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INTRO

STEP 1.1

STEP 1.2
School Improvement
Project learning guide
STEP 1.3
A project funded by the Australian Government through PAHRODF

STEP 1.4

STEP 2.1

STEP 2.2

STEP 2.3

STEP 3.1

STEP 3.2

STEP 3.3

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RESOURCES
Table of Contents

Introduction to the Guidebook 2


The SI Model Overview For Schools 7

Project Stages

Stage 1: Assess
1. 1 Get Organized 10
1. 2 Talk with Stakeholders 22
1. 3 Walk the Process 38
1. 4 Identify Priority Improvement Area 62

Stage 2: Analyze
2. 1 Do Root Cause Analysis 90
2. 2 Develop Solutions 106
2. 3 Finalize Improvement Plan 132

Stage 3: Act
3. 1 Pilot Your Solution 152
3. 2 Roll Out Solution 164
3. 3 Check Your Progress 176

Resources
Review Answer Keys 188
Project Forms 232
School Improvement Story of Marikina High School 239
Intro
o n
u cti
o d
t r
In

Situation: Its that time of the year when you need to update
your School Improvement Plan. You just agreed with your Division on your
strategic goals and targets that will be the basis for your priority
improvement areas.

Points to consider:
How do you start selecting projects to
prioritize to meet these targets ?

How do you develop solutions for these problems?

Do you experience the following when planning and


implementing projects from your School Improvement Plan?
!
priority objectives?
! Failure to properly scope projects
! Lack of understanding of what process to improve
! No clear process owner
! No buy-in with the process owner
! Lack of proper stakeholder management

You are not alone. So many schools are in the same situation.
This is why the Department of Education adopted the Continuous Improvement
methodology as a tool for undertaking school improvement projects
On a modeling level, it has proven to be an effective and structured problem solving
tool to understand and address perennial problems on school performance such as high
dropout rates, low achievement rate, weak reading and math abilities of learners, etc.

2
Intro
Department of Education
The Continuous
Improvement methodology
also ties in with your School
DBM
Improvement Planning
The DepEd strategic planning, targeting
and goal setting takes off from when the National targets
Department of Budget and Management
cascades the National level Education
National
targets to the Regions while considering Plan
their individual situation. Each Regional

Regional targets

The Division then gives to schools


learner outcome targets. The trigger will Regional
be top-down but the process is iterative Plan
and consultative.

Division Plan
improvement areas linked to the school
measures will be the basis for the
targets. How to arrive on your project
selection and development of solutions Division
will be through the use of Continuous Plan
Improvement methodology.
As shown in the diagram, the school School Targets
improvement plan is developed using
a process that assesses the possible
improvement areas for the school and
then prioritizes these for further action. Division
School Improvement Plan

Plan
In the Act stage of the school
improvement, the various tools
of continuous improvement
are used to understand the SCHOOL
problem areas, develop and Assess IMPROVEMENT Plan
implement solutions.

SIP Implementation Act

33
Intro In school, have you ever tried solving
a problem and wondering why it
keeps repeating when you thought
you have already addressed it?

How did Batasan


Hills NHS do it?

Let us understand further how to They learned and applied a


undertake school improvements methodology called “Continuous
using the continuous improvement Improvement.”
methodology.
They studied the problem, analyzed
Take the case of one school in Metro data, looked for the causes and
Manila, the Batasan Hills National formulated solutions that directly
High School. For years, the school addressed these causes.

registration process, which inevitably Other schools have also applied the
led to problems during school opening; SI methodology and achieved similar
problems, which were always covered successes in improving some aspect
by the media to illustrate perennial of their school performance.
issues in the public schools.
How do you solve such problems? Is

effectively address them?


Fortunately, there is and it is called
Continuous Improvement or SI. This
method was applied by Batasan Hills
NHS to their recurring problems in
school registration and school opening

4
Intro
SCHOOL
IMPROVEMENT

methodology, you will learn that there


is a step-by-step approach to solving a
ANALYZE
problem. This is called Triple A, which In Analyze, you will be able to gain better
stands for Assess-Analyze-Act. understanding of why the problem
occurs or its root causes through tools

ASSESS such as the Fishbone Diagram and Root


Cause Analysis.

In Assess, you will realize that to be During this stage, you will be made
successful in solving a problem, it is aware of the need to validate the root
causes of the problem by collecting data
problem is and understand fully what the from learners and other stakeholders.
problem is all about.
From the validated root causes, you will
During this stage, you will get to know be guided in developing the appropriate
how to collect data about the problem solutions to address these causes.
by talking to learners and other
At the end of this stage, you will be able
stakeholders.
to prepare an improvement plan.
You will acquire the skill of documenting
the process by drawing a process map
or the SIPOC (Supplier-Input-Process-
Output-Stakeholder) diagram. ACT
At the end of this stage, you will be able
to identify your priority improvement In Act, you will able to pilot the solutions,
areas. review the results and then roll-out to the
rest of the school.
At the end of this stage, you will check
the progress of implementation to
determine the effectiveness of the
solutions.

55
Intro
What do you hope to gain What is the
from reading and using this best way of
SI Learning Guide? reading this
If you are a teacher, you will gain SI project
an understanding of continuous Learning
improvement, become competent in
applying the SI methodology and be
Guide?

techniques such as data gathering thru It is best to stick


survey questionnaires and interviews, to the prescribed
Teacher
SIPOC Diagram, Fishbone Diagram, sequence of
Root Cause Analysis, and validation topics because
of root causes, among others. the SI Project
Learning Guide
is describing a
meaning in your life as a teacher
because the knowledge and skills
methodology
that you acquired will help you in or process that
improving the lives of the learners. is systematic in
nature.
However, after
If you are a School Head, you will not you have started,
only acquire a knowledge of SI and its you may backtrack
methodology, tools and techniques, to the previous
but a better understanding of how topics for recall or
School Head SI can help teachers and other
review.
stakeholders work well together
to achieve a common purpose This guide has
(DepEd’s Mission: To protect and been designed
promote the right of every Filipino to for team learning,
quality, equitable, culture-based and so it is best to use
complete basic education). this guide as a
team.

If you are a Division Superintendent/


Supervisor, you will appreciate the
intent of continuous improvement
Division and learn to operationalize the SI
Superintendent/ methodology, tools and techniques
Supervisor
to enable you to provide technical
guidance on SI to schools.

In applying SI, you will also have a


better handle of dealing with school
issues and challenges that are more
relevant and focused.

6
Intro
i e w
rv
e
Ov

What does “Continuous Improvement”mean to you?


What do you associate “Continuous Improvement”with?
Let us view the case of another school, Marikina HS, to see what SI means and how it
changed the lives of the learners.

The video presents the following scenes:

How it all started: the mass reading intervention activity


that utilized CARS (Comprehensive Assessment Reading
(icon to PLAY VIDEO) Strategies) was not very effective in improving high
school students’ reading ability.
Marikina HS –
Reading Intervention What did they do: the video described how the SI Team
Program (see video used the SI methodology (Triple A) to respond to this
MarHSMain2a. mp4)
Marikina HS problem.

SI video What results were achieved: the targeted 14 students


were able to improve their reading ability beyond the
Grade IV level.

Did anything from the video presentation strike you?


What did the school do to impress you? What are some lessons here?

These are the things that Marikina HS did:


The school SI team did home visitations and
gathered data to determine the root cause of

With knowledge of the root cause of the


problem, they developed a number of
solutions that target various aspects of the

77
Intro
There is a systematic
backed up by data. process (or step-by-
step) approach to
Data was obtained from learners
solving problems.
and other stakeholders through
surveys, interviews, FGD, etc.
techniques can be used
The problems were analyzed to
to execute each step.
determine its root cause/s before
any appropriate solutions were be Aside from
developed.
unintended outcomes
Formulating solutions generate a
such as changes in
number of alternative solutions to
attitude were also
choose from, instead on focusing on
noted.
a single plan of action.

Bearing in mind your insights and observations, let us go back to the question:

What does “Continuous Improvement”mean to you?

“Continuous Improvement is a methodology to


continually assess, analyze, and act on the performance
improvement of key processes, focusing on both
stakeholder needs and the desired performance.”

“Continuous Improvement means--


Good, better, best,
never let it rest,
till the good is better
and the better is best.”

8
Intro
SCHOOL
IMPROVEMENT

SI takes place in the development, implementation, and evaluation of


the SIP (Assess-Analyze-Act) and the SI project (Act).

ASSESS
Assess

internal and external factors, is undertaken to arrive at school-level


priority improvement areas so as to address the source/s of problems.

ANALYZE
Plan

objectives and targets are set, appropriate solutions are formulated,


and a School Improvement Plan (SIP) is developed.

ACT
Act

Action Plan. SI Project teams are then organized to implement the


project and check for its effectiveness.

SIPs are also regularly evaluated for effectiveness and impact.

99
1. 1
GET ORGANIZED

step one:
Get Organized

Learning Output:
Selected SI Project, Project Title, and Project Team Members

Learning Outcome:
Demonstrate critical thinking by
1. evaluating school performance;
2. identifying a process improvement project (SI project);
3. identifying key people that will take part in the SI project.

