latter expression is expan
ded by employing Taylor's theorem:
Then au au au
c5u = c5x + c5y + c5z
ax ay az
It is evident that (oufox) c5x is the component of c>u independent of c5y
40 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
l>v
QYII~ Ox..,...._
u+~6x~r~~r~~
and oz and is the projection of C relative to A into the XOZ plane parallel
to the OX axis. Hence, oujox is the direct strain at A in the direction OX
which is denoted by exx. This nomenclature may be interpreted as the rate
of movement in the OX direction of a point on a line parallel to OX at A.
The part of bu depending on by alone, that is, (oujoy) by, is that part of the
displacement of B measured parallel to the OX axis resulting from the
angular movement of CD in the plane XOY, as shown in figure 3.4, and
oujo y is the rate of shear of planes parallel to OX and perpendicular to OY
and can be considered as the angular strain of CD denoted by exy· Similarly
(oujoz) bz is the displacement of B parallel to the OX axis resulting from
the angular movement of DB as shown in figure 3.2(a) and oujoz is the
angular strain of DB in the plane XOZ which may be denoted by exz.
The equations for the relative displacements bv and bw in the planes
XOY and YOZ parallel to the OY and OZ axes, respectively, are similar to
that for bu.
au au au
Then bu= bx+by+bz
ax ay az
av av av
bv =  bx +by+ bz (3.1)
ax ay az
OW OW OW
bw =  bx + oy + bz
ax oy oz
or in tensor notation
(3.2)
The tensor
STRAIN ANALYSIS 41
au au au
ax ay az
av av av (3.3)
eij =
ax ay az
aw aw aw
ax ay az

is called the relative displacement tensor and, as can be seen, is not generally
symmetric about its main diagonal, that is, it contains effects of a rigid
rotational motion about an axis passing through 0.
The change in the right angle F AC to the angle F' A'C' is shown in figure
3.2(a).
The line AC moves to A'C' and the line AF to A'F'. In moving from AC
to A'C' the line AC moves through an angle JA'C' = (J(zx' the projection
of which in the plane XOZ is aw;ax. Since the strain is considered to be
sensibly homogeneous, the line A'F' will be parallel to the line D'B' and
therefore the angular movement of AF will be equal to the angle MA'F' =
LD'B' = (J(xz, the projection of which into the plane XOZ is aujaz.
C'J
The angle (J(zx ~ tan (J(zx = A' J
aw bx
ax
au
bx +ax bx
aw
ax
1 au
+aX
Therefore
F'M
Also angle (J(xz ~ tan (J(xz = A'M
au bz
az
aw
bz + 8z bz
au
az
1 aw
+az
42 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Therefore
Then
(3.4)
1
Yzx = 2,c/Jzx = 2\az + OX = 2(exz + ezx)
1(ou ow) 1
STRAIN ANALYSIS 43
The infinitesimal strain of the parallelepiped at the point A is thus defined
by three direct strains and three engineering shear strains and, for simplicity,
the direct strains are designated by using a single subscript:
au
ex= ax
Direct strains
av
ey=ay
OW
ez=az (3.6)
av au
c/Jxy =ox+ oy
OW OV
Engineering shear strains
c/Jyz =BY + OZ
au ow
c/Jzx =az+ ax
These equations were derived by Cauchy.
3.1.3 The rotations
It should be noted that it is impossible to produce a system of equations
inverse to equations (3.6), that is, to express nine components of equations
(3.3) in terms of six components of strain. The equations (3.6) are therefore
inadequate since the geometrical representation of the deformations at
a given point are incomplete.
Let the element considered at the point A be a cube (Jx = Jy = Jz) and
the direct strains ex= ey = ez = 0. Referring to figure 3.2(a), the line AE,
where CAE is 45°, is rotated through an angle, say, + wY that is, clockwise
about the OY axis when viewed from the origin 0 along the.QY axis in the
positive direction to take up its strained position A'E'.
ow ow
!: _ ) _ E'P _ Jz + ox Jx + Tz Jz
Then tan ( 4 wy  A'P  ou ou
Jx + ox Jx + oz Jz
OW ow
1 ++
ax oz
1 au au
+OX +a;
ow
1
+ax
1 au
+a;
44 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
_1 tan wr
1 +tan wr
,_, _1w_y
'"'"'1 +wy
or 1 w
y ox ou)
~ (1 + w)y (1 +ow oz
~ 1 + ow  ou + w ( 1+ ow  ou)
ox oz y ox oz
and w
y
(2 + owox  ou) ~ ou 
oz oz ox
OW
ou ow
oz ox

w ,,,
OW ou
or ~
y
2+
0X OZ
Therefore WY ¥
~ ~: ~=) = ~ ( exz  ezx)
Similar expressions can be obtained for the rotations about the OX and OZ
axes by referring to figures 3.3 and 3.4, respectively.
However, it should be noted that rotations wx and wz are positive, if
clockwise, when viewed alofig the OX and OZ axes in the positive direction
for each case.
Hence
(3.7)
STRAIN ANALYSIS 45
« _au
xzu
z z
1xz
Figure 3.5. Showing that the general case of deformation consists of a shear
strain and a rigid body rotation
:u: I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
+
Thus
ou ou ou ou
ox oy oz ox +~)~eu
Kou
ox ox 2 oz +ow)
ox
ov ov ov ov Kov
eij =
ox oy oz =ll;j= Kou +~)
oy ax oy oz +ow)
oy
ow ow OW Kou + ow)K~+ ow)
ow
OX oy oz oz ox 2 oz oy oz
0 Kou ox Kou
oy ~) _ow)
2 oz ox
+[
0 wz roY
w. 0 (!)X
roY (!)X 0
(3.9)
where e1j is called the irrotational or pure strain tensor and w1j is the rotation
tensor. For pure deformation, equation (3.3) becomes
(3.10)
3.1.4 Cubical dilatation
Consider an infinitesimal parallelepiped of initial volume t5xt5yt5z
as in
figure 3.1 to be in a state of strain.
If shear deformations alone are produced without elongation or contrac
tion of its edges, the unit change in volume of the cube will be a small quantity
of higher order compared with the shear deformations. Consequently, it
will be assumed, neglecting small quantities of higher order, that the change
in volume t5V will depend only on the elongations or contractions of the
edges t5x, t5 y
and t5 z.
The volume of the element after deformation is then given by
t5x(1 + ex)t5y(1 + ey)t5z(1 + ez)
= t5xt5yt5z(1 + ex)(1 + ey)(1 + ez)
= t5xt5yt5z(1 +ex+ ey + ez + exey + exez + eyez + exeyez)
STRAIN ANALYSIS 47
Neglecting the last four terms in parentheses, which are small quantities
of the second and third order, produces
bV = bxbybz(ex + ey + ez)
The dilatational strain, L1, is then defmed as the change in volume per
unit initial volume, thus
(3.11)
rbr = bx[ :: bx + :~ by + :: bz J
+ b{:: bx + :; by+ :~ bz J
+ b{ ~= bx + ~y + ~; bz J
ou
=bx 2 +by2 ov ow
+bz2 +bxby ov au)
( +
ox oy az ax oy
Therefore ou
br=r[ l2 +m ov
2 +n ow+ lm(ov
2  +ou)
ox oy az ax oy
+In+
oz ax
+
( au ow) +mn(ow ov)J
oy az
(3.12)
Since equation (3.12) must be true for all values of l,m and n a necessary
condition that equation (3.1) represents a rigid body motion is that er = 0
where l,m and n =I= 0.
Therefore
ou ov ow 0
ox iJy a;
and ov + ou)=o
( ox oy
(~: + ~:)=o
( ow+ ov)=o
oy oz
OV ou
That is ox= oy
ou OW
oz =ox
OW ov
oy =  oz
or (3.13)
Thus for a rigid body motion the tensor e;j of equation (3.3) is skew
symmetric.
(3.14)
OU OV . r 11
.
an d smce ex= ox'
ey = oy h
it 10 ows t at
(3.19)
Hence (3.20)
and (3.21)
because the second and third terms on the righthand side of this equation
cancel. Therefore
2owz o¢yz o¢zx
oz TxTy (3.22)
(3.25)
STRAIN ANALYSIS 51
3.2 FINITE DEFORMATION
e
r + f>r
'1
=m ov
= [ l+ ( ov Jr
1+ovoy ) m+n (3.28)
r + f>r 1 ox oz r + f>r
"' = n =[owl+
r + f>r ox 1
ow m+(1+ ow)n]r
oy oz r + f>r
where
+
r f>r 1 ' r f>r 1 ' +
_e_=l · "'=m · "'=n
r f>r 1 +
are the direction cosines after deformation and
f>x {)y {)z
l=· m=· n=
r ' r ' r
(3.28)
were the direction cosines ofthe line element before deformation. Equations
can then be written as follows:
l =Ar
1 r + f>r
r
m =B
1 r + f>r
r
and n =C
1 r + f>r
12
1
+m2 +n2 = 1= (A2 +B2 +C2)(r)2
1 1 r + f>r
h.h .
w tc gtves (r +rf>r)2  A2 + B2 + C2.
It can then be shown that
aw + (au)
n [ 1 + 2 fu oz + (aw)z]
oz + (av)
2 2
2
fu +
2zm[(au +au au)+ (av + ov ov) + (ow ow)]+
ay ax ay ax ax ay ax ay
21n[(au + ou au)+ (av av) + (ow+ ow ow)]+
oz oz OX oz ox ox oz OX
2mn[(au au)+ (av + ov ov) +(ow+ ow aw)J
ay az az oy az oy ay az
r
The term ( r+~r) can then be wntten
2 .
as equal to (G + 1), say, because
in the first three terms of the righthand side of this equation it will be seen
that there is the sum z2 + m 2 + n 2 = 1.
(e.+ 1f 1 = G
e; + 2e. = G
where e. is the conventional or engineering strain of the line element AB.
Then (3.29)
where
ex=:~+~[ (:~y + (!:Y + (::rJ
eY :~ + ~ [ ( :~ + ( :~ y y y
+ ( ~; J
r r rJ
=
ez = ~; + ~[ ( :~ + ( :~ + ( ~;
(3.30)
ov au au au OV ov ow ow
=++++
OX oy ox oy OX oy ox oy
8
xy
ow ov au au av ov OW ow
=++++
8
yz oy oz oy oz oy oz oy oz
au OW au au OV OV OW ow
8 zx = oz + OX + OZ OX + OZ OX + fu OX
3.2.3 Finite strain tensor
Comparing equation (3.29) with equation (3.12) it can be seen that the
54 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
l~
1
eij = :eyx
2exy
eY
!~]
!eyz (3.31)
1
2ezx 2ezy ez
which is known as the finite or small strain tensor to distinguish it from the
infinitesimal pure strain tensor of equation (3.9).
If its components are known the strain at a given point in a body can be
determined in any direction defmed by the direction cosines l, m, n. Equation
(3.29) can then be denoted by
e; + 2er = 2f(l,m, n)
Therefore er2 + 2er  2:j = 0
or er =  1 ± (1 + 2!)112
= (1 + 2!)112  1
if the negative root is not considered.
Assuming l = 1,m = n = 0,
then
which only reduces to ex = ex if ex ~ 1.
Thus, if the derivatives are small so that their products can be neglected,
the expressions of equations (3.30) reduce to those previously obtained for
the infmitesimal strains of equations (3.6). However, the physical interpreta
tion given to infinitesimal strains is no longer applicable.
Nevertheless, it is sometimes possible to treat problems involving large
strains using the equations for infinitesimal strains. This is possible if the
problem is considered incrementally, that is, a small step at a time, and after
each step the coordinates are changed to correspond to the deformed body.
In essence, the problem is then solved as a series of successive small strain
problems.
figure 3.7. Upon straining, it is assumed that the line element changes length
by an amount br but its direction remains the same if ABC is a principal plane.
The components of r and br in the directions OX, OY and OZ are then
proportional, that is,
8 = br
r
= (e x = bu)
bx
= (e Y = bv)
by
= (ez = bz bw)
and then bu = ebx; bv = eby; bw = ebz (3.32)
Therefore, equations (3.2) become
bU = exbX + exyby ·r exzbz}
bv: eyxbx + eyby + eyzbz (3.33)
bW  ezxbX + Bzyby + ezbZ
Substituting for bu, bv and bw from equations (3.32) into equations (3.33)
gives
(ex e)bx + exyby + exzbz = 0
eyxbx + (ey e)by + eyzbz = 0 (3.34)
ezxbx + ezyby + (ez e)bz = 0
that is ebxi = eijbxj
or (eij bije)bxj = 0 (3.35)
The three equations (3.34) will have a nonvanishing solution only if the
determinant of the coefficients vanish.
Therefore
(3.36)
56 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
0 0 ±1 0 ± (1/2)1/2 ± (1/2)1/2
m 0 ±1 0 ± (1/2)1/2 0 + (1/2)1/2
n ±1 0 0 ± (1/2)1/2 ± (1/2)1/2 0
The first three columns give the direction cosines of the principal planes
on which the shear strains are zero. The other columns give directions for
angles of n/4. These planes consequently bisect the angles between the
principal planes and, on these planes, the shear strains have extremum
values. Substituting these values of the direction cosines into equation (3.43)
produces the shear strains y1 , y2 and y3 which are usually known as the
principal shear strains:
YocT=3
(2)1/2 [J2
1+
31 J1/2
2 (3.49)
(3.53)
(3.54)
60 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
By analogy with the deviator stress tensor discussed earlier the invariants of
the deviator strain tensor are
(3.56)
Therefore . =~(au)p
er ox ot + +
oy ct m2 ~(ow)
~(av) oz ot n2 +
ay at ~(av)Jzm
[ ~(au)+ ax at +
[ ~(ov) ay ow)Jmn
az at + ~( at +
[ oxa ( at at J1n
aw) + oza(au) (3.59)
or (3.60)
STRAIN ANALYSIS 61
where
. ov
direct strainrates oy
ey =
. ow
ez=az (3.61)
· ou ov
<Pxy =oy +ox
. ov ow
engineering shear strainrates ¢yz = oz + oy
. ow ou
</Jzx =OX+ OZ
The quantities ex,iy,iz determine the rates of relative elongation or
contraction in the direction of the OX, OY and OZ axes, respectively.
The other quantities, <fixy• ~yz' ~zx determine the angular rates of change of
initially right angles.
The rate of volumetric or dilatational strain is then given by
=div q
where q is the velocity vector.
Hence, analogous to the infinitesimal pure strain tensor of equation (3.9)
a strainrate tensor can also be formed which is given by
ov =! [( ov; +
oxj
1
2 oxj ox, + ( oxj3)
OV; ~)]
OX;
(3.63)
= 811 + w11
the strainrate tensor, 611 being the symmetric part. The skewsymmetric
part corresponds to a rigid body rotation of the element considered and a
necessary and sufficient condition for rigid body motion is that 611 = 0.
If w11 = 0 then the flow is irrotational. An extensive discussion of the strain
rate and vorticity tensors is to be found in the textbook by Aris 1 .
Since velocities are the total derivatives of the displacement with respect
to time it is evident that
(3.64)
In the case of small deformation, simple relations exist between the strain
62 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
v.=u.
a
1 at 1 (3.65)
a
and eij =at eij (3.66)
[' Yuj
Yxy
ij
8 = ~{ a~j ( ~~i) + a~i ( ~)} (3.69)
=!(avi+3)
2 axj axi
where velocities vi = duidt are the components of the velocity vector q and
are with respect to the current position vector xi.
The velocity gradient tensor ovioxj may be written as the sum of sym
metric and skewsymmetric parts.
The acceleration is given by
(3.70)
The translatory part in the expression for the total derivative is omitted
since for small strains it is usually possible to assume that the coordinate
derivatives of displacement and velocity are negligible.
It should also be stated that, in general,
(3.71)
since the principal axes of the strain tensor and the strainrate tensor do not
coincide.
and they also generate a tensor and have a physical meaning. The relations
defined in equation (3. 72) are useful for describing large strains which may
be obtained by integrating the small changes. The increments in the strain
components are evaluated with respect to the instantaneous state.
If the principal axes do not rotate under deformation, then the integrals
fd~:ii have a simple physical meaning, being equal to the corresponding
logarithmic or natural strains. In this case, the strains are additive, that is,
the sum of successive natural strains is equal to the resultant natural strain.
However, in the general case, the integrals f d~:ii cannot be evaluated and
do not have a physical meaning. These integrals can be found only if the
strain path is known, that is, if the components d~:ii are known as functions
of some parameter such as, for example, the deforming force. This limits
the range of application of natural strains to the case of fixed principal
directions.
.!!!
c
...0
;;; 1·0
...::>0
o0·5
z
l:l
c
~01::+:::.~+:::+::
~ 1·5 2·0
c
·a
..
!; 0·5
o>
c
.
; 1·0
c
, _____ e= lnll/1 0 ) = tn( l+e)
o>
c
UJ
+d'Y y
I d'Ymax
I
2(d&x+dEy)
(b)
Figure 3.10. Mohr circle diagram for incremental strains: (a) Mohr circle
diagram for plane strain; (b) physical diagram
66 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
r2 = (dex dey)2 d 2
2 + Yxy
= i{dex de/ + dy;Y
REFERENCES
1. Aris, R., Vectors, Tensors and Basic Equations of Fluid Mechanics,
PrenticeHall, New Jersey (1962)
2. Ludwik, P., Elemente der technologischen Mechanik, SpringerVerlag,
Berlin, (1909)
4
Yield Criteria for Ductile Metals
If the material is isotropic, plastic yielding can then only depend on the
magnitudes of the three principal stresses and not on their directions. Any
yield criterion can thus be expressed in the form
(4.1)
where J 1, J 2, J 3 are the first three invariants of the stress tensor uii.
They have been previously defined in terms of the components of the
stress tensor, uii, in equations (2.28) but for convenience will be restated
here
J 1 = Ux + (1y + (1z
However
2(a~ a~+ a~ a~+ a~a'1 ) = (a'1 +a~+ a~f {(a'1 ) 2 + (a~f + (a~) 2 } (4.4)
Therefore
(a~f + (a~f + (a~) 2 =[(a~ a~) 2 +(a~ a~f +(a~ a'1 ) 2 +(a~+ a~+ a~) 2
 { (a~) 2 + (a~) 2 + (a~) 2 } ]/2 (4.5)
and since a~ + a~ + a~ = J~ = 0
3{(a~) 2 + (a~) 2 + (a~) 2 }/2 ={(a~ a~) 2 +(a~ a~) 2 +(a~ a~) 2 }/2
or (a'1 f + (a~) 2 + (a~f ={(a~ a~f +(a~ a~f +(a~ a'1 ) 2 }/3
Hence J~ ={(a~ a~) 2 +(a~ a~f +(a~ a~f}/6 (4.6)
If the values a~= al am, a~= az am, a~= a3 am are substituted
into equation (4.6) then J~ can be expressed in terms of the principal stresses
as
J~ = [ {(ox oy + (oy O"z) 2 + (oz O"x) 2}/6] + (r;y + r;z + r;J = k 2 (4.10)
or in terms of the principal stresses
1~ = {(o1 0"2) 2 + (o2 0"3) 2 + (o3 0"1) 2}/6 = k 2 (4.11)
The characteristic value, k, of the material can be evaluated by means
of a uniaxial tensile test when the material is just yielding. Then o 1 = Y
which is the uniaxial yield stress of the material, O" 2 = o 3 = 0 and k is the
yield stress in pure shear.
Substituting these values into equation (4.11) produces
{(Y Of+ 0 + (0 Yf} = 6k 2
that is, 2¥ 2 = 6k 2
or k = y /31/2 (4.12)
and the yield stress in pure shear is 1/3 1 / 2 times the yield stress in uniaxial
tension according to the von Mises yield criterion.
Equation (4.11) was also proposed independently by Huber 3 in 1904
and apparently by Maxwell in a letter to Kelvin as early as 1856. The von
Mises yield criterion was further interpreted by Hencky 4 to mean that
yielding commenced when the shear strain energy attained a critical value
corresponding to yielding in uniaxial tension.
which is the equation to an ellipse known as the von Mises ellipse when
plotted in the (J 1 (J 2 plane.
If the Tresca yield criterion is applicable, this asserts that yielding will
occur when any one of the following six conditions is attained
(J1 (J2= ±Y
(J2 (J3 = ±y (4.16)
(J3 (J1 = ±y
and if (J 3 = 0 for the biaxial stress case
(J 1  (J 2 = y if (J 1 > 0, (J 2 < 0
(J 1  (J 2 =  y if (J 1 < 0, (J 2 > 0
(J2=Yif(J2>(J1>0
(J1=Yif(J1>(J2>0
(o;0)/Y =+I
Figure 4.1. Yield loci for biaxial stress states according to the von Mises and
Tresca yield criteria
YIELD CRITERIA FOR DUCTILE METALS 73
4.5 HAIGHWESTERGAARD STRESS SPACE
REPRESENTATION OF YIELD CRITERIA
In section 4.4, the yield surface and the twodimensional yield loci according
to the von Mises and Tresca yield criteria for a biaxial stress state were
discussed. For the more general case, however, the yield criterion will be
a function of the nine components of the stress tensor, aij, which can be
reduced to the six independent components of the stress tensor. If the
material is assumed to be isotropic so that yielding is not affected by rotation
of the axes of reference then the principal stress axes can be chosen as the
references axes and the initial yield condition can be stated as
(4.18)
Since it has already been assumed that hydrostatic stress states do not
influence yielding and thus only the deviator stresses are involved, the yield
function can be restated as
(4.19)
or, alternatively, in terms of the invariants of the deviator stress tensor,
Hydrostatic
stress states
Vector sum of o;
CJ2CJ3
deviator
~·
0"3 stress components
c . . . . ...
... .."1'.., (a1,a;zP"3 l
...
... ..... p
"'
//
Vector sum of
hydrostatic
stress
components
0:I
11plane
o;+o;+a3=o
Figute 4.2. HaighWestergaard stress space representation of yield criterion
74 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
(4.20)
since J~ = 0.
The yield function has therefore been simplified to a function of the two
nonvanishing invariants of the deviator stress tensor and this function
is symmetric in the principal stresses. Whatever yield function is adopted
it must be symmetric in the principal stresses.
In figure 4.2 are shown three mutually orthogonal axes introducing the
(u 1 , u 2 , u 3 ) coordinate system which represents a threedimensional stress
space called the HaighWestergaard stress space6 •7 • If the principal stresses
at a point on a body are (u 1 , u 2 , u 3 ) then this stress state is represented
by the bound vector 0 P in this stress space and the coordinates of P are
u 1> u 2 and u 3 •
The stress state may therefore be written as the sum of the three vectors,
OA = upOB = u 2 and OC = u 3
Therefore IOP I= (u~ + u~ + uW 12 (4.21)
Consider an axis OE passing through the origin which is equally inclined
to the three principal stress axes then its direction cosines are l = m = n =
1/3 1 ' 2 and the equal angle of inclination of the axis OE to the three stress
axes is cos 1 (1/3) 1' 2 = 54°44'. For every point on this axis the stress state
is one where
(4.22)
which corresponds to a hydrostatic stress state and the deviator stresses
are equal to zero.
The equation to any plane which is perpendicular to OE will be
(4.23)
where d is the distance along the normal OE from the origin to the plane.
The hydrostatic or spherical component of the stress tensor therefore
increases in a linear manner with the distance of the plane from the origin.
For the plane passing through the origin, the hydrostatic stress is zero and
u 1 + u 2 + u 3 = 0. This plane is known as thenplane or synoptic plane.
Any arbitrary stress state such as that defmed by the vector 0 P in figure
4.2 can therefore be resolved into two components, namely, the component
ON in the direction of OE and the component NP which is perpendicular
to ON and parallel to the nplane.
Yield locus
•
0'3
Figure 4.3. A possible yield locus for an isotropic, perfectly plastic metal shown
in the nplane
76 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
E
n plane
(a)
(b)
plane must be inclined at 120o to each other as shown in figure 4.3 and the
yield locus must be symmetrical and the same shape in each of the six 60°
sectors dividing the nplane.
Let the polar coordinates of the point P in the nplane be (r, 0) and a
and b the horizontal and vertical components of r, as shown in figure 4.3.
The components of 0 P in the principal stress space are a 1> a 2 and a 3 •
Considering, for example, the projection of the component a 1 on to the
nplane then by referring to figure 4.4(a) it can be seen that this is equal
to {ai  (1/3)ai} 112 = (2/3) 112 a 1. The projections of a 2 and a 3 on to the
nplane can be obtained in a similar manner so that the projections of the
three principal stress components on to the nplane are (2/3) 1i 2a 1> (2/3) 1i 2a 2
and (2/3) 1i 2 a 3 , respectively.
