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Jun 28, 2018

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Statistics

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

6 Aufrufe

Statistics

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Description of

1

Samples and

Populations

Objectives

After completing this chapter, you should be able to

➢ identify the different types of variables;

➢ show and illustrate the relationship between populations and

samples;

➢ illustrate how to construct frequency distribution in making charts

and graphs;

INTRODUCTION

engineering, sciences, social research, agriculture, etc. seek the broadest

possible factual basis for decision-making. Statistics is defined as a science by

which data are collected, presented, organized, analyzed and interpreted.

Sampling is a procedure, where in a portion of the data is taken from a large set

of data, called population; and the inference drawn from the sample is extended

to whole group. If sampling is found appropriate for a research, the researcher,

then, identifies the target population as precisely as possible, and in a way that

makes sense in terms of the purpose of study. Second, he put together a list of

the target population from which the sample will be selected and decide on a

sampling technique. He then makes an inference about the population. All these

four steps are interwoven and cannot be considered isolated from one another.

Simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling fall into the

category of simple sampling techniques. Complex sampling techniques are used,

only in the presence of large experimental data sets.

1. Like professional people, you must be able to read and understand the

various statistical studies performed in your fields. To have this

understanding, you must be knowledgeable about the vocabulary,

symbols, concepts, and statistical procedures used in these studies.

procedures are basic to research. To accomplish this, you must be able to

1 STATISTICS

design experiments; collect, organize, analyze, and summarize data; and

possibly make reliable predictions or forecasts for future use. You must

also be able to communicate the results of the study in your own words.

3. You can also use the knowledge gained from studying statistics to

become better consumers and citizens. For example, you can make

intelligent decisions about what products to purchase based on consumer

studies, about government spending based on utilization studies, and so

on.

These reasons can be considered the goals for studying statistics. It is the

purpose of this chapter to introduce the goals for studying statistics by answering

questions such as the following:

What are the branches of statistics?

What are data?

How are samples selected?

To gain knowledge about seemingly haphazard situations, statisticians

collect information for variables, which describe the situation.

can assume. Variables whose values are determined by chance are called

random variables. Suppose that an insurance company studies its records over

the past several years and determines that, on average, 3 out of every 100

automobiles the company insured were involved in accidents during a 1-year

period. Although there is no way to predict the specific automobiles that will be

involved in an accident (random occurrence), the company can adjust its rates

accordingly, since the company knows the general pattern over the long run.

(That is, on average, 3% of the insured automobiles will be involved in an

accident each year.) A collection of data values forms a data set. Each value in

the data set is called a data value or a datum.

statistics is sometimes divided into two main areas, depending on how data are

used. The two areas are

1. Descriptive statistics

2. Inferential statistics

summarization, and presentation of data.

Consider the nationalcensus conducted by the U.S. government every 10 years.

Results of this census give you the average age, income, and other

characteristics of the U.S. population. To obtain this information, the Census

Bureau must have some means to collect relevant data. Once data are collected,

the bureau must organize and summarize them. Finally, the bureau needs a

means of presenting the data in some meaningful form, such as charts, graphs,

or tables.

2 STATISTICS

The second area of statistics is called inferential statistics.

populations, performing estimations and hypothesis tests, determining

relationships among variables, and making predictions.

populations. Inferential statistics uses probability, i.e., the chance of an event

occurring. You may be familiar with the concepts of probability through various

forms of gambling. If you play cards, dice, bingo, and lotteries, you win or lose

according to the laws of probability. Probability theory is also used in the

insurance industry and other areas.

A population consists of all subjects (human or otherwise) that are being

studied. Most of the time, due to the expense, time, size of population, medical

concerns, etc.,it is not possible to use the entire population for a statistical study;

therefore, researchers use samples.

If the subjects of a sample are properly selected, most of the time they

should possess the same or similar characteristics as the subjects in the

population.

making process for evaluating claims about a population, based on information

obtained from samples.

research, researcher should understand the concept of constants and variables.

