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College of Psychology of Colegio De Sebastian

City of San Fernando, Pampanga

Submitted By:

Bolima, Czcharina Mae

Bs Psychology

Submitted to:

Mrs. Editha Galura

A. Grading and Marking System

1. Definitions of Marking and Grading

Marking or scoring- is the level of achievement against specified criteria for an

individual assessment item. It is the process of awarding a number or a symbol
to represent the level of student learning achievement in class. The most
common method is by adding up the number of correct answers on a test, and
assigning a number that correlates the given number (Sadler, 2005). Higher
numbers reflect better quality work. As a rule, marking applies to students'
level of performance in individual assessment tasks, not to overall achievement
in a course.

Grading- is the overall level of achievement of a subject, usually determined by

combining the marks of the individual assessment items which make up the
subject. It is grouping the student academic work into bands of achievement.
Grading usually occurs at a larger level; it is the entire subject and represented
by a symbol (Sadler, 2005).

2. Nature of Grading and Marking

Grades are the teacher’s judgment on the performance of students based on a

certain criteria. The nature of grades is to help and to guide students with their
future educational plans. It also helps the school decide upon the students’
readiness to be enrolled in a certain selective programs or course they want to
apply. It helps the higher educational levels, appraise an applicants’
acceptability to the program they want to take in the future. It also helps the
potential employer to decide on the suitability of the student for their certain
jobs and academic skills based on their grades.
3. Purposes and Uses of Assigning Marks

The purpose of the grading system is to describe how well the students
achieved their learning objectives established in a class. Grades should reflect
students’ performance on specific learning criteria. Establishing clearly
articulated criteria for grades makes the grading process more fair and
equitable. Unfortunately, different teachers often use widely varying criteria in
determining students’ grades, and students often aren’t well-informed about
those criteria.

Recognizing that merging diverse sources of evidence distorts the meaning of

any grade, educators in many parts of the world assign multiple grades. This
idea provides the foundation for standards-based approaches to grading. In
particular, educators distinguish among the product, process, and progress
learning criteria (Guskey & Bailey, 2010).

Product criteria are favored by educators who believe grading’s primary

purpose is communicating summative evaluations of students’ achievement
and performance (O’Connor, 2002). They focus on what students know and are
able to do at a particular point in time. Teachers who use product criteria
typically base grades exclusively on final examination scores, final products,
overall assessments, and other culminating demonstrations of learning for the

Process criteria are emphasized by educators who believe product criteria don’t
provide a complete picture of student learning. From this perspective, grades
should reflect not only the final results but also how students got there.
Teachers who consider responsibility, effort, or work habits when assigning
grades use process criteria. The same happens when teachers count classroom
quizzes, formative assessments, homework, punctuality of assignments, class
participation, or ttendance.
Types of Grading System

 Percentage grading- Using a percentage scale (75-100), usually based on

percent correct on exams and percent of points earned on assignments.
 Letter grading and variations- Using a series of letters (A, B, C, D, F) as an
ordered category scale in knowing the level of performance of the student.
 Norm-referenced grading- Comparing students to each other; using class
standing as the basis for assigning grades (usually letter grades).
 Mastery grading- Grading students as “masters” or “passers” when their
attainment reaches a specified level, usually allowing different amounts of
time for different students to reach mastery.
 Pass/Fail- Using a scale with two levels (pass and fail), sometimes in
connection with mastery grading.
 Standards (or Absolute-Standards) grading- Originally, comparing student
performance to a pre-established standard (level) of performance; currently,
standards grading sometimes means grading with reference to a list of state
or district content standards according to pre-established performance
 Narrative grading- Writing comments about students’ achievement, either
in addition to or instead of using numbers or letters.

B. Technology in Education

1. Educational Technology

The word technology comes from the greek word “techne” which means
craft or art. According to the Association for Educational Communications and
Technology (AECT), Educational Technology can be defined as, the study and
the practice of ethical that facilitates learning and improving performance by
creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and
resources. In addition to Encyclopaedia of Educational Technology, it is a
systematic, relating process in designing instruction or training used to
improve the education performance.

Education Technology is also known as “EdTech” it refers to an area of

technology devoted to the development and application intended to
promote education for the convenience of student and the teacher. According
to Jonassen (2014), Technology is more than hardware because it consists of
designs and the environments that engage learners to learn better. Educational
technology refers to the craft of responding to the educational needs of the
students. Technology is not just machines because it planned, systematized
method of working to achieve planned outcomes process for the better way of
improving the teaching methods of the teachers.

2. Educational Implications of Technological Advances

Technology affects many areas of society in positive ways, including

education. Modern-day students not only have computers to help them with
their schoolwork, they also use the internet for research while teachers use
technology to enhance their lessons in improving their teaching methods to
student. Using technology in education became easier for the both parties. It
promotes diverse information in promoting better understanding of a subject.
Nowadays, laptops, smart phones and tablets are one of the sources of the
students in finding information they needed.

Positive Effects of Technology in Education

1. Research

If the books are already out-dated students can search the information they
needed in the internet. Students can expand the information they needed
because of computers.

2. Globalization

Schools in different parts of the state, country can watch videos in able to learn
new things and ideas. Some sites can be used to help students learn foreign
languages online by pairing a group of students with a teacher from another
country. It also promotes of learning different perspectives using the new

3. Distance Education

Distance Education gives access to the student and the teacher because
technology promotes the convenient for the both parties. Teacher and student
can change mail with the use of technology. Student can continue their study
without going to school with the use of internet.

4. Web Seminars

Students can use the Internet to virtually attend Web seminars put on by
museums and other educational institutions. NASA, for instance, offers a
program that allows students to talk to astronauts in space to improve the
knowledge and information to aspiring students.

Negative Effects of Technology in Education

1. Use of Cell phone in Class

The most common distraction for the student is using their cell phones while
the teacher is discussing in front of the class. Cell phones are beginning to
become a great nuisance to teachers and even cause some teachers to cross the
line from a teacher into an enforcer. Teachers have to spend more time trying
to spot out student’s texting in class than actually explaining the material
trying to be taught.

2. Overuse of technology

In some classrooms technology is overused. This can lead to a variety of

problems. Many students learn best by physically and mentally interacting with
what they are studying. If most of the teaching is done using a computer, these
students' needs are not being met. Technology should be used to supplement
the classroom curriculum, but should not be used as the sole source of

3. Game Mentality

Students often use computers primarily for games and entertainment. This is
the reason why many students associate computers and technology with
playing games than studying their lessons. Though some teachers can use this
to their advantage, but most of the time it becomes an issue. It causes to some
students to neglect their works and to get distracted easily.

4. Using Fewer Basic Skills

One of the major concerns about technology in the classroom is that it prevents
students from developing and using basic literacy, math and communication
skills, which are essential in everyday lives. People started to depends on the
technology and neglect knowing the basics. The use of computer basic tools
like grammar checkers, spelling checkers and calculators, enable students to
complete assignments without knowing how to manually perform those same


1. The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. What is Educational

Technology? Retrieved

2. Richey, R. C., Silber, K. H., & Ely, D. P. (2008). Reflections on the 2008 AECT
Definitions of the Field. TechTrends, 52(1), 24-25.