From figure 4.4(b) the following relationships can now be deduced
a= (2/3) 1i 2a 2 cos 30°  (2/3) 1i 2a 1 cos 30°
= (2/3)1f2a 2(31/2 /2)  (2/3)1f2a 1(31/2 /2)
YIELD CRITERIA FOR DUCTILE METALS 77
Therefore a=(a 2 a 1)/2 112 (4.26)
b = (2/3) 1' 2a 3  (2/3) 1' 2a 2 sin 30°  (2/3) 1' 2a 1 sin 30°
= (2/3)1/20"3 (1/6)1/20"2 (1/6)1/20"1
Therefore b = (1/6) 112 (2a 3  a 2  a 1) (4.27)
r 2 = a 2 + b 2 = (a 2  a 1)2/2 + (1/6)(2a 3  a 2  a 1f
= (1/3){(a1 az)2 + (a2 a3)2 + (a3 a1)2}
= (a 1  am) 2 + (a 2  am) 2 + (a 3  amf
= (a~) 2 + (a~f + (a~) 2
Therefore r2 = 21~ (4.28)
e= tan 1(bja) = tan 1[(2a3 0"2 a1)/{3 112(a2 a1)}]
or 3 112 tan e= (2a3 0"2 a1)/(az a1) (4.29)
. . 0'3
von M1su Circle
Trcsca hexagon
Figure 4.5. Representation of the von Mises and Tresca yield criteria on the
nplane
78 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
The yield locus is therefore a circle of radius r = (2/3) 1' 2¥, as illustrated
in figure 4.5, and the yield surface in the HaighWestergaard stress space
is a circular cylinder of radius (2/3) 1' 2Y with its geometric axis OE passing
through the origin and equally inclined to the three principal stress axes.
The stress state represented by any point in the sector between the a 2
and  a 1 axes in figure 4.5 is such that
and the Tresca criterion applicable to yielding for this sector is then given
by a 2  a 1 = Y. The Tresca yield criterion for this sector is thus represented
by a straight line which is parallel to the a 3 axis, since it is independent of
a 3, and is at a distance equal to (a 2  a 1)/(2) 112 = Y/(2) 112 from it, as given
by equation (4.26). In a similar manner, a straight line is obtained for each
sector to produce the complete yield locus for the Tresca yield criterion
which is a regular hexagon. This is also illustrated in figure 4.5 for purposes
of comparison with the yield locus for the von Mises yield criterion. It
will be noted that the von Mises circle passes through the comers of the
Tresca hexagon since the radius to a comer ofthe hexagon is given by
r = (Y /2 112 )/cos 30° = (2/3) 1' 2¥
which is also the radius of the von Mises circle. From equation (4.29) when
(} = oo
2a3 a2 a 1 =0
or a 3 = (a 1 + a 2)/2
and the hydrostatic stress
am= (a1 + a 2 + a 3)/3 = (a 1 + a 2)/2
If the hydrostatic stress is now subtracted from the stress components
a 1, a 2 and a 3 the deviator stress state is given by a~ = ( a 1  a 2)/2, a~ =
(a 2  a 1)/2, a~= 0 which defines a state of pure shear. It is then evident
from figure 4.5 that the yield loci for the von Mises and Tresca yield criteria
differ most for the case of pure shear when the von Mises yield criterion
predicts a yield stress 2/3 1' 2 times that given by the Tresca yield criterion.
When(}= 30°, tan(}= 1/3 1' 2 and from equation (4.29)
2a3 a2 a1 = a2 a1
or 2a 3  2a 2 = 0
Therefore
and if the hydrostatic stress of a 2 is subtracted from the principal stress
components a 1, a 2 and a 3 the deviator stress state is a~ = ( a 1  a 2), a~ = 0,
a~ = 0 which corresponds to a uniaxial stress state.
In the HaighWestergaard stress space, the Tresca yield surface is a
YIELD CRITERIA FOR DUCTILE METALS 79
E
von Misu
circular cylinder
Figure 4.6. The yield surfaces for the von Mises and Tresca yield criteria in the
HaighWestergaard stress space
regular hexagonal cylinder which is inscribed within the von Mises circular
cylinder as shown in Figure 4.6.
F F
(a)
..
!:; I
.."...
:::J
c
">
0
·;
CT
1&.1.___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The principal stresses at the point P in the tube wall at any instant are
u 1 = (u/2) + {(u2 /4) + 'r2}1/2
u2 = (u/2) {(u2/4) + 'r2}1/2
(J3 =0 (4.31)
Therefore ul u2 = (u2 + 4'r2)1i2 (4.32)
and (u 1  u 2)2 + (u 2  u 3 ) 2 + (u 3  u 1)2 = 2u 2 + 6"C 2 (4.33)
By using equation (4.32) the Tresca yield criterion predicts
(u /Y) 2 + 4('r/Y) 2 = 1 4.34)
and qsing equation (4.33) the von Mises yield criterion predicts
2o2 + 6"C2 = 2Y2
or (u /Y) 2 + 3('r/Y) 2 = 1 (4.35)
where Y is the uniaxial yield stress of the tube metal in tension.
YIELD CRITERIA FOR DUCTILE METALS 81
~6r~,...
04
'f/Y
Trcsca yield criterion
0·2
0 02 0•4 08 1·0
CJ/Y
Figure 4.8. The Tresca and von Mises yield criteria represented in the dimension
less (u I Y)( t I Y) plane for a biaxial stress state
Both equations (4.34) and (4.35) plot as ellipses in the ur: plane and in
the dimensionless form presented in figure 4.8. Experimental data obtained
in this manner are found to plot between the two ellipses although generally
closer to the von Mises ellipse. These deviations from the theoretical predic
tions are usually partially attributed to a degree of anisotropy of the specimen
material and to experimental inaccuracy.
The classical experimental work of this kind was performed in 1931
by Taylor and Quinney 8 which was intended to solve this problem. They
used copper, mild steel and aluminium thinwalled tubes, which were said
to be very nearly isotropic, and tested them in combined torsion and tension.
However, they also observed similar deviations from the theoretical curves
and concluded that these discrepancies were real and could not be attributed
to experimental error or anisotropy of the specimen material.
Similar results were obtained earlier, for example, by Lode9 in 1926,
by Ros and Eichinger 10 in 1929 and, in 1953, by Siebel 11 who employed
combined bending and torsion. Details of other tests of a similar nature
can be found in the literature and an extensive survey of the literature
concerned with this topic up to about 1948 was presented by Drucker 12 .
A different method of producing a combined stress state to experimentally
investigate yield criteria has been employed more recently. This method
follows the theory of localised oblique 'necking' in a thin metal strip as
advanced by Hi11 13 •14• A thin uniform rectangular section metal strip in
which a groove is machined and where the width of the strip is not less
than five times the thickness is subjected to uniaxial tension. This method
was used by Lianis and Ford 15 in 1957 and by Parker and Bassett 16 in
1964. Attempts have also been made by Stockton and Drucker 17 to improve
the correlation of experimental data with the yield criteria by introducing
the third invariant, J~, of the deviator stress tensor into the yield criterion.
82 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
1·25r.l,,...,
2/13 von Miscs

1·20 Trcsca yield criterion yield criterion 1
1o; CJ3 )/Y•I lo;c>;l/Y =2/13+)h2
HS
110
1QS
0·5 0 +C>S
Lode parameter p
Figure 4.9. Lode's comparison ofthe yield criteria (experimental results excluded)
84 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
The maximum difference between the two yield criteria occurs when Jl = 0
which corresponds with the case of pure shear and is 2/3 112 , which agrees
with that stated earlier. Lode's stress parameter, Jl, and a plastic strain
parameter are discussed further in section 5.6.
(a) (b)
Figure 4.10. Subsequent yield locus on thenplane for an isotropic, strainharden
ing material according to (a) the von Mises yield criterion, and (b) the Tresca yield
criterion
YIELD CRITERIA FOR DUCTILE METALS 85
with it. The yield surface must therefore move outwards in some way, at
least, at the point where initial yield occurred. If the material remains
isottopic and is strainhardening then the circular yield locus expands with
stress and strain history. The yield locus for an isotropic strainhardening
material which deforms according to the Tresca yield criterion appears
on the nplane as a series of concentric regular hexagons. These subsequent
yield loci for the two yield criteria are illustrated in figure 4.10.
For a perfectly plastic material, a yield function can be defined by the
relation
(4.41)
so that when the function 4J becomes equal to the constant K, yielding is
initiated and is represented by an initial yield surface in the HaighWester
gaard stress space or an initial yield locus on the nplane. However, for
a strainhardening material the value of K will alter depending on the
strainhardening properties of the material. It is then convenient to consider
the function 4J as a loading function which represents the application of
the stress and the function K as a strainhardening yield function which
depends on the previous stress and strain history of the material and also
on its strainhardening properties.
Three separate cases for a strainhardening material can then be identified:
The condition when 4J < K thus represents an elastic stress state. For a
perfectly plastic material 4J = K, dF = 0 for plastic flow and the case d(jJ > 0
is inapplicable.
The concept of an isotropic, strainhardening material is mathematically
the simplest one. However, it may be considered only as a first approximation
because it does not take the Bauschinger effect into account. This effect
is known to contract the yield locus on one side whilst that on the other
side is expanded. The yield surface therefore changes shape as plastic defor
mation progresses. The Bauschinger effect was verified in 1958 by experiments
performed by Naghdi, Essenburg and Koff18 • These investigators carried
86 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
s~cond subs~qu~nt
yi~ld locus
+1"
l
orH
+Cf
First subs~qu~nt yi~ld locus
s~cond subs~qu~nt
yi~ld locus
_.,.
out tests with aluminium alloy tubes, initially with axial tension only,
and then with various ratios of torsion and axial tension to obtain an initial
yield locus. By unloading and reloading in a specified manner, subsequent
yield loci were also obtained. The results of these experiments are presented
diagrammatically in the ar plane of figure 4.11. By referring to this figure
it is evident that the initial von Mises elliptical yield locus does not expand
symmetrically due to the presence of the Bauschinger effect which is reflected,
for example, in the progressively reduced yield stresses required during
reversed torsion. This, of course, indicates that the concept of an isotropic,
strainhardening material must be regarded only as a first approximation
for the plastic deformation of real engineering metals.
1/X 2 = G+H
1/¥ 2 =F+H
1/Z2 =F + G
(4.43)
2F = (1/¥ 2 ) + (1/Z 2 )  (1/X 2 )
2G = (1/Z 2 ) + (1/X 2 )  (1/¥ 2 )
2H = (1/X 2 ) + (1/¥ 2 )  {l/Z 2 )
The condition for the anisotropy to be rotationally symmetric about
the zaxis corresponding to planar isotropy in the xyplane implies that
the coefficients in equation (4.42) must be invariant and then it can be
shown that
N=F+2H=G+2H
and L=M (4.44)
REFERENCES
1. Bridgman, P. W., Studies in Large Plastic Flow and Fracture with
Special Emphasis on the Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure, McGrawHill,
New York (1952)
2. von Mises, R., Mechanik der festen Korper im plastisch deformablen
Zustand, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen, 582 (1913)
3. Huber, M. T., Czasopismo techniczne, 22, 181, Lemberg (1904)
4. Hencky, H. Z., Zur Theorie Plasticher Deformationen und der hierdurch
im Material hervorgerufenen Nachspannungen, Z. angew. Math.
Mech., 4, 323 (1924)
5. Tresca, H., Sur l'ecoulement des corps solides soumis a
de fortes
pressions, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 59, 754 (1864)
6. Haigh, B. P., Elastic limit ofa ductile metal, Engineering, 10, 158 (1920)
7. Westergaard, H. M., On the resistance of ductile materials to combined
stresses, J. Franklin Inst., 189, 627 (1920)
8. Taylor, G. I. and Quinney, H., The plastic distortion of metals, Phil.
Trans. R. Soc., A230, 323 (1931)
9. Lode, W., Versuche tiber den Einfluss der mittleren Hauptspannung auf
das Fliessen der Metalle Eisen, Kupfer und Nickel, Z. Phys., 36,
913 (1926)
YIELD CRITERIA FOR DUCTILE METALS 89
10. Ros, M. and Eichinger, A., Versuche Zur Klaerung der Frage der
Bruchgefahr III, Metalle, Eidgenoss. Material pruf. und Versuchsanstalt
Industriell Bauwerk und Gewerbe, Diskuss Ber. no. 34, Zurich, p. 3
(1929)
11. Siebel, M. P. L., The combined bending and twisting of thin cylinders
in the plastic range, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 1, 189 (1953)
12. Drucker, D. C., Stressstrain relations in the plastic rangea survey of
theory and experiment, O.N.R. Report, NR041032 (1950)
13. Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, ch. 12, p. 323, Oxford
University Press, London (1950)
14. Hill, R., On discontinuous plastic states with special reference to
localised necking in thin sheets, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 1, 19 (1953)
15. Lianis, G. and Ford, H., An experimental investigation of the yield
criterion and the stressstrain law, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 5, 215 (1957)
16. Parker, J. and Bassett, M. B., Plastic strain relationshipsSome
experiments to derive subsequent yield surface, Trans. Am. Soc. mech
Engrs., SerE, 31, 676 (1964)
17. Stockton, F. D. and Drucker, D. C., Fitting mathematical theories of
plasticity to experimental results, J. Col!. Sci. (Rheology Issue), 5,
239 (1950)
18. Naghdi, P. M., Essenburg, F. and Koff, W., An experimental study of
initial and subsequent yield surfaces in plasticity, Trans. Am. Soc. mech
Engrs, 80; J. appl. Mechs., 25, 201 (1958)
19. Jackson, L. R., Smith, K. F. and Lankford, W. T., Plastic flow in
anisotropic sheet metal, Metals Technology Tech. Pub. No. 2440 (1948);
J. Metals, 1, 323 (1949)
20. Darn, J. E., Stress strain relations for anisotropic plastic flow, J. appl.
Phys., 20, p. 15 (1949)
21. Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, ch. 12, p. 317, Oxford
University Press, London (1950)
5
StressStrain Relations
Hooke first proposed a linear relation between stress and strain for a uniaxial
stress state. A generalised Hooke's law applicable to triaxial stress and
strain states for an isotropic material including thermal strain effects can
be defined in the form
ex= [ {ux v(uy + uJ}/E] ± (f.T
ey = [ {CTY v(uz + ux) }/E] ± (f.T
ez = [ {uz v(ux + uy)}/E] ± (f.T
(5.1)
Yxr = r:xrf2G = {(1 + v)/E}r:xr
Yrz = r:rzf2G = {(1 + v)/E}r:yz
Yzx = r:zxf2G = {(1 + v)/E}r:zx
where E is Young's modulus of elasticity, v is Poisson's ratio, G the modulus
of rigidity, (1. the coefficient of linear thermal expansion or contraction, T
the temperature above or below a convenient datum temperature and
G = E/2(1 + v).
It will be noted that ex in equations (5.1) can be rewritten as follows:
ex= {uxf2G(1 + v)} (v/E)(uy + uz) ± (f.T
= (uxf2G) vuxf2G(l + v) (v/E)(uy + uz) ± (f.T
= (ux/2G) (v/E)(ux + CTY + uz) ± (f.T
=(ux/2G)(v/E)J 1 ±(f.T (5.2)
Similar expressions can be obtained for eY and ez. Equations (5.1) can
therefore be defined in tensor notation as
(5.3)
where J 1 = ux + ur + uz and b;J is the Kronecker delta which has the values
bij = 1(i = j)
= O(i :J= j)
Equations (5.3) can then be transposed to solve for the stresses, CT;J, where
CT;J = 2Ge;J + b;J2G{ (v/E)J 1 +(f.T}
= 2Ge;J + b;J[ {v/(1 + v) }J 1 + 2G(f.T]
= 2G{e;J b;J( ± (f.T)} + b;J[ {v/(1 + v) }J1 ]
By adding the first three of the equations (5.1) it will be found that
92 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
(1) Since the metal is assumed to be isotropic, the free thermal strain
is the same in all directions for the same change in temperature, so that
the free thermal strains ex<tl = ey<t> = ez<t> = ± tXT.
(2) The free thermal strain is directly proportional to the temperature
change but the coefficient of linear thermal expansion or contraction, tX,
may be a function oftemperature.
(3) That the thermal strain effects can be considered in terms of the
principle of superposition.
(4) The shear strains are not affected by changes in temperature.
U = (1/2)aiieii (5.13)
Substituting for the appropriate stresses from equation (5.6) gives
+
U = (1/2)[2G{eii bii( ±aT)}+ biil/1(1 1 3a T)]eii
which can be rearranged to produce
U = Geiieii + (t/1 /2)/i {(2G + 3t/J)/2}aTI 1 (5.14)
94 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
}
and the plastic strain state is given by
~
eP=eP=
y Z
eP/2
X
(5.22)
Y~y = Y:z = Y~x = 0
where the superscript, p, denotes plastic strain.
If the uniaxial stress is now relieved to, say, the point E and the material
is then subjected to a shear stress, •xy• which increases from zero at E to
the point F on the subsequent yield locus, the plastic strain state remains
that defined by equations (5.22).
However, any other stress path may have been chosen to arrive at the
point F from the point C provided that the path did not pass outside the
subsequent yield locus. For example, the path OCF following the subsequent
yield locus could have been chosen.
Suppose the material to be subjected initially to a shear stress, Txy, to
the point D on the subsequent yield locus and then by an arbitrary stress
path, such as DGF, again stressed to the point F. In this case, the plastic
strain state is given by
(5.23)
and this plastic strain state is seen to be unrelated to that given by equations
(5.22) for the previous case, although the same stress state is defined by
the point F for both paths. The elastic strain states are consequently the
same but the plastic strain states are different.
Because of the dependence of the plastic strains on the stress path it is
usually necessary to consider incremental plastic strains throughout the
stress history and determine the total plastic strain by integration. However,
if a proportional stress path is followed, such that all the stresses increase
in the same ratio, then the plastic strain state is independent of the stress
history and depends only on the final stress state.
dy~z = d.A.tyz
dy~x = d.A.rzx
If the value of d.A. were known then the plastic stressstrain relations
could be defined. By subtracting the second from the first of equations (5.25)
produces
de~ de~= (2/3)d.A.{ O"x (1/2)(uy + uz) CTY + (1/2)(uz + ux)}
= (2/3)d.A. {(3/2)(ux uy)}
= d.A.(ux uy)
Therefore
...
~
...."
'
'
""
.c
II)
Plastic strain
dE:P increment dE:P
I
Figure 5.2. Mohr circles for stress and plastic strain increment
is zero. The total strain increment and the plastic strain increment are then
identical. It follows that the Mohr circles of stress and total strain increment
are also identical.
Stated in terms of the components of the stress tensor, uii' the U~vyMises
stressstrain relation includes three equations of the type
dex = (2/3)dA. {ux (1/2)(uy + uz)} =(deja){ u,. (1/2)(uy + uz)}
and three equations of the type
dyxy = 't"xydA. = (3/2)(d8/0')rxy (5.35)
or deij = (3/2)(deja=)u;j (5.36)
The UwyMises equations have been considered here as a special form
of the PrandtlReuss equations (5.31) although these latter equations were
actually proposed much later. For the solution to many metal forming
problems where unrestricted plastic flow is relevant it is customary to apply
the LevyMises equations without incurring significant error.
Equations (5.29) or equations (5.36) are known as the .flow rule associated
with the von Mises yield criterion.
f
~ = criide~ (5.43)
where the integration is performed over the actual strain path from the
initial state of the metal.
cr.'3 p
2G.d€ 3
fJ= O
Figure 5.3. Deviator stress and plastic strain increment vectors represented on
the nplane
102 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Consider a plot in the nplane where the axes are the directions of the
principal deviator stresses u~ , u~ and u~. This is possible because, for a
point on the nplane, u~ = u 1 , u~ = u 2 and u~ = u 3 since the equation for
the nplane is u 1 + u 2 + u 3 = 0 and urn= 0. In addition, since for plastic
strain increments, de~ + de~ + de~ = 0, the components of the plastic strain
increment can also be represented by vectors on the nplane provided these
are multiplied by, for example, the constant 2G in order that they have the
dimensions of stress. The deviator stress vector, OP, and the plastic strain
increment vector, say, QR, can then be represented in the same diagram
as shown in figure 5.3.
From equation (5.41) the plastic work increment, d»;,, is given as the
scalar product ofthe two vectors OP and QR. Hence
d»;, = (OP.QR)/2G
= {IOPIIQRI cos(Oy)}/2G
where IOP I= {(u~) 2 + (u~) 2 + (u~)2 P' 2 = (2/3) 1' 2 a
and IQRI = 2G{(de~f + (de~) 2 + (de~) 2 } 1 ' 2 = 2G(3/2) 1' 2 deP
The plastic work increment is therefore given by
d»;, = udiP cos(B y) (5.44)
If it is now assumed that the principal axes of plastic strain increment
coincide with the axes of principal stress then y = 0 and equation (5.44)
reduces to
d»;, = adeP (5.45)
which is valid for the PrandtlReuss stressstrain relations. It then follows
that the equations (5.29) can be restated in the form
de~= (3/2)(d»;,/u 2)u;j (5.46)
It is necessary to determine the degree of strainhardening or work
hardening which occurs in a given metal due to plastic deformation. Two
hypotheses have been proposed for this purpose. One of these hypotheses
proposed by Hill assumes that the degree of hardening depends only on
the total plastic work done and is independent of the strain path 8 • This
implies that the resistance to further deformation depends only on the
amount of plastic work which has been done on the metal from the time
that it was in its initially annealed condition and is assessed by means of
the yield criterion.
As shown previously, the yield criterion for an isotropic, strainhardening
metal can be written as cf>(u;j) = K, where the magnitude of K changes
as the metal strainhardens but cf>(u;j) remains independent of direction if
the metal is isotropic. According to the hypothesis, K is a function of the
total plastic work done per unit volume, so that
(5.47)
STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS 103
In chapter 4, it was shown that the von Mises yield criterion predicts
yielding for engineering metals with sufficient accuracy regardless of the
degree of prestrain. The final yield locus according to this criterion is indepen
dent of the strain path and also the hydrostatic component stress.
In terms of the principal stresses, this isotropic, strainhardening yield
criterion is
(0"1 112) 2 + (u2 u3) + (u3 111)2 = 6k 2
where k is the current yield shear stress depending upon the amount of
prestrain. However, it is more convenient to use the representative or
equivalent stress, ii, to denote the yield function, that is
ii = [ (1/2){ (u 1  u2)2 + (u 2  u 3f + (u3  u 1)2} ]112 = [ (3/2){ (u~)2 +
(u~)2 + (u~)2} ]112 = f(»i,) (5.48)
Equation (5.48) is only valid for isotropic, strainhardening where the
Bauschinger effect is absent. It is also implied that no plastic work is done
by the hydrostatic components of stress. No change in volume of the metal
occurs even though its shape is changed during plastic deformation. Its
density remains constant and the metal is therefore considered to be in
compressible.
The strainhardening hypothesis can then be written in the form
(5.49)
jj f
= H diP = HiP (5.50)
dO<Ob
C1 dO'>O C1
Jh
r~
I
I
I I I
I I I
I I I
E: E:
0 dE:>O 0 dE:>O E:
Figure 5.5. True stressnatural strain (a, e) characteristic curves showing positive
and negative increments of work
decreases with increasing stress so that dO". dB < 0 and again the work done
is negative. This hypothetical case violates the law of conservation of energy.
Only the first case as illustrated by figure 5.5(a) is normally appropriate
to the deformation of engineering metals.
An element of a strainhardening material is subjected to an initial stress
state, O"ij, and then, by some external 2.gency, the stress state is changed
to O"ii, which is on the yield locus, by an arbitrary loading path inside the
yield locus so that only elastic deformation is involved. Now suppose that
an additional infinitesimal stress, dO"ii, is applied and then relieved. It is
assumed that these changes occur very slowly so that the process can be
regarded as isothermal. According to Drucker's postulate:
:::l
___ L_ .. . . . .
Subu:quent yield locus
c.,
............
Let the initial yield locus be designated :E, as shown in figure 5.6, and the
loading path be A + B + C. The initial stress state, uij, then corresponds
to the point A which is either inside the yield locus, as shown in figure 5.6,
or on the surface of :E. The point B representing the stress state, O";j, is on the
surface of :E. An infinitesimal stress increment, du;j, is then applied which
is indicated by B + C and produces a corresponding strain increment, de;j,
where part of de;j is elastic and part may be plastic, that is, de;j = de~j +de~.