10
1. 1
GET ORGANIZED
ASSESS 1. 1
Get
Organized

Get organized is the first step in the ASSESS stage of the school
improvement (SI) project process. In this step, critical school measures
related to the Division and school agreed targets will be identified and
used as reference to assess the school performance. The result of the
assessment will be used to select a process that will be prioritized for
the SI project. After selecting a project, key people will be identified
to be part of the team. The team members will be tasked to ‘assess’,
‘analyze’, and ‘act’ on the process being improved in the project.

! Our school improvement plan (SIP) should have


What pre-work
is needed before the targets negotiated through a consultative process
between the Division and school.
we select a
SI project and !
form a SI team?
our assessment .

11
11
School Measures

Lets start with a discussion of what school measures are.


1. 1

School measures tell us something important about our outputs and how we deliver
GET ORGANIZED

FIGURE 1.1 - SCHOOL MEASURES AND STAKEHOLDERS


Leadership Training

Attendance Monitoring Achievement Rate

Guidance Counseling Graduation Rate Learners

Remedial Process Dropout Rate

Curriculum delivery process

Awards and
In Service Training Recognitions
Teachers
Gender Awareness Staff Development
Development Level

School measures include:


These are examples of school measures
that form part of our performance
metrics. How do these measures relate

our students? These school measures


tell us whether we are able to meet our
goals. It allows us to assess whether

tells us whether improvements are

Scores

12
1. 1
School measures relate

GET ORGANIZED
the school process to the
needs of stakeholders. Some challenges encountered in
conducting SI projects are the following:
For instance, students go to school
"
to the school priority objectives.
Processes such as the conduct of
leadership training, attendance " Failure to properly scope projects
monitoring, guidance counseling,
" No concept of a stakeholder
remedial classes, and curriculum
expectation
measures such as the Achievement " Lack of a concept and
rate, Graduation Rate, and Dropout understanding of a process
Rate. These measures are indicators
" No clear process owner
education from their schools. " No buy-in with the process owner
When there is non-conformance to " Lack of proper stakeholder
standards, this triggers the need to management.
conduct a SI project.

The tools of the SI method will help


us address these challenges. Three of
these tools are discussed in subsequent
sections :

1. Using a project selection criteria;


2. Creating a SI project template;
and
3. Establishing the SI project

of our SIP targets, we might think of various projects that can provide the
output/outcomes needed to attain our targets. The process for selecting

process. This is where a project selection criteria becomes helpful.

13
13
Project Selection
1. 1

! te.

how we generated solutions, and how to make them sustainable.

A template is needed to show our learning as well so that other people can
learn from us as well. However, the documentation of the project need not be

It’s a visual documentation


template. At one glance, we
pROjEcT TITLE ImpLEmENTATION pLAN
STAGE 2: ANALyZE

can see what has happened


To view A3 template,

in the project.
go to PAGE 151
STAGE 1: ASSESS

bAckGROuND

The A3 is divided into


cuRRENT STATE TEST RESuLTS two major parts-- the

project’s current state and


STAGE 3: AcT

pRObLEm ANALySIS kEy LEARNING the second column shows


STAGE 2: ANALyZE

fuTuRE STATE

the future state after the


project’s implementation.

FIGURE 1.2 - SI PROJECT TEMPLATE

14
1. 1 GET ORGANIZED

15
15
GET ORGANIZED 1. 1

16
Establishing the Team

1. 1
select and establish the team from the school that will implement the project.

GET ORGANIZED
SI Teams, each working on an improvement project. School SI Facilitators
provide guidance on the application of these tools and techniques.

- - - - - - -
FIGURE 1.3: SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT ( SI ) PROJECT ORGANIZATION

Team Leader Team Leader Team Leader


Members Members Members

17
17
FIGURE 1.4 – ThE SI TEAM AnD STAkEhOLDERS
1. 1
GET ORGANIZED

Making a Great Team

The members of the SI team should be creative and


open minded. These people should have high hopes,

also be respectable and credible.

The team should be composed of 3-8 members

faster. Teams greater than 8 require


additional facilitation and often require
sub-teams.

18
The Process Owner

It is important to have a process owner because the projects take place in the

1. 1
context of process improvement.

GET ORGANIZED
manage and improve a process.

The librarian, Math department head, subject coordinator are examples of


process owner.
FIGURE 1.5 - PROCESS OWNER

19
19
Step 1: Get Organized
4
A SI team is investigating the
Teaching-Learning Process
Lesson Review
The team decided to observe the

1
Teaching-Learning Process of a particular
1. 1

The student attendance rate


for a particular school has teacher, but failed to inform the teacher
the reasons behind the observation. In
effect, the teacher thought that he/ she
GET ORGANIZED

from his/ her normal teaching-learning


process. What challenge did the SI team
experience in this scenario?
a. Performance
a.
b.
b. No Clear Process Owner.
c.
c.
d. Conformance to standards
d. Project Sponsors did not break road
e. None of the Choices blocks.
e. None of the Choices

2
The number of students at

5
risk of dropping out (SARDO)
A SI team is looking into the
Teaching-Learning Process for
What project should the SI team R
conduct? students are still non-readers. Two
months into the project, the team felt the
a. Look into the external factors/ need to consider the Feeding Program
processes that cause students to because most students in the class
miss classes. seemed malnourished. While looking
b. Look into the internal factors/ into the Feeding Program Process, the
processes that are used Team decided to look into the process
to monitor the students’
attendance. the SI project is still ongoing and the
team no longer knows what to do. What
c. Help the students’ parents challenge did the SI team experience in
earn more income so that the this scenario?
students don’t have to work after
class. a.
of the project.
d. Construct new classrooms to
attract students to go to school. b. Lack of Stakeholder Management.
e. All of the Choices c. Lack of concept and understanding
of a process.

3
A d. Mismatch of project team members.
e. None of the Choices
Learners should be numerates

6
upon completing the grade level. At
A SI team is looking to improve

raising the their students’ NAT


demonstrated in this performance?
decided to look into the Teaching-
a. Performance. Learning Process for Math. At the end
b. of the project, the SI team was able to
generate a revised Teaching-Learning
c. Conformance to standards. Process to help students solve Word
d.
e. All of the Choices
20
9
The result of the diagnostic
reading test that was
administered to Grade 6

633 students were diagnosed with to


The output of the project is ___________ the Frustration reading level in word

1. 1
while the outcome is ________. recognition. The school has set the
a. desired goal that no student should
be left at the Frustration level. Which

GET ORGANIZED
Revised teaching learning process
process should the SI team investigate
b. Revised teaching learning process; to address the school’s problem?
a. The Remedial Process for
c. Reading.
d. b. Teaching-Learning Process of
e. All of the Choices Reading.
c. Attendance Monitoring Process

7
of Students.
d. Feeding Program Process.
word problems in Math. The team e. All of the Choices
in understanding word problems. The SI

10
team then shifted their attention from A SI team is looking into the
the Math Teaching-Learning process Teaching-Learning Process for
toward the Reading Comprehension Science. Who is the Process
Teaching-Learning process. This scenario Owner?
demonstrates the concept of-- a. The School Head.
a. Scope Creep. b. SI team.
b. Lack of Focus. c. Local Government Units.
c. d. Science Teachers.
of processes within the school
e. All of the Choices
d. Shifting the Burden.
e. None of the Choices

8A
be numerates upon completing the
grade level. Given the data in Figure 1,
this is the most appropriate background
statement for a SI project:
a.
Learners are Non-numerates.
b.
Learners have not reached the level
of Numerates.
c. There is a high level of Non- FIGURE 1.GRADE IV nUMERATE LEVEL
numerates Learners in Section 1,
Section 3, and Section 4.
d.

e. All of the Choices


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21
1. 2
TALk w/ STAkEhOLDERS

step two:
Talk with your
Stakeholders

Learning Output:

Learning Outcome:
Demonstrate the following:
1. skill in identifying stakeholders;
2. gathering the voice of stakeholders;
3. understanding the needs of stakeholders.

22
1. 2
TALk w/ STAkEhOLDERS
ASSESS 1. 2
Talk
with your
Stakeholders

It is important to understand the stakeholders’ needs and


expectations, as well as their perception of whether the process
or system is capable of addressing these. The stakeholder may
also be a source of improvement ideas or suggestions.
In this section, you will learn how to understand the
stakeholders’ requirements and identify improvement
opportunities based on these requirements.

23
23
1. 2

FIGURE 2.1 :
STAkEhOLDERS

who are your from or participate in the process or project


stakeholders?
school? These are learners, parents, the government,

How do we classify the stakeholders?

stakeholders. A

are indirect but crucial participants in the process, such


internal
stakeholders are individuals or groups who are part of the improvement
process. In our case, internal stakeholders are part of the school, such as
teachers and principals.


FIGURE 2.2 - TyPES OF STAkEhOLDERS

24
Stakeholders have different needs.
As an example, please see FIGURE 2.3

1.0
AnAlyze
FIGURE 2.3 - STAkEhOLDER SEGMEnTS

In line with understanding the needs of stakeholders, it is critical to have the

is worded in the stakeholder’s language. The use of the stakeholders’ own language

that are important to them.

