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Publication Number: 350-01003-00 Publication Date: January 1977 INSTRUCTION MANUAL KATO PILOT EXCITERS (Permanent Magnet Generators) KATO ENGINEERING Ez RELIANCE ELECTRIC TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION Pace 1 INTRODUCTION. . . Hl APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS. . HL TYPICAL APPLICATIONS .........4.. PNG as power sourcs for voltage regulator. , PNG used for field flashing eee PMG as power source for de motor speed contro! 7 PMG as power source for de generator voltage regulator . IV. MAINTENANCE . General precautions... ae eee ‘| General procedure for disassembly and assembly of PMG»... Exciter Field Permanent Magnet Generator Armature Permanent. Magnet Generator Fiold Cover for Exciter Armature & Permanent Magnet —Fotating Hectitior Assy. Gon, & Exciter Assy. Retaining Washer Retaining Bolt Figure 1 Typical brushless generator with a permanent magnet generator (Pilot Exciter) used to supply field ‘lashing or voltage regulator power. '980-01003-00 Page 1 ‘Cover for Permanet, Magnet Generator Figure 2 (Pilot Exciter). 1 INTRODUCTION ‘A permanent magnet generator (PMG) is installed as @ modif- ication in certain Kato generators. It delivers either 120 or 240 volt single phase ac. It functions as a pilot exciter, fur- ishing power to the voltage regulator. Its output can be rectified and used for field flashing. It can be also used for any purpose where 120 or 240 volts ac is required and no ‘other source is readily available. ‘The PMG is basically 2 revolving field single-phase ac gen- erator. Its distinctive feature is the use of permanent magnets Instead of electromagnets to provide the magnetic field. As in @ conventional ac generator, voltage is induced in the st- tionary armature when the magnetic field is rotated inside it When installed on ¢ generator, the PMG stator is bolted to the ‘endbell opposite the drive end either by itself (Figure 2) or at part of a larger assembly that includes the exciter field (Fig- ture 1). The stator consists of armature windings in a laminat ‘ed core which is welded to a steel frame, ‘The permenct magnets and soft pole tips of the revolving field are permanently attached to a steel hub by nonmagnetic stainless stoe| bolts. The field is magnetized after the rotor is assembled and the permanent magnet material has been per- ‘manently secured in place in the magnetie circuit. ‘Typical KATO static excited ac generator with field Flashing form a permanent magnet generator 1 APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS Several foatures of the PMG make it valuable as ¢ pilot exciter. ‘The first is that It requires no other current source to initiate its own voltage buildup. The advantage of the PMG in this respect Is seen when it is compared with a generator using an electromagnetic field, Such 2 generator must rely on residual ‘magnetism in the field core to initiate voltage buildup when it Is started. The field core, not being made of permanet magnet ‘material, retains a comparatively low and variable dagree of magnetism from the previous period of operstion. This re- sidual magnetism may be too low to build up voltage when the generator is started, in which case the field must be flashed, ‘that ig, given an initial exciting current from an ouside source. ‘The PIAG on the other hand can provide positive voltage build- up = = it will develop its rated output voltage provided onty ‘that It Is driven at rated speed. It can therfore be used to pro: vide flashing current for the exciter of the generator to which It is attached. A second valuable feature of the PMG is that It provides a voltage source that is independent of the terminal voltage Of its associated generator. If the PMG is used to powsr the voltage regulator, full voltage and power will be available for ‘excitation evan during heavy transients or short circuit con: ditions. A third advantage of the PMG is that its terminal voltage Is 350-01003-00 Page 2 designed to power the voltage regulator when driven at rated speod. This makes unnecessary the transformer that would ‘otherwise be requited if the generator output did not match the input voltage of the regulator. A fourth advantage of the PMG results from its allowing the Power output stage of the voltege regulator to be isolated from the generator output. Without a PMG, where the voltage regulator takes its power from the generator output, high fre ‘quency interference resulting from switching transients in the lator output stage could be conducted to the load filtering or isolation was previded, 1 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS In the following paragraphs, several applications of PMG's are briefly described. ‘This material is presented for the pur- pose of discussion only and should not be used for making electrical connections. PMG AS POWER SOURCE FOR VOLTAGE REGULATOR Figure 1 shows the general contruction and location of a PMG ‘on a brushless ac generator. The armature of the PMG and ‘the field of the brushless exciter are built into the same frame, In another design not shown, these two components are sep: arate. In yet another design, the exciter field is mounted in- board of the bearing and endbell, and the PMG armature only fon the outboard side. In any case, the electrical shematic will resomblo Figure 3. ‘The PMG delivers rated ac voltage to the regulator. The reg: ‘lator, using power supplied by the PMG, energizes the exciter field. “The theory of the generator and voltage rogulator is the ‘same as that described in Publication 360-01001-00 with the exception that the voltage regulator derives power