The subsequent yield locus is designated :E'.
Now suppose that the additional stress increment, du;j, is relieved so
that the material unloads and returns to the point A by an arbitrary path
C + A. In this event, the elastic strain increment, de~j, is recovered but the
plastic strain increment, de~, is irreversible. It then follows from the second
implication given above for strainhardening that
(a)
Obtuse angle
(b)
Figure 5.8. (a) Stress and plastic strain increment vectors for a convex yield locus
where only acute angles (} and 1/J are possible; (b) a yield locus which is not convex
showing that obtuse angles 1/J are possible
which means that the vector aii  ai'j makes an acute angle with the vector
deE for all values of ai'j. This implies that all points representing ai~ must
be located on one side of a plane which is perpendicular to the vector deE,
and because this vector is normal to the yield locus it follows that this
plane is tangential to the yield locus as shown in figure 5.8(a). No vector
aii  ai'j can pass outside the locus and intersect it twice. The yield locus
must therefore be convex. If, however, the yield locus were not convex, as
is the situation indicated in figure 5.8(b), there can exist some points, aii
and ai'j, such that the vector aii  ai'j makes an obtuse angle, t/J, with the
vector defi, in which case the condition (5.59) is violated.
(5.60)
where Cijkl may be functions of stress, strain and loading history but are
assumed to be independent of the stress increment duk 1•
If plastic deformation occurs, then the first assumption implies that
df(uij) > 0
or (5.61)
Let the existing stress state be uw and an additional stress increment,
dukP be applied so that plastic deformation occurs. As discussed in section
5.7.2, the stress increment vector, duw can be resolved into the two rectan
gular components, du~V, and du~~>, which are tangential and normal to the
yield locus, respectively. The component du~~l produces a plastic strain
increment deE. From inequality (5.61)
(aj;auk 1)duk 1 = (af/auk 1 ){du~? + du~{} > 0 (5.62)
However, the tangential component stress increment, du~f, does not produce
plastic deformation. Therefore
(af/auk 1 )du~/ = o (5.63)
The normal component stress increment du~~l is proportional to the gradient
off Therefore
(5.64)
where s is a scalar > 0 and then from inequality (5.62) and equations (5.63)
and (5.64) it follows that
(af/auk1)duk 1 = (af/auk 1 )du~~> = (af/a<Jk 1)s(afla<Jk1) > o (5.65)
Hence s = {(af/a<Jk 1)j(ajja<Jmn)(afla<Jmn)}d<Jk1 (5.66)
Comparing equation (5.66) with equation (5.60) and since the tangential
component stress increment d<J~V does not produce plastic deformation it
can be seen that the components of the plastic strain increment, deE, are
proportional to the scalar s. That is
(5.67)
and substituting for s, produces
deE= gi/af/a<Jk 1)d<Jk 1 (5.68)
STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS 111
where 9;j depends on the stress, strain and history of loading. Inequality
(5.57) can be restated as
da;jde~ = {daW + dalj>}defj;:::: 0 (5.69)
but dal~l produces no plastic deformation so that the additional stress
increment daij = Cdal~l + daljl, for any value of C, will produce the same
plastic strain increment de~. The strainhardening condition can therefore
be stated as
{Cda!')
IJ
+ da!':'l}de.~;::::
IJ IJ
0 (5.70)
Two other equations of the same type can be obtained by determining the
partial derivatives, ofjoa 2, and ofjoa 3. Then three equations of the type
dt:l = (2/3)di{a 1  (1/2)(ax + ay)}
can be produced which give the components of plastic strain increment,
dt:fj, in the principal directions. The PrandtlReuss equations can thus
be identified if di = Gdf and it will be appreciated that the PrandtlReuss
equations or flow rule are associated with the von Mises yield criterion.
In equation (5.27), the nonnegative parameter, di, has been shown to
be equal to (3/2)(d8P /a). Therefore
di = Gdf = (3/2)(dsP /a)
or G = (3/2)(dsP /a)/df
However, from equation (5.20),
f=J~=(a) 2 /3
Hence df/da = (2/3)a
or df = (2/3)ada
and G = (9/4){ dsP /(a) 2da} (5.74)
Now assume the Tresca yield criterion to be applicable and let the maxi
mum and minimum principal stresses be known where a 1 ~ a 2 ~ a 3 . In this
case,
f=(a 1 cr 3 )/2=k
ofjoal = 1/2, ofjoa2 = 0 and ofjoa3 = 1/2
Hence dc:l = (1/2)dA
dc:2 = 0
dt: 3 =  (1/2)di
It will be noted that the plastic stressstrain relations or flow rule associated
with the Tresca yield criterion is different to that for the von Mises yield
criterion. It can now be emphasised that each yield criterion is associated
with a different flow rule.
or 1 :0:1 (5.79)
114 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
which indicates that plastic deformation occurs only in the plane of u 1 and
u 3 and that the plastic strain increments are equal in magnitude but of
opposite kind.
Oj nplanc
Figure 5.9. The increment of plastic work done per unit volume is the scalar
product of the deviator stress vector, OP, and the plastic strain increment vector PQ
plastic work and the hydrostatic stress components do no work. The incre
mental plastic work done can therefore be considered with reference to
the nplane as illustrated in figure 5.9. Hence
d W = cr~ de~ + cr~ de~ + cr~ de~ = cr; def (5.87)
Now consider another stress state (cr!, cr!, crt) which produces the same
plastic strain increments, de~, satisfies the yield criterion and is represented
by the point P* on the 7tplane and which is also on the yield locus.
The incremental plastic work done per unit volume for this case is given by
d W* = cr!' de~ + cr!' de~ + cr!' de~ = cr(' def (5.88)
The difference in the plastic work increments per unit volume is
dW dW* = OP·PQ OP*·PQ
= (cr~ cr~')de!'
1 1 1
(5.89)
Thus, for an element of volume, d V, subjected to the more general stress
state, crij, which produces plastic strain increments, de~, and also subjected
to the stress state, cr~, which produces the same plastic strain increments,
the difference in the plastic work increments is
(cr;j cr~')de~.dV (5.90)
Consider a rigidperfectly plastic body of volume V to be plastically
deformed such that the plastic strain increments are de~ at every point. The
actual plastic work increment, d W, is greater than the plastic work increment,
dW*, required to produce the same plastic strain increments, de~, by the
fictitious stress distribution which also satisfies the same yield criterion,
since
STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONS 117
I v
(rr;i rrG')e~.dV ?o o (5.93)
REFERENCES
1. Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, ch. 2, p. 33, Oxford
University Press, London (1950)
2. Sokolnikoff, I. S., Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, p. 84, McGraw
Hill, New York (1956)
3. de SaintVenant, B., Memoire sur l'etablissement des equations
differentielles des mouvements interieurs operes dans les corps solids
ductiles au dehi des limites ou l'elasticite pourrait les ramener a leur
premier etat, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 70, 473 (1870)
4. Prandtl, L., Spannungsverteilung in plastischen Koerpern, Proc. 1st
Int. Congr. on Appl. Mech., Delft, p. 43 (1924)
5. Reuss, A., Beruecksichtigung der elastischen Formaenderungen in der
Plastizitaetstheorie, Z. angew. Math. Mech., 10,266 (1930)
6. Levy, M., Memoire sur des equations generales des mouvements
interieurs des corps solides ductiles au dela limites ou l'elasticite pourrait
les ramener a leur premier etat, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 70, 1323 (1870)
7. von Mises, R., Mechanik der festen Korper in Plastisch deformablem
Zustand, Nachr. Gess. Wiss. Gottingen, p. 582 (1913)
8. Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, ch. 2, p. 25, Oxford
University Press, London (1950)
9. Ford, H., Advanced Mechanics of Materials, p. 416, Wiley, New York
(1963)
10. Pugh, H. Ll. D., A note on a testoftheplasticisotropyofme tals,J. Mech.
Phys. Solids, 1, 284 (1953)
11. Hundy, B. B. and Green, A. P., A determination of plastic stressstrain
relations, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 3, 16 (1954)
12. Hohenemser, K., Fliessversuche an Rohren aus Stahl bei kombinierter
Zug und Toisionsbeanspruchung, Z. angew. Math. Mech., 11, 15 (1931)
118 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
I
I F
.....
LL
u
ji
I
.2
c
><
I
I
<
I
I
I
0 J Extension x
Plastic or Elastic or
irrecoverable extension recoverable extension
(6.2)
If the current crosssectional area of the gauge length is A, then the true
stress, a, is given by
CT=F/A (6.3)
Let the initial gauge length be, 10 , and the current gauge length be I.
Conventional or engineering strain, e, is defined as the change in length per
unit initial gauge length so that the tensile conventional or engineering
strain is given by
e = (l1 0 )/10 = (l/1 0 )  1 (6.4)
or l/10 = 1 + e (6.5)
124 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
.
0
tf (T
. ..
:: b
.. Ill
(Tno•
"'
~~
"
"'cw:"
~ .
.. Ill
~
·e;
0 ..
Zl
0 e
Tensile engineering strain e
second.
Assuming the gauge length of a standard tensile test specimen to be
50 mm then v/1 0 ~ w 3 per sec which indicates that the rate of extension
should not exceed about 50 x 10 3 mm per sec or 0.3 em per min.
Now suppose that a short cylindrical block of metal of initial height,
H 0 , is subjected to uniaxial compression between two rigid, parallel platens.
For convenience, it will be assumed that the lower platen is stationary
whilst the upper platen descends with a speed, v, and the initial height of
the cylindrical block is reduced to a current height, H, in a small increment
of time dt. The increment of engineering strain is
de= dH/H 0
and the minus sign thus indicates that the increment of strain is compressive.
The engineering strainrate, e, is
e= dejdt =  (1/H 0 )(dH/dt) =  v/H 0 (6.21)
The corresponding natural strainrate, e, is
8 = dejdt =  (1/H)(dH/dt) =  v/H (6.22)
If the cylindrical block were subjected to compression, for example,
PHENOMENOLOGICAL NATURE OF ENGINEERING METALS 127
beneath a forging hammer then the strainrate is variable being a maximum
at the instant of impact and decreasing in some manner until the compression
is completed when the strainrate is zero.
Let the hammer impact the block with an initial speed, u, and assume
that all the available kinetic energy is actually dissipated in producing
homogeneous plastic deformation of the block so that the compression
from an initial height H 0 to a fmal height H 1 is completed in a time T. The
following mean values of strainrate can then be defined:
_Plastic
Liiders
band
(a) (b)
Figure 6.3. (a) Propagation of a plastic Liiders band in an annealed mild steel
strip specimen; (b) engineering strains for an element of the strip in a Liiders band
U U= Y+AE:n
(a)
0
n=l
n•l/2
n•O
(b)
(c)
Figure 6.4. Empirical equations for true stressnatural strain curves: (a) a rigid
strain hardening material a= Y + Ae"; (b) a= Ae"(Y = 0, n = 1, n = 1/2, n = 0); (c) the
stressstrain curve approximated by a bilinear expression a = Ee from zero strain to the
yield stress Y and a = Pe during plastic deformation
U Pointlof in:~::lity

o__I.,IE:inst
1_:__ _ _
(a)
u Point of instability
Oinst
~~~~0++~C
Cinst
(b)
Moving t Platen
r  ,
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Stationary
interfaces between the specimen and the tooling used to effect the
compression.
The simplest form of compression specimen is a solid circular cylinder
having plane end faces which is compressed between plane parallel platens
that have been hardened and tempered and then ground and polished. To
minimise frictional resistance at the interfaces a suitable boundary lubricant
such as graphite in tallow is used at low temperatures. The machining of
shallow concentric grooves in the end faces of the compression specimen
to entrap lubricant aids in reducing the frictional resistance and this method
was apparently first suggested by Loizou and Sims 13 •
Assuming it to be possible to eliminate frictional resistance at the inter
faces between the end faces of the specimen and the platens, then the com
pression of the specimen would be homogeneous. In this event the circular
cylinder of initial diameter, D0 , and initial height, H 0 , would simply be
reduced in height at any instant during the compression to a current height,
H, whilst the diameter increases to D, as shown in figure 6.6. The fractional
reduction effected is then given by
R = (H 0  H)/H 0 = 1 (H/H 0 } (6.50)
or H/H 0 = 1R
The compressive natural strain is
e = ln(H 0 /H) = ln{1/(1 R)} (6.51)
Let A 0 be the initial crosssectional area of the cylindrical specimen and
A the current crosssectional area. Neglecting the small change in volume
of the specimen which occurs during elastic deformation so that the material
136 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Stationary I Platen
(a)
t
(b)
~/00 = I
~/00 = 3/2
HiD0 = 2
::.:.:::.1=
u..
.....
~
0 1/2

r.0 2/3
00
Extrapolated value of
fractional reduction R
corrnponding to an
0
..
c::
infinite initial H I D
ratio (00 /H0=0)
Figure 6.8. Extrapolation procedure for the uniaxial compression test suggested
by Cook and Larke 14
138 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Specimen strip

.a
it C7'·Yr31/2'2'p P. 
IL
II
=====1~====~:::.~1
p
.,...
Q.
(7'
.,....... 1/?1"".. I . ..
:::J , ............. 1
Figure 6.11. The effect of temperature and strainrate on the ductility of body
centred tetragonal tin in uniaxial tension
140........,9
200°C
250°C
300°C
"
""
L.
1
500°C
0•8
~400 N
25 ~
~ ~
b ...c
0
....... ....
:1300
..
...
!;
>
...
·:200
a. 400°C 10
.?:
S
E ~~~~~~1 ~
...
0
u E
0
~==.,r~5 ~
.
:::J
1 :::J
1
0 0·8
.
.
>
IS·=
a.
E
0
u
E:•IOO/s
.. E:= 40/s
..."...
..
~200
"iii
...
"
0..
E
0100
u
5 ~
"...
:::J ...
1
1
8 Hiatus
\,j
0
a.
::?! 6
400
O."' 200
I'
"'c
...
" '' "'
I
c
5300 I
'' "
.... "....
.
I
4 lr ' \ \I
t\ .a 15
100
C»
ro
lu
' ' ..,o
.a
I \ \I
I \
",, "'0
'' '
t 10
~200 "I"'
ol<'> 3
I
\
a
..
·;;I 8 )( I \ )(
0 50 I
;; "I ..
~~~ a."' '' a."' 6
0
01 ...
c ~~~
"
'0
.!:
>I ..
bl~ 1 1 4
a::,
.. I ..
20
'
c Annealed
~ 100 aluminium alloy 2
::?! Annealed copper
(6.5.1433) 10 (6.5.1476 HE 10)
I
0 800 0
for a given mean strain. Figure 6.16 shows the relation between the logarithm
of the mean quasistatic indentation pressure and the temperature for the
two metals. Referring to figure 6.16(a) for the annealed copper it will be
observed that there is a discontinuity of slope and for the annealed aluminium
alloy there is a hiatus in figure 6.16(b) which occur in each case at approxima
tely the corresponding recrystallisation temperature.
Approximate recrystallisation
temperature of a iron
(ferrite I
I
Approximate
I
1 A 3 phase
: transformation
: lay)
1 temperature
I
I
1·0
Homologous temperature TtrT/TM
Figure 6.17. Relation between the stress ratio (u0 /u 5) and homologous tempera
ture (TH) for 0.55 per cent plain carbon steel at a constant compressive engineering
strain of 0.15 for various compressive engineering strainrates (after Slater, Ak:u and
Johnson 26 )
6.4.4 Strainsoftening
During plastic deformation of a metal, external work is done and this
dissipation of energy is ultimately transformed into thermal energy so that
an increase in the temperature of the metal may occur. At temperatures
below the recrystallisation temperature and during slow speed forming the
effects of this increase in temperature do not appear to be significant. How
ever, it is logical to assume that, for particular metals, at some condition of
temperature and strainrate, with this contribution to the thermal energy
possessed by the metal, the rate of thermal recovery will exceed the rate
of strainhardening. In this event, the flow stress of the metal would be
expected to decrease with increasing strain, that is, strainsoftening would
occur. Indeed, strainsoftening is exhibited in the characteristic curves of
figure 6.15 for strains, B > 0.3.
6.4.5 Yield stress of steel at about room temperature and yield delay
From quasistatic and impact tension and compression tests in the range
of strainrate, 10 3 /s < 8 < 103 /s, as performed by Hopkinson 35 , Campbell
and Duby 36 •37 and many others it may be concluded that the ratio of the
dynamic stress to the quasistatic initial yield stress for mild steel is usually
about 2 and sometimes as high as 3. However, if instead of initial yield
stress, the flow stress is considered for the comparison then this ratio is
150 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
where p 0 is the density of the metal, and cP(e) is the plastic wave speed. A
diffraction grating technique was used by Bell to determine large strain
in microsecond time.
Further discussion of this topic and some other equations correlating
stress, strainrate and temperature are given in the textbook by Thomsen,
Yang and Kobayashi 43 .
.
2 2r 2
"'
Ill
II
a:
ol II
..
·.;::;
c
....
c:
c
II)
0 45
Orientation to the direction of rolling
Figure 6.18. Variation of strain ratio with orientation
PHENOMENOLOGICAL NATURE OF ENGINEERING METALS 155
The ratio of the width strain to the thickness strain or Rx value is
Rx = de~/de~ = H/G (6.77)
where the subscript x denotes that the specimen is orientated along the
x direction. For a strip cut from the sheet in they direction
de~ :de~ :de~= H :F+H: F (6.78)
and R y = dePfdeP
X Z
= H/F (6.79)
To derive the anisotropic parameters for plane stress deformation of
a sheet metal it is necessary to perform a uniaxial tensile test in at least
one other direction in the plane of the sheet. It may be assumed that if the
specimen is subjected to stress in the plane of the sheet, that is, the (x, y)
plane then the shear stresses 'tyz and 'tzy are zero. If a specimen is cut with
its longitudinal axis at an angle a to the x direction, then
ax= a cos 2 (X
aY = a sin2 a (6.80)
and 'txy = a sin (X cos (X
where a is the applied tensile yield stress and, if these values are substituted
into equations (5.80), the following equations are obtained
de~= {(G +H) cos 2 a H sin 2 a}adA.
de~= {(F +H) sin 2 a H cos 2 a}adA. (6.81)
dt~~ =  {F sin 2 a + G cos 2 a} adA.
}
Rx=R 0 =H/G
Ry=R 90 =H/F (6.84)
and R 45 = {N  !(F + G)} /(F + G)
Therefore N /G = {R45 + (1/2)} {1 + (R 0 /R 90 )} (6.85)
156 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
.
II%
.2 2·0r....,
!:!
6. 1·5
...
"'~1·0
!:!
"
~0·5''...l.'L'
lbl
4 Intensity of [Ill] peak
• Reciprocal intensity
of [I 00] peak
Absence of
:_..Aio cubeoncorner
[Ill] texture
Figure 6.19. (a) Bodycentred cubic structure of a low plain carbon steel;
(b) variation of the average strain ratio, R, with cold fractional reduction; (c) variation
of final annealed texture with cold fractional reduction
+U
u
Figure 6.20. The Bauschinger effect
6. 7 PLASTIC INSTABILITY
Therefore
de~= de~= deV2 = {de 1  (datfE)}/2
or de 2 + v(datfE) = de 3 + v(datfE) = {de 1  (datfE)}/2
and de 2 = de 3 = {de 1  (1 2v)(da 1 /E)}/2 (6.89)
If there is no rotation of the principal axes it follows that
e2 =e 3 = {e 1 (l2v)(atfE)}/2 (6.90)
The tensile axial force F, at any instant before the condition of instability
is reached is given by
F = a 1 A = a 1 A 0 /(1 + e 1 )
where A 0 and A are the initial and current crosssectional areas respectively
160 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Therefore
d8 1 /(a 1  am)= d8 2 /(a 2  am)= d8 3 /(a 3  am)
where the hydrostatic stress, am,=(a 1 +a 2 +a 3 )/3=a 1 (1+x)/3 since
a 3 = 0. Hence
de 1/[a 1  {a 1 (1 +x)/3}] =d8 2 /[xa 1  {a 1 (1 +x)/3}] = d8 3 /{ a 1 (1 +x)/3}
which reduces to
d8d(2 x) = d8 2 /(2x  1) =  d8 3 (1 + x) (6.94)
Similarly, equation (2.46) for the equivalent stress, a, can be rewritten as
a= a 1 (1  x + x 2 ) 112 (6.95)
PHENOMENOLOGICAL NATURE OF ENGINEERING METALS 161
(6.101)
where p is the fluid pressure, p the radius of curvature of the deformed blank
and t is the current thickness of the blank. Equation (6.101) implies that
rotational symmetry exists about the pole and hence it is assumed that the
deformation is isotropic.
Deformed circular blank Pole Clamp ring
Figure 6.22. Geometry of the deformed blank during a hydrostatic bulge test
PHENOMENOLOGICAL NATURE OF ENGINEERING METALS 163
The equivalent stress, ii, in terms of the principal stresses is
ii = [(1/2){ (a 1 a 2) 2 +(a 2 a 3 ) 2 +(a3 a 1f} ]112
Substituting the values a 1 = a 2 = a and a 3 = 0 yields
a=a (6.102)
thus indicating that the equivalent stress is equal in magnitude to one of
the principal circumferential stresses and, of course, is tensile.
It is assumed that the membrane strains 8 1 = 8 2 = 8 in all directions and
are tensile. For the condition of incompressibility
81 + 82 + 83 = 0
Therefore (6.103)
where 8 3 is the thickness strain given by
83 = ln(t/t0 ) = ln(t0 /t) (6.104)
The equivalent strain, e, referred to the principal directions is
e= [2{ (81  82) 2 + (82  83) 2 + (83  81) 2 } ]1 12 /3
Substituting the values 81 = 8 2 = 8 and 83 = 28 results in
e= 28 =  83 = ln(to/t) (6.105)
showing that the equivalent strain is equal in magnitude to the thickness
strain but is tensile, as would be expected.
Since a hydrostatic pressure has no effect on yielding the system is equiva
lent to a compressive stress, a, normal to the plane of the sheet metal and
the relation between a and the thickness strain, 8 3 , produces the equivalent
stressequivalent strain characteristic curve.
A biaxial test extensometer has been described by Duncan and Johnson 5 1
and the automatic recording of equivalent stressequivalent strain charac
teristic curves for sheet metals was reported by Bell, Duncan and Johnson 5 2 •
Biaxial tension tests on anisotropic metals were apparently first performed
by Jackson, Smith and Lankford 5 3 . These workers assumed that the loading
was along the anisotropic axes of the metal, although they pointed out
that this assumption was incorrect. At the pole of the deformed blank,
the applied forces in the plane of the sheet act in all directions rather than
just in the x and y directions. Bramley and Mellor 54 therefore suggested
that it is preferable to average the planar properties of the metal thus imposing
rotational symmetry about the z axis. As a basis for calculation, the R values
were determined from tensile test specimens cut from sheet every 10 degrees
to the direction of rolling. The average R value. R, was determined from
the area under the curve obtained by plotting R value against orientation
to the direction of rolling. The stressstrain curve corresponding to the
value of R was also derived from the experimental data.
164 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Therefore
ex : ey : ez = R + 1 :  R :  1
At the pole of the deformed circular blank
(6.110)
Hence, relating the average longitudinal strain, ex = eav from the experi
mental data to the polar thickness strain ez by using equation (6.107)
8 = (2/3) 112{(2 + R)/2} 1/2ez = (2/3) 112{(2 + R)/(1 + R)} 112 eav
or ez = {2/(1 + R) }112 eav (6.111)
To convert the average tensile curve to the stressstrain curve from the
hydrostatic bulge test
(Jz = {(1 + R)/2} 1/2(Jav (6.112)
and ez = {2/(1 + R) } 112 eav (6.113)
Similar experiments have been performed on titanium and zinc by Bramley
PHENOMENOLOGICAL NATURE OF ENGINEERING METALS 165
and Mellor 55 and reasonable correlation was obtained for the titanium
but not for the zinc. The behaviour of steel and aluminium blanks has been
studied by Pearce 56 . The R values for these metals were less than unity and
Pearce reported that equation (6.112) and (6.113) could not be correlated
with his experimental results. The hydrostatic bulge test has also been used
to investigate strainr&te effects on the characteristics of steel and aluminium
sheet metal 57 •
A general approach to the instability of sheet metal subjected to biaxial
tension has been proposed by Marciniak and Kuczyinski 58 who associate
instability with prior inhomogeneities in the sheet metal. This theory has
been extended by Sowerby and Duncan 59 and experimental results have
been reported by Venter, Johnson and deMalherbe 60 •
Since (j =a= pp/2t = (ppj2t 0 )(t 0 /t), the equivalent stress, a, and the
corresponding equivalent strain, e, can be determined for varying values
of fluid pressure p. The (a, e) characteristic curve for the sheet metal can
then be produced.
