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VORGESCHICHTE HALLE

LANDESMUSEUMS FÜR
TAGUNGEN DES
Metalle der Macht – Frühes Gold und Silber
Metalle der Macht – Frühes Gold und Silber
Metals of power – Early gold and silver
6. Mitteldeutscher Archäologentag
vom 17. bis 19. Oktober 2o13 in Halle (Saale)

Herausgeber Harald Meller, Roberto Risch und Ernst Pernicka

I S B N 9 7 8 - 3 - 9 4 4 5 0 7-1 3 - 2
I S S N 18 6 7- 4 4 0 2
11/I 11/I 2014 TAGUNGEN DES L ANDESMUSEUMS FÜR VORGESCHICHTE HALLE
Tagungen des
Landesmuseums für Vorgeschichte Halle
Band 11/I | 2014

Metalle der Macht –


Frühes Gold und Silber
Metals of power –
Early gold and silver
6. Mitteldeutscher Archäologentag
vom 17. bis 19. Oktober 2o13 in Halle (Saale)
6th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany
October 17–19, 2o13 in Halle (Saale)
Tagungen des
Landesmuseums für Vorgeschichte Halle
Band 11/I | 2014

Metalle der Macht –


Frühes Gold und Silber
Metals of power –
Early gold and silver
6. Mitteldeutscher Archäologentag
vom 17. bis 19. Oktober 2o13 in Halle (Saale)
6th Archaeological Conference of Central Germany
October 17–19, 2o13 in Halle (Saale)

Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt


landesmuseum für vorgeschichte

herausgegeben von
Harald Meller,
Roberto Risch und
Ernst Pernicka

Halle (Saale)
2o14
Dieser Tagungsband entstand mit freundlicher Unterstützung von:
The conference proceedings were supported by:

Die Beiträge dieses Bandes wurden einem Peer-Review-Verfahren unterzogen.


Die Gutachtertätigkeit übernahmen folgende Fachkollegen: PD Dr. Barbara Regine Arm-
bruster, Prof. Dr. François Bertemes, Prof. Dr. Christoph Brumann, Prof. Dr. Robert Chap-
man, Dr. Andrea Dolfini, Prof. Dr. Gerhard Eggert, Dr. José Lull Gracía, Dr. Maria Filomena
Guerra, Prof. Dr. Detlef Günther, Prof. Dr. Andreas Hauptmann, PD Dr. Reinhard Jung,
Dr. Laurence Manolakakis, Prof. Dr. Gregor Markl, Dr. Regine Maraszek, Prof. Dr. Carola
Metzner-Nebelsick, Prof. Dr. Pierre de Miroschedji, Prof. Dr. Louis Daniel Nebelsick,
Prof. Dr. Ernst Pernicka, Prof. Dr. Margarita Primas, PD Dr. Sabine Reinhold,
Dr. Ralf Schwarz, Dr. Zofia Anna Stos-Gale, Dr. Christian-Heinrich Wunderlich.

Bibliografische Information Der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek


Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen
Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet
über http://portal.dnb.de abrufbar.
isbn 978-3-9445o7-13-2
issn 1867-44o2

Redaktion Jennifer Bröcher, Dirk Höhne, Kathrin Legler, Janine Näthe, Sven Roos, Monika Schlenker,
Manuela Schwarz, Anna Swieder, Andrea Welk
Redaktion und Übersetzung Tanja Romankiewicz, Nicholas Uglow • beide Edinburgh, Bettina Stoll-Tucker
der englischen Texte
Organisation und Korrespondenz Konstanze Geppert
Technische Bearbeitung Thomas Blankenburg, Nora Seeländer, Mario Wiegmann
Vor-/Nachsatz, Sektionstrenner, S. 19, 49, 367 Fotos Juraj Liptàk • München, Gestaltung Brigitte Parsche
Umschlag
Rubriktrenner S. 51 © G. Borg, Halle (Saale); S. 151 © CEZA, Mannheim; S. 321 © C.-H. Wunderlich, LDA;
S. 369 Piotrovski 2o13; S. 313 Abb. 2o,15–16; S. 449 J. A. Soldevilla, © ASOME-UAB;
S. 6o9 Piotrovski 2o13, S. 466 Abb. 157,3 u. Staatl. Museum f. Bildende Künste
A. S. Puschkin; S.  883 J. Lipták, München

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© by Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt – Landesmuseum für


Vorgeschichte Halle (Saale). Das Werk einschließlich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich
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Inhalt / Contents

Band I
11 Vorwort der Herausgeber / Preface of the editors

Sektion Allgemeines / Section General Perspectives


21 Hans Peter Hahn
Die Sprache des Glanzes: Wert und Werte als Kontext von Gold

33 Hans-Gert Bachmann
Gold: pursued, desired, cursed – Reverence for a precious metal

Sektion Herkunft und Verarbeitung / Section Procurement and craft


Bergbau / Mining

53 Gregor Borg
»Gold is where you find it« – Zeitgenössischer artisanaler Goldbergbau in Afrika als Analogie
(prä-)historischer Goldgewinnung

71 Thomas Stöllner
Gold in the Caucasus: New research on gold extraction in the Kura-Araxes Culture
of the 4th millenium BC and early 3rd millenium BC

111 Danilo Wolf und René Kunze


Gegharkunik – Neue Quellen für altes Gold aus Südkaukasien?

141 Rosemarie Klemm und Dietrich Klemm


Früher Goldbergbau in Ägypten und Nubien

Archäometrie / Archaeometry

153 Ernst Pernicka


Possibilities and limitations of provenance studies of ancient silver and gold

165 Verena Leusch, Ernst Pernicka, and Barbara Armbruster


Chalcolithic gold from Varna – Provenance, circulation, processing, and function

183 Zofia Anna Stos-Gale


Silver vessels in the Mycenaen Shaft Graves and their origin in the context of the metal supply
in the Bronze Age Aegean

209 Christopher D. Standish, Bruno Dhuime, Chris J. Hawkesworth, and Alistair W. G. Pike
New insights into the source of Irish Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age gold through lead
isotope analysis
223 Nicole Lockhoff and Ernst Pernicka
Archaeometallurgical investigations of Early Bronze Age gold artefacts from central Germany
including gold from the Nebra hoard

237 Robert Lehmann, Daniel Fellenger, and Carla Vogt


Modern metal analysis of Bronze Age gold in Lower Saxony by using laser ablation mass
spectrometry (ns-LA-ICP-QMS and fs-LA-ICP-MCMS) and portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF)

247 Ernst Pernicka


Zur Frage der Echtheit der Bernstorfer Goldfunde

257 Mercedes Murillo-Barroso, Ignacio Montero Ruiz, and Martin Bartelheim


Native silver ressources in Iberia

269 Francisco Contreras-Cortés, Auxilio Moreno-Onorato, and Martin Bartelheim


New data on the origin of silver in the Argaric Culture: The site of Peñalosa

285 Beatriz Comendador Rey, Jorge Millos, and Paula Álvarez-Iglesias


Provenance of the prehistoric silver set of Antas de Ulla, north-western Iberia, using lead stable
isotope ratios

309 Katja Martin


Was bleibt ... Der Metallurg und sein Handwerk im archäologischen Befund

Experimentelle Archäologie / Experimental archaeology

323 Barbara Armbruster


Ethnoarchäologie und experimentelle Archäologie in der Forschung prähistorischen Goldes

335 Eleni Konstantinidi-Syvridi, Nikolas Papadimitriou, Anna Philippa-Touchais, and Akis Goumas
Goldworking techniques in Mycenaean Greece (17th/16th–12th century BC):
some new observations

349 Christian-Heinrich Wunderlich


Wie golden war die Himmelsscheibe von Nebra?
Gedanken zur ursprünglichen Farbe der Goldauflagen

353 Christian-Heinrich Wunderlich, Nicole Lockhoff und Ernst Pernicka


De Cementatione oder: Von der Kunst, das Gold nach Art der Alten zu reinigen
Band II
Sektion Kontext und Interpretation / Section Context und interpretation
Osten / East

371 Raiko Krauß, Steve Zäuner, and Ernst Pernicka


Statistical and anthropological analysis of the Varna necropolis

389 Svend Hansen


Gold and silver in the Maikop Culture

411 Barbara Helwing


Silver in the early societies of Greater Mesopotamia

423 Romain Prévalet


Bronze Age Syrian gold jewellery – Technological innovation

435 Andreas Reinecke


Der Anfang des Goldhandwerks in Südostasien. Zur Verknüpfung archäologischer Befunde
und metallanalytischer Ergebnisse

Mittelmeer / Mediterranean sea

451 Stelios Andreou and Michael Vavelidis


So rich and yet so poor: Investigating the scarcity of gold artefacts in Bronze Age northern
Greece

467 Borja Legarra Herrero


The role of gold in south Aegean exchange networks (31oo–18oo BC)

483 Maria Grazia Melis


Silver in Neolithic and Eneolithic Sardinia

495 Maria Bernabò Brea, Filippo Maria Gambari, and Alessandra Giumlia-Mair
Preliminary remarks on the gold cup from Montecchio Emilia, northern Italy

505 Teodoro Scarano and Giovanna Maggiulli


The golden sun discs from Roca Vecchia, Lecce, Italy: archaeological and cultural context