Constants refer to the fundamental quantities that do not change

throughout the course of study. On the other hand, variables are quantities that

may take specific set of values. This refers to the characteristics of a person or

thing that can be assigned a number or category. Blood type and blood pressure,

gender, student grades are examples of variables. These set of values can be

classified as qualitative (categorical) and quantitative (numerical). Qualitative

variables are non – measurable characteristics that cannot assume a numerical

value but can be classified into two or more categories. Gender is a qualitative

dichotomous variable. Drinking habits of an individual in different situations may

be classified as “Very Often”, “Often”, Seldom”, “Very Seldom” or “Never” is an

example of multinomous variable.

In an ordinal scale of measurements, categorical variables are usually

coded numerically for a purpose of obtaining a weighted average that would

typically represent a group of responses. Medical practitioners’ perceptions

towards an issue can be classified and coded as 5 for “Certainly Agree”, 4 for

“Agree”, 3 for “Undecided”, 2 for “Disagree” and 1 for “Certainly Disagree”.

Quantitative Variables are numerical that can be ordered or ranked. Age,

heights, weights and body temperatures are examples of quantitative variables.

Variable such as weight is continuous because, in principle, two weights can be

arbitrarily close together. Some types of numeric variables are not continuous but

fall on a discrete scale, with spaces between the possible values.

3 STATISTICS

Continuous Variables can assume an infinite number of values between any

two specific values. They are obtained by measuring.

A discrete variable is a numeric variable for which we can list the possible

values. For example, the number of eggs in a bird’s nest is a discrete variable

because only the values 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , are possible.Other examples of discrete

variables are Number of bacteria colonies in a petri dish.

As a summary, variables can be classified as follows;

DATA

QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE

QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE

be classified by how they are categorized, counted, or measured. For example,

can the data be organized into specific categories, such as area of residence

(rural, suburban, or urban)? Can the data values be ranked, such as first place,

second place, etc.? Or are the values obtained from measurement, such as

heights, IQs, or temperature? This type of classification—i.e.,how variables are

categorized, counted, or measured—uses measurement scales, and four

common types of scales are used: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.

measurement. A sample of college instructors classified according to subject

taught (e.g., English, history, psychology, or mathematics) is an example of

nominal-level measurement. Classifying survey subjects as male or female is

another example of nominal-level measurement. No ranking or order can be

placed on the data. Classifying residents according to zip codes is also an

example of the nominal level of measurement. Even though numbers are

assigned as zip codes, there is no meaningful order or ranking. Other examples

of nominal-level data are political party (Democratic, Republican, Independent,

etc.), religion (Christianity, Judaism, Islam, etc.), and marital status (single,

married, divorced, widowed, separated).

exclusive (nonoverlapping), exhausting categories in which no order or ranking

can be imposed on the data.

The next level of measurement is called the ordinal level. Data measured

at this level can be placed into categories, and these categories can be ordered,

or ranked. For example, from student evaluations, guest speakers might be

ranked as superior, average, or poor. Floats in a homecoming parade might be

ranked as first place, second place, etc. Note that precise measurement of

differences in the ordinal level of measurement does not exist. For instance,

4 STATISTICS

when people are classified according to their build (small, medium, or large), a

large variation exists among the individuals in each class. Other examples of

ordinal data are letter grades (A, B, C, D, F).

can be ranked; however, precise differences between the ranks do not exist.

The third level of measurement is called the interval level. This level differs

from the ordinal level in that precise differences do exist between units. For

example, many standardized psychological tests yield values measured on an

interval scale. IQ is an example of such a variable. There is a meaningful

difference of 1 point between an IQ of 109 and an IQ of 110. Temperature is

another example of interval measurement, since there is a meaningful difference

of 1 degrees Fahrenheit between each unit, such as 72 and 73 degrees F. One

property is lacking in the interval scale: There is no true zero. For example, IQ

tests do not measure people who have no intelligence.

between units of measure do exist; however, there is no meaningful zero.

