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# Kevin Ren D/CH

WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION
AIM
The aim is to prove that the ratio of copper()sulphate to water in the compound CuSO4.xH2O is 1:5 (i.e. x = 5)

EQUATIONS
Δ
CuSO4.5H2O(s) → CuSO4 (s) + xH2O(g)

EQUIPMENT
 3g hydrated copper()sulphate with spatula
 Balances (0.01g or 0.001g)
 Bunsen burner
 Tripod
 Mat
 Crucible
 Lighter/matches to light Bunsen
 Pipe clay triangle
 Tongs
 Eye protection

METHOD
1) Measure the mass of the empty crucible, record the mass and
other masses in a suitable table. Record all weights to 0.01g.
2) Put 3g of hydrated copper sulphate into the crucible. Find the
mass of the copper()sulphate and crucible together.
3) Place the crucible stably on the pipe clay triangle over the tripod
and Bunsen burner
4) Heat the substance over the tip of the cone of oxidation in a
blue flame for 5 minutes as shown below
5) Take the crucible off with the crucible tongs
6) Allow to cool.
7) Measure the mass, repeat until two masses are the same (I.e.
constants mass)
8) Reweigh the contents and record the new weight of the
substance and the crucible

ANALYSIS
9) Calculate the mass of hydrated copper sulphate and anhydrous copper sulphate by subtracting the
mass of the crucible form its measurements
10) Calculate the weight of water emitted by subtracting the mass of anhydrous copper()sulphate from
the hydrated copper()sulphate.
11) Calculate the molar masses of water and copper()sulphate.
12) Calculate the number of moles of anhydrous copper()sulphate
13) Calculate the number of moles of water given off
Kevin Ren D/CH

14) Divide the number of moles of anhydrous copper()sulphate by the mole of water
15) Round to nearest integer

RISK ASSESSMENT
 One main danger from this experiment is from burns. To reduce the chance of getting burned we will
make sure the crucible is stable when we heat it and also using a heat proof mat to protect the table in
case any contents falls.
 Copper sulphate corrosive to eyes and cause conjunctivitis and inflammation of the eyelid lining so we
will wear eye protection to protect ourselves.
 Copper sulphate can also be toxic to people when 1-12g of it is ingested so we make sure to keep the
copper()sulphate away from our mouths .
 Make sure all long hair is tied back to insure it is not caught in the fire.

POSSIBLE ERRORS
 Make sure to zero the balance at the beginning to make sure there is no zero error when weighing our
substances
 We will make sure to heat the hydrated copper()sulphate until constant mass to make sure all water
is removed
 The crucible and contents must be cooled before weighing as warmer object have a bigger weight (and
may also damage the scales)
 There may be impurities within the hydrated copper()sulphate
 We make sure to heat to constant mass to make sure all water has been removed during the heating
of the copper()sulphate

USES OF COPPER()SULPHATE
Copper()sulphate is used in the preparation of copper based fungicides such as Bordeaux and copper-lime
dust. It can also be used as plant nutrition for rice fields as well as a growth stimulant for fattening pigs and
broiler chickens. In the past it was mixed with ammonia to form chestnut compound and used as a soil sterilizer
but it is now banned as due to it been harmful to the environment.

REFERENCES
 Applications: Copper Compounds - Table A: Uses of copper sulphate [WWW Document], n.d. URL
https://www.copper.org/resources/properties/compounds/table_a.html (accessed 10.9.16).
 Chemsheets AS 1103 (AS Prac 1 - Water of crystallisation - Instructions).pdf, n.d.(accessed 10.9.16).
 Chemsheets AS 1104 (AS Prac 1 - Water of crystallisation - Model).pdf, n.d.(accessed 10.9.16).
 Finding the formula of hydrated copper(II) sulfate- Learn Chemistry [WWW Document], n.d. URL
http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/resource/res00000436/finding-the-formula-of-hydrated-copper-
ii-sulfate?cmpid=CMP00006780 (accessed 10.9.16).
 Heating a Crucible, [WWW Document], n.d. URL http://www.csudh.edu/oliver/demos/heatcruc-
/heatcruc.htm (accessed 10.10.16).
Kevin Ren D/CH