Some of the
questions that we
need to ask are:

25
25
1. 2
TALk w/ STAkEhOLDERS

FIGURE 2.4
CUSTOMER VALUE

We must be able to understand what is valuable to our stakeholders. What is our

children to school? In FIGURE 2.4, the donut store does not understand the value

hole does not add value to stakeholders. Instead, it is important for the stakeholder

and

whether something is a need or a want. Needs are what


stakeholders expect to receive from a concept or service.
Wants are preferences of a stakeholder on how to receive

However, wants are important to create a balance on what


and how we deliver our service to our stakeholders.

When identifying stakeholder needs, several issues may arise.


However, their real needs might be:

26
But their actual need might be:

1. 2
the classroom.

TALk w/ STAkEhOLDERS
But their actual usage for these
needs might be:

Here are a few more examples:


Internal

External

In terms of effectiveness

But if asked to focus on

There are different tools that can be used in gathering

conducting interviews or Focus Group Discussions (FGD).


It is critical to allow our stakeholders to elaborate on their

27
27
1. 2

questions to delve further into the stakeholder issues. In such cases, we


TALk w/ STAkEhOLDERS

should allow the stakeholders to talk. We must avoid biased, leading, or

questions should not be ambiguous.

the stakeholders’ responses verbatim, or word for word. The use of their own

DyADS OR TRIADS
ONE ON ONE
FIGURE 2.5: VOS METhODOLOGIES

fOcuS GROup DIScuSSION


(fGD) SuRvEyS

language is important. We have to read through these interview transcriptions

28
Other forms of qualitative research include:

1. 2
a) home visits - The researcher goes

TALk w/ STAkEhOLDERS
to the respondent’s home and observes
the practices of the respondent. The

being observed.

b) classroom Observations
(Natural Environment)
The researchers observe their stakeholders
in a natural environment (i. e. where class
decisions are made, where stakeholders

being observed.

c) buddy panels/ Adult panels -


An ongoing panel among stakeholders. The
respondents come in pairs wherein one is a moderator
and the other is a co-moderator. This technique is
effective among kids and teens because it is less

This allows researchers to establish a more intimate


relationship with the stakeholders and gain more

This technique can also be conducted on adults.

d) Diaries - This is effective in rapid concept/

researchers to understand behavioral changes in the


adoption of a new idea.

e) conversations with experts / third parties

them to get their views and insights on the issue.

29
29
In school, the use of observation methods can be a good tool to gather information.

1. 2

activities.

After gathering information through


the various research methods, it
is important to put some order
to the data to see trends or
get a sense of the value of the
information. One tool that can be
used for the purpose for qualitative

an

When Gathering large amounts of

!
complex issues.
! Finds patterns in voluminous
data.
Need 4 Need 4
!
opinions.
! Facilitates understanding.

Need 5

FIGURE 2.6 AFFInITy DIAGRAM

30
How do we create an
patterns. This is as important as
1. Gather ideas from interview
complex the problem, the more
Highlight statements
related to the stakeholders’ needs.
we read unsorted statements,
2. Transfer data onto index cards
or self-stick notes - Write down
one sentence per card.
statements, we get a more
3. Group the cards objective view of themes and
patterns.

Read each card and group


together the cards that seem diagram stresses creative
similar. Let the cards “group or intuitive thinking more
than logical thinking.

value from stakeholder


data is
with where someone moved a card,
move the card back. If a card moves themes.
three times, make a duplicate card.
4. Label the groups of cards. Examine good tool for this purpose
each group and determine its essence because it
or common theme (aim for 3 to 5 words). language data into related
Write the theme on a blank card and groups.
use this as the group’s label. Continue
doing this for all groups. Having a group
comprised of one card is acceptable. involves the whole team,
which helps increase the
5. Optional: group the clusters into
“superclusters.” Place related groupings
near each other. Create superheaders,

31
31
measuring.
1. 2

Possible reasons include:


TALk w/ STAkEhOLDERS

FIGURE 2.7 - ExaMPLE:


HOTEL CHECk-In
PROCESS aFFInITy
DIaGRaM

32
Akmang
Sapat na oras kapaligiran para sa
sa klase pag-aral ng ingles

me saysay ang Sapat na paraan*


mga natutunan ko para matuto

*Paraan – also refers to


how to use the teaching
materials

FIGURE 2.8 - POSSIBLE REqUIREMEnTS FOR LEARnInG EnGLISh In GRADE 7

Enough time The learning in Conducive Proper method


for the class class is relevant environment for of teaching
learning Math
classroom

FIGURE 2.9 - VOS


OF GRADE IV STUDEnTS On ThEIR MATh SUBJECT (AnSwER)

33
33
why are vOSs important?

1. 2

concrete improvement plans.


TALk w/ STAkEhOLDERS

REmEmbER
A stakeholder-focused organization understands
the requirements of their stakeholders and
measures how well these requirements are met

34
Step 2: Talk with your Stakeholders
Lesson Review

1 2
A SI Team has decided to A SI Team looking into the

1. 2
investigate the Teaching-Learning Teaching-Learning Process for
Process of Math to increase their Science has discovered that there

TALk w/ STAkEhOLDERS
students’ NAT Scores. The customers are learners who perform better when
for the Teaching-Learning Process for the teachers conduct graded recitation.
Math are the Learners, Parents, School Other learners understood the lesson
better when the teacher used visual
of the following is true regarding the aids like graphs and pictures. There are
other learners who do well with hands-
a. on activities. In understanding the needs
and wants of these learners the SI team
decided to group learners according

b. them. What concept did the SI team


demonstrate in this scenario?
a.
c.
b.
c. Stakeholder Segmentation
d. d.
e. All of the choices

e. None of the choices

3
A SI Team decided to interview
Grade 1 students to gather the

in English. What is the most appropriate

to ensure that the students wouldn’t be


afraid to speak up?
a. Personal Interviews
b.
c.
d. Expert Opinion
e. All of the choices

35
35
4 6
A SI Team is creating interview A SI Team interviewed a learner
who responded with the
their learners. statement, “The classrooms should

noticed that the learner expressed a


1. 2

stated need and not a real need. What


are the problems that the school will could the real need of the learner be?
encounter if students are provided with
TALk w/ STAkEhOLDERS

a. I need to hear what the teacher is


in this question?
b. I need a classroom that is
a. Unstated Criteria conducive for learning.
b. Loaded Question c. I need to be relaxed while learning
c. Ambiguous wording so I can understand the lesson.
d. Leading Question d. I need to focus on the lesson.
e. All of the choices e. All of the choices

5
A SI Team is creating interview

7
The following are the statements
their learners. One question that that a SI Team has gathered from
learners regarding their Science
“What factors, such as good learning subject:
environment and good acoustics, do

bias is shown in this question? Choose focus on listening to the teacher.


the most appropriate answer.
a. Loaded question teacher is writing on the board.
b. Leading question
What is the most appropriate theme for
c. Example containment
d. Unstated criteria a. Proper Instructional Materials
e. None of the choices b.
life
c. Enough time to understand the
lesson
d. Conducive environment for
learning
e. All of the choices

36
8
A SI Team interviewed a learner
who responded with the
statement, “I want a personal

that the learner expressed a solution for

1. 2
an intended usage and not a need for
the actual usage. What could the actual

TALk w/ STAkEhOLDERS
usage of the learner be?
a. I need proper learning materials.
b. I need to use MS Excel for
calculations.
c. I need to use the internet.
d. I need to use MS Word for taking
notes.
e. All of the choices

9 gathered expresses the need to


have “enough time for class to

a. Total class time


b. Total teaching and learning time
c. Total time for exams
d. Total class recitation time
e. All of the choices

10
A SI Team is looking into the
Feeding Program Process

the learners undergoing the process


in order to determine their needs
and wants. What appropriate form of
qualitative research can the team use?
a. Home visits
b. Process Observation
c. Conversations with Experts
d.
e. All of the choices

37
37
1.3
WALK THE PROCESS

step three:
Walk the Process

Learning Output:

(Pain Points in the Process)

Learning Outcome:
Demonstrate critical thinking by
1. Connecting the voice of the stakeholder to the school
processes
2. Mapping the process to show what is currently happening
3. Identifying storm clouds/ pain points in the current process

38
1.3
WALK THE PROCESS
ASSESS 1. 3
Walk The
Process

At this step in the SI process, we have already


accomplished the following: (1) identified a broad
problem based on a relevant school measure; (2)
identified the key people who will comprise the SI
team; and (3) identified the needs of the learners
and stakeholders affected by the broad problem
through the Voice of the Stakeholder (VOS).

We are now ready to explore Step 3 of the


Continuous Improvement Methodology,
Walk the Process.

39
39
REVIEW: TALK YOU ARE HERE:
WITH YOUR WALK THE PROCESS
STAKEHOLDERS
1.3

certain concerns were raised


WALK THE PROCESS

FIgure 3.1: revIew voICe oF the StakeholDer

Repetition
Rate Voices of the “learners”

I Need. . .
Participation
Drop-out
Rate
Rate

Achievement Graduation
Rate Measure

What is a Process?
A process is a set of activities that
are arranged together in order to
deliver a product or service.