The final level of measurement is called the ratio level. Examples of ratio

scales are those used to measure height, weight, area, and number of phone

calls received. Ratio scales have differences between units (1 inch, 1 pound,

etc.) and a true zero. In addition, the ratio scale contains a true ratio between

values. For example, if one person can lift 200 pounds and another can lift 100

pounds, then the ratio between them is 2 to 1. Put another way, the first person

can lift twice as much as t he second person.

interval measurement, and there exists a true zero.

In addition, true ratios exist when the same variable is measured on two

different members of the population. There is not complete agreement among

statisticians about the classification of data into one of the four categories. For

example, some researchers classify IQ data as ratio data rather than interval.

Also, data can be altered so that they fit into a different category. For instance, if

the incomes of all professors of a college are classified into the three categories

of low, average, and high, then a ratio variable becomes an ordinal variable.

5 STATISTICS

1.3. Data Collection and Sampling Techniques

1. Collection

2. Organization

3. Presentation

4. Analysis

5. Interpretation

1. Direct or Interview Method

2. Indirect or Questionnaire Method

3. Registration

4. Observation

5. Experiment

Sampling Techniques

numbers. One such method is to number each subject in the

population. Then place numbered cards in a bowl, mix them

thoroughly, and select as many cards as needed. The subjects whose

numbers are selected constitute the sample. Since it is difficult to mix

the cards thoroughly, there is a chance of obtaining a biased sample.

For this reason, statisticians use another method of obtaining numbers.

They generate random numbers with a computer or calculator. Before

the invention of computers, random numbers were obtained from

tables

numbering each subject of the population and then selecting every kth

subject.

the population into groups (called strata) according to some

characteristic that is important to the study, then sampling from each

group. Samples within the strata should be randomly selected. For

example, suppose the president of a two-year college wants to learn

how students feel about a certain issue. Furthermore, the president

wishes to see if the opinions of the first-year students differ from those

of the second-year students. The president will select students from

each group to use in the sample.

population is divided into groups called clusters by some means such

as geographic area or schools in a large school district, etc. Then the

researcher randomly selects some of these clusters and uses all

members of the selected clusters as the subjects of the samples.

Suppose a researcher wishes to survey apartment dwellers in a large

city. If there are 10 apartment buildings in the city, the researcher can

select at random 2 buildings from the 10 and interview all the residents

of these buildings.

Cluster sampling is used when the population is large or when it

involves subjects residing in a large geographic area. For example, if

one wanted to do a study involving the patients in the hospitals in New

York City, it would be very costly and time-consuming to try to obtain a

6 STATISTICS

random sample of patients since they would be spread over a large

area. Instead, a few hospitals could be selected at random, and the

patients in these hospitals would be interviewed in a cluster.

other methods to obtain samples. One such method is called a

convenience sample. Here a researcher uses subjects that are

convenient. For example, the researcher may interview subjects entering

a local mall to determine the nature of their visit or perhaps what stores

they will be patronizing. This sample is probably not representative of the

general customers for several reasons. For one thing, it was probably

taken at a specific time of day, so not all customers entering the mall have

an equal chance of being selected since they were not there when the

survey was being conducted. But convenience samples can be

representative of the population. If the researcher investigates the

characteristics of the population and determines that the sample is

representative, then it can be used.

EXERCISES 2.1

statistics have been used.

A. In the year 2010, 148 million Americans will be enrolled in an HMO

(Source: USA TODAY).

B. Nine out of ten on-the-job fatalities are men (Source: USA TODAY

Weekend).

C. Expenditures for the cable industry were $5.66 billion in 1996 (Source:

USA TODAY ).

D. The median household income for people aged 25–34 is $35,888

(Source: USA TODAY ).

E. Allergy therapy makes bees go away (Source: Prevention).

F. Drinking decaffeinated coffee can raise cholesterol levels by 7%

(Source: American Heart Association).