Integration yields
e3 = 2ln { 1 + (h 2 /a 2 )} (6.121)
Differentiating equation (6.117) gives
dpjdh = (h 2  a2 )/2h 2
or (6.122)
Let y = { 1 + (h 2 ja 2 )} = 2phja 2 then equation (6.121) becomes
e3 = 2ln y
and de 3 jdy = 2/y = 2a 2 j(a 2 + h2 ) = a2 jph (6.123)
Also dyjdh = 2hja 2 (6.124)
Hence by combining equations (6.122), (6.123) and (6.124)
de 3 jdp = (de 3 jdy )( dyjdh )(dhjdp)
= { 2a 2 j(a 2 + h2 ) }(2h/a 2 ){ 2h 2 /(h 2  a 2 )}
= 4h 2 /{p(h 2  a 2 )}
Therefore
dpjde 3 = p(h 2  a2 )j4h 2 (6.125)
and equation (6.116) becomes
( 1/0')(dO' /de 3 ) = 1 + { (h 2  a 2 )/4h 2 }
= 1 + { (h2  ph) j2h 2 }
since a2 = 2ph  h2 . Therefore
( 1/0')( d0'/de 3 ) = 1 + ( 1/2) (p/2h) = ( 3/2) (pj2h) (6.126)
From equation (6.117) pj2h = (a 2 j4h 2 ) { 1 + (h2 ja 2 )} and from
equation (6.121) exp(e 3 /2) = 1 + (h 2 ja 2 )
or h 2 /a 2 = exp(e 3 /2) 1
and a 2 /h 2 = 1/ {exp(e 3 /2) 1}
Therefore
pj2h = exp(e 3 /2)/4{ exp(e 3 /2) 1} (6.127)
= { 1 + (e3 /2) + .... }/4 { 1 + (e 3 /2) + (eV8) + ...  1}
= { 1 + (e 3 /2) + .... }/4 {(e 3 /2) + (e;;s) + .... }
Rj{1 + (e3 /2)} /( 4e 3 /2) {1 + (e3 /4)}
Rj{1 +(e 3 /2)}/(4e 3 /2){1(e 3 /4)}
168 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Therefore
(1/a)(da/d8 3) = q/(D + 83) (6.129)
Combining equations (6.128) and (6.129)
qj(D + 83) ~ (11/8) (1/28 3)
or
Mter rearranging
118~ + 83(  8q + llD  4)  4D ~ 0
If the material is fully annealed then D = 0 and
118~ + 83(  8q  4) ~ 0
or
Therefore
83 ~ (8q + 4)/11 ~ (4/11)(2q + 1) (6.130)
Equation (6.130) gives the instability thickness strain in balanced biaxial
tension and shows that in a hydrostatic bulge test of a circular sheet metal
blank, no matter to what extent the material is initially prestrained the
instability strain is always greater than 4/11. This suggests that the hydrostatic
bulge test is a more suitable method than the uniaxial tensile test for determin
ing the stressstrain relationship for a sheet metal.
ez = f
H,
Ho
( dh/h) = ln(H0 /H d (6.132)
The total energy dissipated in compressing the billet from an initial height,
H 0 , to a final height, H 1 , is then given by
E/V = fHt
Ho
uz( dh/h)
E/V = f•z
0
uzdez = Y
IHt ( dh/h)
Ho
(6.135)
(b) Strainhardening material
If the material is strainhardening and the true stressnatural strain
characteristic curve for the material in compression is approximately given
by u = Aen then
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172 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
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PHENOMENOWGICAL NATURE OF ENGINEERING METALS 173
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174 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Festigheit des Eisens und Stah1s, Mitt. a.d. Mech. Tech. Lab., Munchen,
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7
Plane Strain Plastic Deformation
and (7.7)
The LevyMises stressstrain increment equations are
deij = a;j dA. = (3/2)(di/O') a;j
where dA. is a nonnegative parameter. Therefore
deij = (aij am)dA. where am= (ax+ ay + az)/3
Hence dex = (2/3)dA. {ax (1/2)(ay + az)}}
dey= (2/3)dA. {ay (1/2)(ax + az)} (7.8)
dez = (2/3)dA. {az (1/2)(ax + ay)}
and dyxy = 't"xydA.
However, dez = 0. Therefore, from the third of equations (7.8)
az =(ax+ ay)/2 (7.9)
so that the hydrostatic stress, am, is given by
am= (ax+ ay + az)/3
= {ax+ ay + (1/2)(ax + ay)} /3 (7.10)
=(ax+ ay)/2
Hence, for plane strain deformation in the (xy) plane
(7.11)
The von Mises yield criterion in terms of the components of the stress
tensor, a;p is
(ax ayf + (ay az) 2 + (az ax) 2 + 6(r;Y + r;z + r;x) = 6k 2
where k is the yield stress in pure shear, but for plane strain deformation in
the (xy) plane
Therefore
178 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
which reduces to
(1/4)(ux uy) 2 + r;Y = P (7.12)
The principal stresses in the plastically deforming region are
0" 1.= (1/2)(ux + uy) + {(1/4)(ux uy) 2 + r;Y} 1/2 }
0"2 = O"z = (ux + uy)/2 = p say (7.13)
u 3 = (1/2)(ux + uy) { (1/4)(ux uy) 2 + r;Y }1/2
The maximum shear stress in the plane of flow is given by
'!max= k = (u1 0"3)/2
= {(1/4)(ux uy)2 + r;y}1/2 (7.14)
Consequently, the principal stresses can be expressed as
(T 1 = P + k, (T 2 = (Tz = (Tm = p, (T 3 = P k (7.15)
That is, the stress state at every point throughout the plastically deforming
region is characterised by the superposition of a hydrostatic stress, p, on a
pure shear stress, k, as illustrated in figure 7.1. This assumes that the stress
state for the metal forming process is predominantly compressive such that
the hydrostatic stress is compressive, that is, a hydrostatic pressure p.
The representative or equivalent stress, u, in terms of the principal stresses
is given by equation (2.46) which is
(j = (1/2)1f2{(u1 u2)2 + (u2 u3)2 + (u3 u1)2 pt2
If the von Mises yield criterion is assumed this equation reduces to
0'=(31/2/2)(u1u3)=31i2k (7.16)
and yielding occurs when k attains the value Y/(3) 1 ' 2 , where Y is the yield
stress. However, ifthe Tresca yield criterion is applied the equivalent stress is
Figure 7.1. Stress state at a point in a plastically deforming region under plane
strain conditions characterised by a hydrostatic stress superimposed on a pure shear
stress
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 179
ii = (}'1 (}'3 = 2k (7.17)
and yielding occurs when k attains the value Y /2. Therefore, there is no
difference between the functional relation of the stresses representing either
the von Mises or Tresca yield criteria under plane strain conditions. Conse
quently, the yield criterion can be summarised by equation (7.12) where
k = Y/3 112 for the von Mises yield criterion and Y/2 for the Tresca yield
criterion.
The differential equations for force equilibrium, with reference to a
cartesian system of coordinates, when body forces are insignificant or
absent and inertia forces are neglected, are given by equations (2.8). For
plane strain deformation in the (xy) plane independent of z, these equations
reduce to
O'y
+7"yx
rxy
p
• O'x
(2)
y
(a)
(l)~ax=+k +7"
Shear stress
7"
(b)
Figure 7.2. Stress state in plane strain deformation for a rigidperfectly plastic
material showing (a) the physical plane, and, (b) the Mohr stress circle diagram
the maximum shear stress, Tmax' that can be attained which is the yield shear
stress, k, in plane strain.
There are two mutually orthogonal planes, namely P(l) and P(2) on
which the shear stresses attain the maximum possible values Tmax = ± k,
respectively, and on which the normal stress has the value p (compressive).
The traces of these planes shown in figure 7.2(a) may be referred to as the
first and second shear lines. The stress states existing on these two planes are
represented in the Mohr stress circle diagram by the points 1 and 2, respec
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 181
tively. For an isotropic material, the directions of maximum shear strainrate
coincide with the directions of maximum shear stress and these directions are
also directions of zero rate of extension or contraction.
By referring to figiire 7.2(b) it can be seen that the stress components
ux, uY and rxy = ryx cari be expressed in terms of the hydrostatic pressure, p,
and the yield shear stress, k, as follows:
ux =  (p + k sin 2cjJ) =  p k sin 2cjJ (7.19)
uY =  p + k sin 2cjJ (7.20)
± 't"xy = ± k COS 2c/J (7.21)
where cjJ is the angle through which the plane PY must be rotated anticlock
wise for it to coincide with the second shear line. It corresponds to an anti
clockwise rotation of 24> from CA to C(2) in the Mohr stress circle diagram.
Combining equations (7.19) and (7.20) produces
Ux + UY =  2p (7.22)
which agrees with equation (7.11) since the hydrostatic stress, p, is compres
sive and hence negative. Also
u1(um)= u~
(7.23)
or
which is the compressive deviator stress corresponding to the principal
direction (1), and
u3(um)= u~
+Y
'Y
Figure 7.3. Mohr circle diagram for strainrate during the plane strain deforma
tion of a rigidperfectly plastic material
182 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
or (7.24)
which is the compressive deviator stress corresponding to the principal
direction (3).
7.2.2 Mohr circle diagram for strainrate and plastic strain increment
under plane strain conditions
Since /; 2 = de 2 /dt = 0 where t denotes time, 83 =  81 if the material is
assumed to be incompressible such that there is no volume change, and the
equation /; 1 + 82 + i; 3 = 0 is satisfied.
The Mohr circle diagram for strainrate is therefore as shown in figure 7.3.
It was shown in section 5.3.1. that the Mohr circle diagrams for stress and
plastic strain increment are similar and this was illustrated in figure 5.2.
The Mohr circle diagram for plastic strain increment under plane strain
conditions will therefore be similar in form to figure 7.2(b).
(I)
I
I
I
o;=(pk)
o;=(p+k)
Figure 7.4. Principal stress directions and the IX and f3 directions at a point in a
plastically deforming region
It follows that
COS 2c/J = 1:xy/k (7.27)
and sin 2¢ = (ay ax)f2k (7.28)
If curves are drawn in the (xy) plane such that at every point on each
curve the tangent coincides with a direction of maximum shear stress then
two orthogonal families of curves are obtained which are termed shear
lines or slip lines. These two families of curves are usually designated r:1. lines
and {3lines corresponding to the first and second shear lines respectively.
The stresses on a small curvilinear element bounded by slip lines are
shown in figure 7.5 and the slip lines are designated r:1. and {3 accordingly.
It should be noted that it is necessary to correctly designate the two families
of slip lines. The usual convention of achieving this is that when the r:1. and
{3lines form a righthanded coordinate system of axes then the line of action
of the algebraic maximum principal stress, a 1 , is contained in the first and
184 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
I
Direction of the
v algebraic maximum
~lstrcssOj
I a
Figure 7.5. The hydrostatic pressure and yield shear stress on a small curvilinear
element
third quadrants. The anticlockwise rotation, c/J, of the tX line from the chosen
x direction is then considered to be positive.
.::..::.X=  __g_
ay ax ax ax
the hydrostatic pressure everywhere in the slip line field network. If the
displacements or velocities are prescribed over part of the boundary, as is
sometimes the case, then the Hencky stress equations are not sufficient to
obtain a solution. It is then necessary to use the velocity equations which are
considered in section 7.3.3.
If the yield shear stress, k, is allowed to vary, then additional integral terms
appear in the Hencky stress equations. This modification was first suggested
by Christopherson, Oxley and Palmer4 and further reported by Palmer and
Oxley 5 who required to adapt the slip line field theory for a rigidperfectly
plastic material to be applicable to a strainhardening material during
orthogonal machining. However, it is then not clear how the strain distri
bution is affected.
 oux
ou [  J
 ou voc/J
OS~ ox 4>=0 ox
 0
ox
(7.39)
and ~ = [ ovy
osp
J
oy <~>=o
= ov + u oc/J = 0
oy oy
(7.40)
or du  v d¢ = 0 along an rx line}
(7.41)
and dv + u d¢ = 0 along a f3 line
Equations (7.41) are the velocity compatibility equations which were first
derived by Geiringer 6 in 1930.
If the problem is statically determinate, the slip line field and the stresses
can be defined from equations (7.33) and the stress boundary conditions.
The velocities can then be determined from equations (7.41) using the velocity
boundary conditions. However, if the problem is statically indeterminate
when the stress boundary conditions are insufficient to obtain a unique slip
line field then the Hencky stress equations must be solved simultaneously
with the Geiringer velocity equations using both the stress boundary condi
tions and the velocity boundary conditions. Except for the cases where the
slip line fields are of the simplest kind, for example, the single triangle or
circular sector, the numerical solution to statically indeterminate problems
is extremely difficult and must usually be performed by trial and error.
Physical plane
0
Hodograph
Figure 7.8. A plastically deforming region ABCD bounded by two 11. lines and
two {3 lines demonstrating Hencky's first theorem
190 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Equation (7.48) implies that there is a constant angle between the tangents
to two slip lines of one family (a) at their intersection with a slip line of the
other family (/3). This is known as H encky' s first theorem.
This theorem is of considerable importance in the numerical and graphical
construction of slip line fields. A useful deduction from this theorem is
that if a segment of a slip line, cut off by two slip lines of the other family,
is a straight line then it follows that all the other segments cut off by the same
two slip lines of the other family will also be straight lines. The straight
segments are the common normals of the intersecting slip lines of the other
family. These slip lines thus have a common evolute and the straight segments
are all of the same length.
Consider a pair of a and f3 slip lines and let their radii of curvature be + R
and + S, respectively, when their curvatures are as shown in figure 7.9.
The length of the elemental segment PQ of the a line
t5sa = Rt5</> (7.49)
where sa is the distance measured along the a line.
of any two slip lines of one family at their intersection with a slip line of the
other family remains constant.
Therefore dS/ds(l = 1} (7.52)
and dR/dsp = 1
The second of equations (7.52) can be derived in a manner similar to the first.
From equations (7.52) it follows that
dS= ds(l= Rd¢
and dR =  dsp = + Sd¢
Therefore
dS + Rd¢ = 0 along an IX line }
(7.53)
dR  Sd¢ = 0 along a f3line
Equations (7.52) or, alternatively, equations (7.53) constitute Hencky's
second theorem which states that on moving along a slip line, the radii of
curvature of the slip lines of the other family at the points of intersection
change by an amount equal to the distance traversed.
If the distance traversed along a slip line is far enough in the appropriate
direction and the plastically deforming region extends far enough, then the
radii of curvature of the intersecting slip lines become zero. Also, on moving
along a slip line, the centres of curvature of the intersecting slip lines form
an involute of the slip line.
Other restrictions are placed on the geometry of the slip line field if the
Hencky stress equations are to be valid. However, since these other properties
of slip lines are not frequently used in solving problems of plasticity theory
no reference will be made here. The proofs of other theorems are to be found
in the textbook by Prager and Hodge 8 .
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
since ¢ varies linearly with distance along a fJ line, the hydrostatic pressure,
p, varies linearly with distance along a fJ line. It follows that the hydrostatic
pressure is constant in the radial direction and varies linearly with the angle
measured from the x axis. The stress components can be determined from
equations (7.19), (7.20) and (7.21). This type of slip line field is known as
the centred fan.
It should be noted that the centre of the fan, 0, is a point of stress singularity
since it can have any one of an infinite number of values. In metal forming
processes, stress singularities usually occur at die corners or at sudden
changes in crosssection of tooling and represent points where there are
rapid changes in stress and velocity.
A general simple stress state consists of one family of straight slip lines,
say oc lines, while the second family of fJ lines is generated by orthogonal
curves as shown in figure 7.11(c). For a simple stress state, the straight slip
lines are tangential to the envelope of the family as shown in figure 7.11(d).
This envelope is called the limit curve. In the case shown, the family of fJ lines
is generated by equidistant curves which are involutes with respect to the
limit curve.
From the cases considered, it can be inferred that a region adjoining a
region of uniform stress state is always in a state of simple stress. Assume
194 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
(b)
Figure 7.12. Slip line fields comprising (a) a region of simple stress state adjoining
a region of uniform stress state, and (b) two separate regions of uniform stress state
combined with a central centre fan field
that the region A in figure 7.12(a) is one of uniform stress state. A segment of
the straight slip line, SL, which bounds the region A is one of the family of
Plines. Along this slip line the hydrostatic pressure remains constant. The
region B must be contiguous with the solution along the boundary, SL,
and therefore must be a region of simple stress state.
Regions of uniform stress state can be combined with regions of simple
Figure 7.13. A more complicated slip line field which combines three regions of
uniform stress state with two centre fan fields 1
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 195
stress state in various ways. Figure 7.12(b) illustrates a slip line field consisting
of two separate regions of uniform stress state, A and C, combined with a
central centre fan field B. The stress field is continuous throughout the
regions A + B + C except at the centre, 0, which is a stress singularity.
A more complicated case is illustrated in figure 7.13. In this particular field
the regions A, C and E are regions of uniform stress state which are combined
with two centre fan fields B and D. Again, the stresses are continuous except
at the point 0. These examples of slip line fields are frequently used in
obtaining solutions to particular metal forming problems.
Physical plan~
Strus plan~
the poles of the Mohr stress circles for the strong and weak solutions are
collinear. The pole of a Mohr stress circle is defined as the point from which
lines parallel to the respective planes in the material intersect the Mohr stress
circle at points representing the stress state on those planes.
The existence of strong and weak solutions suggests that it is possible
for a surface ofstress discontinuity to occur in a rigidperfectly plastic material
across which there is a large stress gradient. For an engineering metal a
surface of stress discontinuity may be considered as the limit of an elastic
layer in an elasticplastic material which coincides with it.
If the material is deforming plastically, each of the radii of the two circles
then equals the pure yield shear stress k. A line of stress discontinuity can
Physical plane
(T  0
r
Stress plane
Figure 7.15. A stress discontinuity represented by the Mohr stress circle diagram
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 197
never coincide with a slip line since the two circles of radius, k, can only
intersect at the points r = ± k when they are coincident.
At every point along a line of stress discontinuity, C, shown in the physical
plane of figure 7.15 the resultant stress vector on one side must be equal in
magnitude, have the same direction but opposite sense to that on the other
side. For the element considered in a plane plastic flow this infers that the
compressive normal stress, un, and the shear stress, r, are continuous across
the line of discontinuity but the compressive tangential stress, ul' may be
discontinuous. The stress plane of figure 7.15 illustrates the Mohr stress
circle diagrams for the two states of stress existing in the regions (1) and (2)
on the two sides of the line of stress discontinuity.
It follows from the yield criterion that if the material on each side of the
line of stress discontinuity is plastically deforming
(}'t = (}'n+ 2(k2 't2)1/2 (7.54)
Hence
(}'~1) = (J'n _ 2(k2 _ 't2)1/2 (7.55)
which corresponds to the strong solution, and
u:2) = O'n + 2(k2  't2)1/2 (7.56)
corresponding to the weak solution.
It should be noted that the resultant compressive stress vector in the
regions (1) and (2) on each side of the line of stress discontinuity is represented
by OA. Also P 1 is the pole for region (1), P 2 is the pole for region (2), P 1I 1 is
the tX direction for region (1), P 2 12 is the tX direction for region (2).
The hydrostatic pressures are
p 1 = (un + up>)/2 for region (1) } (7.57)
P2 = (un + u:Z>)/2 for region (2)
It follows that the sudden change in hydrostatic pressure across the line
of discontinuity when changing from a strong solution to a weak solution
is given by
(7.58)
indicating a decrease in the magnitude of the hydrostatic pressure. From
the stress plane of figure 7.15, LI 1 P 1 A= L 12 P 2 B=cf>.
The tX lines on each side of the line of stress discontinuity therefore make
an angle cf> with the line P 1 AP 2 which is parallel to the tangent to the line
of stress discontim,1ity.
At the line of stress discontinuity, the slip lines are thus reflected as
illustrated in the physical plane of figure 7.15 where it can be seen that the
radius of each Mohr stress circle must be rotated through the same angle,
2cf>, to coincide with the maximum shear stress, k, where cf> is the angle
between the slip line and the line of stress discontinuity.
198 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
(b) Hodograph
u= I
v dt/J + constant, along an oc line
v= I
u dt/J +constant, along a {3line
Direction of algebraic
maximum principal stress
fJ
a
Ia I
+k +'1"
'1"
(b)
Figure 7.17. (a) Intersection of the slip lines at a point Pin a stress free surface;
(b) Mohr stress circle diagram indicating the principal stress state at point P
principal stress is zero. It follows that the direction tangential to the free
surface is a principal stress direction.
The slip lines indicate directions of maximum shear stress at any point
in the material and consequently intersect the free surface at angles of ± n/4.
The surface in the vicinity of the punch yields under the influence of a com
pressive force. The normal stress at the point P in the free surface can there
fore be considered as a zero compressive stress. Since the other principal
stresses are also compressive and have greater magnitudes, the zero normal
stress is the algebraic maximum principal stress, that is, G 1 = 0. The Tresca
yield criterion is satisfied if
(11(13=2k
Hence (13 =  2k
and G2 = k=p
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 201
Thus, at the point P in the stress free surface, the algebraic maximum
principal stress (J 1 = 0, the algebraic minimum principal stress (J 3 = 2k
(compressive) and the intermediate principal stress, which is the hydrostatic
pressure at the point P, is a 2 = k (compressive)= p. This principal stress
state at the point P in the stress free surface is verified by the Mohr stress
circle diagram of figure 7.17(b).
The algebraic maximum principal stress, (J 1 , has its direction contained
in the first and third quadrants of the righthanded rx/3 coordinate system.
Hence the rx and f3 lines are designated as shown in figure 7.17(a). If the
surface had yielded in tension instead of compression then the rx and f3 lines
would have been interchanged.
Frictionlus
intuface
(a)
+7"
+k
k
(j3* 0 >2k
7"
(b)
Figure 7.18. (a) Intersection of the slip lines at a point Pin a frictionless interface
(smooth boundary); (b) Mohr stress circle diagram indicating the principal stress state
at point P
202 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
when in contact with the workpiece such that frictional resistance is absent.
If the interface is frictionless then there can be no resultant shear stress
tangential to the interface. The interface is consequently a principal plane
and, as for the stress free surface, the slip lines must intersect the interface
at angles of ± n/4, as shown in figure 7.18(a). However, unlike the stress
free surface the normal stress at the interface is not likely to be zero.
The normal and tangential stresses at the point P in the interface must
satisfy a yield criterion. A knowledge of the magnitudes of these stresses
then permit the slip lines to be designated. Assume the normal compressive
stress at the frictionless interface, which is therefore a principal stress, due
to the tool pressure, say, is most likely to have the maximum magnitude.
This principal stress is then the algebraic minimum principal stress
a 3 =I= 0 > 2k compressive and the algebraic maximum principal stress
a 1 < 0. Referring to the Mohr stress circle diagram shown in figure 7.18(b)
for the principal stress state at the point P in the interface it can be seen that
the intermediate principal stress, which is the hydrostatic pressure at the
point P, is given by a 2 = p =I= k compressive.
Since the direction of the algebraic maximum principal stress, that is,
a 1 is contained in the first and third quadrants of the righthanded rx/3
coordinate system, the rx and f3 lines are as designated in figure 7.18(a).
(a) (b)
+k
_,.
(c)
Figure 7.19. (a) Intersection of the slip lines at a point Pin an interface where
Coulomb friction is present (partially rough boundary); (b) stresses acting on an element
at the point P; (c) Mohr stress circle diagram for the stress state at the point P
q "'"
(a)
+k +'T'
(b)
Figure 7.20. (a) Intersection of the slip lines at a point P, tangentially and
normally, to a perfectly rough interface; (b) Mohr stress circle diagram for the stress
state at the point P
Hence cos 2¢ = ±1
and 2¢ = Oand n
or ¢ = Oand n/2
It follows that one slip line meets the interface tangentially and the other
normally, as shown in figure 7.20(a). The corresponding Mohr stress circle
diagram for the stress state at the point P considered, is given in figure 7.20(b).