40
Machine Manpower

1.3
WALK THE PROCESS
Process Step 1

Material Method

Machine Manpower

Process Step 2

Material Method

Manpower

Materials

Machine

Method

FIgure 3.2:
FrIeD ChICkeN ProCeSS
Why do we need to understand What is process mapping?
the process?
We need to understand processes in order
1.3 PROCESS
THE PROCESS

Why should we
How do we understand a process? map the process?
WALK THE

!
WALK

! !
!
!
!
! Most processes today are
! what it produces
! how it is constructed
inconsistencies within
“You don’t learn to Process Map,
You Process Map to learn.”

1.3
WALK THE PROCESS
What is a Flowchart?

Process
Flowchart How do we create Flowcharts?

Brainstorm action steps.

what is

43
43
Arrange the steps in sequence.
Don’t forget to check
for missing steps or
1.3

decision points.
WALK THE PROCESS

Enumerate the steps.

44
Level 1

New Product Demand Demand Stakeholder


Development Generation Service
FIgure 3.3: StartINg at the toP

Level 2

Ordering Producing Picking Shipping


Materials

Level 3

Filling Sealing Packing


Mixing

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3
process

45
45
FIgure 3.4: CurrICuluM DeveloPMeNt
1.3

Develop Design Develop and


Strategic Curriculum Student Operations Manage
Planning Instruction Support Management Stakeholders
Services

Design and Provide


Assess
Develop Deliver Effective Evaluate
Student
Curriculum Professional Instructional Programs
Achievement
Learning Programs

Align with Provide for


federal/ curriculum Develop scope/ Develop Select
parent and Demonstrate
state/local development sequence/ instructional instructional
community the program
standards procedures timeline calendars resources
input

46
1.3
WALK THE PROCESS
INPUTS: OUTPUTS:
eggs, milk, bread, butter,
bacon, plates, utensils, MAKE BREAKFAST scrambled eggs, toast, crisp
bacon, pan-fried potatoes
cookware, potatoes
FIgure 3.5: BreakFaSt PreParatIoN

Prepare Ingredients COOK INGREDIENTS Serve Ingredients

Cook Bacon COOK EGGS Toast Bread Fry Potatoes

Heat Pan Pour Mixture Stir Mixture Add Pepper Remove Eggs

47
47
1.3

FIgure 3.6: SIPoC oF teaChINg DelIvery ProCeSS

S UPPLIER I nPUTS P ROCESS O UTPUTS C USTOMER


Teacher Lesson Plan Teaching Grades in Grade 7
Delivery Science learners
Teacher Process
Guide

Learner’s
Guide

Instructional
Materials

Laptop,
Computer and
LCD Projector

Preparatory
Activities Presentation Evaluation

48
SIPOC
The following are Steps to Complete the SIPOC Diagram

1.3
WALK THE PROCESS
Process
Process Represents action
or set of actions

Control Flow
Shows sequence
of execution

Initial Node
Start
The beginning of
a set of actions

Final Node
End
an activity
read)

Decision Node Decision Node

the process

process
Waiting
Waiting

FIgure 3.7:
BaSIC FlowChart SyMBolS

49
49
Process Name
Hotel Checkout Process
1.3

1 2 3
Approach front desk Is there Wait
WALK THE PROCESS

Yes
a line?

no

4
Numbered Steps Step up to desk

Key of symbols
5 6
Clerk available? no
Wait

Start / End Yes


Clear direction

7 bottom or left
Decision Give Room Number to right)

Action / Task

8
Check bill
Sequence

9 10
Date of creation or Charges correct? Correct charges
update & name of no
creator

Yes

Pay bill Clear starting and


ending points

FIgure 3.8: aCtIvIty FlowChartS

50
Activity
Flowchart

Preparation Distribution Test Proper

Recording Checking Retrieving

Identifying
Least Mastered
Item Analysis Skills

FIgure 3.9: reaDINg CoMPreheNSIoN teSt ProCeSS FlowChart


FIgure 3.10: PareNt teaCher DIalogue FlowChart

1.3

Start

Adviser Check
Prepare Forms 1 Attendance:
and 2 Form 1

Inform Parents Identify


SARDO

PTD during Card Parents


Yes
Giving Arrive?

no

End Drop
or
Home Visit

End
Deployment
Flowcharts

People or groups
listed across the top
FIgure 3.11: DePloyMeNt FlowChartS

SALES BILLIng SHIPPIng STAKEHOLDER ELAPSED


TIME

Steps listed in column of person


or group doing step or in charge down the page
2 8

5 days

9
3 Records receipt and

4 10

11

12

Horizontal lines clearly


7 identify handoffs

accounts

53
53
1.3

taBle 3. 1: tyPeS oF FlowChartS


WALK THE PROCESS

SIPOC Activity Flowchart Deployment Flowchart

processes between
process
and ends
indicate dependencies

Which Flowcharting Common Process


Technique Should we use? Mapping Mistakes

54
WALK THE PROCESS
Guidelines

1.3
WALK THE PROCESS

After accomplishing the process map and highlighting what is


currently happening, we are now ready to assess our process
by identifying storm clouds or pain points in the process.

55
55
1.3
What are storm clouds Waiting

:K\LVLWLPSRUWDQW
to identify storm
clouds?

What are the characteristics


of a storm cloud?

Storm Clouds (Pain points) are relevant

student interaction)

56
1.3
WALK THE PROCESS
INCONSISTENT CAN’T PERFORM
DISCUSSION TIME BASIC OPERATION

PROBLEM
SOLVING
SELECTION

PROBLEM
SOLVING
SELECTION TEST ON
DISCUSSION PROBLEM
SOLVING

CANNOT COMPLETE AGONA


CORRECTLY

RE-TEST AND
FEEDBACK CHECK ON THE
ANSWER
FEEDBACK ON
TEST RESULT

FIgure 3.12: SaMPle ProCeSS MaP wIth StorM ClouDS IN ProBleM SolvINg

clouds or pain points. We are now ready to proceed to the


next step and determine the focused problem statement.

57
57
Step3: Walk the Process
1.3 PROCESS
THE PROCESS
WALK THE Lesson Review

either thrown in the trash container or


WALK

in the proper container

58
1.3
3 4

WALK THE PROCESS


Which

When the students

the cups

5
current process

The students

they need to proceed to the cashier

59
59
WALK THE PROCESS 1.3

FIg. 1: reaDINg CoMPreheNSIoN teSt

7
6

60
8
to the desired standards set by the
0

1.3
Which

WALK THE PROCESS


“the

9 Process
the current process and not the

They want to ensure

They

ANSWERS
ON PAGE
184
1. 4
1.0 ANALYZE
IDENTIFY PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS

step four:
Identifying Priority
Improvement Areas
Learning Output:

Learning Outcome:
1. know what storm clouds are and 5. Differentiate the different
how to locate them in the process; types of data collected;
2. Identify relevant process measures 6. Identify the most
for each storm cloud that affect appropriate graphical
process performance; presentation tool to use for
each type of data collected;
3. recognize the importance of data
7. transform a broad problem
into a problem statement
4. Create a data collection plan with a narrower focus
measures;
1.
1.04
IDENTIFY
ASSESS 1. 4

AnAlyze
Identifying

PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS


Priority
Improvement
Areas

Introduction:

63
63
What are
storm clouds?
1. 4
1.0 ANALYZE
IDENTIFY PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS

INCONSISTENT CAN’T PERFORM


DISCUSSION TIME BASIC OPERATION

PROBLEM
SOLVING
SELECTION

PROBLEM
SOLVING
SELECTION TEST ON
DISCUSSION PROBLEM
SOLVING

CANNOT COMPLETE AGONA


CORRECTLY

RE-TEST AND
FEEDBACK CHECK ON THE
ANSWER
FEEDBACK ON
TEST RESULT

FIgure 4.1: aCtIvIty FlowChart

64
What do you do after observing and identifying
the storm clouds that may have contributed to
the low math scores of the students?

1.
1.0
Data gathering

4
IDENTIFY
AnAlyzePRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS
!
!
!
!
!
!

! nt
! Relevant

! Representative

! Contextual

65
65
Data Collection Plan Project ________________________

What questions do you Be clear about your question so that you are
want to answer? going to be correct when you collect data
1. 4
1.0

Data Operational Definition and Procedures


AREAS

What Measure type/ How Related conditions Sampling How/where


ANALYZE

Data type measured 1 to record 2 notes recorded


IDENTIFY PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT

(attach form)

Define the data you


need to collect and its
type. This will guide you An operational definition tells exactly how you
in terms of how you will go about collecting and recording the data
can present it later.

FIgure 4.2a: Data ColleCtIoN PlaN FeatureS

Data Collection Plan

Types of Data

There are two types of quantitative data namely


discrete and continuous data.

66
Discrete Data

Count data

1.
1.04
IDENTIFY
AnAlyzePRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS
Percentage

Ordinal data

Attribute data

Continuous
Data

67
67
1. 4
1.0 ANALYZE
IDENTIFY PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS

Data Collection Plan Project ________________________

What questions do you Be clear about your question so that you are
want to answer? going to be correct when you collect data

Data Operational Definition and Procedures


What Measure type/ How Related conditions Sampling How/where
Data type measured 1 to record 2 notes recorded
(attach form)

Define the data you


need to collect and its
type. This will guide you An operational definition tells exactly how you
in terms of how you will go about collecting and recording the data
can present it later.