G. The national average annual medicine expenditure per person is

$1052 (Source: The Greensburg Tribune Review).

7 STATISTICS

H. Experts say that mortgage rates may soon hit bottom (Source: USA

TODAY ).

2. Classify each as nominal-level, ordinal-level, intervallevel, or ratio-level

measurement.

A. Pages in the city of Cleveland telephone book.

B. Rankings of tennis players.

C. Weights of air conditioners.

D. Temperatures inside 10 refrigerators.

E. Salaries of the top five CEOs in the United States.

F. Ratings of eight local plays (poor, fair, good, excellent).

G. Times required for mechanics to do a tune-up.

H. Ages of students in a classroom.

I. Marital status of patients in a physician’s office.

J. Horsepower of tractor engines.

3. Classify each variable as qualitative or quantitative.

A. Number of bicycles sold in 1 year by a large sporting goods store.

B. Colors of baseball caps in a store.

C. Times it takes to cut a lawn.

D. Capacity in cubic feet of six truck beds.

E. Classification of children in a day care center (infant, toddler,

preschool).

F. Weights of fish caught in Lake George.

G. Marital status of faculty members in a large university

4. Classify each variable as discrete or continuous.

A. Number of doughnuts sold each day by Doughnut Heaven.

B. Water temperatures of six swimming pools in Pittsburgh on a given

day.

C. Weights of cats in a pet shelter.

D. Lifetime (in hours) of 12 flashlight batteries.

E. Number of cheeseburgers sold each day by a hamburger stand on a

college campus.

F. Number of DVDs rented each day by a video store.

G. Capacity (in gallons) of six reservoirs in Jefferson County.

5. Give three examples each of nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio data.

8 STATISTICS

6. For each of these statements, define a population and state how a sample

might be obtained.

A. The average cost of an airline meal is $4.55 (Source: Everything Has

Its Price, Richard E. Donley, Simon and Schuster).

B. More than 1 in 4 United States children have cholesterol levels of 180

milligrams or higher (Source: The American Health Foundation).

C. Every 10 minutes, 2 people die in car crashes and 170 are injured

(Source: National Safety Council estimates).

D. When older people with mild to moderate hypertension were given

mineral salt for 6 months, the average blood pressure reading dropped

by 8 points systolic and 3 points diastolic (Source: Prevention).

E. The average amount spent per gift for Mom on Mother’s Day is $25.95

(Source: The Gallup Organization)

7. Select a newspaper or magazine article that involves a statistical study,

and write a paper answering these questions.

A. Is this study descriptive or inferential? Explain your answer.

B. What are the variables used in the study? In your opinion, what level of

measurement was used to obtain the data from the variables?

C. Does the article define the population? If so, how is it defined? If not,

how could it be defined?

D. Does the article state the sample size and how the sample was

obtained? If so, determine the size of the sample and explain how it

was selected. If not, suggest a way it could have been obtained.

E. Explain in your own words what procedure (survey, comparison of

groups, etc.) might have been used to determine the study’s

conclusions.

F. Do you agree or disagree with the conclusions? State your reasons.

8. Information from research studies is sometimes taken out of context.

Explain why the claims of these studies might be suspect.

A. The average salary of the graduates of the class of 1980 is $32,500.

B. It is estimated that in Podunk there are 27,256 cats.

C. Only 3% of the men surveyed read Cosmopolitan magazine.

D. Based on a recent mail survey, 85% of the respondents favored gun

control.

E. A recent study showed that high school dropouts drink more coffee

than students who graduated; therefore, coffee dulls the brain.

F. Since most automobile accidents occur within 15 miles of a person’s

residence, it is safer to make long trips. 17. Identify each study as

being either observational or experimental. a. Subjects were randomly

assigned to two groups, and one group was given an herb and the

other group a placebo. After 6 months, the numbers of respiratory tract

infections each group had were compared. b. A researcher stood at a

9 STATISTICS

busy intersection to see if the color of the automobile that a person

drives is related to running red lights.