From this diagram it can be seen that the plane of the algebraic maximum
principal stress, u 1 , has a direction which is at an angle n/4 anticlockwise
from the interface as shown in figure 7.20(a). The a and f3lines are therefore
designated as in this figure. Under these conditions the interface is usually
referred to as being perfectly rough.
+k +'T
k
Parallel to PX
'T
lbl Stress plane
Figure 7.21. Stresses at a point on various planes represented in (a) the physical
plane, and (b) the stress plane, illustrating the pole of the Mohr stress circle diagram
206 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
f3 linn
12k~<P 1 +'T
~~~~~~~<~~++k
Cycloid generated
by pole of Mohr p2
stress circle
rolling along top P3
tangent 'T= + k t =1
'T
(b) Stress plane:
Figure 7.22. Representation of the state of stress along a slip line illustrating
(a) slip lines in the physical plane, and (b) cycloid locus of the pole, P, in the stress plane
tively. The Mohr stress circle can therefore be considered to roll without
slipping along the top tangent at a distance r = + k from the normal stress,
u, axis. Since the angle, ¢, decreases when moving along the il( line from the
point P 1 to either P 2 or P 3 the circle rolls so that the radius rotates clockwise.
If the angle ¢ had increased then the circle would roll without slipping along
the tangent r = + k so that the radius rotates anticlockwise. Points such as
P 1 , P 2 , P 3 in the slip line field are mapped in the stress plane by the pole of
the corresponding Mohr stress circle. The directions of the il( and f3 slip lines
correspond to the short chain lines drawn from the pole to the points, + k
and  k, respectively, on the appropriate Mohr stress circle. As the Mohr
stress circle rolls without slipping along the top tangent, r = + k, a cycloid
is generated by the locus of the pole.
The rules for mapping the slip line field in the stress plane can be stated as
follows : (a) to map an il( line, roll the Mohr stress circle without slipping
along the tangent r = + k; (b) to map a f3 line, roll the Mohr stress circle
208 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
without slipping along the tangent r =  k; (c) when the angle <P increases
the circle rolls so that a radius rotates anticlockwise, and when <P decreases
the circle rolls so that a radius rotates clockwise.
Once the slip lines have been established the velocity plane or hodograph
can be constructed from the known velocity boundary conditions using the
orthogonality relation which exists between the slip lines and the hodograph.
The above discussion is intended to present an outline of Prager's geo
metrical construction of slip line fields. For further discussion and examples
of application the reader is referred to the original paper by Prager 7 and
·other papers by Prager 10 , Ford 11 and Alexander 12 •
{3
Figure 7.23. A curvilinear element in a slip line field and verification that the
plastic energy dissipation in the element is positive
Extruded product
(a)
(b)
Figure 7.24. (a) Forward or direct extrusion; (b) backward or indirect extrusion
trapped between the die and the pressure pad and subjected to pressure by
the ram. The billet is caused to plastically deform mainly in the vicinity of
the die but first expands to completely fill the container before flowing out
through the die orifice to form the extruded product. As the extrusion
proceeds, the ram moves towards the die and the undeformed billet slides
forward in contact with the inner surface of the container. There is therefore
considerable frictional resistance at the interfaces between the billet and
container.
This frictional resistance, which is not easily defmed, can be avoided by
maintaining the billet stationary in a container closed at one end and causing
a closefitting die to move against the free end of the billet as shown in figure
7.24(b). This process is known as backward or inverted extrusion. As the
extrusion proceeds the die moves forward into the container and the metal
is extruded backwards through the die and the hollow ram or plunger.
During inverted extrusion there is no relative movement between the
undeformed billet and the container and consequently no frictional resistance
at the interfaces.
However, it is convenient to assume that the die is stationary whilst the
container and billet move with unit velocity. During extrusion with a square
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 211
Dead metal zone
Unit
H velocity
(a)
V=H/h=2
(b)
Figure 7.25. Plane strain indirect extrusion through an unlubricated square face
die (R= 1/2): (a) slip line field solution; (b) hodograph corresponding to top half of
extrusion
face die it is known that a dead metal zone forms in the corner between the
container and die as shown in figure 7.25(a). In this zone there is negligible
movement of material. The formation of a dead metal zone can be regarded
as a natural modification of the die profile converting it from a square face
die to a wedgeshaped die. Plastic flow occurs by intense shear strain at the
interface with the dead metal zone. If the billet is well lubricated so that
welding at the interface is prevented then the dead metal zone may be
separated from the end of the billet after extrusion. The dead metal zone is
usually curved in the regions where it meets the container and the die orifice
but approximately straight over the remainder of its length. As an approxi
mation it is assumed that the face of the dead metal zone is inclined at an
angle of 45° to the geometric axis of symmetry. The exact angle of inclination
of this face is thought not to affect the analysis to any significant extent 17 .
Since the face of the dead metal zone meets the inner surface of the
container at an angle of 45° it constitutes a first slip line and satisfies the
212 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
stress boundary condition for a frictionless container. The slip line field is
completed by two centre fan fields ABC and A'BC' emanating from the
points of stress singularity A and A', respectively, as shown in figure 7.25(a).
The exit slip lines AB and A'B intersect the axis of symmetry at angles of 45°
consistent with this plane being frictionless. Mathematically consistent
solutions for a single orifice, symmetric extrusion through a square face,
sharpedged die were first presented by HiW 8 . All these solutions for frac
tional reductions R < 0.88 assume the existence of a dead metal zone over
the die surface and a frictionless container. The slip line fields contain a
centre fan field similar to ABC with its centre located at the point of stress
singularity A at the corner of the die orifice.
The fractional reduction in area or, simply, fractional reduction which
characterises the degree of deformation attained during the extrusion is
designated by R and given by
R = change in crosssectional area/initial crosssectional area
= (A 0  A)/A 0
= 1 (A/A 0 )
where A 0 is the initial crosssectional area of the billet and A is the cross
sectional area of the extruded product For the present case of plane strain
extrusion considering unit width of material : R = (H  h)/ H = 1  (h /H) =
1/2. Also, for constancy of volume, Vh = H .1, where V is the velocity of the
extruded product leaving the die. Hence V = H jh = 2.
For the slip line field of figure 7.25(a) to be admissible, the velocity field
must be compatible with the velocity boundary conditions. These imposed
conditions are (a) the velocity across the entry slip lines BC and BC' must
everywhere be compatible with the velocity of the rigid billet; (b) no flow
occurs across the boundaries AC and A'C' of the dead metal zones; (c) the
velocity across the exit slip lines AB and A'B must be compatible with that
of the extruded product which is rigid on emerging from the die.
The procedure usually adopted to verify the compatibility of the chosen
slip line field with the velocity conditions is to construct the hodograph.
Because the slip line field is symmetrical about the geometrical axis of
symmetry for the container, die, etc., it is only necessary to consider onehalf
of the field for purposes of analysis, say the top half. Therefore, only the
hodograph corresponding to this half of the slip line field need be constructed.
Referring to figure 7.25(a) any element of metal in the undeformed billet
to the right of the boundary slip line BC is assumed to move parallel to the
axis of symmetry with unit velocity. This is represented by a vector o!t of
unit length drawn from the origin 0 in the hodograph of figure 7.25(b). It is
assumed that there is a tangential velocity discontinuity along the boundary
slip line BC. This assumption is eventually shown to be valid by the hodo
graph. An element crossing BC in the vicinity of C is therefore subject to a
velocity jump parallel to the tangent to BC at the point of crossing. For an
element crossing in the vicinity of C, this change in velocity is represented
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 213
by the vector drawn from the point a, parallel to the tangent at C. After
crossing the line of velocity discontinuity, the element is constrained to move
parallel to the boundary AC of the dead metal zone so that its velocity
relative td the dead metal zone, which is stationary, is represented by a
vector drawn from the origin of the hodograph parallel to AC. This intersects
the vector ac in the point c, thus defining the magnitude of the velocity of
the element relative to the face of the dead metal zone, Ioc 1. and also the
magnitude of the tangential velocity discontinuity Iac I where Ioc I= Iac I=
(1/2)112.
Since the tangential velocity discontinuity along the entry slip line BC has
constant magnitude equal to Iac I, an element crossing BC at any other
point is subject to a velocity jump parallel to the tangent at the point of
crossing and has the same magnitude. Thus at any other point, such as D,
the tangent to the slip line BC at D is vertical and Iad I= Iac I· In the vicinity
of B, the tangent is at an angle of 45° to the axis of symmetry. The tangential
velocity discontinuity is ab and, consequently, the velocity relative to earth
at this point in the plastically deforming region is given by the vector Ob.
The element traverses the plastic region and emerges from it by crossing the
exit slip line AB where again it is subject to a tangential velocity discontinuity
in order to travel parallel to the axis of symmetry to form the rigid extruded
product.
The tangential velocity discontinuity across AB is represented by the
vector bd, and the direction of the velocity of the extruded product by the
vector oa produced. The intersection of these two vectors in the point, d,
defines the velocity of the extruded product ocl. It can be seen from the
hodograph of figure 7.25(b) that the velocity of the extruded product has a
magnitude of 2, thus showing that the chosen slip line field is compatible
with the velocity of an extrusion for a fractional reduction of 1/2.
It should be noted that the region covered by the slip line field is that in
which there is large plastic deformation and is in the vicinity of the die
orifice. The extruding billet is assumed to be long, so that when the slip line
field is established it remains stationary in space and is independent of time.
The extrusion is then referred to as being a steady state process.
The required extrusion pressure, p0 , can be determined from the slip line
field. It is convenient to start at the exit slip line AB since the stress
on the extruded material in the axial direction is known to be zero. Hence
at any point on the exit slip line AB, ax= 0. Also ryx = rxy = 0. From the
yield criterion of equation (7.12)
This stress acts on a plane on which the shear stress ryx = 0 and is a principal
stress. Because the extrusion process is predominantly compressive it is
intuitively assumed that aY =  2k and is compressive.
214 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
The principal stress state at any point, P, on the exit slip line AB is then
given by a 1 = ax = 0, a 2 = a z = p =  k, a 3 = a Y =  2k as shown in figure
7.26(a) and also by the corresponding Mohr stress circle diagram in figure
7.26(b). The direction of the intermediate principal stress, a 2 , is normal to
figure 7.26(a) but is not shown.
The direction of the algebraic maximum principal stress, a 1 , is contained
in the first and third quadrants of a righthanded rx/3 coordinate system.
The rx and f3lines are therefore defined as shown in figure 7.26(a). The radial
straight slip lines, such as AB, are consequently defined as rx lines and the
circular arcs, such as BC, as f3 lines.
The principal stress state at the point P is equivalent to a hydrostatic
pressure, p, superimposed on a pure shear stress, k, as illustrated in figure
7.26(c). The senses of the shear stresses of magnitude, k, which occur on the a
and f3 slip lines are thus defined.
+k
(b)
k
Oj=2k p:k p:k
p
(c) 0".=0
I
•
Figure 7.26. (a) Principal stress state at any point, P, on the exit slip line AB and
directions of the a. and fJ lines; (b) Mohr stress circle diagram for the stress state at
point P; (c) equivalent stress system at the point P
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 215
It should be noted that the hydrostatic pressure is constant along the
straight a line, AB, such that PB = pA = k.
Along the fJ line BC, which is a circular arc, the angle ¢ varies hence the
magnitude of the hydrostatic pressure varies.
Using the second of the Hencky stress equations (7.33) B + C along a
fJ line, p 2k¢ =a constant. Therefore Pc 2k¢c = PB 2k¢B.
In moving along the entry slip line, BC, from B to C the tangent to the slip
line rotates through an angle ¢ = rc/2 anticlockwise and is therefore positive.
Hence Pc 2k( + rc/2) = k, since </JB = 0 or Pc = k + krc = k{l + rc).
Along the face AC of the dead metal zone ACE, which is a straight slip
line, the hydrostatic pressure remains constant. The stresses acting on the
dead metal zone ACE are then as shown in figure 7.27(a), where q is the
normal die pressure acting on the die face AE and n is the normal pressure
at the interface between the frictionless container and the dead metal zone.
(a) qt
+v
(b) .~ ~ 6
I
+V
(c)
Figure 7.27. (a) Stresses acting on the dead metal zone ACE; (b) components of
velocity at the point Q on the entry slip line BC; (c) the reference line for measurement
of the angle, </>, is chosen to coincide with the tangent to the f3line BC at the point C
216 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Resolving forces exerted on the dead metal zone ACE in the axial direction
gives q = Pc + k = k(n + 2) and if Pe is the extrusion pressure q(H/2) = PeH.
Therefore Pe = q/2 = k( n + 2)/2 or
Pe/2k = (n + 2)/4 ~ 1.29 (7.61)
The slip line field of figure 7.25(a) consists of two centre fan fields. For this
simple stress field, the Geiringer equations (1.41) can be used to verify that
the slip line field satisfies the velocity boundary conditions as follows :
All the IX lines are straight so that dcp is zero along the IX lines and from the
first of the Geiringer equations (7.41) du vdcp = 0. Hence du = 0 and the
velocity along any IX line is constant. This is a property of any straight slip line.
Continuity of flow across the entry slip line, BC, at any point such as Q
requires that u2 + v2 = 1, since the billet is assumed to move with unit
velocity. If a particular IX line, say AQ, is inclined to the axis of symmetry at
an angle(}, then for constancy of volume the velocity on the IX line AQ,
 u = 1 cos(} (7.62)
as illustrated in figure 7.27(b).
The velocity of any point on the curved {3 slip line, BC, can be determined
by starting from the point C and knowing that v = 0 at all points on the face
AC of the dead metal zone ACE. Assume that cp = 0 coincides with the
direction of the tangent to the {3 line BC at the point C. This is then in a
direction (} = 7n/4, as shown in figure 7.27(c), since the angle(} is measured
anticlockwise from the axis of symmetry. Therefore (7n/4) cp =e. Hence
f)+ cp = 7n/4 (7.63)
The second of the Geiringer equations (7 .41) for a {3 line is dv + u d cp = 0.
Therefore dv =  u dcp
dv
or dcp =  u =cos(}= cos { (7n/4) cp}
Hence u= cos{(7n/4)cp} (7.64)
and dv = u dcp =cos {(7n/4) cp }dcp
Integrating v = sin {( 7n/4)  cp} +A
where A is a constant of integration.
At the point C on the dead metal zone, cp = 0 and v = 0. Therefore A =
 sin(7n/4) and
v =sin {(7n/4) cp} sin (7n/4) (7.65)
The velocity across the exit slip line, AB, must be compatible with the rigid
body movement of the extruded product. The tangent to the {3 line BC at
the point C rotates through an angle cp =  n/2(clockwise) to the tangent at
B. It follows that the velocity, v8 , across the exit slip line, AB, at B is therefore
given by
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 217
vB = sin {( 7n/4) + n/2}  sin ( 7n/4)
= sin(9n/4)sin(7n/4)
= (1/2)1/2 + (1/2)1/2 = 21/2 (7.66)
The same result is obtained for any other point along the exit slip line AB.
There is therefore a downward velocity of magnitude 21' 2 across the whole
of the exit slip line AB. This is a necessary requirement since the extruded
product to the left of this exit slip line is rigid.
There is a corresponding upward flow from the plastically deforming
region A'BC' with a velocity of magnitude 2 112 across the exit slip line A'B.
Thus, the net effiux velocity of metal across the whole exit boundary will
be the vector sum of these velocities. The resultant exit velocity in the axial
direction is
2vB cos(n/4) = 2.2 1' 2.(1/2) 1' 2 = 2 (7.67)
and the resultant velocity in the lateral direction is zero.
This is compatible with the motion of the rigid extruded product since,
for a fractional reduction R = 1/2, it has a velocity twice that of the billet
which was assumed to be unity.
The same result is obtained for any point on the straight exit slip line AB.
It can, however, be seen that the velocity component, uB, parallel to AB is
uB =  cos (} =  cos ( 3nj4) = (1/2 )1' 2. This is not compatible with the
velocity component of the rigid extruded product parallel to AB which is
2 cos(n/4) = 21' 2. However, this shows that a tangential velocity disconti
nuity of magnitude (1/2) 1' 2 occurs across the exit slip line AB as represented
by the vector bd in the hodograph of figure 7.25(b).
The velocities calculated from the slip line field by using the Geiringer
equations have been shown to satisfy the velocity boundary conditions. The
chosen slip line field for an extrusion where R = 1/2 is therefore valid in this
respect. It will now be appreciated that it is usually simpler to construct the
corresponding hodograph to ensure that the proposed slip line field is
compatible with the velocity boundary conditions. It also remains for the
proposed slip line field to be tested to ensure that the energy dissipation is
everywhere positive in the plastically deforming regions, for example, by
employing the method suggested in section 7.3.11.
St rus free
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 7.28. (a) Slip line field for the plane strain indentation of a rigidperfectly
plastic, semiinfinite medium by a flat rigid punch; (b) hodograph assuming a dead
metal zone, CEJ, to be formed at the punch face (Prandtl solution); (c) alternative
hodograph for a frictionless punch (Hill solution)
stress field into the nondeforming region below AKJHG has been obtained
by Bishop 20 and Hill has shown that a block of fmite depth supported on a
frictionless plane may be considered semiinfinite if the depth is at least
8.75a 21 where 2a is the width of the flat punch.
It is assumed that there is a constant pressure over the face of the punch.
Only the case of incipient yield is considered because, as the plastic flow
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 219
progresses, the shape of the plastically deforming boundary ABCDEFG
changes and it is then necessary to satisfy the boundary conditions on this
deformed boundary.
There is an infinity of admissible velocity fields that satisfy the boundary
condition for a normal velocity component on CE. From a theorem by
Bishop 20 it may be deduced that the plastically deforming region of any
velocity field cannot extend beyond the region AKJHGA. The velocity field
assumed by Prandtl involves a dead metal zone CJE and the hodograph for
this solution is given in figure 7.28(b). Only the righthand half of the stress
field need be considered because of the symmetry of the field. If it is assumed
that there is no relative movement between the punch and the dead metal
zone CJE then no shear force is required to maintain the equilibrium of
the dead metal zone. The hodograph of figure 7.28(b) is then valid for any
punch roughness.
At the stress free surface EG, aY = ryx = 0. From the yield criterion
{(ax ay) 2/4} + r;Y = k2
it follows that ax= ± 2k, since aY = 't"yx = 't"xy = 0.
Cal
+k
(b)
Figure 7.29. (a) Principal stress state at the point Gin the free surface, EG, and
directions of the IX and fJ lines; (b) Mohr stress circle diagram for the stress state at the
point G
220 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
0"=0
I
G
o:•2k
3
• =
p=k p=k
(a)
+
p u n c h
2a
c E
(b)
Figure 7.30. (a) Equivalent stress system at the point G; (b) Stresses acting on
the dead metal zone CEJ
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 221
The hydrostatic pressure at the point G on the a line GHJC is thus p0 = k
and since GH is a straight line there is no change in the angle c/J. Hence,
IJa=Pa= k.
However, HJ is a circular arc. There is therefore a change in the angle cjJ and
the hydrostatic pressure varies in magnitude from H to J. Applying the first
of the Hencky stress equations (7.33) in moving from H to J along the a line,
PJ + 2kcjJJ = Pa + 2k~ =a constant. Hence PJ + 2k( n/2) = k since~= 0,
and PJ = k + kn = k(l + n).
Since the p line JE is a straight line there is no change in hydrostatic
pressure along the face JE of the dead metal zone. The stresses acting on the
dead metal zone CJE are then as shown in figure 7.30(b). The frictional stress,
r, at the interface CE between the punch and the dead metal zone, which is
not shown, can vary from zero to a maximum possible value of k.
Let F be the punch force required per unit length in the z direction. By
resolving forces exerted on the dead metal zone in the direction normal to
the interface CE it can be shown that the indentation pressure, Pi, is
Pi= 2k{l + (n/2)} ~ 2k.2.57 (7.68)
and F = 4ka { 1 + (n/2)} (7.69)
A different solution proposed by Hill 22 assumes the punch to be frictionless.
The corresponding hodograph is then as shown in figure 7.28(c). However,
with this velocity field the deformation is confmed to the region DNPFD
when considering only the righthand half of the stress field given in figure
7.28(a). In this case, the element ONE slides as a rigid body relative to the
frictionless punch face CE and with a velocity of magnitude 2 112 along the
surface DN. The velocity on FP is continuous and in the centre fan field
ENP, v = 0 and u = 2 112 • The triangular region EPF moves in the direction
of the surface PF with a velocity of magnitude 2 112 • In contrast with Prandtl's
solution the velocity field in the plastic zones is continuous. However, there
is an infinity of admissible velocity fields corresponding to the hodograph
of figure 7.28(c). These fields involve triangular elements of different sizes
sliding over the punch face CE.
This problem illustrates the nonuniqueness of solutions which refer to
a rigidperfectly plastic material. For this reason, the construction of possible
stress fields and hodographs requires additional considerations and the
utilisation of experimental results.
It will be appreciated that the same hydrostatic pressure acts on the surfaces
EN and DN as acts on the surfaces EJ and CJ of the dead metal zone CJE
in the Prandtl solution. Consequently, the same uniform pressure acts
along the frictionless interface DE and hence the punch force F is given by
equation (7.69) as for the Prandtl solution.
Unit velocity
l
r~~~
Zone I (Slip line field)
E
I I
(a) / I
/ I
/
/ I
/ /
/
.," /
/
de
tfc'
(b)
Figure 7.31. (a) Slip line field for the indentation of a rigidperfectly plastic,
semiinfinite medium by a smooth wedgeshaped indenter; (b) the corresponding
hodograph
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 223
displaced by that part of the indenter GBF. However, a coronet is only
clearly observed during the indentation of a strainhardening material.
Referring to figure 7.3l(a) it will be seen that the slip line field includes
the triangular region ABC which is a uniform compressive stress state. Since
the indenter face AB is frictionless, the slip lines AC and BC must meet the
surface AB at angles of n/4. ACD is a centre fan field with centre at A and
included angle (}which can be determined in terms of the indenter semiangle,
a, from the condition of volume constancy. The triangular region ADE is
also a uniform compressive stress field.
The slip line BCDE is an a line and AC and AD are {3 lines which can be
defined following the method presented in the previous two sections. The
hydrostatic pressure distribution in the stress field ABCDEA can be deter
mined by applying the Hencky stress equations (7.33) starting with the
knowledge that the surface AE is stress free. The hydrostatic pressure acting
on the surfaces AC and BC of the triangular region ABC is then shown to be
p = k(l + 2(}) (7.70)
The normal pressure, q, on the face AB of the wedgeshaped indenter is
assumed to be uniformly distributed and can be determined by considering
the equilibirum of the region ABC when it will be found that
q = 2k(l + (}) (7.71)
and the indentation force, F, is
F = 2q AB sin a = 4k( 1 + fJ) AH (7.72)
or the indentation force required per unit width of the indenter is
F = 4k(l + fJ) (7.73)
As the indenter semiangle, a, approaches n/2 the angle (} also approaches
n/2 and the slip line field approaches that for indenting with a frictionless
flat punch given in figure 7.28(a). Equation (7.73) then reduces to equation
(7.69).
The solution for when the faces of the wedgeshaped indenter are rough
differs only in that the slip lines AC and BC do not intersect the face AB at
angles of± n/4 so that the slip line field is modified as shown in figure 7.32(a).
Results for various values of the coefficient of friction, J.l, at the interface
AB and of indenter semiangle, a, have been given by Grunzweig, Longman
and Petch 24•
When the coefficient of friction, J.l, attains a critical value the frictional
stress at the interface AB attains its maximum possible value, k, that is, the
yield shear stress of the indented material. The appropriate slip line field is
that shown in figure 7.32(b).
The solution would be valid provided the slip line at the indenter tip
B intersects the face, AB, of the indenter at an angle of not less than n/4,
that is, LABC > n/4. If this condition is violated then the rigid material
224 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
(a)
E
(b)
E
(c)
Figure 7.32. (a) Modified slip line field when Coulomb friction exists at the
interface between indenter and deforming material; (b) slip line field for indentation
with a wedgeshaped indenter when shearing of the workpiece material occurs at the
interface between the indenter and material; (c) slip line field for indentation with an
obtuseangled wedgeshaped indenter when a dead metal zone is formed at the indenter
tip
7.4.4 Cutting
The mechanics of the cutting of strip metal with plierlike tools can be
explained by extending the slip line field solution of figure 7.3l(a) for inden
tation with a frictionless wedgeshaped indenter 21 .