FIgure 4.2B:
Data ColleCtIoN PlaN FeatureS

68
FIgure 4.3: SaMPle Data ColleCtIoN PlaN

1.
1.04
IDENTIFY
AnAlyzePRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS
Developing a Sampling Scheme

Related Conditions to Record

69
69
Data Collection Forms

1.0

Tally Sheet
is being collected

MACHInE DOWnTIME
-Line 13-
Operator: Mary Operator: May 19

Lists the characteristics or conditions of interest


Reason Frequency Comments

Carton transport

Metal check
Has room for comments
or conditions that you are interested in no product

Sealing unit

Barcoding

Conveyor belt

Bad product Low Weight

Other

Includes place to
put the data

FIgure 4.4: SaMPle tally Sheet

Check Sheet

FIgure 4.5 SaMPle CheCk Sheet


70
FIgure 4.6: SaMPle FrequeNCy Plot Chart

Frequency Plot

1.
1.04
IDENTIFY
AnAlyzePRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS
Some Tips on Data Collection
Have an orientation on
gathering data
Do preliminary tests on data
collection using the designed data FIgure 4.7: tIMe Data ColleCtIoN ForM
collection forms
Make sure that the measuring
device that will be used in collecting

needed data accuracy

data gathering plan to ensure that


the procedure of collecting data is
consistent across all data collectors
Data collected should be consistent
in the unit of measure
What is the next step after collecting
Process owners and subjects are all the necessary data from the
informed of the data collection
IDENTIFY PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT
ANALYZE AREAS 1. 4
1.0

ForM
FIgure 4.8: lINe graPh

Line Chart
Data Analysis

graphical Data Display and Analysis Tools


1.0
1. 4 AnAlyze
IDENTIFY PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS

73
73
Steps in Doing the Line Chart
!
!
!
!

!
FIgure 4.8: StratIFIeD lINe Chart
FIgure 4.9: Data StratIFICatIoN

1. 4
1.0 ANALYZE
IDENTIFY PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS

74
1.
1.04
IDENTIFY
AnAlyzePRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS
Histogram

FIgure 4.10: SaMPle hIStograM

number of Bins in a Histogram

75
75
1. 4
1.0 ANALYZE
IDENTIFY PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS

Steps in Constructing the Histogram

Number of Data Points Number of Bins


100 or less 7 to 10
101 to 200 11 to 15
More than 200 13 to 20

76
watch?v=RyxPp22x9PU)

Pareto Chart

1.
1.04
IDENTIFY
AnAlyzePRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS
taBle 4.1: SaMPle Data For Pareto aNalySIS FIgure 4.11: Pareto Chart

77
77
IDENTIFY PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT
ANALYZE AREAS 1. 4
1.0

78
Steps in Constructing the Pareto Chart
Scatter Plot

1.
1.04
IDENTIFY
AnAlyzePRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS
FIgure 4.12: SCatter Plot

Steps in Creating the Scatter Plot

79
79
After the application of data presentation and analysis tools

occurring problem items, the pattern or trend of a problem item


1. 4
1.0

through time, the activity or set of activities that takes the


longest time or consumes majority of the school resources, the
AREAS

relationship of problem items in a process to other items within


ANALYZE

the same process or even to items in other processes, etc. ),


IDENTIFY PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT

you are now a step closer to narrowing down the process issues

How then do you arrive at a focused problem statement?

Selecting the Focused Problem Statement

WHAT IS THE PROBLEM AND


WHO
HOW OFTEN IS IT HAPPENING?
IS ENGAGED IN
THE BEHAVIOR?

WHERE IS IT
HAPPENING? WHEN IS THE PROBLEM MOST
LIKELY TO HAPPEN?

80
1.0
1. 4 AnAlyze
IDENTIFY PRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS
FIgure 4.13: FoCuSeD ProBleM DeFINItIoN
FIgure 4.14: FoCuSeD ProBleM StateMeNt evolutIoN
1.34
1.0
AREAS1.

NARROW
PROCESS

The canteen
ANALYZE
IMPROVEMENT

Poor Service
PRIORITYTHE
WALK
IDENTIFY

NARROW

Poor Service
Cashier service

It is too long.

NARROW

Poor Service
Cashier service

It is too long.
30 minutes
15 minutes

Recess time. on Mondays


Jan. 2014
FIgure 4.15: aCtIvIty
ProCeSS FlowChart
Issue 1
Selecting the Focused
Problem Among Storm Clouds

1.
1.
1.043 IDENTIFY
WALK
AnAlyzePRIORITY
Issue 3

THE IMPROVEMENT
Issue 2

PROCESS AREAS
Issue 4

Issue 5

Absences Students Failed


in Math
FIgure 4.16: StorM ClouDS
wIth CauSal relatIoNShIP

Student Absences
Health

Mean
Teaching ? Percentage
Time Spent Scores of Class
in Class

83
83
1.0
ANALYZE

SCHOOL MEASURE:
Low number of passing students in Math for grade Level

Issue 3

Issue 1 Issue 2 Issue 4

Lecture on
Do Review Assess
Check Current Give
Motivation Previous Student
Attendance Lesson Homework
Activities Lesson Mastery

FIgure 4.17: ProCeSS Flow Chart For graDe SChool Math teaChINg

84
Issue 4

1.
1.04
IDENTIFY
AnAlyzePRIORITY IMPROVEMENT AREAS
Issue 2 Issue 1

Issue 3

FIgure 4.18: CauSal relatIoNShIP IlluStratIoN

85
85
Step 4: Identify Priority Improvement Areas
1.01 Lesson Review

graDe Iv StuDeNtS.
1.

FIgure 1: SChool DroP out rate For


2000-2014 Drop Out Rate
gET ORgAnIzED
ANALYZE

5 120
4.5

4 100
3.5

3 80

English
2.5

2
60
1.5

1
40
0.5

0
20
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
T
Math

in A
concerned that the drop out rate has
What

The scores can


be seen in

Math teachers are better than


FIgure 2: eNglISh aND Math SCoreS oF

86
3 4
A A

The

1.01
1.
gET
AnAlyze
on

ORgAnIzED
students
taBle 1. SCIeNCe graDeS oF graDe vI learNerS taBle 2. MIStake tyPe FrequeNCy
Mistake Frequency
76 95 93
Asked 591
83 93 89 56
Operation 387
54 95 59
Expression 372
99 89 59 93 97
Given 223
67 79 95 53 89
Total 1573
83 99 74 40
58 74 88 65
98 90 40 60 86

Pareto Chart
Pareto Chart

5
A The

Which among these


storm clouds should
the SI Team focus on?

87
87
6 7
A A

The
1.0
1. 1
gET ORgAnIzED
ANALYZE

8
A

FIgure 3.Pareto Chart oN DISCuSSIoN tIMe

88
SeCtIoN a Math SCoreS
700 120%
Freq. %

600
100%

500

Cumulative % Cont.
80%

1.01
1.
400

Frequency
60%
300

gET
AnAlyze
40%
200 SeCtIoN C Math SCoreS

ORgAnIzED
20%
100

0 0%
41 to 50 21 to 30 31 to 40 10 to 20

Discussion Time

9
A

0
A

What

FIgure 4.SeCtIoN a aND C Math


SCoreS hIStograM

ANSWERS
ON PAGE
188
89
89
step five:
Root Cause Analysis
2.1
ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS

Learning Output:
Why-Why Diagram, Root Causes of the Focused Problem

Learning Outcome:
1. Know what a root cause is;
2. Use data and process information to help identify possible
causes of the problem;
3. Perform a why-why analysis on a focused problem;
4. Identify the root causes of the focused problem using the
why-why analysis;
5. Distinguish a well conducted why-why analysis from one that
is not;
6. Understand and avoid the common mistakes committed in
performing a why-why analysis; and
7. Use data in performing root cause validation

90
ANALYZE 2.1
Root
Cause
Analysis

2.1
ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS
Introduction:
At this stage, you have already accomplished the following:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8. analyzed the collected data using the appropriate graphical data display

9.

91
91
Analyze stage. Recall that the Analyze stage is focused on investigating and

Now that you have identified a process problem, it is time to focus


all your attention in analyzing this problem and determining
all the underlying causes that contribute to the occurrence of
this problem. The only way for you to come up with appropriate
and relevant solutions that will address your focused problem
is to correctly identify the root cause of the problem.

What is a A root cause is the deepest underlying

root cause? symptoms within any process.


2.1

Symptom of the problem

“The Weed”
Above the surface
(obvious)
FIgUre 5.1: Problem symPtom & UnDerlyIng CaUses

FIgUre 5.1: root CaUse IllUstratIon

The Underlying Causes

“The Root”
Below the surface
(not obvious)

92
root cause when, instead, it is simply the cause closest to the surface or the

2.1
ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS
Root Cause Analysis
What is Root Cause Analysis and
why do you need to do Root Cause Analysis?

since the root cause was not properly addressed. This is the reason why the

no predetermined assumptions. Otherwise, it may lead you to ignore the

93
93
?
?? Why-Why Analysis

in Figure 5.2 illustrates the steps involved in using the why-why analysis. The

that each response has a logical relationship to the response that preceded it.

using the why-why diagram. The why-why diagram is a tree diagram where each

The very nature of the why-why diagram forces you to drill down to the underlying
2.1
ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS

Ask why problem happens

If the answer is not


the root cause, ask
why again

FIgUre 5.2: the Why-Why analysIs

94
Steps in Doing the Why-Why Diagram

1.
and describing it completely help to formalize

2. Ask why the focused problem


happens and write the

3. If the answer you just provided does not

2.1
identify the root cause of the focused
problem that you wrote down in Step 1, ask

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS


“why?”again and write down the answer below

4. Loop back to step 3 until the team


is in agreement that the root cause

drill down to the root cause. This means that the answers you provide should

perhaps not as deep as it must ultimately go.