527 Alicia Perea


Goldworking processes and ontologies at the inception of metallurgy in the
western Mediterranean

541 Maria Carme Rovira Hortalà, Ferran Borrell, Mònica Oliva, Maria Saña, Oriol Vicente, and
Gabriel Alcalde
Early gold remains in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula

547 Maria Carme Rovira Hortalà, Ignacio Montero Ruiz, and Alicia Perea
The funerary »treasure« of Montilla, Cordova, Spain

557 Vicente Lull, Rafael Micó, Christina Rihuete Herrada, and Roberto Risch,
The social value of silver in El Argar

577 Selina Delgado-Raack, Vicente Lull, Katja Martin, Rafael Micó, Cristina Rihuete Herrada und
Roberto Risch
Die Silberschmiede von Tira del Lienzo, Totana, Prov. Murcia, im Kontext
der El Argar Metallurgie
593 Mauro S. Hernández Pérez, Gabriel García Atiénzar, and Virginia Barciela González
The treasures of Villena and Cabezo Redondo, Alicante, Spain

Mitteleuropa / Central Europe

611 Harald Meller


Die neolithischen und bronzezeitlichen Goldfunde Mitteldeutschlands – Eine Übersicht

717 Ralf Schwarz


Goldene Schleifen- und Lockenringe – Herrschaftsinsignien in bronzezeitlichen Rang­gesellschaften
Mitteldeutschlands. Überlegungen zur Gesellschaft der Aunjetitzer Kultur

743 Juliane Filipp und Martin Freudenreich


Dieskau Revisited I: Nachforschungen zur »Lebensgeschichte« des Goldhortes von Dieskau
und zu einem weiteren Grabhügel mit Goldbeigabe bei Osmünde im heutigen Saalekreis,
Sachsen-Anhalt

753 Martin Freudenreich und Juliane Filipp


Dieskau Revisited II. Eine mikroregionale Betrachtung

761 Rupert Gebhard, Rüdiger Krause, Astrid Röpke und Vanessa Bähr
Das Gold von Bernstorf – Authentizität und Kontext in der mittleren Bronzezeit Europas

777 Henning Haßmann, Andreas Niemuth, Mario Pahlow, Bernd Rasink, Stefan Winghart
und Friedrich-Wilhelm Wulf
Der Goldhort von Gessel

789 Franziska Knoll, Harald Meller und Juliane Filipp


»Nordisch by nature«. Die jundbronzezeitlichen, goldenen Eidringe Sachsen-Anhalts an der südlichen
Peripherie des Nordischen Kreises in ihrem Kontext

873 Christian-Heinrich Wunderlich


Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede der goldenen Eidringe von Schneidlingen, Könnern,
Hundisburg und Klein Oschersleben hinsichtlich ihrer Herstellungs- und Abnutzungsspuren

Westen und Norden / West and North

885 Flemming Kaul


Bronze Age gold from Denmark

903 Stuart Needham and Alison Sheridan


Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age goldwork from Britain: new finds and new perspectives
Chalcolithic gold from Varna –
Provenance, circulation, processing, and function
Verena Leusch, Ernst Pernicka, and Barbara Armbruster

Zusammenfassung Summary

Kupferzeitliches Gold aus Varna – Herkunft, Zirkulation, When discussing the role of early gold and silver in human
Verarbeitung und Funktion history, a single archaeological site is particularly outstand­
ing: the cemetery of Varna I. Dated between 455o–445o BC, it
Wenn es um die Geschichte früher Gold- und Silberverarbei­ is still considered to provide the earliest evidence for the ex-
tung geht, wird eine archäologische Fundstätte besonders ist­ence of specialised and developed gold metallurgy in com­
häufig thematisiert: das Gräberfeld von Varna I. Mit einer bination with a high level of social differentiation. Since
Belegungszeit zwischen 455o–445o v. Chr. gilt es noch immer 2oo9, intensive reinvestigations of the grave assem­blages
als der früheste Beleg einer spezialisierten und ent­wickelten shed new light on the phenomenon of this earliest gold indus­
Goldverarbeitung sowie einem bis dahin unbekannten hohen try and its impact on society. Extensive analytical work was
Grad sozialer Differenzierung. Seit dem Jahr 2oo9 konnten conducted in order to provide the empirical basis for the
umfassende Neuuntersuchungen der Grabfunde weitere reconstruction of the »chaîne opératoire« of gold during the
Erkenntnisse zum Phänomen dieser frühen Goldindustrie Late Chalcolithic period within the Kodža­dermen-Gumelniţa-
und zu dessen gesellschaftlichem Einfluss liefern. So konnte Karanovo (KGK) VI cultural complex in the west Pontic region.
durch umfangreiche Analysen eine empirische Basis für die This article focuses on the new analytical results and their
Rekonstruktion der »chaîne opératoire« des Goldes in der interpretation related to production techniques and work­
späten Kupferzeit innerhalb des Kodžadermen-Gumelniţa- flows as well as the intra-site distribution of the gold objects
Karanovo (KGK) VI Kulturkomplexes im Westpontikum erar­ from Varna. Furthermore, in addition to the investigation of
beitet werden. Dieser Beitrag bezieht sich vor allem auf die the gold artefacts, placer gold occurrences in eastern Bulga­
neuen Analysenergebnisse und deren Interpretation hin­ ria were prospected in search for gold resources that possibly
sichtlich der Produktionstechniken und -abläufe sowie der have been used in the Chalcolithic. Finally, other grave goods
Verbreitung der Goldobjekte innerhalb des Gräberfelds von from the cemetery were considered, aiming to provide in-
Varna. Neben den Analysen der Goldartefakte von Varna sights on the wider economic networks and social structures
umfasst diese Studie auch geologische Prospektionen von within Varna’s society. This comprehensive approach repre­
Goldvorkommen im östlichen Bulgarien, die möglicherweise sents a novelty in the research history of this site. The fol­
bereits während der Kupferzeit genutzt wurden. Um außer­ lowing article presents selected highlights of this study.
dem einen Einblick in die spätkupferzeitlichen Austausch­
netzwerke sowie sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Strukturen
zu gewinnen, in welche Varna eingebettet war, werden auch
andere Grabbeigaben des Fundplatzes in die Untersuchun­
gen mit einbezogen. Der vorliegende Artikel präsentiert aus­
gewählte Ergebnisse dieser neuen Forschungen.

Introduction which represent different kinds of depositions (inhumations,


deposits, symbolic graves) displaying strongly differentiated
The available literature on the cemetery of Varna I (455o – grave assemblages. Amongst them, c. 7o burials contained
445o BC1) places strong emphasis on the relevance of this gold objects ranging from single or a few finds up to around
site for the interpretation of the complex social dynamics 1ooo objects in a single burial. In total, only a few of these
taking place during the Copper Age in south-east Europe2. gold-bearing burials can clearly be addressed as outstanding
Without doubt, the site reveals a distinct social structure according to the large number and variety of gold objects,
that is still unique for the entire Chalcolithic period, not and also because of other grave goods they contained.
only in the region of the KGK VI cultural complex but These burials include the inhumation grave no. 43, the
throughout the ancient world that we know. 32o burials symbolic deposition complex no. 36, and the symbolic grave
(Bojadžiev/Slavčev 2o11, 15) in total were identified so far, no. 4 (Fig. 1b–c). In this context the burial no. 1 must also be

1 For the absolute dates see Chapman et al. 2 E . g. Renfrew 1978; Fol/Lichardus 1988; 2oo6; Higham et al. 2oo7; Govedarica/
2oo6; Higham et al. 2oo7, but see also Krauß Ivanov 1988; Marazov 1988; Lichardus Manzura 2o11.
et al. in the present volume for a later ending 1991; Biehl/Marciniak 2ooo; Chapman et al.
of the cemetery.

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
166 Verena Leusch, Ernst Pernick a, and Barbar a Armbruster

a b

c d

Fig. 1a–d Assemblages of gold objects from the burials no. 1 (a), 4 (b), 36 (c), and 43 (d) from the Varna I cemetery.