from the PMG instead of the generator output. During those periods when high current is drawn from the generator, such as during the transionts caused by motor start- ing or during short circuit conditions, the generator output voltage will be lowered and the current requirement of the cexciter field will be reised. In an istalation where the voltage regulator receives its power from the generator output, this ‘combination of decreased input voltage end increased output requirement may bring about collapse of generator output voltage, unless special series boost provisions are made for ‘these circumstances, However, in those Installations where the voltage regulator is powered by 2 PMG, voltage and power for excitation are un- affected by the drop in output voltage. Full exciter power is available for motor starting and for short circuit fault clearance. Page 3 i jai q | (Biz e 2 El ars. Ble. 8 PMG supplying power to voltage regulator on ‘ruchloes an generator. of Figure 4 PMG uted for field flashing on static excited ac generator. PMG USED FOR FIELD FLASHING Where positive voltage buildup is required but separate battery fr rectified ac flashing sources are not easily available, 2 PMG ‘can be used to advantage, It may be installed on either a brushless generator or a static excited generator. A typical simplified schematic of an installation with a static ‘exeiter is shown In Figure 4. ‘The physical location of a PMG (on a static excited generator is shown in Figure 2. The rec: tified output of the PMG is applied to the field through the Formally closed contacts of a relay in the static exciter. When thé generator output voltage builds up to sufficient level, it actuates the relay, transferring the generator field to ‘the static exciter. A soparate relay can be wired into the circuit with a static exelter that does not include one, TACHOMETER Figure 5 PMG used to power speed regulator for shunt oF ‘compound de motor. PMG AS POWER SOURCE FOR DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL APIMG can be mounted on a de motor to provide ac power for speed control circuitry. A possible application is sketched in Figure 5, In this example, the strength of the flux field, and henge the motor speed, depends on the combined action of the shunt field and control winding. De current in the ‘control winding is varied by the speed regulator. Sensing volt- 290 is obteined from 2 tachometer; in other detigns, @ mec- hhanical governor is used to provide a control signal. The regulator circuitry is powered by ac from the PRG, PMG AS POWER SOURCE FOR DC GENERATOR VOLTAGE REGULATOR ‘A PMG can be mounted on a de generator to provide sc power for the generator voltage regulator circuitry. A possible ‘application is sketched in Figure 6. In this example the volt ‘age ragulator, powered by the PMG, senses the de output of the generator and regulates the generator field current to keep ‘the generator output at rated voltage. i 4 3 2 F 5 i i 2 & i 3 ae #| |e 2 & g eee soutien PMG used as power source for voltage regulator fon ade generator. Figure 6 IV MAINTENANCE GENERAL PRECAUTIONS ‘Since there are no bearings, brushes or sliprings and no semi conductor devices, maintenance is minimal. The unit should be kept clean and the vents should be kept open, Keep iron ‘and steel debris away from the rotor. No attempt should be made to unbott and separate the parts of the rotor. Bresking the magnetic circuit would alter the permanent magnets, reducing their strength. Reassembling the rotor would not restore the magnetism to its prior state Avoid exposing the rotor to excessive heat or mechanical shock. If the rotor is removed and is to remain out of the machine for an extended period, a steel or iron strap or band may be wrapped around the periphery of the rotor to act as a keeper. If the endbell on the end oppsite the PMG is removed, make sure that the movement of the shaft does not force the PMG rotor against the stator. Note that the air gap in the PMG is considerably smaller than that in a large generator. It may be necessary to remove the PMG rotor when working on the drive end bearing WARNING USE EXTRA CARE WHEN REMOVING ROTOR TO PREVENT INJURY TO HANDS DUE TO MAGNETIC ATTRACTION BETWEEN THE PMG ROTOR AND THE PMG STATOR OR GENERATOR SHAFT. GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF PMG When dicasiembling tha PMG from the generator or motor, it will be advantageous to remove the rotor first. To remove the rotor: 4, Take out the retaining bolt and washer. Read WARNING in general precautions section before removing PMG rotor. 2. Remove the rotor, 3. If the PMG is to remain disasstmbled for an ex snded period, install a keeper on the rotor. Use 4 band of iron or steel. 4, In some desians, the exciter armature and rotat- Jng rectifier zssembly can also be removed at this time. To remove the stator: 1. Support the stator form an overhead crane or hoist. '350-01003-00 Page 5 Disconnect the PMG armature leads in the con nection box. Remove any ties holding the leads to the generator frame. If the exciter field is part of the same assembly as the PMG stator, repeat step 2 for the ex: citer field, If the rotor has not been taken off first, place thin sheets of insulating material in the alr gap betweeen the rotor and stator to keep them from boing forcibly attracted to each other and im. ppeding the disassembly. Remove the bolts holding the stator frame to the ‘endbell Carefully remove the stator frame. To assemble, reverse stops given in removal procedure. 380-01003-00 Paye 6 (blank) P.O. Box 47 / Mankato, Minnesota 56001 / (507) 625-4011 TLX: 29-0786 / 350-01003-00 KATO ENGINEERING EE RELIANCE ELECTRIC