95
95
When is a Cause a Root Cause?
why-why analysis, you may want to use the following guide questions:

Would the problem have If the answer to


occurred if the cause this question is YES,
the cause you have
not been present?

Will the problem reoccur If the answer to


as the result of the same this question is YES,
2.1

cause if the cause is the cause you have


corrected or dissolved?
ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS

If the answer to
Will correction
this question is YES,
or resolution of
the cause you have
the cause lead to
similar events?

usually arrive at a proximate area of cause or causes that if dissolved, or

related to either cultural or deeper organizational elements.

96
Figure 5.3 shows an example of a very simple why-why diagram on the late

the late issuance of grades. Rather, it implies that an underlying monitoring

Grades are
distributed to the
students beyond
the 7 days policy

2.1
Teachers are not The grades have

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS


concerned on the to be approved by
timely distribution the Vice Principal
of grades

Teachers are allowed FIgUre 5.3:


for computation
to submit beyond samPle Why-Why DIagram
on late graDes IssUanCe

97
97
the why-why diagram in order to achieve depth of analysis. This depth of

the same root causes. Addressing the root causes therefore raises unintended

FIgUre 5.4: “the FIve Whys”anD mIle-DeeP thInKIng

Problem Problem Problem Problem Problem Problem Problem Problem


Etc.
A B C D E F G H

Local focus
on causes
Ask the
question
“WHY?” WHY?
2.1

1 Why did X happen?


Wider focus
Because of W. on causes

WHY?
ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS

2 Why did W happen? Wider focus


Because of V. on causes

WHY?
3 Why did V happen? Wider focus
Because of U. on causes

WHY?
Wider focus
4 Why did U happen?
on causes
Because of T.

WHY?
Wider focus
5 Why did T happen? on causes
Because of S.

In summary, the construction of the why-why


diagram should be guided by the following:
! Do not include a response to a why question that is not

! Each response should have a clear and logical relationship

!
! It may also be helpful at this point to be aware of
the common mistakes in Root Cause Analysis in order

98
Common Mistakes in Root Cause Analysis

FIgUre 5.5: Common mIstaKe #1 FIgUre 5.6: Common mIstaKe #2


(mIssIng lInK betWeen CaUses) (FoCUsIng on the Who, not on the Why)

Students are unable Students Teachers are


Students

Problem
are unable incompetent
to correctly follow do not
to correctly in giving
understand the
follow test instructions to

Why?
Problem Root Cause

Copying of
Students are

Root cause
assignments Students are
Test instructions take more than unskilled in

Problem Root Cause

Missing link between causes Focusing on the who,


not on the why
As mentioned earlier, a good why-why

illustrated in Figure 5.5. The reason why

the test instructions are long. There is

underlying process or processes caused


reason why students did not correctly

do not understand the instructions.


They do not understand the instructions

analysis.

99
99
FIgUre 5.7: Common mIstaKe #3 (CaUses FIgUre 5.8: Common mIstaKe #4 (CaUses
that begIn WIth “no”, “none”, “laCK oF”) IDentIFIeD are non-stanDarD oCCUrrenCes)

Giving of instructions for


group activities take more Preparation of projector
in class take more than

Wh
Problem

y?
Problem

Why?
Teachers write the
instructions on the

Wh
y?
Brownout

Root Cause Root Cause

Causes that begin with


2.1

“no,”“none,”“lack of” non-standard occurrence

your control, should not appear


in your why-why analysis. This is
in fact you have not. This is a common
do to address such causes. Figure

rather than drilling down into the system

occur. This is oftentimes indicative of the

than 10 minutes in giving instructions. cannot do anything to resolve the


You can see that the analysis came to an

the person doing the analysis is indirectly

indeed visual aids are needed to solve the

more on the preparation process in giving


instructions and the elements in a visual

100
FIgUre 5.9: Common mIstaKe #5 (CaUses FIgUre 5.10: Common mIstaKe #6
that are DIsgUIseD solUtIons) (bIas In IDentIFICatIon oF the CaUses)

Instructions Test Instructions


of teachers
are unclear for
Root Cause

Why?
W
hy
?
?
hy
W Students do not understand

Giving of Lack of training


instructions for for teachers in

Why?
group activities giving instructions
take more than
Root Cause Students are unable to correctly
Problem

Problem

Causes that are


disguised solutions of the causes

#3 where the root cause is actually a


start with a pre-determined root cause

of “providing training for the teachers have a solution in mind. This is a very
dangerous practice since improvement
efforts are almost certain to fail if
the true causes are not properly and
especially true if the real issues are
process. Figure 5.10 illustrates this

why-why analysis.
the instruction preparation and delivery

design of the activity itself or the choice


of words used or the activity output that
is unclear to the students or a host of

process. These are the critical elements

101
101
Validation of Root Causes
The output of the why-why analysis arises from

these root causes are real or not. Validation is


2.1

validating the existence of storm clouds in a

in root cause validation.

the development of data collection forms, development of a sampling

Once all these are done, we are now ready to develop solutions that will

102
Step 5: Root Cause Analysis
Lesson Review

1
FIgUre 1

last 15 minutes.

a.
Focusing on the who, not on the why
c.
d.
e.

2
FIgUre 2
2.1 A

2.1
last 15 minutes.
ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS


a.

c. Focusing on the who, not on the why


d.
e.

3
FIgUre 3
A

Figure 3.
a.

c. Focusing on the who, not on the why


d.
e.
FIgUre 4

4
A

Figure 4.

103
103
a.

occurrences
c. Focusing on the who, not on the why
d.
e. FIgUre 7.reaDIng ComPrehensIon
anD math WorD Problem sCores

7
FIgUre 5
A

5
A The team gathered data on student
discussion time for a particular topic
. The team is
now ready to do a root cause analysis.
minutes.
2.1

Figure 5.Which is “Based on an item analysis of


ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS

a.
occurrences

c.
d.
e. gathered. Which causes are the
most appropriate to explain why
FIgUre 6

a.

6
- the words are unfamiliar to the
A students

last 15 minutes.
Figure
6. c.

a.
occurrences practice exercises
d.

c.
d. e. All of the choices
a.

104
8
A
a. The why-why diagram is correct. The
team
. The families earn more income.
The why-why diagram is still incomplete.
section that students did not perform well
in. The team conducted an item analysis reasons for why the learners families have
and found that only 3 out of 43 students low incomes.
c. The why-why diagram is wrong. There is
. The team is now going a missing cause as to why only 4 out of
to perform a root cause analysis. 43 students passed the exam. The cause

d.

outside of their control.


FIgUre 8.Why-Why DIagram For reaDIng e.

9 10

2.1
A

that one of the root causes

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS


.
focus on a particular section of reading where 30 minutes is that the canteen is too
the students performed poorly. The team far from the classrooms. The team is
conducted an item analysis and found that only now pondering on their next steps.
i.
. The team is new canteen closer to the
pondering on what they should do next. classroom.
i. ii. The team should gather data
Analysis to determine the root cause of the to verify the root cause that

ii. The team should initiate a review program iii. The team should transfer
the classrooms closer to the
speech. canteen.
iii. iv.
they have gathered on the Teaching- food to the classroom.

execute a root cause analysis.


iv. a. i or iii
ii only
c. iv only
a. i, ii and iv d. All of the choices d. i, iii, and iv
ii and iv e. e.
c. i and iii choices
192
105
105
step six:
Generating Solutions
2.2
2.0
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
Assess

Learning Output:

Future Process Map

Learning Outcome:
1. Provide an approach in generating a solution;
2. Connect the generated solutions to the root
causes of the problem;
3. Demonstrate critical and creative thinking in
developing solutions; and
4. explain the basis, principles or concepts used
in generating solutions to address the root
causes of the problem

106
ANALYZE 2.2
Generating
Solutions

2.0
2.2
GENERATING
Assess
Introduction:
At this stage, you have already accomplished the following:

a. f.

SOLUTIONS
g. collected relevant data on each
of the storm clouds in the process

c. h. analyzed the collected data using


the appropriate graphical data
display techniques and data
d.
i.
statement among the storm
e.

107
107
Solutions are not just created to satisfy yourself and to say

of latest technology, reduces time and cost, appeals to people, etc. These are all

time in the canteen during recess periods, etc.


2.2
2.0

MUST
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
Assess

pertain to the minimum


requirements that the solution WANT
the level of attainment of the

to students on time all the on the other hand,

which the solution is ready

additional reading or computing

increase awareness of students on


the solution must not exceed health and safety hazards within

108
The following are some basic
that can guide you in developing concepts that govern the
one or more non-value activities and
help minimize, if not eliminate them.

change to a process change all the way


to a system change. What you should

and process changes that produce


incremental process improvements and
which eventually produce a positive

into the elimination of non-value adding


adding activities or activities that
management techniques, prevention

2.0
2.2
assignment, resource management, these non-value adding activities is

GENERATING
Assess
systems, information system design, etc.