Now that we already know the classification of data under study for a

particular research, the first step is to carefully and systematically describe the

data in tables and graphs. Appropriate form of organization and presentation of

data should be used in order to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of data.

A frequency distribution is simply a display of the frequency or number of

occurrences, of each value in the data set. The data can be presented in tabular

form or with a graph. Graphical representation is the most effective means of

organizing and presenting statistical data because the important relationships are

brought out more clearly and creatively in virtually solid and colorful figures. A

bar chart is a simple graphic showing the categories that a categorical variable

takes on and the number of observations in each category for the data in the

sample.

Frequency Distribution is the organization of raw data in table form, using

classes and frequencies.

Bluman, 2008. Suppose a researcher wished to study the number of miles that

employees of a certain company traveled to work each day. The researcher first

would have to collect the data by asking the employees the approximate distance

they travel from his or her home. When the data are not yet arranged they are

called raw data. Data are collected as follows:

1 2 6 7 12 13 2 6 9 5

18 7 3 15 15 4 17 1 14 5

4 16 4 5 8 6 6 18 5 2

9 11 12 1 9 2 10 11 4 10

9 18 8 8 4 14 7 3 2 6

To construct the frequency distribution, we first arrange the set of data into

array. Array is the arrangement of data from the highest to lowest or from lowest

to highest. The frequency distribution consist of classes and their corresponding

frequencies. Each raw data is placed into category called class. The class

frequency refers to the number of observations belonging to a class interval for

the number of items within a category.

The frequency distribution of the above set of data can be shown below.

Class Limits

Frequency

(in miles)

1-3 10

4-6 14

7-9 10

10 - 12 6

13 - 15 5

16 - 18 5

Total = 50

10 STATISTICS

Using this table, general observations can be made. For example, it can

be gleaned from the table that majority of the employees live within 9 miles away

from the company.

1 is the lower class limit and 3 is the upper class limit. These values are called

class limits. Class Boundaries are more precise expressions of the class limits by

at least 0.5 of their value. It is situated between the upper limit of our interval and

the lower limit of the next interval. On the above table, 0.5 – 3.5 is the class

boundaries of the interval 1 – 3. Notice that the class boundary is half lower than

the lower class limit and half higher than the upper class limit. The class width for

a class in a frequency distribution is found by subtracting the lower (or upper)

class limit of one class from the lower (or upper) class limit of the next class. The

class width of the above distribution is given by 4 – 1 = 7 – 4 = 3.

Find the range of the score in the given data. The range is the difference

between the highest and the lowest number. R H L .

Range

Number of Classes

ClassWidth

Notice that if series contains less than 50 cases, 10 classes or less are

just enough. If series contains 50 to 100 cases, 10 to 15 classes are

recommended. If more than 100 cases, 15 or more classes are good.

3. Tally the data and find the numerical frequencies from the tallies.

46 46 45 43 43 43 42 41 40 40

39 37 37 37 36 35 34 32 31 30

29 29 29 29 28 28 28 28 28 28

27 27 27 26 26 26 25 25 24 24

24 23 23 22 19 19 18 14 13 9

Find the Range. R H L R 46 9 37 .

Select the number of classes desired (usually between 5 and 20). In this

case 13 is arbitrarily chosen

34

Class width 2.61 3

13

Step 4: Tally the data and find the numerical frequencies from the tallies.

11 STATISTICS

Class Intervals

Frequency

Scores

45 - 47 3

42 - 44 4

39 - 41 4

36 - 38 4

33 - 35 2

30 - 32 3

27 - 29 13

24 - 26 8

21 - 23 3

18 - 20 3

15 - 17 0

12 - 14 2

9 - 11 1

N = 50

and are helpful when one is organizing and presenting the data.

2. To enable the reader to determine the nature or shape of the

distribution.

3. To facilitate computational procedures for measures of average and

spread.

4. To enable the researcher to draw charts and graphs for the

presentation of data.