Abb. 1a–d Goldinventare aus den Gräbern 1 (a), 4 (b), 36 (c) und 43 (d) vom Gräberfeld Varna I.

mentioned (Fig. 1a). However, this burial was heavily dis- ical conception that can be deduced by their canonical grave
turbed by the initial construction works of the cable trench, assemblages and stylised representations of the buried indi-
which took place in the industrial area of the Varna munici- viduals or deities (Bertemes 2o1o; Krauß/Slavčev 2o12).
pality in 1972 and which led to the discovery of this site Two further burials with extraordinary gold objects
(Ivanov 1988). Because of the resulting unclear context this should also be mentioned. Burial no. 41 contains a set of
»burial« is usually addressed as a deposition or symbolic sheet-gilded or plated copper beads (Fig. 3a) and burial
grave. Yet, it cannot be excluded that the finds include the no. 97 includes a necklace composed out of spiral beads, car-
inventory of an inhumation as human bone material was nelian, and a ring-idol (Fig. 3b). These objects reveal impor-
found within the excavated heap of the mentioned construc- tant insights into the elaborate goldworking techniques and
tion works (Bojadžiev/Slavčev 2o11, 15). Although the archae­ the technological expertise of the Varna artisans.
ological context of this feature remains unclear, the collected On closer examination, the introduced burials show spe-
assemblage shows a strong affinity to the above-mentioned cific patterns in the arrangement of the gold objects they
burials singled out for their wealth. They resemble each contain (see also Lichardus 1988, 94 ff.). These patterns
other in the large number of gold objects and, importantly, reveal strong similarities between the burials no. 1, 4, and
show a somewhat canonical assemblage of gold jewellery 43 as all contain pectorals and gold-decorated ceremonial
and decoration that consists essentially of armlets, neck- weapons/tools (like hammer axes or bows3; Fig. 1a–b; 1d;
laces, and/or bracelets made out of small gold beads, mostly 4c–b; 5,1). Which function these sheet-gilded ceremonial
domed garment appliqués, and golden sheet decoration of objects represent, remains debatable. Whether the hammer-
the so-called ceremonial or prestige gear (like the hammer axes represent tools or weapons and the bows weapons or
axes; Fig. 1; 4–5). hunting gear cannot be assessed from their shapes. Hitherto,
Besides these extraordinarily rich burials, another group it was often hypothesised that the hammer-axes would
of outstanding depositions has to be mentioned. These are point to metallurgical skills and, thus, were regarded as sup-
the symbolic graves with clay masks or heads, namely the porting evidence for the social importance of metal working
burials no. 2, 3, and 15 (Fig. 2). They evince a special ideolog­ and the metallurgist in the Chalcolithic society (Marazov

3 Here the burial no. 35 must be men­tioned, be interpreted as a bow decoration similar
too. It also contains gold sheet that can to these from the listed burials in the text.

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
C h a l c o l i t h i c g o l d f r o m V a r n a – P r o v e n a n c e , c i r c u l at i o n , p r o c e s s i n g , a n d f u n c t i o n 167

Fig. 2 The symbolic burial with clay head from


the grave no. 2.

Abb. 2 Die symbolische Bestattung mit tönerner


Gesichtsdarstellung aus Grab 2.

5 cm

1988). Yet, this monocausal approach does not seem con­ In contrast to the burials no. 1, 4, and 43, the burial no. 36
vinc­ing against the background of the problematic func­ shows a different set of prestige items. The different types of
tional interpretation of these objects and their »symbolic ring-idols represent the more typical grave goods. In addi-
dimension« has been emphasised in more recent studies tion, a small golden hammer (Fig. 5,2) can only be described
(Kienlin 2o14, 451). as an exceptional object which is still lacking any archaeo­

a b

Fig. 3a–b a Sheet-gilded copper bead from the burial no. 41; b Necklace with spiral gold beads, carnelian, and a ring-idol from the burial no. 97.

Abb. 3a–b a Folien- bzw. blechvergoldete Kupferperle aus Grab 41; b Halskette mit spiralförmigen Goldperlen, Karneol und einem Ringidol-Anhänger
aus Grab 97.

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
168 Verena Leusch, Ernst Pernick a, and Barbar a Armbruster

5 cm

5 cm 10 cm

b c

Fig. 4a–c Gold decorated »prestige goods« like the so-called golden phallus (a), a golden bow decoration (b), and a hafted axe (c) from the grave no. 43.
A ceramic tuyère (a) from Kubrat is discussed as a possible related form to the golden phallus.

Abb. 4a–c Goldverzierte »Prestigeausrüstung« wie der sogenannte goldene Phallus (a), die Goldverzierung eines Bogens (b) und eine Hammeraxt (c) aus
Grab 43. Eine Tondüse aus Kubrat wird als mögliche Parallele zum goldenen Phallus diskutiert.

logical parallel. Its shape strongly resembles the typical plex no. 36 must be assumed. This can be deduced from the
modern goldsmith’s hammers for embossing or chasing (see different burial rites and the characteristic ensembles of
e. g. Knauth 1974, 77 Fig. 3). Yet, the interpretation of the gold items. As such, in contrast to the complex no. 36, the
golden hammer-sceptre from burial no. 36 as an imitation of mask graves show a spectrum of gold finds that is further
such a goldsmith’s tool and, thus, as an indication for the restricted to certain types. Besides the miniature diadems,
social importance of this craft must be discussed thoroughly specific gold sheets that decorate the clay heads and ring-
considering the contemporaneous spectrum of finds where idols of type B (after Todorova/Vajsov 2oo1) are characteris-
no such tool has been found so far. Generally, the complex tic golden grave goods (Fig. 2).
no. 36 includes exceptional forms of gold objects that are In a nutshell, the complexity of the burial customs that is
typologically unique, as the gold decoration of a potential basically reflected by the different patterns of grave assem­
sceptre-handle (Fig. 5,3) or the set of double-convex armlets blages and the variety of depositions is associated with differ­
(Fig. 1c). On the other hand, this assemblage contains types ent social strata and mirror the complex ideological system
that are strongly related to other burials. For instance it con- of the Varna society. Here the focus is put on selected gold-
tains a miniature diadem that displays a clear connection to bearing burials that only reflect a segment of this society. By
the so-called graves with clay heads or masks (Fig. 2), each of and large, the multitude of grave assemblages and funerary
which contained such head gear. Despite this parallel, a dif- rites evince a collective labour investment and mirror a well
ferent ideological conception of these graves and the com- organised and stratified society that used this funeral place4.

4 See e. g. Renfrew 1978; Fol/Lichardus 1988;


Lichardus 1988; Todorova 1999; Biehl/
Marciniak 2ooo; Govedarica/Manzura 2o11;
Hansen 2o11.

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
C h a l c o l i t h i c g o l d f r o m V a r n a – P r o v e n a n c e , c i r c u l at i o n , p r o c e s s i n g , a n d f u n c t i o n 169

5 cm

Fig. 5 The hafted axe from the grave no. 4 (1), as well as a gold decorated miniature hammer (2), and the gold decoration of a possible sceptre (3) from
the complex no. 36.

Abb. 5 Die Hammeraxt aus Grab 4 (1) sowie ein goldverzierter Miniaturhammer (2) und die Goldverzierung eines möglichen Stabzepters (3) aus
Komplex 36.

Methodology – Technological investigation of fine metal provide the long-expected holistic evaluation of the archaeo-
working logical residues from Varna6.
A crucial question addressed by the recent analyses was
Considering the observable patterns of the gold ensembles to investigate the technical level of goldworking that is
that point to different social purposes of the respective revealed by the objects from the Varna I cemetery. Hitherto,
depositions, the question arises how the supply, production, observations and reconstructions in this respect were
and distribution with these abundant gold objects was organ­ based only on a small number of artefacts7. Now they can
ised. To solve this problem, chemical analyses of the gold be complemented by the recent studies where the gold
artefacts were performed. Within a multidisciplinary re- objects could be investigated by optical analyses of tool
search project it was possible to reinvestigate the entire marks and surface topography aiming at a better under-
material assemblage from Varna I and study almost all gold standing of the manufacturing techniques. The analyses of
objects for the first time. The project (PE 4o5-25-1) was tool marks are especially relevant for the reconstruction of
funded by the German Research Foundation from 2oo9 tools and workshops at the inception of gold metallurgy.
until 2o13 and primarily dealt with palaeo-anthropological Within this contribution selected objects will be presented
and archaeometallurgical investigations (focussing on the to illustrate the major findings8 .
gold objects) of the remains from the Varna I cemetery. In Furthermore, with the above mentioned analytical
this process chemical analyses could be performed with the methods it was possible to define different chemical gold
objective to define a reliable material classification of the groups. On the one hand, this was possible by the analysis
gold that was used. Nearly all gold objects were quantita- of the main components – gold, silver, and copper – by XRF
tively analysed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, where­ that allows an internal material classification and an over-
upon a selection of objects was also analysed by laser laser all comparison of the gold finds. On the other hand, the
ablation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrom­ trace element patterns of a selection of gold objects could be
etry (LA-ICP-MS)5. A full account with all analytical results determined by LA-ICP-MS that provides the possibility to
will be presented in a forthcoming publication which shall recognise sub-groups amongst the major alloys.