SOLUTIONS
time necessary for implementing corrections. This technique aims to design and plan

process.

structure and resources involved in the process to achieve continuous improvement.

" Elimination of wasteful or non- " Removal of defects or


value adding actions disconnections between
" Reductionof process cycle time process activities
" Rearrangement of process " Increase in employee
activities or activity steps involvement
" Reduction of process cost

109
109
5%

FIgUre 6.1:
ComPonents oF an aCtIvIty

Activity
35%
valUe aDDIng

neCessary bUt non


valUe aDDIng

non valUe aDDIng


60%
2.0
2.2

What are value and non-value adding actions


& how will you know if an activity or a process
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
Assess

is value or non-value adding?

Value-adding activities
Value adding activities
or function to the product

emphasized that your


to pay for the activity as it
value in your value creation
contributes to the delivery of the
process. The needs and
basic product or service

the product or service in some way

value and what is not. adding activities

and rework are considered as waste

110
Necessary but non-value activities Non-value adding activities
are those that are not essential to
produce an output or render the
service. These activities are not

Activities that do not add value


challenge is how to inspect without having to the output or the service may
include defects, errors, omissions,

waiting, delay, etc.


is a solution development principle that will

To illustrate, a classroom lecture on math operations is a value-adding activity in the

students learn math.


Figure 6.1 indicates that in general, 60% of the actions performed in an activity are

leads to continuous improvement.

Segregating Value from


Non-Value Adding Activities
in the Activity Flowchart
Value Added Steps NON-Value Added Steps
Loop

A tool that you can use to segregate Yes

value-adding from non-value adding Yes


Loop

activities in a process is the opportunity

value-adding and the non-value adding


steps. Loop

Figure 6.2a shows how an opportunity

divided into the value-added and non-


value added columns or sections. The

than the non-value added section. Two FIgUre 6.2a: oPPortUnIty FloWChart

arrow only if there are no non-value-

111
111
from the non-value-added steps in providing a photocopy service.

discussed in the following section:

Steps that are essential Steps that would not


even when everything be needed if everything
works correctly move
time move horizontally
2.2
2.0

Value Added Steps Non-Value Added

Yes

Yes No
Take Copier in
Wait Leave
Use?

No

No Yes
Glass Dirty? Clean

Select Size

Select

No No No
Select
Paper? Find Paper Knife? Find Knife

Yes Yes Yes

Yes No
Paper
Find Help
Loaded?

FIgUre 6.2b: oPPortUnIty FloWChart

112
PRoCeSS: FoCuSed PRobleM objeCtIve oF

Feeding
StAteMent: SolutIon
GeneRAtIon:
Process 188 out of 235
Feeding activity must
time allotment for be completed within
Setting of
the 20 minute time
table

Calling of pupils Root CAuSeS:


SolutIonS:
to go to the
feeding center
leader in informing a
(5 minutes) satellite feeding
class to proceed to
the feeding center areas nearest to
Going to the
their classroom
feeding center
(10 minutes)
classroom to the
feeding center speakers to have
Eating the
centralized signal
prepared food
(15 minutes)
to the feeding center

2.0
2.2
Going back to
the classroom
eating time
(10 minutes)

Assess
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
After a thorough analysis of the activities involved in the feeding process, it is

time to the feeding center are non-value adding activities. As such, effort has to

the feeding program time, this activity is non-value adding. Moreover, the

distance of classroom to feeding center causes the pupils not to eat all at the

long distances to the feeding center, however, is totally non-value adding.


The solution of situating additional satellite feeding areas near the classroom

centralized signal eliminates the dependency on a pupil leader and addresses the

113
113
Problems that require some form of monitoring and control
in order to prevent continuous occurrence may benefit from
visual management concepts. What is Visual Management?

Visual Management FIgUre 6.3a

Visual management is a technique Trees


Smoke
Antenna
Sky
Fire
such as schedules, performance
targets and accomplishments, Fire
Gable
Smoke
Roof

Broken
in a way that is easy to understand Window
Door
Window
Shrubbery Shrubbery

Grass
words, so that everyone concerned
2.0
2.2

Porch
Box
conveyed. road
Grass
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
Assess

FIgUre 6.3b

convey the message whereas the


latter uses a picture to convey the
same message. Which one conveys

The point is that visual signals tell

the meaning of words and therefore

interpretations that create confusion


among the people concerned.

what is happening,
what to do next,

114
Know what is happening

FIgUre 6.4a: WorK Cell layoUt

are
placed next to each other without walls

exactly what the others are doing.


Visual management techniques such as the

and

t o

2.0
2.2
Assess
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
means a status display station.

| |||| | |
| |
|
|
|

3
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
| |
| | |

FIgUre 6.4b: sIgnal: anDon

115
115
Know what to do next

should not stop at telling you what is happening.

to communicate scheduling requirements.


Figure 6.5a shows a visual scheduling

communicates to airport ground staff what


2.0
2.2

FIgUre6.5a:
6.5a:CommUnICate
CommUnICatesCheDUlIng:
sCheDUlIng:
is an illustration of visual replenishment
FIgUre
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
Assess

vIsUal sCheDUlIng
vIsUal sCheDUlIng

for incoming raw materials, demarcated

examples of visual management tools that


communicate scheduling requirements and

to do next.
FIgUre 6.5b:
FIgUre 6.5b: vIsUal
vIsUal rePlenIshment
rePlenIshment

116
FIgUre 6.6a: PhotograPhIC Job aIDs

2.0
2.2
Know how to do the work

Assess
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
InboX

PendInG

outboX

FIgUre 6.6b: In anD oUt box For IDentIFyIng WorK

117
117
FIgUre 6.7a: UsIng lanes In sChool hallWays FIgUre 6.7b: sUPPly
arranger For the DraWer
2.0
2.2
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
Assess

its location, and an optional picture or silhouette of the item.

hazardous areas, crime scenes, etc.

FIgUre 6.8a: shaDoW boarD For FIgUre 6.8b shaDoW boarD For oFFICe sUPPlIes
tools

118
Know how well
work was done
The fourth aspect of visual management
communicates performance measures and
performances ranging from an individual

most common visual aid is the posting


of performance measures at different
levels of the school environment. A visual
performance tool is shown in Figure 6.9a

perception of a classroom activity. FIgUre 6.9a: CommUnICate


PerFormanCe measUres

done in class.

2.0
2.2
GENERATING
Assess
indicator, current performance on that
indicator, and future target for that same
indicator. This type of visual performance
aid is usually posted on classroom and

SOLUTIONS
performing on a particular indicator.

FIgUre 6.9b: CommUnICate


PerFormanCe measUres & targets

119
119
visual management techniques provide you with
an easy and creative way of carrying out the

A visual system offers you the following advantages:

# Information is readily available to # Competition is encouraged because


everyone. information about everyone else’s
# Failure is not to be feared. Honest performance is readily available.
performance is displayed so that # Clear and unambiguous visual
everyone knows the current status displays aid communication
of performance and seeks ways to of strengths, problem areas,
accomplish the goal as a team. opportunities for improvement
# Individuals can readily see the effect and even potential hazards.
of their contribution to the team’s #
performance. Improvements within allows the synchronization of
the team can be worked on and made all departments to achieve a
2.2
2.0

in a timely manner. common goal.


It must be emphasized that in
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
Assess

order to be effective, visuals must be open, honest, relevant, simple,


clear, and displayed close to the area concerned. Visual displays
should also be regularly updated with the most current information
status and realistic targets for relevance.

$ Irrelevant or complex reporting system $ No visible use of real time or short


and measurement that is not easy to term school or classroom measures
understand that everyone can work on and
$ No visual signals in the school or inside monitor the progress together
the classroom that promote flow and $ Display of classroom information is
safety not timely causing late reaction to
$ Limited understanding by teachers and problems
students of how things are done or
how problems arecf identified

120
To illustrate the use of Visual Management in the generation of solutions, a real

PRoCeSS: FoCuSed PRobleM objeCtIve oF SolutIon


StAteMent: GeneRAtIon:
Solving Teaching
Process Improve the numerates
46 pupils of Grade level of Grade 4 pupils
IV-C can complete from 2% to 25%

of solving word SolutIonS:

Root CAuSe:

problem Use of unfamiliar

2.0
2.2
words in the problem

GENERATING
Assess
The solutions generated here illustrated the use of visual management concepts in

SOLUTIONS

121
121
5S to develop or enhance solutions, particularly those that address safety,
2.2
2.0
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
Assess

and sustaining the new order created.