5. To enable the reader to make comparisons among different data sets.

After all the data have been organized into a frequency distribution, they

can now be presented in graphical form. Graphical representations of data are

helpful tool to convey the mathematical relations of one variable to another.

set. The three most commonly used graphs in research are as follows:

rectangles constructed with the steps as the base and the frequency

as the height.

2. Frequency Polygon. A graph which is constructed by connecting points

above the midpoint of a step and at a height equal to the frequency of

the step.

3. Cumulative Frequency Graph or Ogive. A cumulative frequency

distribution which can be represented graphically by a cumulative

frequency curve or ogive distribution.

the histogram, frequency polygon and the ogives.

12 STATISTICS

Class Intervals

Frequency

Scores

45 - 47 3

42 - 44 4

39 - 41 4

36 - 38 4

33 - 35 2

30 - 32 3

27 - 29 13

24 - 26 8

21 - 23 3

18 - 20 3

15 - 17 0

12 - 14 2

9 - 11 1

N = 50

Frequency

Scores Boundaries Frequency

45 - 47 44.5 - 47.5 3 50

42 - 44 41.5 - 44.5 4 47

39 - 41 38.5 - 41.5 4 43

36 - 38 35.5 - 38.5 4 39

33 - 35 32.5 - 35.5 2 35

30 - 32 29.5 - 32.5 3 33

27 - 29 26.5 - 29.5 13 30

24 - 26 23.5 - 26.6 8 17

21 - 23 20.5 - 23.5 3 9

18 - 20 17.5 - 20.5 3 6

15 - 17 14.5 - 17.5 0 3

12 - 14 11.5 - 14.5 2 3

9 - 11 8.5 - 11.5 1 1

N = 50

represented on the y – axis while the class boundaries on the x – axis.

Using the frequencies as the heights, draw vertical bars for each class.

13 STATISTICS

14

13

12

11

10

9

Frequency

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

8.5 11.5 14.5 17.5 20.5 23.5 26.5 29.5 32.5 35.5 38.5 41.5 44.5 47.5

Class Boundaries

B. Frequency Polygon.

Steps in making Frequency Polygon

1. Label the points on the base line.

2. Plot the midpoints. Scores within the interval are concentrated on the

midpoint.

3. When all points are plotted, join them by series of short lines.

14 STATISTICS

Above shows the frequency polygon. Notice that along the x – axis, the

class boundaries are plotted and the frequency are situated on the y – axis. Each

point on the line is plotted on the class mark or midpoint of each class interval.

graph, we shall construct first the cumulative frequency column on our

frequency distribution.

Frequency

Scores Boundaries Frequency

45 - 47 44.5 - 47.5 3 50

42 - 44 41.5 - 44.5 4 47

39 - 41 38.5 - 41.5 4 43

36 - 38 35.5 - 38.5 4 39

33 - 35 32.5 - 35.5 2 35

30 - 32 29.5 - 32.5 3 33

27 - 29 26.5 - 29.5 13 30

24 - 26 23.5 - 26.6 8 17

21 - 23 20.5 - 23.5 3 9

18 - 20 17.5 - 20.5 3 6

15 - 17 14.5 - 17.5 0 3

12 - 14 11.5 - 14.5 2 3

9 - 11 8.5 - 11.5 1 1

N = 50

15 STATISTICS

Example 2: The data below shows the record of high temperatures observed for

each of the 50 provinces in the country. Construct the histogram, frequency

polygon and cumulative frequency graph (Ogive).

Class Boundaries

Frequency

(in degree Celsius)

99.5 - 104.5 2

104.5 - 109.5 8

109.5 - 114.5 18

114.5 - 119.5 13

119.5 - 124.5 7

124.5 - 129.9 1

129.5 - 134.5 1

N = 50

Solution:

A. Histogram

1. Draw and label the x and y axes.

2. Represent the frequency on the x - axis and the class boundaries on the

y - axis.