5 Full details of the XRF method are provided is being prepared by V. Slavčev. Additionally, 7 See e. g. Hartmann 1978; 1982; Eluère 1989;
in Pernicka/Lutz 2o14; and explanations of further contributions will concentrate on the Echt et al. 1991.
the analysis of gold samples with laser abla- evaluation of the anthropological remains 8 A final techno-typological classification of
tion are given Kovacs et al. 2oo9; Schlosser and a detailed archaeometallurgical assess- the entire gold objects is being prepared by
et al. 2oo9. ment of the gold objects which are the topics K. Dimitrov and shall be published in the
6 This publication will comprise the catalogue of two PhD theses by S. Zäuner and concluding publication of the project.
with a typological overview of all finds and a V. Leusch.
detailed description of all depositions which

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
170 Verena Leusch, Ernst Pernick a, and Barbar a Armbruster

Main elements PGE


Sample Cu Ag Ru Pd Ir Pt
ppm % ppm ppm ppm ppm
Lab.no. Mean limit of detection (in mg/kg) 10 30 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Geological gold samples
MA-103190 geoAu012 1390 12.9 <LoD <LoD <LoD 22
MA-103187 geoAu009 310 8.3 <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD
MA-103189 geoAu011 21 28 <LoD <LoD <LoD <LoD
Artefact gold samples
MA-122618 I-1742/03 19600 23.3 1.7 4.3 0.55 130
MA-122621 I-1742/12 11100 9.6 1.7 1.3 <LoD 24
MA-122622 I-2038 4550 10.7 8.8 12 1.54 440
MA-122623 I-2020 3740 10.1 0.5 3.3 <LoD 43
MA-122624 I-2042 2640 6 <LoD 1.1 <LoD 4.2
MA-122625 I-2041 592 11 <LoD 0.4 <LoD 1.5
MA-122626 I-1992 4470 9.4 5.8 7.3 1.13 340

Reconstruction of the organisation of the fine metal craft elements that are not geochemically related to gold and/or
and the (problematic) search for prehistoric gold sources occur in separate mineral phases within the gold placers.
This is because gold placers include a mixture of several
In addition to the internal material classification, the trace minerals beside the gold nuggets and the detected trace ele-
element pattern was thought to be indicative for the prove- ments in the artefact gold suggest that also copper and tin
nance of gold. On this basis A. Hartmann (1978; 1982) had minerals as well as platin group elements (PGE) may have
suggested that at least part of the gold in Varna derived been included in this heavy mineral mix. This hypothesis is
from external sources such as the Caucasus. While the supported by the observation of copper and iron minerals
prov­enance of copper objects from the Varna cemetery and within gold placers from Georgia (Hauptmann et al. 2o1o,
from other Chalcolithic sites in Bulgaria could be success- 15o Fig. 7). Similarly, gold placers from Bulgaria and other
fully determined by a combination of trace element pat- localities11 that were investigated at the Curt-Engelhorn-
terns and lead isotope ratios9 this turned out to be more Centre Archaeometry gGmbH (CEZA), Mannheim, con­
complicated with gold. First of all, lead concentrations in tained small grains of PGE, iron, and tin minerals. Accord­
the gold finds from Varna are generally very low (mostly ing to these observations, we must presume that the gold
below 5o mg/kg) so that relatively high amounts of sample placers that were used in prehistoric times still contained
material would be required for a reliable determination of all these minerals or »impurities« in different amounts
the lead isotope ratios by measurement in solution10. There- when they were melted. Thus, when melting these hetero­
fore, concerning the provenance question one is left with geneously composed gold placers under reducing condi-
the trace element pattern of the gold objects and the possi­ tions some copper, tin, and PGE may have found their way
bil­ity to compare them with geo­logical samples. into the artefact gold. And indeed, the presence of these ele-
However, although intensive geological fieldwork in east­ ments in archaeological artefacts, like those from Varna, is
ern Bulgaria led to the discovery of numerous, previously usually regarded as indication for the use of placer gold.
unknown gold occurrences, the direct comparison of the This means that the artefact gold is a mixture of several
composition of placer gold with gold artefacts is fraught components within the exploited gold placers that is dif-
with difficulties. It turned out that the placer gold nuggets ficult to be reproduced by modern sampling of river sedi-
and artefact samples that we have analysed show systematic ments, which, hence, represents a crucial problem for their
differences in their copper and trace element concentrations comparability. Thus, the trace element pattern of the gold
as shown in table 1. Interestingly, in contrast to the general artefacts is significantly influenced by the described sepa-
composition of native gold nuggets from river sediments, rate mineral phases and, therefore, as provenance indicator
the artefacts from the Varna I cemetery generally contain it must be discussed with caution.
more copper as well as measurable concentrations of plati- In addition to these geochemical and mineralogical com-
num, palladium, and tin (Tab. 1). Thus, the trace element plexities one also has to take into account a multitude of
pattern of the artefact samples is usually characterised by influences by past practices within the »chaîne opératoire«

9 Pernicka et al. 1997; Pernicka 1999; Dimitrov collector mass spectronomy (LA-ICP-MC- 11 Personal communication M. Brauns, N. Lock-
2oo2; Gale et al. 2oo3. MS) for lead isotope measurements on gold hoff, and G. Borngässer.
1o Recently there also habe been attempts to as described for example in C. Bendall et al.
apply inductively coupled plasma multi­ (2oo9) and C. Standish et al. (2o13).

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Other trace elements Source Country Tab. 1 Typical analytical results by LA-ICP-MS
of geological and archaeological gold samples.
Fe Ni Sn Sb Systematic differences can be observed, such as
ppm ppm ppm ppm the significantly higher copper concentrations
and the evidence for various trace elements in
5.0 1.1 0.5 1.0 the artefact gold that are usually not found in
the gold nuggets from the geological samples.
LoD – limit of detection.
270 <LoD <LoD 5.1 Dimitrovchenska Bulgaria
Tab. 1 Typische Ergebnisse der Spurenelement­
125 <LoD <LoD <LoD Saplama Bulgaria analyse (mittels LA-ICP-MS) der geologischen
und archäologischen Goldproben. Es lassen sich
560 <LoD <LoD <LoD Ogosta Bulgaria
systematische Unterschiede beobachten, wie
zum Beispiel die deutlich höheren Kupferkonzen­
trationen und der Nachweis verschiedener Spu­
44 130 7.2 <LoD Varna I Bulgaria renelemente im Gold der Artefakte, die sich
typischerweise nicht in den Goldnuggets der
160 4.6 16 <LoD Varna I Bulgaria
geologischen Proben finden. LoD – Nachweis­
97 2.7 19 <LoD Varna I Bulgaria grenze (engl. limit of detection).

110 1.8 2.0 <LoD Varna I Bulgaria


130 2.1 <LoD <LoD Varna I Bulgaria
1500 1.5 4.0 <LoD Varna I Bulgaria
150 3.3 45 <LoD Varna I Bulgaria

that may also change the final composition of the gold arte- tion, use, and as a consequence also on the chemical compo-
fact (Roberts 2oo9, 47o f.). The scheme in figure 6 shows sition of the gold artefacts. As such, the social structures
this metallurgical sequence that comprises, besides the influence the ways of how the exploitation and trading of
geolog­ical sphere, also manufacturing, economic, and the gold is organised, how the workshops are structured and
social aspects that constitute parts of this dynamic network also the ways of how gold items were used within a given
of mutual exchange and communication. This schematic society (see for example Rowlands 1971). In this regard one
depiction further illustrates that particularly the socially may hypothesise that the exploited gold placers were melted
determined actions within this »chaîne opératoire« may to produce some kind of ingots to facilitate portability. Such
have great impact on the exploitation, production, distribu- a procedure would already alter the chemical composition of

Trade/exchange/communication

Supply
Geology networks
Raw gold Exploitation Workshop Technology/ Object Consumption/
Trade Processing Display

Trade

Geological sphere Socio-economic sphere

Fig. 6 Schematic depiction of the processes within the metallurgical chain with its intersecting geological and socio-economic sphere. Multiple human
actions affect the associated manufacturing and economic processes. The social superstructure basically can be understood as a mutual communication
as well as an exchange network.

Abb. 6 Schematische Darstellung der Prozesse innerhalb der metallurgischen Kette mit ihren sich überschneidenden geologischen und sozioökonomischen
Bereichen, welche Gewinnung, Herstellung und Austausch beeinflussen. Diese Prozesse sind gesellschaftlich reglementiert und somit Gegenstand einer
wechselseitiger Kommunikation bzw. eines Austauschs.

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
172 Verena Leusch, Ernst Pernick a, and Barbar a Armbruster

3 cm a 3 cm b

3 cm c 2 cm d

Fig. 7a–d Examples for »serial production«: beads (a), domed (hemispherical) appliqués (b), and the so-called bucrania (c) from the complex no. 36, as
well as the double-conical beads from the grave no. 43 (d).

Abb. 7a–d Beispiele für »Serienproduktion«: Perlen (a), gewölbte (halbkugelförmige) Applikationen (b) und die sogenannten Bukranien (c) aus Komplex 36
sowie die doppelkonischen Perlen aus Grab 43 (d).

the native gold. The subsequent processing of such pre-prod­ Hartmann (1982), seems unlikely. The detected trace ele-
ucts in the workshops further implies pyrotechnical treat- ments within the available artefact samples rather indicate
ment as can be deduced from the gold objects from Varna that the raw gold solely derived from placer gold occur­
that turned out to be cast and reworked (see below). Further- rences.
more, the use as well as the possible re-use and re-melting of A further problem when discussing the provenance of
the gold may be greatly determined by the social and/or reli- the Varna gold and its production is the insufficient archaeo-
gious habitus. Consequently, numerous chemical alterations logical evidence of the respective Chalcolithic gold mining
of the gold must be taken into account at the various stages areas and workshops (see e. g. Todorova 1999). Therefore we
of its »chaîne opératoire« and the anthropogenic influence ought to consider comparisons with structurally similar
on the (trace) elemental composition of the artefact gold has archaeological and ethnographic evidence, as well as with
to be regarded at least as high as the geological one. detailed material analyses12 in order to address vital ques­
As a conclusion, one can assume that all different proc­ tions about the »chaîne opératoire« of the Varna gold. The
esses within the metallurgical sequence influence the above mentioned investigations by optical and chemical
chemical composition of the gold artefact and blur the geo- means help to elucidate not only the direct work processes of
chemical signature of the native gold, which particularly the Chalcolithic gold industry, as H. Todorova and I. Vajsov
exacerbates the identification of its geological source. How- (2oo1, 1o) called it, but also the intra-site distribution and
ever, considering the gold from Varna the new finds of gold eventually large-scale exchange processes of the material
placers in eastern Bulgaria that also contain PGE minerals that may point to particular patterns of cultural, economic,
at least show that Hartmann’s hypothesis (Hartmann 1978; and/or social interactions, as shall be illustrated and dis-
1982) that gold with traceable concentrations of platinum cussed in more detail by the presentation of the following
must be regarded as imported from afar has to be revised. examples.
Also exploitation by hard rock mining, as also suggested by

12 See e. g. Hartmann 1978; 1982; Echt et al.


1991; Armbruster 1995; Anfinset 2o11.

