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Gutters prevent water ingress into the fabric of the building by channelling the
rainwater away from the exterior of the walls and their foundations. [4] Water running down
the walls causes dampness in the affected rooms and provides a favourable environment for
growth of mould, and wet rot in timber.
A rain gutter may be a:
Roof integral trough along the lower edge of the roof slope which is fashioned from the roof
covering and flashing materials. Discrete trough of metal, or other material that is suspended
beyond the roof edge and below the projected slope of the roof.
Wall integral structure beneath the roof edge, traditionally constructed of masonry, fashioned
as the crowning element of a wall.
A roof must be designed with a suitable fall to allow the rainwater to discharge. The
water drains into a gutter that is fed into a downpipe. A flat roof will have a watertight surface
with a fall of 1 in 60, or 1 in the case of lead. They can drain internally or to an eaves gutter,
which has a minimum 1 in 360 fall towards the downpipe. The pitch of a pitched roof is
determined by the construction material of the covering. For slate this will be at 25%, for
machine made tiles it will be 35%. Water falls towards a parapet gutter, a valley gutter or an
eaves gutter. When two pitched roofs meet at an angle, they also form a pitched valley gutter:
the join is sealed with valley flashing. Parapet gutters and valley gutters discharge into internal
rainwater pipes or directly into external down pipes at the end of the run.

Counterflashing, also referred to as “cap” flashing, is the first line of defense against water
infiltrating your building. Counterflashing is the piece of metal that is applied to the masonry
wall designed to shed water off of the wall and down onto the roof surface.
 Through-Wall Counterflashing
Masonry - Wall Flashing - ThruWallExactly as titled, this type of flashing extends through
the exterior masonry, and ties into the wall cavity. This type of flashing is the best
method of protection against moisture and water leaking into your building. However,
this method needs to be incorporated into the original construction of your wall,
otherwise it’s nearly impossible or very expensive to install as a repair.
 Surface-Mounted Counterflashing
Masonry - Surface Mounted Wall FlashingThis method uses metal cap flashing that is
attached to the wall and sealed along the top edge with a bead of caulk. This is the
fastest, easiest, and least expensive method of counterflashing. While effective if
properly installed, it is also the most likely to fail. Surface-Mounted flashing is heavily
reliant on caulk, and requires regular maintenance to ensure the flashing remains in a
water tight condition.
 Reglet Counterflashing
Masonry - Wall Flashing - RegletWhen through-wall flashing is not a realistic option, the
next best method is to cut a reglet. A reglet is ¾” to 1 ½” deep cut in the masonry. This
cut is formed using a grinder or masonry cutting saw. This method allows the installer to
insert the counterflashing into the wall. The inserted piece of metal flashing is then
packed with lead plugs, and the reglet opening is filled with polyurethane caulk. This
additional step of cutting a reglet provides an extra layer of protection against water
intrusion, and is typically recommended over surface mounted flashing.
Flashing refers to thin pieces of impervious material installed to prevent the passage of water
into a structure from a joint or as part of a weather resistant barrier (WRB) system. In modern
buildings, flashing is intended to decrease water penetration at objects such as chimneys, vent
pipes, walls, windows and door openings to make buildings more durable and to reduce indoor
mold problems. Metal flashing materials include lead, aluminium, copper, stainless steel, zinc
alloy, and other materials.

The goal of any residential roof is to protect the inside from the outside elements. Flashing is
used to redirect the flow of water around potential openings. This is to prevent water from
entering your home from any possible opening.