3. Using the frequencies as the height , draw vertical bars for each class.

16 STATISTICS

B. Frequency Polygon.

1. Find the midpoints for each class.

Class Boundaries

Midpoint Frequency

(in degree Celsius)

99.5 - 104.5 102 2

104.5 - 109.5 107 8

109.5 - 114.5 112 18

114.5 - 119.5 117 13

119.5 - 124.5 122 7

124.5 - 129.9 127 1

129.5 - 134.5 132 1

N = 50

2. Draw and label the x and y axes. Label the x - axis with the midpoints

of each class, and the use of suitable scale on the y - axis for the

frequencies.

3. Using the midpoint for the x value and the frequencies as the y

values, plot the points.

4. Connect the adjacent points with line segments.

17 STATISTICS

C. The Cumulative Frequency (Ogive) Graph

1. Find the cumulative frequency for each class.

Class Boundaries

Cumulative

Midpoint Frequency

(in degree Celsius) Frequency

99.5 - 104.5 102 2 2

104.5 - 109.5 107 8 10

109.5 - 114.5 112 18 28

114.5 - 119.5 117 13 41

119.5 - 124.5 122 7 48

124.5 - 129.9 127 1 49

129.5 - 134.5 132 1 50

N = 50

2. Draw and label the x and y axes. Label the x - axis with the class

boundaries. Use an appropriate scale y - axis to represent the

cumulative frequencies.

3. Plot the cumulative frequency at each upper class boundary. Upper

boundaries are used since the cumulative frequencies represent

number of data values accumulated up to the upper boundary of each

class.

18 STATISTICS

4. Connect the adjacent points with line segments.

EXERCISES 2.2

2. Name the three types of frequency distributions, and explain when each

should be used.

3. Find the class boundaries, midpoints, and widths for each class.

A. 12–18

B. 56–74

C. 695–705

D. 13.6–14.7

E. 2.15–3.93

4. How many classes should frequency distributions have? Why should the

class width be an odd number?

5. Shown here are four frequency distributions. Each is incorrectly

constructed. State the reason why.

A. Class Frequency

27–32 1

33–38 0

39–44 6

45–49 4

50–55 2

B. Class Frequency

5–9 1

9–13 2

13–17 5

17–20 6

20–24 3

C. Class Frequency

123–127 3

19 STATISTICS

128–132 7

138–142 2

143–147 19

D. Class Frequency

9–13 1

14–19 6

20–25 2

26–28 5

29–32 9

7. State Gasoline Tax The state gas tax in cents per gallon for 25 states is

given below. Construct a grouped frequency distribution and a cumulative

frequency distribution with 5 classes.

20.7 17 28 20 23 18.5 25.3 24 31 14.5 25.9 18

30 31.5 Source: The World Almanac and Book of Facts.

8. Weights of the NBA’s Top 50 Players Listed are the weights of the NBA’s

top 50 players. Construct a grouped frequency distribution and a

cumulative frequency distribution with 8 classes. Analyze the results in

terms of peaks, extreme values, etc.

240 210 220 260 250 195 230 270 325 225 165

295 205 230 250 210 220 210 230 202 250 265

230 210 240 245 225 180 175 215 215 235 245

250 215 210 195 240 240 225 260 210 190 260

230 190 210 230 185 260

Source: www.msn.foxsports.com

the world’s 30 tallest buildings is listed below. Construct a grouped

frequency distribution and a cumulative frequency distribution with 7

classes.

88 88 110 88 80 69 102 78 70 55 79

85 80 100 60 90 77 55 75 55 54 60

75 64 105 56 71 70 65 72

Source: New York Times Almanac.

quantitative GRE scores for the top 30 graduate schools of engineering

are listed. Construct a grouped frequency distribution and a cumulative

frequency distribution with 5 classes.

767 770 761 760 771 768 776 771 756 770 763

760 747 766 754 771 771 778 766 762 780 750

746 764 769 759 757 753 758 746

Source: U.S. News & World Report Best Graduate Schools.

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