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Fig. 8 Results of the XRF analysis of the neck-


lace I-2231-VI from the grave no. 43 with typo­
logically different beads. Preliminarily the
different beads are labelled as types I to V. Dif-
ferent gold groups can be defined according to
their specific copper and silver contents. A clear
correlation between the gold groups and the
typological features, that provides an empirical
evidence for serial production, can be seen.

Abb. 8 Ergebnisse der Röntgenfluoreszenzana­


lyse (RFA) der Halskette I-2231-IV aus Grab 43
mit typologisch unterschiedlichen Perlen. Die
verschiedenen Perlen sind hier vorläufig als Typ I
bis V bezeichnet. Verschiedene Goldgruppen
können anhand spezifischer Kupfer- und Silber­
gehalte abgegrenzt werden. Ein direkter Zusam­
menhang zwischen Goldgruppen und Perlen­
typen ist deutlich erkennbar und stellt einen
empirischen Beweis für eine Serienproduktion
dar.
5 mm

10
Cu (in %)

Type I
Type II
Type III
Type IV
Type V
0,1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Ag (in %)

Exemplifying results Serial production

The gold objects from Varna reveal a complex and devel­ Different groups of objects appear to be serially produced,
oped technology. Generally, they comprise a variety of judging from their typology and production techniques
object types and functions: body adornment in the form of (Fig. 7). R. Echt et al. (1991, 65o) already observed this serial
bracelets and collars, piercing elements, cloth adornments production when investigating a selection of gold objects in
such as appliqués, and also prestige objects and ceremonial the course of the exhibition »Macht, Herrschaft und Gold –
items or sceptres in form of gold decorated weapons/tools Das Gräberfeld von Varna (Bulgarien) und die Anfänge einer
(bows, axes). Here we describe several of these technologi- neuen europäischen Zivilisation« hosted in Saarbrücken in
cal aspects in more detail, which will illustrate the techno- 1988. The recent studies of the tool marks and technical char­
logical level of the artisans’ expertise. The new analyses acteristics of the gold objects by B. Armbruster and K. Dimit-
highlight aspects such as serial artefact production, various rov confirm these observations. Supporting evidence could
casting, and alloying techniques, the intentionality of com- also be found by the chemical analyses, especially by XRF,
bining differently coloured gold objects and finally, the use which is illustrated in figure 8. The diagram shows the
of sheet-gilding as potential means of communicating results for the numerous beads that are made out of differ­
social prestige. Beyond these technical aspects, chemical ent material groups according to their specific copper and
analyses indicate intra-site distribution patterns of the gold, silver contents. Furthermore, a clear correlation emerges
which help to elucidate relations between the gold-bearing between these material groups and the specific forms of the
burials. beads which provides empirical evidence for their serial
production. The production procedure of the astonishingly

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
174 Verena Leusch, Ernst Pernick a, and Barbar a Armbruster

Gold wire or rod

Gold rod
wrapped around
a cylindrical core

Connecting the ends


of the wire segment
and probably reshaping
to obtain a regular
round shape

Cutting regular
wire loops with
a chisel

b 2 cm
c

Fig. 9a–c Schematic reconstruction of the serial production of the ring-shaped beads (a) and corresponding finds from Varna I (b–c). The spiral beads
(b) might be interpreted as pre-products for the ring-shaped ones (c), but are also used as jewellery items themselves (see for example the necklace with
the ring-idol pendant from the grave no. 97; Fig. 3b).

Abb. 9a–c Schematische Rekonstruktion der Serienproduktion der ringförmigen Perlen (a) und die entsprechenden Funde von Varna I (b–c). Die spiral­
förmigen Perlen (b) könnten als »Vorprodukte« der ringförmigen Perlen (c) interpretiert werden, sie wurden aber auch direkt als Schmuckobjekte verwendet
(so zum Beispiel bei der Halskette mit dem Ringidol-Anhänger aus Grab 97; Abb. 3b).

uniform, ring-shaped beads (types III and IV; Fig. 8) was Casting, processing, and alloying
suggested by Echt et al. (1991) as illustrated in figure 9.
Their reconstruction gains support by corresponding finds In the history of research on the Varna gold one often comes
of spiral beads, which may be interpreted as semi-finished across the opinion that casting did not play a role for the
products, but were also used as jewellery components, for production of the gold objects as they belong to the suposed
example as beads of the necklace with a ring-idol pendant initial stage of gold metallurgy. This initial stage was
from the grave no. 97 (Fig. 3,2). The evidence of serial arte- thought to be represented only by cold-working methods,
fact production as it is also traceable for example for the that is cold-welding of gold nuggets or their deformation by
domed appliqués, the »bucrania«, and the double conical hammering13. Nevertheless, this assumption could soon be
beads (Fig. 7), suggests a particular concept in jewellery dismissed on the basis of empirical studies on the produc-
making, using the repetition of items of equal form, weight, tion techniques that were conducted by Echt et al. (1991) and
and dimension. could be corroborated within the recent project. Both stud­

13 Renfrew 1978, 2oo; Eluère 1989, 37; Raub


1995, 247–253; Guerra/Calligaro 2oo3, 1527.

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5 cm

a b

Fig. 1oa–b Differently shaped gold objects made of sheet metal or having massive and hollow bodies from the grave no. 4 (a) representing the results of
various casting methods like the lost-wax casting technique that was (apparently) used to produce for example the big, globular bead (b).

Abb. 1oa–b Verschiedenförmige Goldobjekte aus Blech oder als Massiv- und Hohlkörper aus Grab 4 (a), die in verschiedenen Gießverfahren hergestellt wur­
den. Die große kugelförmige Perle (b) wurde offenbar im Wachsausschmelzverfahren gegossen.

ies confirm that various and quite complex casting tech- Significantly, also on the basis of chemical analyses a
niques were used to produce the hollow bodies like armlets clear evidence could be found for the prevalent casting of
and globular beads (Fig. 1o). gold. A small group of objects consists of gold-copper-alloys,
Even lost-wax casting was obviously used for goldwork­ with copper contents ranging up to more than 3o % and,
ing. It was applied for producing both, solid and hollow thus, exceeding by far the naturally occurring concentra-
objects. Subsequent plastic shaping techniques include tions within native gold (Hauptmann et al. 2o1o, 154). Hence,
hammering, most likely with stone, copper, or antler tools. these objects attest to the melting of both metals and, more
For chasing chisels, punches, and doming blocks were used. importantly, represent the first anthropogenic alloys so far
Embossing, folding, and bending also belong to the plastic recorded (see Fig. 11a). The composition of the ring-idol in
shaping techniques and perforations were done with a coni- figure 11a revealed the following composition: 5o % gold,
cal point. Abrasives, such as grinding stones, sand, ashes, 14 % silver, and 36 % copper. This means that the base
and siliceous plants could have been used for finishing; and (native) gold obviously was rich in silver (c. 22 %) and thus
abrasives combined with fibres are probable materials also lighter in colour. Whether the fine metal worker tried to
applied for parting (Armbruster 2o1o; 2oo1). manipulate the colour of that silvery gold to make it look
more yellowish or reddish by the addition of copper must

5 mm a b

Fig. 11a–b a Example of a gold-copper-alloy. The ring-idol (I-231o) from the grave no. 271 consists of c. 5o % gold, 14 % silver, and 36 % copper. It may be
regarded as one of the earliest evidences for anthropogenic alloying known so far; b Differently coloured gold beads. The silvery beads from the grave
no. 43 contain on average about 58 % gold, 4o % silver, and 2 % copper.

Abb. 11a–b a Beispiel einer Gold-Kupfer-Legierung. Der Ringidol-Anhänger aus Grab 271 besteht aus ca. 5o % Gold, 14 % Silber und 36 % Kupfer. Er stellt
einen der bislang frühesten Nachweise einer intentionellen Legierung dar; b verschiedenfarbige Goldperlen. Die silberfarbenen Perlen aus Grab 43 enthal­
ten durchschnittlich etwa 58 % Gold, 4o % Silber und 2 % Kupfer.

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176 Verena Leusch, Ernst Pernick a, and Barbar a Armbruster

1 000 000 10000

100000
1000
10000

Pb (in mg/kg)
Cu (in mg/kg)

100
1000

100
10

10
1
1

0,1 0,1
1 10 100 1 10 100

Ag (in %) Ag (in %)
a b

Fig. 12a–b a Results of trace element analyses by LA-ICP-MS show that high copper concentrations could be found not only in the silver-rich gold
objects but also in those with lower silver concentrations; b The lead concentrations tend to be slightly higher in the silver-rich alloys but the trend is
not very pronounced and cannot be interpreted as a clear sign for an intentional admixture of silver.