A strip of finite thickness is indented by a pair of identical wedgeshaped
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 225
(b)
ob
Figure 7.33. (a) Slip line field for cutting with a pair of opposed wedgeshaped
indenters (only top half shown); (b) corresponding hodograph for the righthand half
of the stress field
J: J:
Ps dh = {PJ 2k(n/4) + 2kcjJ} dh (7.75)
and the horizontal component of the shear force acting over the slip line
ADFHJis
(7.76)
Hence
When the hydrostatic pressure, pJ, has been determined from equation
(7.77), the Hencky stress equations can be used to determine the hydrostatic
pressure acting on AD and hence the indenting force required.
The mode of deformation considered is valid provided that the stress
normal to the foundation at the point, J, is compressive. The slip line field
of figure 7.33(a) may, however, be extended to include an isosceles triangle
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 227
at the point J. The stress normal to the frictionless foundation is then zero
and that parallel to it is a tensile stress of magnitude 2k. The hodograph for
this case shows that the material in this triangular region moves vertically
upwards causing contact with the foundation to cease. This suggests that a
condition of tensile instability will occur with transverse necking leading to
fracture.
The effect of frictional resistance at the indenter faces on the critical
thickness at which the strip is parted in two has been considered by Johnson
and Kudo 25 . The deformation model may also be used to explain the cutting
of circular section wire with knifeedge pliers. Wire cutting has been discussed
at length by Johnson 26 and Mahtab and Johnson 27 .
7.4.5 Piercing
If a flatfaced punch with suitable clearances at the sides is envisaged as
indenting at the bottom of a deep vertically sided groove, the stress boundary
conditions are the same as for the initial penetration. A possible slip line
field for this process is that shown in figure 7.34 which resembles that of
figure 7.28(a) except that the fan regions centred on each of the punch
corners are developed through an angle n. The punch pressure required
for deformation at the bottom of the deep groove is given by
Pi= 2k( 1 + n)::::; 4.14. 2k (7.78)
that is, about four times the uniaxial yield stress of the deforming material
and hence the punch force per unit length is
F = 4ka( 1 + n) (7.79)
Figure 7.34. Slip line field for indentation at the bottom of a deep vertically
sided groove by a flat face punch
228 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
This is therefore greater than that required for the initial indentation
given by equation (7.69).
The solution given by equation (7.79) is appropriate to a rough punch
with a dead metal zone formed at the face of the punch. The alternative
slip line field appropriate to a frictionless punch is shown in figure 7.34 by
dash lines. However, the mode of deformation suggested is only possible
if the material displaced by the punch is able to move upwards and out
behind the punch face.
The simplest form of piercing process is that where the billet is constrained
by a container of width, say 2b, which is comparable with the width of the
punch 2a. At some instant after the initial punch penetration, the deforming
material flows upwards past the punch and the process can be regarded as
steady state.
Unit velocity
2at
(a)
ac
(b)
Figure 7.35. (a) Slip line field for piercing with a flat face punch when the container
surface is frictionless and the fractional reduction= 1/2; (b) the corresponding hodo
graph for righthand half of the slip line field
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 229
The slip line field solution presented in figure 7.35(a) is for a fractional
reduction of 1/2, that is, punch width/width of container = 2a/2b = ajb = 1/2
and assumes the container to be frictionless. In this case, the slip lines
intersect the container at angles of ± n/4 and the points A and A' are singular
ities of stress. A dead metal zone ACA' is attached to the punch face and
moves downwards with the same speed as the punch. Considering the
righthand half of the slip line field of figure 7.35(a), shearing of the
material occurs across the face AC of the dead metal zone and tangential
velocity discontinuities occur across the slip lines AB and CB. The corres
ponding hodograph is shown in figure 7.35(b).
Material crossing the exit slip line AB moves as a rigid body and hence
the resultant force exerted on it is zero. The hydrostatic pressure exerted
on AB is thus equal to k. It can then be shown by examining the state of
stress at the point B that AB is a p line and CB is an a line. Using the first
of Hencky stress equations (7.33), the hydrostatic pressure at tha point C
and hence along the face AC of the dead metal zone is
Pc=k(1+n) (7.80)
The punch pressure required is
p = 2k{l + (n/2)} (7.81)
and hence the punch force required per unit length is
F = 4ka {1 + (n/2)} (7.82)
If there is frictional resistance at the container surfaces, the angles at which
the slip lines intersect the container would have to be adjusted accordingly.
As the ratio a/b decreases the punch pressure increases to the limiting value
for deep indentation of a semiinfinite medium given by equation (7.78).
It should now be appreciated that the mechanics of indentation, extrusion
and piercing are interrelated. The slip line field of figure 7.25(a) for inverted
extrusion with a fractional reduction of 1/2 is unchanged if the die is replaced
by undeformed billet material and the rigid extruded product is replaced by
a flatfaced punch moving in the opposite direction. There is consequently
a reversal of the geometric axis of symmetry and the container surface in
each process in relation to the geometry of the slip line fields of figures 7.25(a)
and 7.35(a).
Unit velocity
vi
B
v
+ 2T
I. 2W
(a)
.I
J· v
.,t:g'
(b)
Figure 7.36. (a) Slip line field for compression of a prismatic block between
smooth, rigid, parallel platens for integral values of W /T; (b) corresponding hodograph
for top righthand quarter of the slip line field
angles of± n/4. Thus for integral values of W /T, the slip line field consists
of straight lines as shown in figure 7.36(a). When the platens move towards
each other with a relative velocity of 2, the material deforms as a series of
rigid triangular regions across which there is a tangential velocity disconti
nuity of 2 112 and this is propagated by successive reflection from the platens
along their length. The hodograph corresponding to the top righthand
quarter of figure 7.36(a) is given in figure 7.36(b). For all integral values of
WIT it can be shown that the normal platen pressure is uniformly distributed
and equal to 2k.
This solution is only valid for integral values of W /T because, for all
other values of W /T, the velocity discontinuity terminates on the exit
slip lines which is then incompatible with the rigid body motion of the
overhanging ends. However, a solution for nonintegral values, 1 < W /T < 2,
has been obtained by Green 28 which is very complex and involves curved
starting slip lines. These solutions by Green have been analysed by Collins 29
employing a superposition property of slip line fields. An approximate
solution to this problem is given by Johnson and McShane 30 .
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 231
7.4.7 Compression of a prismatic block between perfectly rough, rigid,
parallel platens
The compression of a rectangular section block of metal between perfectly
rough, rigid, parallel platens was apparently first investigated by Prandtl 31 .
However, it was shown by Hill, Lee and Tupper 32 that Prandtl's solution is
only valid if the workpiece material and the platens are of infinite width.
Nevertheless, if the block of metal is very wide compared with its thickness
2W
Unit 1 velocity
AI t le
  2T

I
cl 10
 +
Unit j vczlocity
(a)
p/2k
I
    p/2k:2·871
I P. /2k::; 2·15
I y
1+(11"/21•1·29:
I
(b)
Figure 7.37. (a) Compression of a rectangular section block between perfectly
rough, rigid, parallel platens; (b) approximate slip line field and platen pressure distri
bution for compression between perfectly rough, rigid, parallel platens when W/ T = 5.6
232 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
the slip line field becomes more uniform with increasing distance from
either edge and approaches that of Prandtl's solution.
A prismatic block of metal which is compressed between perfectly rough,
rigid, parallel platens AB and CD is illustrated in figure 7.37(a). The width
of the platens is 2W and the thickness of the metal block is 2T such that
the width of the platens exceeds the thickness of the block, that is, W /T > 1.
Material of the block overhangs the platens at each end and this material is
assumed to be rigid. The platens approach each other with a relative velocity
of2.
Onehalf of the slip line field solution proposed by Hill et al., is given
approximately in figure 7.37(b) for various ratios of W /T::::;; 5.6. Since the
platens are perfectly rough, the slip lines are expected to meet the platens
normally and tangentially. Because symmetry exists only the lefthand half
of the slip line field is presented in figure 7.37(b).
The comers of the platens, such as A and C, constitute singularities of
stress and are convenient starting points in the construction of the slip line
field. From A and C, straight lines are drawn to intersect the horizontal
axis of symmetry in the point E at angles of ± n/4. The overhanging material
to the left of AEC moves outwards as a rigid body with velocity, say V,
and the resultant horizontal force exerted on this material is zero. The
hydrostatic pressure exerted on the exit slip lines AE and CE is therefore
equal to the yield shear stress k.
All the slip lines are required to meet the platens either normally or
tangentially. The field is therefore extended from A and C as radial lines and
circular arcs to produce the centre fan fields. The circular arcs meet the
platens normally in E 3 and E~ and the radial lines meet orthogonally on
the horizontal axis of symmetry and the platens tangentially. The centre
fan fields can then be extended as far as the point K corresponding to
W /T ~ 5.6. The simplest method is to use a small arc approximation which
approximates the curved element of a slip line by a chord that makes an
angle c/Jm for an IX line or c/Jm + (n/2) for a f3line with the positive x direction.
The angle c/Jm is the mean of the values of cp at the nodal points or at the ends
of the chord.
It should be noted that AEE~ is an IX line and CEE 3 is a f3 line. The centre
fan fields of figure 7.37(b) are subdivided into 15° arcs and the resulting
field is an equiangular mesh of 15° intervals. All slip lines must intersect
the horizontal axis of symmetry at angles of ± n/4. Angles measured anti
clockwise from the x direction are considered positive and those measured
clockwise are therefore negative.
The extension slip line from the nodal point E 1 must rotate through an
angle of 15° from E 1 to F. The nodal point F can be located by drawing
from the point E 1 a chord with a mean slope of c/Jm =  37!0 , that is,
 (45° + 30°)/2 to intersect the horizontal axis in the point F. To extend
the field from a nodal point such as E 2 , a chord is drawn from E 2 with a
mean slope of c/Jm =  22!0 , that is,  (30° + 15°)/2 since AE 2 is at  15°
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 233
from the x direction and at  30° to the x direction at F 1 where it meets the
slip line of the f3 family. Then from Fa chord with a mean slope 4Ym = + 52! 0
that is, + (60° + 45°)/2 is drawn to meet in the point F 1 . The remainder of
the field can be constructed in a similar manner. However, because the mean
values of¢ are used, the slip lines will not meet orthogonally and the position
of the nodal points will not be exact. The slip line field can be drawn to a
greater degree of accuracy by using an equiangular mesh of less than 15°
intervals. The smaller the angular interval the more accurate the solution
will be although the amount of construction involved is considerably
increased. The true slip line field is constructed to a good degree of accuracy
by drawing pairs of orthogonal curved lines through the nodal points
defined by the intersection of the chords.
For convenience, the approximate slip line field of figure 7.37(b) has only
been extended as far as the point K for W /T R:; 5.6. Material above the slip
line G 3 K and below the slip line G~K, respectively, are dead metal zones
which are assumed to adhere to the platens and move with the same velocity.
A tangential velocity discontinuity thus occurs across these slip lines which
separate the dead metal zones from the plastically deforming region. Since
the precise stress distribution in the dead metal zones cannot be calculated
only the average stresses at the interfaces between the block and the platens
is determined.
At any point on the exit slip line AE, the zero principal stress in the hori
zontal direction is the algebraic maximum principal stress and that in the
vertical direction is the algebraic minimum principal stress of magnitude
2k compressive. The intermediate principal stress is equal to the hydrostatic
pressure. The equivalent of this principal stress state is the same as that given
in figure 7.26(c). It follows that the stresses acting on the material above AE
are a hydrostatic pressure, p = k, and a shear stress k with a sense from A
to E. The family of slip lines radiating from A are thus e< lines and those
radiating from Care f3 lines as previously stated.
Moving along the f3line EE 3 from E to E 3 the rotation 4J = + n/4. Using
the second of the Hencky stress equations (7.33)
PE  2k¢E = PE,  2k¢E,
If it is assumed ¢E = 0 then ¢E, = + n/4 and since PE = k
PE, = k { 1 + (n/2)} 2.57k
R:; (7.83)
Moving from E 3 to F 2 along the e< line E 3 F 2 the rotation ¢ =  n/12.
Using the first of the Hencky stress equations (7.33)
PE, + 2k¢E, = PF2 + 2k¢F2
With ¢E, = 0 and ¢F2 =  n/12
PF 2 = k { 1 + (2n/3)} R:; 3.09k (7.84)
Moving from F 2 to F 3 along the f3 line F 2 F 3 the rotation ¢ = + n/12.
234 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
·I
X
§3
I
T
I
 K
(a)
V=s5•6
(b)
Figure 7.38. (a) Stresses acting on a line element bs of the ex line G 3 K; (b) hodo
graph corresponding to the approximate slip line field of figure 7.37 (b)
I
= k T + Po, dx + 2k I <P dx
I
= {(2 <P dx + T)/2X} + p0 .J2k (7.87)
For the approximate slip line G 3 K of figure 7.37(b) the following tabulation
can be performed:
Line
p:Yexp{piWx)/T}
I l
p
PI ate n y
'Tyx=pp
I
O"x O",tdo,;
(a) 2T
X
dx
l PI a ten °1 p
IJP
I
X
}w
Figure 7.39. (a) The stresses acting on a vertical plane element during plane
strain compression between partially rough, rigid, parallel overhanging platens; (b) the
normal platen pressure distribution ('friction hill')
interfaces between the block and the platens. However, if 'yx = f.lP is small,
the directions of the actual principal stresses will only be rotated through a
small angle from the directions of (Jx and  p.
E= f 2T 0
FdTRi2Y
f2To
{W+(JLW 2 j2T)}dT (7.103)
2T 2T
with the geometric axis of symmetry when the stresses acting on the extreme
vertical faces of the block are symmetrical, that is, of the same magnitude
and either both tensile or both compressive. Note that this condition is
satisfied for the case considered where the extreme vertical faces of the
block are assumed to be stress free.
It should be further noted that, for vertical plane elements initially on
the lefthand side of the plane of no slip, the frictional stress, ryx• at the
blockplaten interfaces has opposite sense to that for the element shown
in figure 7.39(a) and is considered negative.
Exit Entrance
Figure 7.40. The stresses acting on a vertical plane element during plane strain
drawing or extrusion through a wedgeshaped die
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 243
(a) Drawing stress
Resolving forces exerted on the vertical plane element in the x direction
for unit width of sheet gives
(ux + duxHY + dy) UxY + p ds sin a+ J.LP ds cos a= 0 (7.117)
for conditions of equilibrium. Noting that ds sin a = dy, ds cos a = dx =
dy cot a and neglecting the second order term dux dy, equation (7.117) after
simplification becomes
{ Ux + p(l + J.LCOt a)}(dyjy) +dux= 0 (7.118)
Under plane strain conditions, u 1  u 3 = 2k = Y, which is independent
of the choice of yield criterion. Hence ux ( p) = Y or
(7.119)
Substituting this value of pin equation (7.118), introducing the parameter
B = J.L cot a for convenience and rearranging
dux/{Bux Y(1 +B)}= dyjy (7.120)
which can be rewritten as
(7.121)
where C = Y(1 +B).
Equation (7.121) applies to wedgeshaped dies or to curved dies since
J.L, a and Y need not be independent of x. It can be applicable to a strain
hardening metal since a relationship between Y and x could be deduced from
the true stressnatural strain (u,e) curve for the sheet metal. However,
assuming wedgeshaped dies and a rigidperfectly plastic material, equation
(7.121) can be integrated with a, p. and Y constant and independent of x to
produce (1/B) In {Bux + C} =In y +In A, where In A is a constant of inte
gration.
Therefore (7.122)
At entrance to the die where y = H, ux = s the stress due to back tension.
Hence (Bs + C) 1' 8 = HA or A= (Bs + C} 118/H. Therefore (Bux + C} 118 =
(y/H)(Bs + C} 118 and Bux + C = (y/H) 8 (Bs +C) or
ux = ( C/B) {(y/H)8  1} + s(y/H)8
= { Y(l + B)/B} {1 (y/H)8 } + s(y/H)8 (7.123)
At exit from the die, where y = h, ux = t which is the drawing stress. Therefore
t = { Y(l + B)/B} {1 (h/H)8 } + s(h/H)8 (7.124)
If back tension is not employed, s = 0 and
t= {Y(l +B)/B}{1(h/H)8 } (7.125)
244 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
~('L.l...l:.
~ • EBB •
2H
HID • +If
(a)
1+X
(b)
Figure 7.41. (a) Showing the shear distortion of an element as it passes through a
wedgeshaped die; (b) shear distortion of an element at a distance, y, from the horizontal
axis of symmetry
E = (2kocdx/H) f>dy
= (2kocdx/H)(H 2 /2)
=kHocdx (7.136)
The volume of material entering the zone R; 2H dx. Therefore energy
dissipated per unit volume in producing redundant deformation at entrance
to the die
R;kH oc dxj2H dx
R; koc/2 R; Y oc/4 (7.137)
for a rigidperfectly plastic material where Y is the plane strain yield stress.
Equation (7.137) becomes
Yoc/2.3 112 (7.138)
for a rigidperfectly plastic material where Y is the uniaxial yield stress. For
a strainhardening material equation (7.137) becomes
Yocj2Yi 2 (7.139)
where Yis the mean yield stress.
It should be noted that the plane strain yield stress (constrained yield
stress)= 2/3 112 times the uniaxial yield stress (unconstrained yield stress).
Similar expressions can be deduced for the energy dissipated per unit
248 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
volume in producing the redundant deformation at exit from the die when
the elements are again sheared to move parallel to the axis within the drawn
Product.
The additional stress, ared• required to produce redundant deformation
during plane strain drawing or extrusion is thus given approximately by
O"red = Yr:t./2 (7.140)
for a rigidperfectly plastic material where Y is the plane strain yield stress or
O"red = Y r:t./3112 (7.141)
if Y is the uniaxial yield stress, and
O"red = v,
~v. 13
112 (7.142)
for a strainhardening material if, Y, is the mean yield stress.
7.5.6 Quasistatic plane strain cold rolling of plate and strip metal
Rolling is the process of reducing the crosssection of the workpiece by
passing it between two rotating rolls. The reduction in crosssection is
accompanied by elongation in the direction of rolling and there may also
be lateral spread of the workpiece.
Large reductions in crosssection as, for example, in the rolling of ingots
and billets are achieved at elevated temperatures, that is, above the recrystal
lisation temperature such that the homologous temperature T" > 0.5. This
process is therefore usually referred to as hot rolling. Hot rolling is one of
the major industrial methods of producing bars of rectangular crosssection
and the hot rolling mill consists of two large parallel cylindrical rolls mounted
vertically orie above the other. Vertical edging rolls may be provided to
control the width of the workpiece during rolling. The mill is consequently
described as a 2high mill as distinct from a 4high or more complex mills
which are used in coldrolling. Rolls having special profiles are used in the
hotrolling of other crosssections including round, hexagon, channel, angle
and I section.
During rolling, the plastically deforming region is restricted to a zone of
small volume. It is thus possible to process large ingots using mills of
moderate capacity. For steel sheet manufacture, ingots may weigh more than
0.2 MN and have a crosssection of 600 mm square. The rolling operation
is fast and is more economical than forging. A limiting factor in speed of
manufacture is the time required to transport the slab back to the entry
side of the rolls. However, this limitation is obviated in most cases by using
reversing mills. This is important because in hot working processes the
workpiece hardens rapidly on cooling. Hot rolling improves the mechanical
properties of the cast metal by homogenising and refining the structure
producing greater strength and toughness.
Wide slabs combined with high roll force may cause the rolls to deflect
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 249
due to bending so that the rolled product becomes thicker in the middle
than at the edges. This had led to the use of 4high mills in which the work
rolls are of small diameter, to reduce the roll force, supported by larger
diameter backup rolls.
As the crosssection ofthe workpiece approaches the shape ofthe required
product, the final rolling operation may be performed at room temperature.
It is then referred to as cold rolling. Cold rolling, as in other metal forming
processes carried out at room temperature, produces an improved surface
finish, good dimensional accuracy and also improved mechanical properties.
However, greatly increased roll force, roll torque, energy and power are
required for identical reductions and roll speeds compared with hot rolling.
Aluminium foil is rolled in 2high mills even to thicknesses of the order
of0.02 mm, as for cigarette and chocolate wrapping, which is folded over and
rolled double. The rolls are screwed down so that the roll gap is completely
closed and, in the absence of the foil, may be under pressure initially which
is equivalent to a negative roll gap. The thickness of the foil is then controlled
by tension applied to the power driven coiler.
For the cold rolling ofthin strip and foil of hard materials, such as titanium
alloys or stainless steel for the manufacture of razor blades, a number of
mills of the cluster type have been introduced. These include the Sendzimir
mill 36 and the planetary mill, which was also developed by Sendzimir, in
which the backup rolls are themselves supported by work rolls of small
diameter.
The published literature concerned with rolling is extensive. No attempt is
made here to refer to all the reported experimental and analytical work on the
subject. However, detailed discussions on rolling theory are to be found in
the textbooks by Underwood 3 7 , Larke 38 , Alexander and Brewer 39 , Avitzur40,
Rowe41 and Tarnovskii, Pozdeyev and Lyashkov 42 • An English translation
of the book by Tselikov and Smirnov43 is concerned with rolling mills.
A survey of the literature shows that analyses have been mainly related
to rolling of strip, plate and sheet metal and no exact solutions are available
at present. The original analysis employing a slab method of solution to
obtain the differential equations of equilibrium and determine the stress
distribution was apparently first introduced by von Karman 44 in 1925.
He also recognised that the frictional stresses at the interface between the
workpiece and the rolls change sense because of the change in relative
velocity between the rolls and the workpiece as it passes through the rolls.
Orowan45 analysed the rolling process based on the concept of channel
flow in order to assume a spherical stress state and formulated an approxi
mate method of allowing for redundant deformation. Bland and Ford46
have shown that the allowance required for redundant deformation is very
small when the arc of contact between the rolls and the workpiece is greater
than the mean thickness of the strip. The reductions effected in industrial
practice during a single pass are such that the arc of contact is usually greater
than three times the strip thickness.
250 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
As rolling proceeds, the rolls are themselves elastically deformed over the
arc of contact with the workpiece referred to as roll flattening and should be
taken into consideration when determining the roll force and roll torque.
Roll flattening was first discussed by Hitchcock 47 and the rolling of thin strip
with reference to roll flattening was studied by Stone48 . The maximum
reduction which can be achieved in cold strip rolling has been discussed by
Hill 49 , Ford 50 and Avitzur 51 .
Slip line field solutions for the rolling problem have been presented by
Alexander 52 , Alexander and Ford 53 , Druyanov 54 and Firbank and
Lancaster 55 . An upper bound solution for fast hot rolling has been given
by Johnson and Kudo 56 .
In hotrolling, the flow stress of the workpiece material is strainrate
dependent and the frictional stress at the interface between the rolls and the
workpiece is high. However, in cold rolling of plate and strip the flow stress
is nearly independent of the strainrate and the frictional stress is relatively
low. The subject of this section is therefore restricted to the quasistatic,
cold rolling of plate or strip metal where the width to thickness ratio of the
workpiece is, say, not less than ten. Since the width of the strip is large
compared with the length of the arc of contact between the rolls and the
strip, the constraint of the nonplastically deforming material inhibits lateral
spread which normally does not exceed 2 per cent. The deformation is then
essentially plane strain.
The main assumptions made in the theory can be summarised as: (1) the
workpiece material is rigidplastic strain hardening; (2) the arc of contact
is circular; (3) the deformation is plane strain; (4) the coefficient of friction
is constant over the arc of contact; (5) plane sections normal to the direction
of rolling remain plane.
Consider a metal strip of width, b, and initial thickness, H, to enter the
gap between two parallel cylindrical rolls as shown in figure 7.42(a). The strip
is first compressed elastically until it yields. It is then plastically deformed
but strain hardens with increasing strain and, on emerging from the roll gap,
elastic recovery occurs such that the final thickness of the strip is h.
It will be assumed that the strip material is rigidplastic strain hardening.
The elastic deformation of the strip is therefore considered to be insignificant
and the effect on the magnitudes of the roll force and roll torque neglected.
This imposes a limitation on the validity of the theory since, for low fractional
reductions in thickness and when rolling very hard strip metals, the elastic
strains are not small compared with the plastic strains.
As rolling proceeds, the rolls themselves are distorted elastically over the
arc of contact. It will be assumed that the arc of contact is circular and of
radius R', which is greater than the radius R of the undeformed rolls.
In passing through the roll gap, the strip reduces in thickness from H to h
and the velocity of the strip increases steadily from V at entry to v at exit.
