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B.A.

Gonzales Jan 2015


Review: Units and Dimensions
DIMENSION
-Qualitatively defines a measurable/observable
physical entity
Examples: time, length, mass, area, volume,
force, and energy

B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015


Review: Units and Dimensions
7 Primary Dimensions
Expresses a physical entity:
Length, Time, Mass, Temperature
Electric Current, Amount of Substance
Luminous Intensity

B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015


Review: Units and Dimensions
UNIT
-Quantitative magnitude of a dimension
Ex.
Mass: grams, kilograms, ounces, pounds
Viscosity: Pascal-second, centipoise
Energy: Joule, calories

B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015


REMINDERS
- Dimensions should always be consistent on
both sides of an equation
- Write units for each dimensional quantity
within the equation to avoid mistakes in
calculations

yummymummyclub.ca

B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015


SI vs English Units
• English system with so many symbols to
designate units
• SI has 7 base units, 2 supplementary
units, and many derived units
BASE UNITS:
- Can be easily observed and directly
measured but cannot be expressed in
simpler forms
B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015
SI Base Units
Measurable attribute or
Phenomena of Matter Name Symbol
Length meter m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Electric Current ampere A
Thermodynamic Temperature kelvin K
Amount of Substance mole mol
Luminous Intensity candela cd
B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015
Units of Measurement
Sample definition:
Unit of time (second) - The second (s)
is the duration of 9,192,631,770
periods of radiation corresponding to the
transition between the two hyperfine
levels of the ground state of the cesium-
133 atom.

B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015


Comparison of the two systems
for primary or basic units

Primary Units
Quantities Symbol SI English
Mass M, m 1 kg 2.204 lb
Length L 1m 3.281 ft
Time t 1s 1s
Temperature T 1 oC 1.8oF

B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015


Units of Measurement
DERIVED UNITS
Algebraic combination of base units by either
multiplication or division.
Quantity Name Symbol
Area square meter m2
Volume cubic meter m3
Speed,
Velocity meter per second m/s
Acceleration meter per second squared m/s2
Units of Measurement
Quantity Name Symbol
Density, mass
density Kilogram per cubic meter Kg/m3
Current
Density Ampere per square meter A/m2
Magnetic Field
Strength Ampere per meter A/m
Concentration Mole per cubic meter mol/m3

B.A. Gonzales Jan2015


Units of Measurement
Quantity Name Symbol
Specific
Volume Cubic meter per kilogram m3/kg
Luminance Candela per square meter cd/m2
Sample Definition of a Derived Unit
Newton (N): The Newton is the force that
gives to a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1
m/s2

B.A. Gonzales Jan2015


B.A. Gonzales Jan2015
(Singh and Heldman, 2009)
B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015
(Singh and Heldman, 2009)
Units of Measurement
• Dimensionless Units
-simply numeric without dimensions
(i.e. Specific gravity)
-useful in analysis of complex phenomenon
(modeling)
Ex. Nusselt No. (Nu), Reynold’s No. (Re)
Body Mass Index (BMI)

B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015


Conversion Factors
1 ft = 12 in = 0.3048m 1 kWh = 3600kJ
1 in = 2.54 cm oF = 32 +1.8*oC

1 US gallon = 3.7854 l oR = 460 + oF

1 lbm =0.4536 kg K = 273.15 + oC


1 lbf = 4.4482 N
1 atm = 101,325 Pa = 14.696 psi
1 HP = 745.7 W
1 Btu = 1055.06 J = 0.25216kcal
B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015
Sample Conversions
1. Convert 25.7 PSI to kPa
2. Convert 100 Btu/h ft2oF to kW/m2oC
3. Convert 0.5lbf ∙ s/ft2 to Pa∙s

B.A. Gonzales Jan 2015


Systems

B.A. Gonzales Nov 2012


System: Definition of Terms
System: region prescribed in space
or a finite quantity of matter
enclosed by a boundary
Boundary: can be real or
imaginary; may be stationary or
moveable (see below)
Surroundings: everything outside
the boundary

(Singh and Heldman, 2009)


System: Definition of Terms
System can be:
Closed system
the boundary of the
system is impervious to
flow of mass

(Singh and Heldman, 2009)


System: Definition of Terms
System can be:
Open system
both heat and mass
can flow into or out of
the system boundary

(Singh and Heldman, 2009)


System: Definition of Terms
System can be:
Adiabatic
closed or open system without heat
transfer (unrealistic)
Isothermal
system processes at constant
temperature
(Singh and Heldman, 2009)
System: Definition of Terms
PROPERTIES
Extensive / Extrinsic
depends on the extent of the size of the
system (ex. Mass, volume, length,
energy)

(Singh and Heldman, 2009)


System: Definition of Terms
PROPERTIES
Intensive / Intrinsic
does not depends on the size of the
system (ex. Density, temperature,
pressure)

(Singh and Heldman, 2009)


System: Definition of Terms
Equilibrium
all properties of a system do not change
State
equilibrium condition of the system
Steady State Condition
flow rate does not change
with time
glogster.com
(Singh and Heldman, 2009)
System: Definition of Terms
Thermal equilibrium
uniform temperature

Mechanical equilibrium
uniform pressure

(Singh and Heldman, 2009)


System: Definition of Terms
phase equilibrium
two or more phases with constant mass

Chemical equilibrium
chemical composition of materials
remain constant with time

(Singh and Heldman, 2009)


System: Definition of Terms
process
happens when system undeoes a change
of state

(Singh and Heldman, 2009)