Where will you find flashing?

 a chimney – this applied around the base of the chimney on the house’s exterior.
 a skylight,
 any where the roof meet the wall.
 any other opening/inconsistency on the roof.
Roof Flashing Materials
 The most common is sheet metal and copper as they as they are the most durable and
compatible with the newer types of wood treatments. However, these make up the
most expensive options.
 There is Aluminum which is easy to form, durable and inexpensive. However, you run
the risk of corrosion if it comes in contact with alkaline materials like concrete or fiber-
cement siding.
 Lead which is very pliable and soft but carries many health risks.
 Plastic flashing are inexpensive, but if exposed, they wear down quickly, which then
turns out to be the most expensive option.
 Galvanized steel which come with baked enamel paint finish and with many color
Flashing can be bent into various shapes depending on the type of roof flashing that is required.
There are several types of flashing and they are:
 Step flashing set into mortar
 Wall flashing
 Counter flashing
 Base flashing
 Self-flashing skylight
 Vent pipe flashing
 Drip edge over felt along rake
 Drip edge under felt along eaves
 Valley flashing
 Continuous flashing
 Step flashing under siding
 Back pan flashing.
 Wall diverters.
 gable diverters.
How Roof Flashing Works?
Flashing is typically installed during home construction so it’s important that this is done
Flashing depends heavily on gravity to work. When it works correctly, flashing helps guide
water onto the regular roof materials, as opposed to cracks that can leak into your home.
The concept behind roof flashing isn’t a new one. It’s a time-tested concept to home
construction and maintenance that continues to work. The materials you use for flashing make
all the difference.

A downspout, waterspout, downpipe, drain spout, roof drain pipe, leader, or rone (Scotland) is
a pipe for carrying rainwater from a rain gutter.

Downspouts are usually vertical and usually extend down to ground level. The water is directed
away from the building's foundation, to protect the foundations from water damage. The water
is usually piped to a sewer, or let into the ground through seepage.

The first ever downspout to be installed was in 1240 on the Tower of London, as it was
whitewashed and the newly painted walls had to be protected from the rain. Decorative heads
are sometimes added, these being low-height gargoyles.

Siding, material used to surface the exterior of a building to protect against exposure to the
elements, prevent heat loss, and visually unify the facade. The word siding implies wood units,
or products imitative of wood, used on houses. There are many different types of siding,
including clapboard, horizontal lap siding, vertical board siding, and shingles. Board and batten
siding, sometimes found in Carpenter Gothic houses and very modest structures, differs from
the common clapboard in that it consists of vertical wood boards with their butt joints covered
by battens (narrow strips), imparting a seamed appearance. Both aluminum and polyvinyl-
fluoride-coated siding (commonly called vinyl siding) were developed as maintenance-free
alternatives to wood clapboard; they mimic its horizontal boards. Fibreboard, a pressed-wood-
pulp product, is sometimes used, though its long-term durability is limited. In larger buildings
the exterior covering is called cladding and may be of brick, glass in a metal framework, or
panels made of stone, concrete, metal, or other materials.
The ridge area of a roof system is also utilized for enhancing attic and roof system ventilation.
Commonly a ridge vent will be installed in this area.

A hip roof, hip-roof or hipped roof, is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the
walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope (although a tented roof by definition is a hipped roof
with steeply pitched slopes rising to a peak). Thus a hipped roof house has no gables or other
vertical sides to the roof.

A square hip roof is shaped like a pyramid. Hip roofs on houses could have two triangular sides
and two trapezoidal ones. A hip roof on a rectangular plan has four faces. They are almost
always at the same pitch or slope, which makes them symmetrical about the centerlines. Hip
roofs often have a consistent level fascia, meaning that a gutter can be fitted all around. Hip
roofs often have dormer slanted sides.

The ridge of a sloped roof system is the horizontal top area where two sloped roof areas meet.

The National Roofing Contractors Association defines ridge as "Highest point on a roof,
represented by a horizontal line where two roof areas intersect, running the length of the
The ridge area on sloped roof systems should be capped to ensure a watertight roof system as
well as aesthetic appeal.

There are different options on what can be used for ridge caps depending on the system in
place. Shingle roof systems usually have ridge accessories such as ridge shingles.

The ridge area of a roof system is also utilized for enhancing attic and roof system ventilation.
Commonly a ridge vent will be installed in this area.