Abb. 12a–b a Die Ergebnisse der Spurenelementanalyse (mittels LA-ICP-MS) zeigen, dass hohe Kupferkonzentrationen nicht nur in silberreichen Goldob­
jekten, sondern auch in solchen mit niedrigen Silberkonzentrationen vorkommen; b die Bleikonzentrationen sind in den silberreichen Legierungen leicht
erhöht. Diese Tendenz ist jedoch nicht besonders ausgeprägt und kann nicht als Nachweis einer intentionellen Silberbeimengung gewertet werden.

remain debatable, since such alloys are the exception rather determined from their shape (Rowlands 1971, 216). This is
than the rule among the gold artefacts from Varna. Yet, they why the equipment of the Chalcolithic goldsmiths is mostly
may indicate some experimentation with metals and the reconstructed by indirect evidence according to the tool
desire to influence their properties. marks on the objects. We assume that the fine metal work­
Generally, a technological link of copper and gold metal­ ing tools, like crucibles, casting moulds, hammers, anvils,
lurgy seems very plausible especially regarding the inven- and punches, were made from stone, copper, ceramics, ant-
tion and subsequent innovation of metal casting that was ler, and bone. Secondly, we have to consider that these tools,
already a well established technique for copper working except for the hearth, could be transported easily in a con­
long before the first gold objects appear. In this regard, cop- tainer or bag. Ethnographic examples show that fine metal
per production evidence from the Vinča Culture (c. 5ooo BC) workers can work without a special workshop, in a senden-
provides the earliest securely dated record of extractive tary, nomadic or semi-nomadic way, never leaving any
metallurgy and some of the earliest cast copper objects so equipment at the working place (Armbruster 1995).
far (Radivojević et al. 2o1o; Hansen 2o11, 66). Moreover, con-
sidering the Late Chalcolithic gold objects from Varna I it is
notewothy, that even earlier gold objects exist, for instance »All that glitters is gold«
from the grave no. 3 from the Middle Chalcolithic site
Varna II. This finding indicates that the massive appearance Some of the ring-shaped beads especially from the burial
of gold objects from Varna I does not represent »the oldest no. 43 (Fig. 11b) caught our attention because of their pecu-
gold of mankind« as it often has been addressed. Further- liar silvery colour. It seems as if they were purposly arranged
more, it shows that even these preceding gold finds are together with yellow-coloured gold beads within bracelets
based upon cast semi-products. Thus, considering the tech- or necklaces, perhaps to increase the shimmering effect of
nological context and the available archaeological evidence, these adornments.
the knowledge of melting and casting apparently was avail­ The chemical analyses of these beads yielded very high
able already at the earliest stages of goldworking and it is silver concentrations around 45 % (Fig. 12). Returning to the
well conceivable that this technology was adopted from observation of early alloying and the presumable intentio-
copper metallurgy that was already well established. nal manipulation of the gold colour by the admixture of cop-
The organisation and structure of copper and goldwork­ per, the question arose, whether these high silver concen­
ing, though, remains uncertain as we still do not have any trations might also be intentional. An intentional addition
clear archaeological evidence for corresponding workshops would mean that silver was already available in significant
within contemporaneous settlements from the whole region amounts during the Late Chalcolithic, which cannot be sub-
under investigation (see e. g. Todorova 1999; Hansen 2oo9). stantiated by corresponding archaeological finds. Until now
This is basically due to two crucial problems: First of all, it is there are only two silver ring-idols from Greece (from the
a general problem to recognise smithing tools from archaeo- Alepotrypa cave in the southern Peloponnesus and from
logical contexts as their function usually cannot be clearly Eileithyia near Amnissos, Crete) that are dated by J. Maran

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(2ooo) to the Chalcolithic period between the 5th and the served as a decoration of particular grave goods. As such,
first half of the 4th millenium BC. He assumes a high level textiles, hammer axes, ceramics, but also the clay heads
of metallurgical expertise in the Aegean, which may have from the burials no. 2, 3, and 15 were gilded by wrapping or
included cuppelation already (Maran 2ooo, 185; 189). covering them with gold sheets (Fig. 1–2; 4–5). Presumably,
Further, another find of an anthropomorphic pendant that by this gilding the social and/or religious meaning of the
presumably is made out of silver was found at the Cucuteni- respective objects were emphasised.
A settlement of Truşeşti in Romania (Dergačev 2oo2, 78). In this regard, one group of objects deserves closer atten-
So far, clear analytical evidence for prehistoric silver pro- tion: These are the tools or weapons (Fig. 1; 4–5). The gold
duction from argentiferous lead ores by cupellation was decoration accentuates their symbolic value as prestige
found for the 4th millenium BC in eastern Anatolia and goods or symbols of social/religious power. At the same
north­ern Syria (Hess et al. 1998; Pernicka et al. 1998). Even time these objects presumably mirror the social importance
if one would assume that this process was already practiced of the associated activities. As discussed above, they may
at Varna corresponding chemical indications should be represent hunting, warfare, and/or craftsmanship. Some
expected. For instance, one would expect a positive correla- objects were even thought to represent metallurgical skills.
tion of lead with increasing silver contents as cupelled silver For instance, the hammer axes were often associated with
typically contains between o.1 % and 1.o % lead (Gale et al. metallurgy (Marazov 1988, 74 f.), even though this func­
198o; Pernicka/Bachmann 1993). Such a correlation could tional interpretation so far cannot clearly be corroborated by
not be found in the recent data and, moreover, the lead con- corresponding archaeological evidence. Another disputed
centrations are well below o.1 % (Fig. 12b). Another source find is the famous so-called phallus-sheath from the grave
of silver could be the native metal, which does occur in no. 43 which eventually has to be re-interpreted. The recent
nature but has so far only been identified in prehistoric arte- review of the excavation documentation by Slavčev clearly
facts from Spain where it was used for jewellery production revealed that the original position of this object was beside
in the El Argar culture of the 3rd millennium BC (Bartel- the body of the deceased (see also Ivanov 1988, 55 Fig. 25)
heim et al. 2o12). and not between his legs as it is exhibited in the museum,
Another analytical finding that may be interpreted as which obviously led to the interpretation as a phallus. As an
indicative for an intentional alloying of silver is the in- alternative interpretation it may represent an imitation or
creased copper concentration between 1.5 % and 3.o % that gilding of a tuyère (Fig. 4a; Lichardus 1991, 174). Also the con-
was detected in many of the silver-rich objects (Fig. 12a). temporaneous ceramic tuyères (one example from Kubrat,
Usually copper concentrations in natural gold are below Bulgaria, is shown in figure 4) were often mis-interpreted as
o.5 % (Schmiderer 2oo8, 11o Fig. 11o) or at least are esti­ phalli (Lichardus 1991, 174). In any case, considering the
mated to be less than 2.o % as summarised in A. Haupt- erroneous reconstruction of its original position in the grave,
mann et al. (2o1o, 154). Although, such high concentrations the interpretation of this prominent gold find as a phallus
of copper as in the silver-rich gold objects from Varna are can be rejected. Of course, the re-interpretation as a tuyère
uncommon in natural gold, they cannot be regarded as is highly speculative as well, and also other functional
proof for alloying neither with silver nor with copper. As recon­structions must be discussed. Another object that was
discussed earlier, according to comparative studies and geo- already mentioned and related to a metallurgical context is
logical investigations it is more likely that the copper in the the golden hammer from the complex no. 36 (Fig. 5,2). But
artefacts is »enriched [from 1 % up to 7,7 %] in the gold, as discussed above, the lack of contemporary typological
because the gold grains were first insufficiently separated analogies of such tools renders its functional interpretation
from copper mineral grains in the placer material« (Haupt- equally debatable.
mann/Klein 2oo9, 79 f.; see also Hauptmann et al. 2o1o, 15o
Fig. 7; 154).
Thus, the chemical analyses of the silver-rich gold objects Material distribution: workshop and supply organisation
from Varna did not reveal any clear evidence for an inten­
tional admixture of silver. Moreover, it could be shown that After discussing the functional and technical aspects of the
silver concentrations in natural gold »can vary from practi- gold finds from Varna the question shall be addressed how
cally nil to about 4o –5o %« (Raub 1995, 245). According to the different chemical gold groups are distributed within
the new analyses, intentional alloying of gold with silver the burial site. For this purpose a general compositional clas-
cannot be substantiated at Varna. However, a deliberate use sification of the gold finds was achieved based on XRF anal­
of differently coloured gold may be assumed. yses. The material groups are defined by their silver and cop-
per concentrations and thus represent the major gold alloys
that were used for the production of the objects (Fig. 13). The
»Gilding« and polychromy gold concentration can be neglected for the discrimination
of these gold groups, because it is not an independent varia-
The seemingly intentional use of different gold colours at ble within the ancient gold matrix, as it correlates negatively
Varna may reflect a general interest to combine differently with silver. Other elements at trace levels below o.1 % could
coloured materials with each other. This is also illustrated not be detected by XRF. Considering the usual concentra-
by the polychrome jewellery composed of gold and col­ tion ranges of silver and copper in the native gold, as dis-
oured stones, as for example the necklace from grave no. 97 cussed above, the majority of the gold from Varna can be
(Fig. 3b). Beyond its use as jewellery material, gold also regarded as naturally occurring gold alloys. An exception

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
178 Verena Leusch, Ernst Pernick a, and Barbar a Armbruster

Fig. 13 Copper and silver concentrations


accord­ing to the XRF results. The different gold
10 groups (point clouds) show distinct silver and
copper concentrations. The group that is high-
lighted in dark grey is further discussed accord­
ing to its trace element concentrations in
figure 14.
1
Abb. 13 Kupfer- und Silberkonzentrationen
Cu (in %)

anhand der RFA-Ergebnisse. Die verschiedenen


Goldgruppen (Punktwolken) zeichnen sich durch
unterschiedliche Silber- und Kupferkonzentra­
0,1
tionsbereiche aus. Die dunkelgrau hervorge­
hobene Gruppe wird bezüglich ihrer Spuren­
elementmuster in Abbildung 14 detailliert
betrachtet.