The linear velocity of a point on the cylindrical surface of a roll must have
some value between V and v. It follows that since the deformation is plane
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 251
Radius of und~form~d
roll= R
h

v
(a)
Entry sid~
pR'dct>sinct>
ct>
pRdct>cosct>
Figure 7.42. Cold rolling of strip metal: (a) stresses acting on the plastically
deforming material in the roll gap within the arcs of contact; (b) forces exerted on
elements on the entry and exit sides ofthe neutral plane
gap, the strip moves faster than the rolls and the frictional force tends to
oppose the motion of the emerging strip. Consequently, at some intermediate
plane, referred to as the neutral plane, the strip and rolls have the same linear
velocity. The position of the neutral plane depends on the magnitudes of
the stresses due to back and front tensions, t 1 and t 2 , respectively, applied
to the strip.
~2(¢ +J.l)/{(h/R') + ¢ 2 }
~ 2¢/ {(h/R') + ¢ + 2J.1/ { (h/R') + ¢
2} 2}
Integration produces
ln(p/2k) ~In {(h/R') + ¢ 2 } +2J.l(R'/h) 1 tan 1
1 2
The dimensionless roll pressure for the entry side of the neutral plane is
thus given by
p /2k R:< c(y/R')exp( J.1Q) (7.155)
and for the exit side
p+ /2k R:< c+(y/R')exp( + J.1Q) (7.156)
Let k 1 and k2 be the values of the yield shear stress at entry and exit,
respectively. At exit, ax= t 2 , the stress due to front tension. Therefore
t 2  (  p+) = 2k 2
or p+ = 2k 2  t2 (7.157)
Also at exit y =hand since ¢ = 0, Q = 0. Therefore p+ /2k 2 = c+ (h/R') and
substituting for p+ from equation (7.157)
p+ /2k 2 = (2k 2  t 2 )/2k 2 = 1 (t 2 /2k 2 ) = c+(h/R')
Hence c+ = (R'/h){ 1 (t 2 /2k 2 )} (7.158)
and the roll pressure on the exit side is given by
p+ R:< (2kyjh){ 1 (t 2 /2k 2 )} exp( + J.1Q) (7.159)
On entry side, ax = t 1 , the stress due to back tension. Therefore t 1  (  p) =
2k1
or p = 2k 1  t1 (7.160)
andy= H. Therefore (2k 1  t 1 )/2k 1 = c (H/R')exp( J.1Q 1 )
where Q1 is the value of Qat entry.
Hence (7.161)
The dimensionless roll pressure for the entry side of the neutral plane is
thus given by
p /2k R:< (R'/H){ 1 (ttf2k 1 )} exp( + J.1Q 1 )(y/R')exp( J.1Q)
The roll pressure on the entry side is then given by
(7.162)
t
"'...:::>
.....
Ul
Ul
Q.
7.43. Two cases are illustrated, namely, when front and back tensions are
employed indicated by the lower curves; the upper curves are for the case
when front and back tensions are not employed for the same fractional
reduction in thickness of the strip.
(c) Rollforce
The yield stress, 2k, varies as the strip passes through the roll gap and
therefore varies with the angle c/J. Values of the yield stress for the strip
material corresponding to different fractional reductions can be determined
experimentally using the plane strain compression test devised by Ford 57
and later developed by Watts and Ford 5 8 . The plane strain compression test
has been described in some detail in section 6.3.2.
With the variation in yield stress and also the coefficient of friction known,
the roll force per unit width of strip can be determined by integration of the
normal roll pressure over the arc of contact.
Thus, the roll force per unit width of strip is given by
F= f: 1
pR'dcp
It has been found from some experiments that the yield stress curve as
determined from the plane strain compression test produces an under
estimate of the roll force. This is probably due to redundant deformation
in coldrolling causing the strip metal to strainharden more rapidly than
in plane strain compression. Furthermore, the yield stress for the high speed
rolling of strip metal could be expected to be higher than that predicted by a
quasistatic plane strain compression test. Comparisons between theory
and experimental result are given in the papers by Hessenberg and Sims 59
and Whitton and Ford 60 •
The roll force is decreased if the frictional stress at the interface between
the rolls and the strip is reduced to the minimum or if front and back tensions
are employed. The effect of using five different lubricants on the magnitude
of the roll force when rolling thin titanium strip was investigated by Wilcox
and Whitton 61 . It is suggested that the roll force can be reduced by as much
as 60 per cent. Bedi and Hillier 62 have analysed the hydrodynamic effect
of oil between the rolls and the strip metal on roll force and roll torque.
or (7.168)
If this is now substituted into equation (7.168) the equation for the roll
torque becomes
(7.169)
of the roll gap. The sense of the frictional stress then becomes unidirectional,
that is, from the entrance to the exit side of the roll gap.
Equations (7.167) and (7.168) for the roll force and roll torque, respectively,
then reduce to
(7.170)
and
Hence (7.171)
which is a dimensionless parameter that can be determined experimentally
and independent of the rolling theory.
Hence (7.174)
PLANE STRAIN PLASTIC DEFORMATION 259
Also tan ¢ 1 = L/ { R' (~h/2)} ;l::j (~h/R') 1 1 2
REFERENCES
1. Hill, R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, ch. VI and app. III,
Oxford University Press, London (1950)
2. Johnson, W., Sowerby, R. and Haddow, J. B., Plane Strain Slip Line
Fields: Theory and Bibliography, ch. 3, and app. 2, Edward Arnold,
London (1970)
3. Hencky, H. Z., Uber einige statisch bestimmte Faile des Gleichgewichts
in plastischen Korpern, Z. angew. Math. Mech., 3, 241 (1923)
4. Christopherson, D. G., Oxley, P. L. B. and Palmer, W. B., Orthogonal
cutting of a workhardeningmaterial, Engineering, Lond., 186, 113 (1958)
5. Palmer, W. B. and Oxley, P. L. B., The mechanics of orthogonal machin
ing, Proc. lnstn mech. Engrs, 173, 623 (1959)
6. Geiringer, H., Beitrag zum Vollstiindigen ebenen Plastizitiitsproblem,
Proc. 3rd Intern. Congr. appl. Mech., 2, 185 (1930)
7. Prager, W., A geometrical discussion of the slip line field in plane
plastic flow, Trans. R. Inst. Techno/., Stockholm, 65, 27 (1953)
8. Prager, W. and Hodge, P. G., Theory of Perfectly Plastic Solids, Wiley,
New York (1951)
9. Thomas, T. Y., Plastic Flow and Fracture in Solids, Academic Press,
London (1961)
10. Prager, W ., The theory of plasticity: A survey of recent achievements,
Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 169, 1 (1955)
11. Ford, H., The theory of plasticity in relation to engineering application.
J. appl. Math. Phys., 5, 1 (1954)
12. Alexander, J. M., Deformation modes in metal forming processes,
Proc. Conf. Technol. Engng Manuf., Pap. 42, lnstn Mech. Engrs (1958)
13. Bishop, J. F. W., Green, A. P. and Hill, R., A note on the deformable
region in a rigidplastic body, J. Mech. Phys. Solids., 4, 256 (1956)
14. Green, A. P., Plastic yielding of notched bars due to bending, Q. J.
Mech. appl. Math., 6, 223 (1953)
260 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
56. Johnson, W. and Kudo, H., The use of upper bound solutions for the
determination of temperature distributions in fast hot rolling, Int. J.
mech. Sci., 1, 175 (1960)
57. Ford, H., Researches into the deformation of metals by cold rolling,
Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 159, 115 (1948)
58. Watts, A. B. and Ford, H., On the basic yield stress curve for a metal,
Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 169, 1141 (1955)
59. Hessenberg, W. C. F. and Sims, R. B., The effect of tension on torque
and roll force in cold strip rolling, J. Iron Steel Inst., 168, 155 (1951)
60. Whitton, P. W. and Ford, H., Surface friction and lubrication in cold
strip rolling, Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 169, 123 (1955)
61. Wilcox, R. J. and Whitton, P. W., The rolling of thin titanium strip,
J. Inst. Metals, 88, 200 (1960)
62. Bedi, D. S. and Hillier, M. J., Hydrodynamic model for cold strip rolling,
Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 182(1), 153 (1967)
8
Plastic Strain with Axial
Symmetry
... i>'Tzr £
. 'zr+ .uz
bz
Figure 8.1. Stresses acting on an element in a region of plastic strain with axial
symm~try
l
shown in figure 8.1.
If the inertia forces are insignificant and other body forces are absent, the
differential equations of force equilibrium (2.10) reduce to
O(J'r
a,: 07:zr (J'r (}'8
+ oz +  r  =
0
(8.1)
The IX and f3 lines are distinguished by the sense of the shear stress, 't', using
the same convention as for the plane strain theory, ojosrz and iJjiJsp are
the space derivatives along the O£ and f3 lines, respectively, and rjJ is the angle
measured away from the r direction towards the positive z direction which
implies that rjJ is the angle that the tangent to an O£ line makes when measured
anticlockwise from the z axis.
The velocity compatibility equations corresponding with the Geiringer
equations (7.41) for plane strain are
du vdrjJ + (u + v cot r/J)(dr /2r) = 0 along an IX line }
dv + udrjJ + (v + u tan rjJ)(dr/2r) = 0 along a f3line (8·11)
These equations differ from the Geiringer equations only in the extra
terms in r which vanish as r + oo. It should be noted that u and v are the
velocity components in the O£ and f3 directions, respectively.
If the Tresca yield criterion is adopted instead of the von Mises yield
criterion of equation (8.9) then 't' = k = Y /2 and if G 0 is assumed to be the
intermediate principal stress, G 2 , equations (8.10) become
,(>•''"'"r
•Friction hill'
..v..
y
JY exp(2 ~a/h)
I Platen I L..
!
(a)
I
I
h
I
L 1 2a1 Dia.
r
..1 J
(b) h
2drjr + dhjh = 0
or 2da6 + daz = 0
However dar + da6 + daz = 0
Hence da6 =dar
and
F= f>2nrdr
Substituting for the axial force, F, from the approximate equation (8.19)
where A= na 2 the crosssectional area of the cylinder at any instant
E~ f Ho
Ht
Y A { 1 + (2JJ.a/3h)} dh (8.21)
Moving
n
I
I fr 1
(a) h
I U f
Inertia force
prd9hdrfr
(b)
Figure 8.3. (a) Fast compression of a cylindrical billet between smooth, rigid,
parallel platens. The lower platen is stationary and the upper platen descends with
velocity V; (b) forces acting on an element of the billet at any radius r
272 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
F= J: p2nrdr
8.4.2 Quasistatic, bar and wire drawing through a conical die with and
without back tension (Coulomb friction present at the workpiecedie
interface)
The approximate analysis presented here is essentially that following the
method of Sachs in which the die semiangle, tX, and the coefficient of friction,
J.4 at the workpiecedie interface are assumed to be constant and the work
piece material is rigidperfectly plastic having a constant yield stress Y.
Lubrication is assumed to be efficient such that the coefficient of friction
is low.
Figure 8.4 shows a circular section bar or wire of initial diameter D 1 = 2R 1
which is drawn through a conical die of semiangle, tX, to reduce its diameter
to D 2 = 2R 2 at exit from the die. The drawing stress is t, pis the normal die
pressure and s is the stress due to back tension at the entrance to the die.
The stresses are also shown which act on an elemental frustrum in the
plastically deforming region at a distance, z, from the exit of the die where
the diameter d = 2r. The length of the elemental frustrum in contact with the
die is ds.
Exit Entrance
Figure 8.4. Drawing of bar or wire through a straight conical die showing the
stresses acting on an elemental frustrum
PLASTIC STRAIN WITH AXIAL SYMMETRY 277
From the geometry of the situation
tan tX = dr/dz
ds cos tX = dz = dr cot tX
dssin tX = dr
Resolving forces exerted on the elemental frustrum in the axial direction
(uz + duz){ n(r + dr) 2 }  uznr 2 + p2nr ds sin tX + J.tp2nrdscos tX = 0 (8.32)
for equilibrium. Neglecting differential quantities of the second order,
equation (8.32) reduces to
2{ uz + p( 1 + J.t cot tX) }(dr/r) + duz = 0 (8.33)
Also for equilibrium in the radial direction
0" r2nr dz  p2nr ds cos tX + J.tp2nr ds sin tX = 0 (8.34)
where ur is the radial stress.
Equation (8.34) reduces to
ur = p(1 J.t tan et) (8.35)
However, J.t tan tX is usually small in comparison with unity for optimum
drawing conditions and may be neglected. In this case, the stress state is
cylindrical and the principal stresses are u 1 = uz(tensile) and u 2 = u 3 = ur = p
(compressive).
(a) Drawing stress
Assuming uz and pare principal stresses, the Tresca yield criterion gives
(8.36)
where k is the yield shear stress and Y is the uniaxial yield stress. Also
duz + dp = 0 or
duz =  dp (8.37)
Combining equations (8.33) and (8.36)
2 {uz + (Y uz)(1 + J.t cot et) }(dr/r) + duz = 0
or 2 {  Buz + Y(1 +B) }(dr/r) + duz = 0 (8.38)
where B = J.t cot tX. Therefore
duz/{Buz Y(1 +B)}= 2(drjr) (8.39)
Integrating equation (8.39)
(1/B)ln{Buz + C} = 2lnr +InA
where ln A is a constant of integration and C =  Y(1 +B). Therefore
(Bu z + C) 118 = r2 A. At entry to the die where r = R 1 , uz = s, the stress due
278 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
deformation. Thus f.l = 0 ahd B = J.lCOt oc = 0 but equations (8.41) and (8.42)
are not then applicable. However, if fl = 0 is substituted into the differential
equation of equilibrium for the axial direction (8.33)
2{az + p}(dr/r) + daz = 0 (8.50)
and since p = Y az,2Y(drjr) + daz = 0 and
daz =  2Y(dr/r) (8.51)
If the material is rigidperfectly plastic, equation (8.51) can be integrated
to produce az = 2Ylnr + F where F is a constant of integration. At entry
to the die, where r = Rp az =' 0. Therefore az = 2Y ln(Rtfr) and at exit
from the die where r = R 2 , az = t so that t = 2Y ln(RtfR 2 ) or
t/Y = ln(RtfR 2 ) 2 = ln(D 1 /D 2 f (8.52)
and combining equations (8.46) and (8.52)
t/Y=ln{1/(1R)} (8.53)
The maximum fractional reduction in crosssectional area which can be
achieved assuming homogeneous deformation during drawing is then
given by
1 = ln{1/(1 Rmax)}
1/(1  Rmax) = exp(1) = 2.72
and 1  Rmax = 0.368
or Rmax ""' 0.63 (8.54)
In typical drawing operations of bar and wire it can be seen, by comparing
equations (8.49) and (8.54), that the effect of frictional resistance is not
very significant in influencing the maximum fractional reduction which
can be achieved in a single pass. It is usual in industrial practice to limit
the fractional reduction achieved in a single pass to between 0.35 and 0.45.
This is because at higher values of fractional reduction it is difficult to
maintain efficient lubrication and there is the danger of metallic 'pickup'
from the deforming material on the die surface with resulting deterioration
in surface finish of the drawn product.
strain concept until the more rigorous mathematical treatment was intro
duced by Hill 35 in 1948 for the case of plane strain extrusion employing
slip line field theory. Because slip line field techniques were found to be
effective in understanding the extrusion process, especially in accounting
for its inhomogeneous nature, the method was extensively applied thereafter
by Prager and Hodge 36 , Green 37 , Bishop 38 and principally, Johnson 39  42 to
various plane strain problems.
Later, Johnson 43  46 and Kudo 47  49 developed the upperbound
approach for the approximate analysis of the process and Kudo 50 •51 extended
its application to the axisymmetric extrusion problem. A technique of
semiempirical analysis, based on strain distribution measurements, and
known as the visioplasticity method, has been developed by Thomsen,
Frisch and other coworkers 52  54 which has made contributions to a better
understanding of some complicated problems. The monograph by Johnson
and Kudo 55 is a detailed survey of the mechanics of metal extrusion up to
about 1960. Important experimental and theoretical work has been per
formed by the Plasticity Division of the National Engineering Laboratory
in Scotland 5 6  58 and, more recently, the warm extrusion of steel has been
investigated 59 •
The cold extrusion of steel was first developed in Germany during the
193945 War, the success of which depends on phosphating the billet as
a means of entrapping the lubricant. The development of the cold extrusion
of steel is surveyed by Morgan 60 and a monograph has been produced on the
cold forging of steel by Feldman 61 . The topics of frictional resistance and
lubrication in metalworking processes are considered in detail in the book
edited by Schey 62 • However, special reference should be made here to the
UgineSejournet process 63 which utilises fusible glass powder as a lubricant.
This has facilitated the hot extrusion of high strength, high temperature
alloys.
..
c
..
.5!
::lJ
~
(ii) Backward or
)(
11.1
indirect
extrusion
End of
shady state
Punch displacement
deforms plastically to exactly fill the die and the container which expand
elastically. At the same time there is usually a limited amount of extrusion
of relatively unstrained material. During this coining phase the extrusion
force is therefore expected to increase rapidly. Duffill and Mellor64 have
discussed the high initial extrusion pressure which occurs when extruding
through conical dies.
(b) Steady state phase
As the extrusion proceeds and the punch continues to move forward in
a forward or direct extrusion the extrusion force decreases. This occurs
because the frictional resistance at the billetcontainer interface decreases
as the length of undeformed billet diminishes. However, during backward
or indirect extrusion, there is no relative motion between the billet and
the container and consequently frictional resistance is absent. The extrusion
force therefore remains sensibly constant during this phase.
(c) Poststeady or unsteady state phase
A more rapid rate of decrease in the extrusion force is evident at the
end of the steady state phase. The whole of the billet now constitutes the
zone of plastic deformation and the field of strain changes as the punch
advances. When the length of billet is reduced to about half the diameter of
the extruded product, a cavity or socalled pipe is initiated on the axis
at the rear end of the billet and the final phase of unsteady state deformation
occurs. The cavity gradually increases in diameter and depth so that the
extruded product during this phase is transformed into a pipe of increasing
284 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
2{ Y p(1 f.1 tan rx) + p(1 + f.1 cotrx)}(dr/r) dp(1 f.1 tan rx) = 0 (8.62)
since O"z = Y ar, ar = p( 1 f.1 tan rx) and daz = dar=  dp(1 f.1 tan rx).
Therefore
2[ Y + p{f.l(cot rx +tan rx)}] (dr/r) dp(1 f.1 tan rx) = 0
or dp/{ Y/(1 f.1 tan rx)} + p{f.l(Cot rx +tan rx)/(1 f.1 tan rx)} = 2drjr
Let f.l( cot rx +tan rx)/( 1 f.1 tan rx) = (J and 1/( 1 f.1 tan rx) = 4J then
dp/( Y 4J + pb) = 2drjr (8.63)
Integration of equation (8.63) yields
(1/J) In (pb + Y 4J) =In r 2 +In G
or
where In G is a constant of integration.
At exit from the die where r = R 2 = D 2 /2, az = 0. Hence ar = Y or p = Y 4J.
Therefore
G = { Y 4J(1J + 1)} 1 1°/R~
and (pb + Y 4J )1 1° = (r/R 2 ) 2 { Y 4J(b + 1) }1 /o
or pb+Y4J=(r/R 2 ) 20 {Y4J(b+1)}
Therefore
p = ( Y #J){ ( b + 1)(r/R 2 f 0  1} (8.64)
The normal die pressure, p, increases from p = Y 4J = Y /( 1  f.1 tan rx) at
exit from the die to a maximum value at entrance to the die where r = R 1 =
D1 /2, and is given by
P = ( Y #J){ (J + 1)(R 1 /R 2 ) 20  1}
(8.65)
If rx is sufficiently small such that tan rx is small, and f.1 tan rx becomes
negligible compared with unity and f.1 cot rx, then
(J = (cot rx + tan rx )/( 1  f.1 tan rx) ~ f.1 cot rx = B
4J = 1/( 1  f.1 tan rx) ~ 1 and equation (8.65) reduces to
p=(Y/B){(1 +B)(D 1 /D 2 ) 2 B1} (8.66)
() = (r/RdiX (8.67)
E = (2nk1Xdz/R 1 ) I R,
0
r 2 dr
= 2nkiXdzR~/3 (8.69)
The volume of material entering the zone R:~ nR~dz. Therefore the energy
dissipated per unit volume in producing redundant deformation at entrance
to the die
R:~ 2k1X/3 R:~ Y IX/3 (8.70)
for a rigidperfectly plastic material assuming the Tresca yield criterion to
be applicable and where Y is the uniaxial yield stress.
For a strainhardening material, equation (8.70) becomes
288 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Ya/3 (8.71)
where Y is the mean yield stress.
Similar expressions can be deduced for the energy dissipated per unit
volume in producing the redundant deformation at exit from the die when
the elements are again sheared to move parallel to the axis within the drawn
product. The additional stress, ared• required to produce redundant defor
mation during drawing or extrusion through a conical die is thus given
approximately by
O"red = 2Ya/3 (8.72)
for a rigidperfectly plastic material, where Y is the uniaxial yield stress or
O"red = 2 Ya/3 (8.73)
for a strainhardening material if Y is the mean yield stress.
It has been shown in section 8.4.2(c) that there is a limit to drawing of
bar or wire material through a conical die due to tensile instability which
leads to fracture in the drawn product. However, during extrusion through
a conical die there is no similar limitation to forming although there are
other limitations and defects which may occur. Extrusion as a manufacturing
process is therefore attractive economically since large reductions in cross
sectional area can be effected in a single pass which may also be advantageous
in improving the metallurgical structure of the material. Short dies having a
large included angle are thus desirable to reduce the physical size of the dies
which are often manufactured from expensive tungsten alloy steels. It follows
that the contribution to the extrusion pressure in producing redundant
deformation during extrusion is of considerable importance and is significant.
The actual extrusion pressure required for forward, opendie extrusion
which does not involve frictional resistance at a billet container interface,
is the pressure to produce homogeneous deformation and overcome the
frictional resistance at the billetdie interface plus the pressure required to
produce redundant plastic deformation. In these circumstances the actual
extrusion pressure required to extrude a cylindrical .billet from an initial
diameter, Dp to a diameter, D 2 , through a conical die having a semiangle,
a, and where J.l is the coefficient of friction is given by
Pe<l> =  [ Y{P!<P l)}{(D 1/D 2 ) 2<Pl> 1} + (2 Ya/3)] (8.74)
if the material is strainhardening and Y is the appropriate mean yield stress.
The derivation of equations (8.72) and (8.73) to estimate the additional
stress required to produce redundant deformation follows in some respects
that for wire drawing by Siebel 67 • However, it should be noted that the
internal shear distortion is assumed to occur mainly at the entrance and
exit of the die, that redundant deformation is independent of the fractional
reduction in crosssectional area and that the principle of superposition can
be applied to make allowance for the redundant deformation. Wilcox and
Whitton 68 •69 reviewed previous theories of drawing through conical dies
PLASTIC STRAIN WITH AXIAL SYMMETRY 289
and conclude that none of them adequately predicts redundant deformation.
They compared the redundant work observed in their experiments with
values predicted by previous theories. On the basis of this comparison they
suggest that a better correlation is obtained by
(8.75)
where IX is the die semiangle and R is the fractional reduction in cross
sectional area. Redundant strain and redundant work factors for the drawing
of a strainhardening material through conical dies have also been considered
by Atkins and Caddell 70 •71 •
I
I
I
I
._.._.,
I
rPe(minl
I
f1
01 fI
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
ponds to the residual length of the billet at which the piping defect is expected
to occur. The internal diameter of the container is D1, which corresponds to
the diameter of the die at entrance, J1 is the coefficient of friction at the billet
container interface and p is the normal pressure at the interface.
Resolving forces exerted on the cylindrical element in the axial direction
{(az + da )trDi/4} (a trDi/4) + j1ptrD 1dz =
2 2 0 (8.76)
Therefore daz + (4jipdz/D 1) = 0 (8.77)
Assuming az and p to be principal stresses and the Tresca yield criterion to
be applicable, then
or p = Y az
Therefore daz =  4j1( Y a 2 ) dz/D 1
and da2 /(a2  Y) = 4jidz/D 1 (8.78)
Integration of equation (8. 78) yields ln (a z  Y) = (4J1z/D 1) + A where A is
a constant of integration.
At the entrance to the die where z = 0, az = Pe(l) which is the axial pressure
at entrance to the die given by equation (8.74), that is,
( az)z=o = Pe(l) =  [ Y {/1/(/1 1) }{ (DtfDz) 2<Pl> 1} + (2Y o:/3)]
if the workpiece material is rigidperfectly plastic having a uniaxial yield
stress, Y. Therefore
ln {p.< 1 > Y} =A
Hence ln [(az Y)/{P.( 1)  Y}] = 4J1z/D 1
The maximum extrusion pressure, Pe(max)' occurs at the commencement
of extrusion from the die when the billet length in the container is the initial
length L.