0,01
1 10 100

Ag (in %)

are the few objects with copper concentration around 3o %, analyse the entire material from Varna by LA-ICP-MS.
as discussed earlier. Hence, the results only enable a selective insight into these
This first-order classification by XRF analyses was essen- possible sub-groupings but certainly attest the validity of
tially used to study the intra-site distribution of the mate- both analytical methods.
rial. Furthermore, a finer classification of the gold could be Figure 13 illustrates the material groups of the Varna
achieved by trace element analyses with LA-ICP-MS of a cemetery that could be identified by XRF. As shown in the
selection of finds as exemplified by figure 14. Here, the trace discussion of the technical and functional aspects of the
elements platinum and palladium are plotted, that were gold objects from Varna, a great typological and technologi-
determined for the samples of a coherent gold group, that cal variety could be attested. Besides the large number of
was classified by the XRF results (Fig. 13; dark grey »clus- gold objects that comprise c. 3ooo objects with a total weight
ter«). At least two sub-groups emerge from the trace element of c. 6 kg (Ivanov 1988, 58), it is this variety that must be
analyses. The differences in the trace element pattern mir- regarded as outstanding and that is mirrored as well in the
ror typological differences as it is illustrated by figure 14. different chemical groups as shown in figure 13. The visu­
Thus, trace element analyses with LA-ICP-MS provide more alised XRF groups can be regarded as chemical relics of dis-
variables for the classification of the gold artefacts. There- tinct »patterns of [production and] consumption« (Roberts
fore, when interpreting the XRF groups one has to keep in 2oo9, 471), that help to elucidate past social practices. Echt
mind that they may be further differentiated into sub- et al. (1991) already used a similar approach to study the
groups when their trace element compositions are also con- intra-site distribution of selected gold artefacts from Varna
sidered. These sub-groups could not be classified for the (based on their technological and chemical analyses) as a
whole range of gold objects, because it was not possible to means to reconstruct their production and distribution.

Fig. 14 The trace element signatures are defined


by specific platinum and palladium concentra-
100 tions. The plotted data represent selected gold
objects of a homogeneous gold group that was
Zoomorphic appliqué
defined by the XRF results (cf. »cluster« that is
Domed appliqué highlighted in dark grey in figure 13). This dia-
Bead gram shows that a more detailed material classi-
Armlet fication could be achieved by LA-ICP-MS. A cor-
releation exists between typology and chemical
10
composition.
Pd (in mg/kg)

Abb. 14 Spurenelementsignaturen lassen sich


anhand der spezifischen Platin- und Palladium­
konzentrationen der untersuchten Artefakte defi­
nieren. Die Daten beziehen sich auf ausgewählte
1 Goldobjekte einer homogenen Goldgruppe (vgl.
das dunkelgrau hervorgehobene »Cluster« in
Abbildung 13), die anhand der RFA-Ergebnisse
definiert wurde. Das Diagramm zeigt, dass durch
die Spurenelementanalyse (mittels LA-ICP-MS)
eine genauere Materialklassifizierung vorge­
nommen werden kann. Eine deutliche Korrela­
0,1 tion zwischen Typologie und chemischer Zusam­
0,1 1 10 100 1000 mensetzung ist erkennbar.
Pt (in mg/kg)

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
C h a l c o l i t h i c g o l d f r o m V a r n a – P r o v e n a n c e , c i r c u l at i o n , p r o c e s s i n g , a n d f u n c t i o n 179

Fig. 15 Distribution of gold groups within the


complex no. 36 and the grave no. 43 that show
mutually distinct material foci. 10
Grave no. 43
Abb. 15 Verteilung der Goldgruppen innerhalb Complex no. 36
des Komplexes 36 und des Grabes 43, die deut­
lich zu unterscheidende Materialschwerpunkte
aufweisen.
1

Cu (in %)
0,1

0,01
1 10 100
Ag (in %)

The recent studies follow up this matter as will be briefly Beyond the intra-site distribution patterns the diversity
discussed below. of chemical gold groups also may point to an equally well
As already demonstrated in the discussion of serial pro- organised supply of gold. Even if the different XRF groups
duction the chemical groups correlate with the typological do not necessarily represent different geological gold sources,
classification (Fig. 8; 14). This suggests advanced production it seems legitimate to assume that all the different alloys as
techniques in goldworking and well organised workshops. shown in the figures 13 and 15 cannot derive from one sin-
Parallel to this specific typological patterning, the distribu- gle placer deposit. The diversity rather points towards a sup-
tion of various gold groups within the cemetery can be ply with raw gold that may resemble the supply with copper
studied to uncover social or economic relations between dif- during the Late Chalcolithic. Chemical and isotopic analyses
ferent archaeological contexts or the so-called »patterns revealed different provenance regions for copper, like the
of consumption« (Roberts 2oo9, 471). To illustrate this ap- Balkans around Stara Zagora and the west Pontic copper
proach, the compositions of the gold objects from the buri- deposits around Burgas14. This finding reflects several trade
als no. 36 and no. 43 are compared (Fig. 15). It was found routes that were established for the supply of copper and
that their compositions show systematic differences that probably also served for the exchange of other goods. And
reflect such patterns of consumption, as by trend the gold indeed, other commodities that were found at Varna, as for
objects from the burials no. 36 and no. 43 are chemically example flint, carnelian, marble, obsidian, spondylus, and
different. dentalium also reflect specific and well established exchange
Moreover, the gold objects reflect variations in the techni- networks that contour the economic area of the KGK VI cul-
cal skills of their producers. For instance, many shapes from tural complex (e. g. Todorova 1995; Hansen 2oo9; Ivanova
the burial no. 36 display more complex workpieces like the 2o12). According to these findings, one may equally assume
gold decorated sceptres (Fig. 5,2–3) and the double-convex that the provenance of the Varna gold lay within this econo-
bracelets (Fig. 1c). Bracelets and golden sceptre decorations mic region. As argued above, presumably several placer gold
also occur in the grave no. 43 (Fig. 1d) but in a simpler form. occurrences were exploited that ensured a constant stream
Considering, moreover, the above mentioned, different ide­ of raw gold to produce the numerous deposited objects. The
ological backgrounds of the dicussed burials one might con- production of these objects then supposedly happened in
clude that different workshops produced exclu­sively for a workshops in the Varna region (Todorova/Vajsov 2oo1). Even
certain clientele, perhaps even exclusively for the funerary if the exact mining sites remain elusive, the recent archaeo-
deposition. This would fit the idea that skilled artisans may logical and geological research changed the perception that
have been supported by or bound to different social author­ most of the gold was imported from afar, for example from
ities (Rowlands 1971, 212). It also has been widely discussed, the Caucasus as Hartmann (1982, 4o) suggested. Hartmann
whether this social elite was directly involved in the produc­ concluded from the presence of platinum in some gold arte-
tion of the prestige items (Marazov 1988). Yet, according to facts from Varna that the raw gold was imported, because at
the archaeological record this direct involvement remains that time no mineralisations of PGE in south-east Europe
elusive. were known (Lichardus 1988, 1o6). According to the recent

14 Černych 1988; Weisgerber/Pernicka 1995;


Pernicka et al. 1997; Dimitrov 2oo2; Gale
et al. 2oo3.