Therefore ln [{pe(max) Y} / {Pe(1)  Y}] = 4j1LjD1
and {Pe(max> Y}/{P.< 1> Y} = exp(4J1L/D 1 )
Hence
Pe(max) = Y + {Pe(l) Y}exp(4J1L/D 1) (8.79)
The minimum extrusion pressure, Pe(min)' occurs at the end of the steady
state phase when z = l, the discard length of the billet. Therefore
ln [{pe(min) Y}/{Pe(l) Y}] = 4jiljD1
and Pe(min) = Y + {Pe(1) Y}exp(4J1l/D 1) (8.80)
For a strainhardening material, an estimate of the maximum and mini
PLASTIC STRAIN WITH AXIAL SYMMETRY 291
mum extrusion pressures may be obtained by substituting the mean yield
stress, Y, for the unixial yield stress, Y, in equations (8.79) and (8.80), respec
tively.
0·9 reduction R
1>
:::o·e
.....
Ill
"'~0·7
Ill
.: 06
~
...
0
'1:10·5
Ill
Ill
"
c04
0
·;;;
c
~0·3
c
0·2
0•1
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Die scmiangle,a (degrees)
Pressure
£31 relief
valve
!':'+Low pressure
fluid
the tendency to buckling or bulging. Since smaller die angles than those
used in conventional extrusion can be used a more homogeneous deforma
tion can be effected. Because of improved ductility of the workpiece due to
higher hydrostatic pressure it has been possible to extrude brittle materials 78
and Pugh 79 has reported the successful hydrostatic extrusion of high speed
tool steel.
Fluid pressures of 3100 MPa and over have been utilised for the process
and these high pressures have presented many problems. They include, for
example, the development of suitable fluids as pressure transfer media since
normal oils which are available tend to solidify at about 3100 MPa, the
design of the high pressure chamber to withstand these pressures, the develop
ment of seals to prevent leakage and also new methods of monitoring and
recording the high pressures.
Much design and experimental work has been devoted to the development
of hydrostatic extrusion during the last decade and considerable progress
has been made towards understanding the process and its applications.
294 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
(a) (b)
Sinking
(c) (d)
Figure 8.10. The major industrial methods of colddrawing tubes with internal
support using (a) a moving cylindrical mandrel, (b) a fixed conical plug, (c) a floating
conical plug, and without internal support by (d) sinking
PLASTIC STRAIN WITH AXIAL SYMMETRY 295
example, steel and the high strength metals involves the elongation of a
solid cylindrical billet in a hot rotary piercing process.
In order to produce seamless tubes of the desired dimensional accuracy
and surface finish, most hot pierced tubes are redrawn one or more times in
a colddrawing process. Tube drawing is the process of reducing the external
diameter and wall thickness of a thickwalled tube by drawing it through a
die with some form of internal support provided. There are four major
colddrawing processes employed for the final stages in the manufacture of
seamless tubes, as illustrated diagrammatically in figure 8.10. The greatest
reductions in external diameter and wall thickness are achieved using a
moving mandrel as shown in figure 8.10(a). With this arrangement the
frictional resistance at the internal surface of the tube has the same sense
as the drawing force. The tube material is prevented from contracting circum
ferentially during plastic deformation through the die and also subsequent
to this deformation. However, the use of mandrels is expensive; they are
subject to considerable wear and must be removed at the end of the process.
Plugs are therefore often used because they are relatively small and can be
manufactured from hard, wearresistant materials. Plug drawing may be
subclassified into two processes depending on whether the plug is fixed at
the end of a stationary rod as shown in figure 8.1 O(b) or is a floating plug
as shown in figure 8.10(c). Except for copper and copper alloy tubes, the
reduction in crosssectional area that can be effected by plug drawing is
usually limited by metallic 'pickup'. This arises because of the difficulty in
ensuring efficient lubrication, especially since the temperature is likely to be
high at the interface between the plug and the inner surface of the tube. It
should be appreciated that the frictional resistance at this interface when
drawing with either a stationary plug or a floating plug has opposite sense
to that of the drawing force. The sense of the frictional resistance at the
interface between the die and the external surface of the tube is always
opposite to that of the drawing force.
In these three tube drawing processes there is some reduction in the
external diameter of the tube but the main deformation is in the reduction
of the wall thickness. If no mandrel or plug is used, the wall thickness is
then uncontrolled. The reduction in external diameter is usually accompanied
by a small increase in the wall thickness. This process is referred to as tube
sinking and is illustrated in figure 8.10(d).
One of the earliest investigations concerned with tube drawing is that
by Siebel and Weber 90 who studied the stress distribution and flow patterns.
A series of papers were published later by Sachs et al. 91  94 on the mechanics
of the drawing of thinwalled tubes through conical dies using both stationary
and moving mandrels. A theory for drawing through curved dies was
developed by Swift and Chung 95 •96 and an experimental study of plug
drawing was undertaken by Blazynski and Cole 97 • Other experimental and
theoretical investigations of the tube sinking process have been reported by
Moore and Wallace 98 and changes in wall thickness during tube drawing
296 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
have been considered by Flinn 99 . Eilon and Alexander 100 have reported
an industrial investigation in terms of optimising the process variables in
tube drawing. In tube sinking the main requirements from an industrial
point of view are to predict the drawing force and the change in wall thickness
of the tube which is uncontrolled. These points were considered by Hill 101
who based his discussion on the earlier work of Swift.
In this chapter, the analysis of tube sinking and drawing is restricted to
the quasistatic drawing of a thinwalled tube through a conical die. The
effects of bending can then be neglected and the stress distribution across
the tube wall can be assumed as uniform.
F
(a) (b)
(c)
Figure 8.11. (a) Tube sinking through a conical die; (b) stresses acting on an
element of the tube; (c) component of the radial force due to the circumferential stress,
<J0 , exerted on the element in a direction normal to the die face
PLASTIC STRAIN WITH AXIAL SYMMETRY 297
compared with the diameter so that the effect of plastic bending is negligible
and the variation in stress across the wall of the tube is insignificant. Each
part of the tube is subjected to the same deformation as it passes through
the die and the length of the tube is such that steady state deformation is
established.
At any mean radius, r, within the die the stresses acting on an element
are as shown in figure 8.1l(b) where q is the longitudinal stress, that is, the
stress parallel to the die face, u6 is the circumferential stress, pis the normal
die pressure and the frictional stress at the tubedie interface is r = JLP where
JL is the coefficient of friction. The wall thickness at any mean radius, r, is t
and the length of the element is ds, parallel to the die face. The radial compo
nent of the force exerted on the element due to the circumferential stress u6 ,
is 2u6 sin (d0/2) tds, which has a component normal to the die face as shown
in figure 8.1l(c).
Resolving forces exerted on the element in a direction normal to the die
face
prdOds 2u6 sin( d0/2)t ds cos oc = 0 (8.81)
for equilibrium. Therefore prdOds u6 dOt ds cos oc = 0 or
p = u6 t cos ocfr (8.82)
Resolving forces exerted on the element in a direction parallel to the die
face
(q + dq )( r + dr )( t + dt) dO  qrdOt + 2u6 sin (dO/2) tds sin oc + JLprdOds = 0
(8.83)
After simplifying, neglecting small quantities of the second order and dividing
by dOdr, equation (8.83) reduces to
rt(dq/dr) + qt(dr/dr) + qr(dtfdr) + u6 t + (JLprfsin oc) = 0 (8.84)
Combining equations (8.82) and (8.84) yields
rt(dqfdr) + qt(drfdr) + qr(dtfdr) + u6 t + JLU6 tcot oc = 0
or {d(qrt)/dr} + u 6 t(1 + JLCOt oc) = 0 (8.85)
which is the differential equation of equilibrium for tube sinking. If the
variation of tube wall thickness is negligible then dt/dr + 0 and equation
(8.85) becomes
r(dqfdr) + q + u6 ( 1 + JL cot oc) = 0
or r(dq/dr) + q + u6 (1 +B)= 0 (8.86)
where B = JL cot oc.
For a thinwalled tube, t cos ocfr will be small. The normal die pressure, p,
will therefore be small compared with the circumferential stress u6 • Hence
q(tensile) ~ p ~ u9 (compressive) or u 1 = q,u 2 = p and u 3 = u6 • If the normal
298 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
die pressure, p, is negligible compared with the other two principal stresses
then the von Mises yield criterion gives ui  u 1 u 3 + u~ = Y 2 where Y is
the uniaxial yield stress of the rigidperfectly plastic tube material. For the
same stress state, the Tresca yield criterion gives u 1  u 3 = Y.
The von Mises yield criterion is known to give the better prediction for
yielding of most engineering metals. However, the Tresca yield criterion leads
to simpler mathematical application when the magnitudes and senses of
the principal stresses are known. In this analysis it is therefore proposed to
adopt the socalled modified Tresca yield criterion as a compromise which can
be stated in the form
(8.87)
where m is a constant derived by the method of least squares and has the
approximate value of 1.08. The graphical representation ofthe von Mises and
Tresca yield criteria for the stress state considered and plotted in the fourth
quadrant only is presented in figure 8.12. This illustrates the validity of the
modified Tresca yield criterion as a suitable compromise.
For a strainhardening material having a mean yield stress, Y, the modified
Tresca yield criterion gives
_q ( u 6 ) =mY (8.88)
or u6 =m Yq (8.89)
Combining equations (8.86) and (8.89) produces
r(dq/dr) + q +(mY q)(l +B)= 0
or r(dqjdr) Bq + mY(l +B)= 0
Therefore dqj{Bq mY(l +B)}= drjr (8.90)
Ratio q/v
0 0·2 0·4 0·6 0·8 1·0 1·2
Tresca: //
0·2 q 0)= y _ ___..,., / v
4'
"'
04
/1'
"/
"/""
//
%~""" .
, "
2
vonM1ses:
2
OjOjCT3+0"3=Y
2
'/"
1·0 Z," Modified Truca:
/ 0" CT.= mY(m•l·08)
I 3
Figure 8.12. Graphical representation of the Tresca and von Mises yield criteria
illustrating the modified Tresca yield criterion
PLASTIC STRAIN WITH AXIAL SYMMETRY 299
Integration of equation (8.90) gives
( 1/B)ln(Bq +C)= lnr +In A
where In A is a constant of integration and C = mY ( 1 + B). Hence
(Bq + C) 1 1B = rA. At the entrance to the die where r = R 1 = Dtf2, q 1 = 0.
Therefore
Cl/B =RlA
or A= cltu;Rl
and (Bq + C)l/B = (r/Rl )ClfB
Bq + C = (r/R 1 )BC
Therefore q = ( C/B){ (r/RdB 1}
or q =mY {(1 + B)/B}{1 (r/R 1 )u} (8.91)
At exit from the die where r = R 2 = D2 /2, q2 the longitudinal stress parallel
to the die face is
q 2 = mY{(1 + B)/B}{1 (R 2 /R 1 )u}
=mY {(1 + B)/B}{1 (D 2 /D 1)u} (8.92)
The force, F, required in the axial direction is thus given by F ~ q 2 nD 2 t/
cos IX. That is
where B = J1. cot il( and f3 = ( 1 +B)/B. Also from the modified Tresca yield
criterion
a3=ao=a1mY
= mY[/3{1 (r/R 1 ) 8 } 1] (8.98)
Combining equations (8.96), (8.97) and (8.98) gives
dt/t=(dr/r)[f3{1(r/Rd8 } 1]/[2 f3{1(r/R 1 ) 8 }] (8.99)
Integrating equation (8.99) and eliminating the constant of integration by
knowing that at entrance to the die, r = R 1 and t = t 1 , yields
In ( t/t 1 ) = {3/( B  1)} In [ 2 ( r/R 1 ) 8 /2  f3 { 1  ( r/R d 8 } ]  2ln ( r/R 1 )
(8.100)
At exit from the die where r = R 2 = D2 /2, t = t 2 • Therefore
In (t 2 /t 1 ) = {3/(B 1)} In [2(D 2 /D 1 ) 8 /2 f3 { 1  (D 2 /D 1 ) 8 } ]  2ln(D 2 /D 1 )
(8.101)
The variation in the tube wall thickness ratio, t 2 /tt> with mean diameter
ratio, D2 /D 1 , for the sinking of a tube through a conical die having a semi
angle, 0( = 15° and assuming the coefficient of friction J1. = 0.05 is represented
graphically in figure 8.13.
For the case considered it can be appreciated that there is a thickening
of the tube wall during a sinking process. The thickness of the tube at exit
..
0
a= 15°
....
~ HO
w
c
""u
:c
.. 1·05
0
•w
'1
:::1
1
1·0 0·9 0·8 0·7 0·6 0·5 0·4
Mean diameter ratio D2 /D1
Figure 8.13. Variation of the tube wall thickness ratio, t 2 /t 1 , with mean diameter
ratio, D2 /D 1 , for the sinking of a tube through a .:;onical die
PLASTIC STRAIN WITH AXIAL SYMMETRY 301
from the die, t 2 , can therefore be determined and may be substituted into
equation (8.93) to obtain an improved estimate of the axial force required
for sinking.
(a)
r+dr
dz/cos/3
(b)
Figure 8.14. (a) Geometry for the closepass drawing of a thinwalled tube
through a conical die with a stationary conical plug; (b) assumed stresses acting on a
tapered element of the tube
302 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
duz =  Y(dt/t)
Hence uz =  Y ln t +constant
When t = tp uz = 0
Therefore
At exit from the die where t = t 2 ,uz = th which is the axial stress required
for homogeneous drawing of a tube. Therefore
(8.110)
8.8.5 Tuf?e drawing through a conical die with a moving cylindrical mandrel
When a stationary plug is used the frictional resistances at the internal and
external surfaces of the tube both have opposite sense to that of the drawing
force. However, when a moving cylindrical mandrel is employed the sense
of the frictional resistance at the internal surface of the tube is reversed. This
arises because the tube elongates as it plastically deforms whilst the mandrel
304 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
Figure 8.15. The frictional stresses acting on the internal and external surfaces of
a thinwalled tube during closepass drawing through a conical die using a moving
cylindrical mandrel
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PLASTIC STRAIN WITH AXIAL SYMMETRY 305
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306 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
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308 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
cr2
Region of ellipticity
 Oj+""'*rr.1+....== Oj
,__ _ _ Region of
hyperbollcity
Trcsca hexagon
Figure 9.1. (a) Thin lamina of thickness, h, subjected to plane stress; (b) the von
Mises and Tresca yield criteria represented in the (a 1 , a 2 ) plane for plane stress illustrat
ing the significance of the parameter w
pending on the position as defined on the yield surface, that is, the particular
combination of the principal stresses a 1 and a 2 , where a 3 = 0. The character
istics are then, respectively, real and distinct, real and coincident or imaginary.
When the stress equations are hyperbolic the slip lines were shown by Hill
to be characteristics for both stress and velocity. The slip lines are then
equally inclined to one or other of the principal stress directions but are not
orthogonal.
The coincidence of stress and velocity characteristics was established by
Hill using the von Mises yield criterion and associated flow rule. However,
it has been shown by Prager 4 to be equally true when the Tresca yield
criterion and associated flow rule are employed. Hodge 2 and Hill 5 have
shown that when the stress equations are parabolic there is only one set of
characteristics which coincide with the direction of the numerically smaller
principal stress.
312 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
In contrast to the case for plane strain deformation, it follows from equations
(9.12) that the stress components are bounded by ax~ 2k, aY ~ 2k and
'txy ~ k.
Combining the differential equations of equilibrium (9.2) with equations
(9.12) and simplifying produces the following two equations for the two
unknown functions of <P and w
where Q =! J: 1
J(3 4cos 2 w) 112 jsinw }dw
The equations (9.13) will have two distinct families of real characteristics,
that is, they will be hyperbolic if 3 4cos 2 w > 0 and hence n/6 < w < Sn/6.
This range of points for which equations (9.13) are hyperbolic is shown
in heavy outline on the von Mises ellipse in figure 9.1(b).
Equations (9.13) have only one family of real characteristics, that is, will
be parabolic if 3 4cos 2 w = 0 when the function, w, has the value of either
n/6 or Sn/6. If3 4cos 2 w < 0 there are no real characteristics and equations
(9.13) are elliptic. The range of points on the von Mises ellipse in figure 9.1(b)
PLANE PLASTIC STRESS AND PSEUDO PLANE STRESS 315
corresponding to this type is shown in light outline. In the region of hyper
bolicity it may be seen that um < rmax' at the parabolic points um = rmax'
and in the region of ellipticity um > rmax.
For the hyperbolic region where 3  4 cos 2 w > 0 the function Q is given by
Q =  (n/4) +sin  1 (2cos w/3 1' 2 )(1/4)tan  1 { (4cos w+ 3)/(3 4cos 2 w) 1 ' 2 }
(1/4)tan 1 {(4cosw3)/(34cos 2 w) 1' 2 } < 0 (9.17)
If another unknown function t/J(x, y) is introduced where
t/1 =  (n/2) + (1/2){ cos 1 (cot w/3 1' 2 )} (9.18)
then the equations of the characteristics have the form
dyjdx = tan(c/> + t/1)
and Q + c/> =constant, C 1 , along an a characteristic
Also dyjdx = tan(c/> t/1)
and n c/> = constant, c2' along a f3 characteristic (9.19)
The characteristics of the differential equations of stress equilibrium
in the plastically deforming region are two families of curves which intersect
at an angle 21/1 as shown in figure 9.2 but are not orthogonal. The principal
directions bisect the angles between the characteristics such that the two
families of curves are inclined at angles of ± { (n/4) + (A./2)} to the direction
ofthe algebraic maximum principal stress u 1 where
(9.20)
a
Figure 9.2. Nonorthogonal a and Pcurved characteristics for a plane stress field
316 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
(a)
(b)
Figure 9.3. (a) Plane stress slip line field for a uniform stress state; (b) plane stress
slip line field at a stress free surface and around a point of stress singularity
then all the characteristics of the family to which AC belongs will also be
straight lines. At the point of stress singularity, A, it is convenient to introduce
an auxiliary system of cylindrical coordinates r, e with pole at the point A
and polar axis AE.
The differential equations of equilibrium in cylindrical coordinates are
(oar/or)+ (ljr)(orr8 joe) + (ar a8 )/r = 0 } (9.24)
(orr 8 /or) + (1/r)(oa 8 joe) + (2rr8 /r) = 0
and the von Mises yield criterion in cylindrical coordinates for plane stress is
(9.25)
The stress state that satisfies both the differential equations of equilibrium
(9.24) and the yield criterion (9.25) is given by
(Jr = kcos e, (J8 = 2kcos e, rr8 = ksin e (9.26)
where e is measured from the suitably chosen polar axis so that the stress
state is continuous across the boundary characteristic AC which separates
the two plastically deforming regions. The radial stress ar = kcos e is thus
constant along a radial characteristic. By considering the equilibrium of
the triangular element on the boundary characteristic AC it is found that
sine= (2/3) 112 (9.27)
or e = 54°44'
The polar axis AE must therefore be inclined at an angle e= 54° 4' to the
boundary characteristic AC or at an angle 2e to the stress free surface AB.
In the paper by Hill 5 , which is concerned with discontinuities in velocity
and stress, it is shown that the equation to curved characteristics of the
second family such as CD is given by
r 2 sin e= a constant (9.28)
Curved characteristics become asymptotic to the polar axis AE for which
e= 0. This is illustrated in figure 9.3(b) by the dash lines. Along AE the two
families of 11. and f3 characteristics converge into one and ar = k, a8 = 2k
which is the parabolic point w = n/6 on the von Mises ellipse in figure 9.1(b).
Elastic
(9.29)
Consequently, when the deformation is elastic the stress state is one of
pure shear. Plastic yielding of the plate first occurs at the edge of the hole
when the pressure, p, attains the value of the yield shear stress, k, where
k = Y /3 1 12 according to the von Mises yield criterion. With increasing
pressure the plastically deforming region spreads through an annulus,
a ~ r ~ c, to some radius c. The stresses in the elastic region surrounding
this plastically deforming annulus where r ~ c are
ar =  k(cjr) 2 , a8 = + k(cjrf (9.30)
It is necessary to consider whether or not the plate begins to thicken
with the application of the pressure. The plate does not thicken near the
plastic boundary if the velocity equations are hyperbolic. This condition
is satisfied at the plastic boundary where p =  (ar + a8 )/2 = 0. The part
of the plastic region where the thickness of the plate is unaltered must
therefore extend over a finite annulus the inner boundary being a circle
where the velocity characteristics are coincident.
The radial and circumferential stresses are principal stresses and may
be written as
320 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
9.5.1 Bending a thin circular plate using the von Mises yield criterion
Consider a thin circular plate of uniform thickness, 2h, and diameter, 2a,
to be supported at its outer edge in some manner and subjected to an axisym
metric lateral pressure, p = p(r), where r is the radius as shown in figure
9.5(a). It is assumed that the plate material is rigidperfectly plastic such
that the plate remains undeformed until the limiting value of the lateral
pressure is attained. As for the case of elastic bending of a plate, it is also
assumed that during plastic bending the median plane of the plate is neither
extended nor contracted and that planes initially normal to the median
plane remain plane.
In order that the usual convention for positive bending moments and
deflections is established, the positive z direction of the cylindrical coordinate
system (r, e, z) will be considered to be downwards. If the stress components
az, r,z be neglected by comparison with the stress components a,, a8 and
r,8 = r8 z = 0 then the plate is subjected to a plane stress state. For the element
of the plate shown in figure 9.5(b) the bending moment per unit length of
radius, M,, at radius, r, is given by
M, = f +h
h
a,zdz (9.41)
322 ENGINEERING PLASTICITY
p
(b)
(c)
Figure 9.5. Bending of a thin circular plate showing the bending moments and
shear forces acting on an element at any radius r
(9.42)
In the circumferential direction the shear force must be zero for an axisym
metric lateral pressure, that is, rr6 = c6z = 0, but in the radial direction the
shear force per unit length, F, at radius, r, is
(9.43)
which balances the force due to the external lateral pressure at this radius.
Therefore
2nrF + 2n f~ prdr = 0
PLANE PLASTIC STRESS AND PSEUDO PLANE STRESS 323
(a) (b)
Me
(c)
Figure 9.6. (a) Representation of the von Mises yield criterion in the (ar, a8 )
plane for plane stress showing the strainrate vector; (b) representation of equation
(9.53): M; MrM8 + M; = M; in the (MrM8 ) plane corresponding to the von Mises
yield criterion in the (a r, a 8 ) plane showing the rate of curvature vector; (c) representation
of the equation Mr M 8 = MP in the (Mr,M8) plane corresponding to the Tresca yield
criterion in the (ar, a 8) plane showing the various plastic regimes and the rate of curvature
vector
9.5.2 Bending a thin circular plate using the Tresca yield criterion
(b)
Figure 9. 7. (a) Thin circular plate simply supported at its outer edge subjected to a
uniform lateral pressure over a circular area of radius c; (b) thin circular plate perfectly
clamped at its outer edge subjected to a uniform lateral pressure over its entire surface
PLANE PLASTIC STRESS AND PSEUDO PLANE STRESS 327
where A and B are arbitrary constants. From the condition that M, is
bounded at the centre of the plate it follows that A = 0 and from the condition
that M, is continuous when r = c, B = pc 2 /3.
The bending moment, M,, decreases as the radius r increases, that is, the
point representing the state on the Tresca hexagon in figure 9.6(c) moves
from C to B. At the outer edge of the plate where it is simply supported,
M r = 0 and the regime B is realised, whilst for the remainder of the plate the
regime BC is applicable. Therefore, when r = a, M, = 0 and the limiting value
of the lateral pressure, p*, is given by
p* = [ 6a/{ c 2 (3b 2c)} ]MP (9.59)
If the lateral pressure acts over the entire surface of the plate then c = a and
equation (9.59) reduces to
(9.60)
When the limiting lateral pressure, p*, is applied the Tresca associated flow
rule gives k, = 0, d 2 wfdr 2 = 0 for the regime BC. When r =a at the outer edge
of the plate
w = w 0 {1 (rfa)} (9.61)
where w0 is the value of the rate of bending at the centre of the plate which
remains unknown. However, this indicates that the mode of deformation is
such that the plate assumes the shape of the surface of a right circular cone
as illustrated by the dash line in figure 9.7(a).
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