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
180 Verena Leusch, Ernst Pernick a, and Barbar a Armbruster

investigations an import of the gold from distant regions is detail in a PhD thesis by V. Leusch. In this respect, the pre­
no more compelling. In addition, considering also the other liminary results of the seriation (see Krauß et al. in the pres­
commodities that were found at Varna, a local supply com- ent volume) add further insights into the social structure of
prising the region of the KGK VI cultural complex and its the site.
adjacent areas seems more likely as already was suggested
by C. Renfrew (1978).
Acknowledgements

Conclusion At the end of this contribution the authors wish to thank


several persons who were very important for the progress of
Some aspects of early goldworking and use were discussed this study. V. Slavčev provided important information about
on the basis of new analyses of the gold objects from the the archaeological record and figures of the presented finds.
Late Chalcolithic cemetery Varna I in Bulgaria. Numerous As curator he also made it possible for us to work in the
publications already exist about this earliest »gold indus- archaeological museum of Varna and, together with O. Pele-
try«, as Todorova and Vajsov (2oo1) once called it, but since vina, kindly provided access to the finds. To S. Tsaneva we
the discovery of the site no coherent presentation of all owe the possibility to analyse the objects from the grave
finds and features has been brought forward so far. Despite no. 1 from Varna, which are part of the collection of the
the fact that the previous technological studies and analy- National Museum of History in Sofia. K. Dimitrov was in
ses of the gold objects were limited to a rather small num- charge of the sampling as well as the documentation and
ber, many important insights could be gained already. technological examination of the gold objects that was
These insights have been complemented and expanded by essential and very helpful for our work. The geological
the recent investigations of practically all gold objects from studies were conducted by D. Yovchev and V. Kovachev,
the cemetery. For instance, very elaborate production tech- Sofia University »St. Kliment Ohridski«, who gratefully
niques could be identified and confirmed that attest a high shared their insights and thus helped to elucidate the geo-
level of the organisation of production and distribution. For economic prerequisites for gold exploitation of the region
example, evidence for alloying with copper, complex cast­ under investigation. To R. Krauß the authors owe a holistic
ing techniques, and serial production has been found. Fur- view of the Varna material which he and his students pa-
thermore, the diversity of different gold compositions tiently summarised and evaluated statistically. Further,
(mostly natural variations of gold) shows certain patterns great thanks are given to the reviewer of this article for the
that point to restrictive mechanisms of distribution. More­ constructive criticism and to M. Radivojević for helpful
over, they indicate the exploitation of various gold occur- comments, linguisitc revision, and inspiring discussion.
rences and a well organised supply with the raw gold. Also we want to thank all col­leagues, who supported us by
But besides these insights there remain some open ques- critical and fruitful discussions. Last but not least, sincere
tions, as for example for the exact localisation of the gold thanks are also given to the organisers of the 6th Archaeo­
sources. Also the technological relationship between cop- logical Conference of Central Germany and the editing
per and gold metallurgy requires more research. A careful team for making it possible to present and discuss these
evaluation of the intra-site distribution patterns of the results.
Varna gold is still in progress and will be presented in more

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
C h a l c o l i t h i c g o l d f r o m V a r n a – P r o v e n a n c e , c i r c u l at i o n , p r o c e s s i n g , a n d f u n c t i o n 181

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Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
182 Verena Leusch, Ernst Pernick a, and Barbar a Armbruster

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Source of figures

1 a K. Dimitrov, Bulgarian Academy 4 a drawing ceramic tuyère after 7 B. Armbruster


of Science; b–c B. Armbruster; Lichardus 1988, 1o 6 Fig. 58; 8 V. Leusch
d K. Dimitrov, Bulgarian Aca- a–b photos and drawings 9 a after Echt et al. 1991, 651 Fig. 7;
demy of Science R. Kostadinova, R. Docsan, b–c B. Armbruster
2 K. Dimitrov, Bulgarian Academy V. Slavčev, all Varna Museum 1o –11 B. Armbruster
of Science of Archaeology 12–15 V. Leusch
3 a V. Leusch; b B. Armbruster 5 B. Armbruster
6 V. Leusch Tab. 1 V. Leusch

Addresses

Verena Leusch M. A. Prof. Dr. Ernst Pernicka Dr. Barbara Armbruster
Curt-Engelhorn-Zentrum Archäometrie gGmbH Curt-Engelhorn-Zentrum Archäometrie gGmbH Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
(CEZA) (CEZA) (CNRS)
D6, 3 D6, 3 Travaux et Recherches Archéologiques sur
D-68159 Mannheim D-68159 Mannheim les Cultures, les Espaces et les Sociétés
verena.leusch@cez-archaeometrie.de ernst.pernicka@cez-archaeometrie.de (T.R.A.C.E.S) – UMR 56o8
and and Maison de la Recherche Université de
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen Universität Heidelberg Toulouse le Mirail
Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte und Institut für Geowissenschaften 5, allée Antonio Machado
Archäologie des Mittelalters Im Neuenheimer Feld 236 F-31o58 Toulouse Cedex 9
Schloss Hohentübingen D-6912o Heidelberg barbara.armbruster@univ-tlse2.fr
Burgsteige 11 Ernst.Pernicka@geow.uni-heidelberg.de
D-72o7o Tübingen

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
Bislang erschienene Bände in der Reihe
»Tagungsbände des Landesmuseums für
Vorgeschichte Halle«

Die Reihe der Tagungsbände des Landesmuseums wurde nationaler Autorinnen und Autoren entsprechend, erschei-
2oo8 ins Leben gerufen. Anlass dazu war die Konferenz nen viele Beiträge dieser Reihe in englischer Sprache mit
»Luthers Lebenswelten«, die im Jahr 2oo7 in Halle ausge- deutscher Zusammenfassung.
richtet wurde. Bereits der zweite Tagungsband widmete sich Mit dem bislang zuletzt erschienenen Tagungsband
mit dem Thema »Schlachtfeldarchäologie« dem Mitteldeut- konnten die Vorträge und Posterpräsentationen des 5. Mittel­
schen Archäologentag, der seit 2oo8 jährlich von Landesamt deutschen Archäologentags »Rot – Die Archäologie bekennt
für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt veran- Farbe« in zahlreichen Artikeln renommierter Forscher ver-
staltet und zeitnah publiziert wird. Dem großen Anteil inter- schiedenster Fachdisziplinen vorgelegt werden.

Lieferbar sind folgende Bände:

Band 1/2oo8 Harald Meller/Stefan Rhein/Hans-Georg


Stephan (Hrsg.),
 Luthers Lebenswelten.
Tagung vom 25. bis 27. September 2oo7 in Halle
(Saale).
ISBN 978-3-939414-22-3, € 39,oo

Band 2/2oo9 Harald Meller (Hrsg.),


 Schlachtfeldarchäologie. Battlefield Archaeology.
1. Mitteldeutscher Archäologentag vom
o9. bis 11. Oktober 2oo8 in Halle (Saale).
ISBN 978-3-939414-41-4, € 35,oo

Band 3/2o1o Harald Meller/Kurt W. Alt (Hrsg.),


 A nthropologie, Isotopie und DNA –
biografische Annäherung an namenlose vorge-
schichtliche Skelette?
2. Mitteldeutscher Archäologentag vom
o8. bis 1o. Oktober 2oo9 in Halle (Saale).
ISBN 978-3-939414-53-7, € 29,oo
Band 6/2o11 Hans-Rudolf Bork/Harald Meller/
Band 4/2o1o Harald Meller/Regine Maraszek (Hrsg.), Renate Gerlach (Hrsg.),
 Masken der Vorzeit in Europa I.  Umweltarchäologie – Naturkatastrophen und
Internationale Tagung vom 2o. bis 22. November Umweltwandel im archäologischen Befund.
2oo9 in Halle (Saale). 3. Mitteldeutscher Archäologentag vom
ISBN 978-3-939414-54-4, € 32,oo o7. bis o9. Oktober 2o1o in Halle (Saale).
ISBN 978-3-939414-64-3, € 32,oo
Band 5/2o11 Harald Meller/François Bertemes (Hrsg.),
 Der Griff nach den Sternen. Wie Europas Eliten Band 7/2o12 Harald Meller/Regine Maraszek (Hrsg.),
zu Macht und Reichtum kamen.  Masken der Vorzeit in Europa II.
Internationales Symposium in Halle (Saale) Internationale Tagung vom 19. bis 21. November
16.–21. Februar 2oo5 (2 Bände). 2o1o in Halle (Saale).
ISBN 978-3-939414-28-5, € 128,oo ISBN 978-3-939414-9o -2, € 32,oo

Ta g u n g e n d e s L a n d e s m u s e u m s f ü r V o r g e s c h i c h t e H a ll e • B a n d 11 • 2 014
Band 8/2o12 François Bertemes/Harald Meller (Hrsg.), Band 1o/2o13 Harald Meller/Christian-Heinrich Wunder-
 Neolithische Kreisgabenanlagen in Europa. lich/Franziska Knoll (Hrsg.),
Neolithic Circular Enclosures in Europe.  Rot – die Archäologie bekennt Farbe.
Internationale Arbeitstagung 7. bis 9. Mai 2oo4 in 5. Mitteldeutscher Archäologentag vom
Goseck (Sachsen-Anhalt). o4. bis o6. Oktober 2o12 in Halle (Saale).
ISBN 978-3-939414-33-9, € 59,oo ISBN 978-3-9445o7- o1-9, € 49,oo

Band 9/2o13 Harald Meller/Francois Bertemes/


Hans-Rudolf Bork/Roberto Risch (Hrsg.),
 16oo – Kultureller Umbruch im Schatten des
Thera-Ausbruchs? 16oo – Cultural change in the
shadow of the Thera-Eruption?
4. Mitteldeutscher Archäologentag vom
14. bis 16. Oktober 2o11 in Halle (Saale).
ISBN 978-3-9445o7- oo -2, € 69,oo

Erhältlich im Buchhandel oder direkt beim


Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt
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D- o6114 Halle (Saale)

Tel.: +49-345-5247-332
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