Step 1: SEIRI (SORT)


Segregate and Eliminate
t4FHSFHBUFOFDFTTBSZJUFNTGSPN
unnecessary items and eliminate
what is not needed
t1SFWFOUBDDVNVMBUJPOPG
unnecessary and unimportant
items
t%JTQPTFBMMVOOFDFTTBSZJUFNT
properly FIgUre 6.10: 5s (seIrI or sort)
t.BLFXPSLFBTJFSCZFMJNJOBUJOH
obstacles and reducing the
chance of being disturbed with
unnecessary items

122
Step 2: SEITON (SET IN ORDER)
Arrange, Straighten or Streamline
t"SSBOHFUIFOFDFTTBSZBOEJNQPSUBOU
items so that they can be found and
picked up easily by anyone
t4UBOEBSEJ[FUIFMPDBUJPOTTPUIBUUIF
necessary items can easily be located
and accessed by anyone
t0SHBOJ[FBOETFUUPPMTSJHIUBUUIFXPSL
area where they are needed to promote
an efficient work environment
t.BLFXPSLøPXTNPPUIBOEFBTZ
t1SFWFOUPSNJOJNJ[FMPTTBOEXBTUFPG
time in finding the necessary items
The picture on the top of Figure 6.11 shows
a very disorganized tool drawer where

2.0
2.2
picture on the lower part of Figure 6.11

GENERATING
Assess
organized tool drawer where each tool has FIgUre 6.11: 5s (seIton or set In orDer)
its designated location inside the drawer.

Step 3: SEISO (SHINE)

SOLUTIONS
Daily Cleanup Process
t$SFBUFBTQPUMFTTXPSLQMBDFCZDMFBOJOHJU
everyday
t,FFQFRVJQNFOUBOEXPSLBSFBDMFBO
UPQSFWFOUNBDIJOFSZBOEFRVJQNFOU
deterioration
t,FFQXPSLQMBDFTBGFBOEFBTZUPXPSL
t6TFEBJMZDMFBOJOHBDUJWJUZBTBNFBOTUP
inspect if everything in the workplace is in
order
The picture on the upper part of Figure 6.12

with no clear space for people, material, and

clear pathways for safe people, material, and

FIgUre 6.12: 5s (seIso or shIne)

123
123
Step 4: Step 5:
SEIKETSU (STANDARDIZE) SHITSUKE (SUSTAIN)

% 4UBOEBSEJ[FDMFBOVQBDUJWJUJFTTP &1SPNPUFBEIFSFODFUP
that these actions are specific and maintaining a high level of
easy to perform QFSGPSNBODF IJHIRVBMJUZBOE
% .BJOUBJOIJHITUBOEBSETPG safe work environment
housekeeping and workplace &6TFWJTVBMQFSGPSNBODF
organization at all times measurement tools to motivate
% Create a system to maintain and inspire
cleanliness, orderliness, and a safe &.BLFBIBCJUPGNBJOUBJOJOH
work environment established procedures and
% Ensure compliance to procedures ensuring they are followed
by conducting regular daily checks & Create discipline to maintain
of the work area cleanliness and find ways to
enhance/improve the process
2.2
2.0

% This is the condition attained when


you maintain the first three steps
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
Assess

Poka-Yoke or

or procedure that physically or


procedurally prevents a person from
doing something incorrectly. The
arrow in Figure 6.13 indicates that
you have to turn the cap counter-

FIgUre 6.13: mean that errors are committed and


mIstaKe ProoFIng

124
6.14a is designed so that you do not insert the

FIgUre 6.14a: mIstaKe ProoFIng


oUr eleCtrIC soCKets

2.0
2.2
GENERATING
Assess
FIg 6. 14b: avoIDIng exCess hanD Carry sIzte In aIrlInes

FIgUre 6.14C: DIsPosal bIn PoKa yoKe

SOLUTIONS

125
125
against. These errors are commonly committed

education. These errors include,

t0NJUUFEBOTXFST
t$BMDVMBUJPOFSSPST
2.2
2.0

t&SSPSTJOTFUUJOHVQXPSLQJFDFT
GENERATING SOLUTIONS

t.JTTJOHNBUFSJBMT
Assess

t8SPOHFYQFSJNFOUBMNFUIPE
t1SPDFTTJOHXSPOHXPSLQMBDF
t8SPOHPQFSBUJPOQFSGPSNFE
t"EKVTUNFOUFSSPS
t&YQFSJNFOUBMFRVJQNFOU
not set up properly

unconventional or less traditional idea generation techniques that

126
Creativity techniques
Quick and dirty

that you may want to use are


would do when faced with your
challenge.

rules.
Short time Investment

develop a solution that you have

are involved with your area of inquiry.

and what does not, what advice they

2.0
2.2
GENERATING
Assess
questions- who, what, where, when,
the elements of the larger world

SOLUTIONS
diagram involving the forces, factors,
requirements, constraints, and

Once your system is complete and

who has no understanding of your on one of the forces acting on your


system in order to create chaos. To

the constraints on other forces

building on Creative Ideas

127
127
a teacher. There are social and moral issues involved that will create an even

the question “What could the team do with the parents so that students do not

in school and community activities, staging of parents-teacher conferences, etc.

for the teacher to stop answering the questions of students. This idea seems to

to encourage more questions, allow the students to discuss these questions in


2.2
2.0

groups, exchange ideas, and answer their own questions in the process.

Lie to Parents
Partners

Far-fetched Threshold of
ideas something implement idea
useful

Stop answering Encourage more


the questions questions

Far-fetched Threshold of
ideas something implement idea
useful

FIgUre 6.15: bUIlDIng on CreatIve IDeas

128
Future Process Map

into what is called the future process map. The future process map should include all
the changes and improvements implemented in the process. The future process map

amount of time saved in posting of visual aid versus erasing and writing down notes on

CURRENT FUTURE Map


Map
including creativity and other

Teacher
comes to Teacher effective in terms of improving the
class comes to
class
A plan for implementing the

crafted to ensure that the solutions


Teacher
erases
blackboard Teacher designed and developed. An
content posts visual implementation plan includes the
aid on the
blackboard
or cost management, resource
Teacher
writes
discussion next step which is Finalizing the
notes on the
blackboard
Teacher
starts
discussion of
lesson

Teacher
starts
discussion of
lesson FIgUre 6.16: examPle
oF CUrrent vs.
FUtUre ProCess maP

129
129
Step 6: Develop Solutions
Lesson Review

1 4
A A
Analysis and found that one of the root solution to ensure that learners
causes for why the feeding program
to do during the feeding program.
The team used signs pointing to
program process, resulting in delays. Which where the feeding area is, and posted

program procedure. This ensures that


a.
Visual Management
the allotted 15-minute time. Which
c.
d. a.
a.
2.2
2.0

2 A
c.
d. Visual Management
GENERATING SOLUTIONS
Assess

that one of the root causes e.


for why the discussion time of a lesson in Math

. Which concept is the most


5 A for students not
throwing their trash in the proper

a.
Visual Management
c.
. What should
d.
e.
a. Blame and scold the students
for not listening when they were

3
A oriented regarding the proper
Analysis and found that one of the root waste segregation.
causes for why the discussion time of a
The team should implement

the trash containers properly


the materials that she will use for the lesson.
and painting them with different
Which concept is the most appropriate for the
colors for easier differentiation.

a. c. Assign students to guard the


trash cans and penalize those
Visual Management
who they catch not segregating
c. their wastes.
d. d.
a. the waste from the trash cans.
130 e.
6 8
A
root cause for Teachers for why teachers exceed the allotted time
exceeding the allotted
time for their
lectures.
.
. Which solution
call of each student. What can the
a. d. Visual
a. Management
to simplify the Attendance e.
c.
lessen the time to conduct

9
A

the need for a roll call.


procedure.

2.0
2.2
GENERATING
Assess
adding procedure. . Which solution concept
c.
place one in each classroom. a.

their attendance. c.

SOLUTIONS
d. d. Visual Management
student to scan their time e.
cards.

1 0
e. A

7
A found that one of the root
the causes for why teachers
exceed the allotted time

have to erase the contents of the .

in the previous period. Which all materials are arranged in one container and
.

a. a.

c. c.
d. Visual Management d.
e. e.

210
131
131
step seven:
Finalize
| 2.3
2.0

Improvement Plan
PLAN
Assess
FINALIZE IMPROVEMENT

Learning Output:
Cost Management Plan, Resource Plan and Risk
Management Plan

Learning Outcome:
1. Understand basic project planning tools and concepts
and use these to plan the implementation of the
selected improvement solution;
2. Know the different resources required for project
implementation and be able to calculate how much of
these resources are required;
3. recognize and anticipate potential problems or
risks that may be encountered during project
implementation; and
4. assess and analyze

132
ANALYZE 2.3
Finalize
Improvement
Plan

2.3
2.0| FINALIZE
Introduction:

AssessIMPROVEMENT PLAN
At this stage, you have already accomplished the following:
a. identified a broad problem based on the storm clouds in the process based
a relevant school measure; on the data gathering plan;
b. identified the key people who will h. analyzed the collected data using the
comprise the CI team; appropriate graphical data display
c. identified the needs of the UFDIOJRVFTBOEEBUBBOBMZTJTUPPMT
customers and stakeholders affected i. selected a focused problem statement
by the broad problem; among the storm clouds;
d. identified and mapped the process K identified and validated the root causes
that is linked to the school measure; of the problem;
e. identified the storm clouds that k. generated solutions that will address
were observed while walking
through the process; l. developed the future process map
f. prepared a data gathering plan;
g. collected relevant data on each of In the succeeding discussions, you

will be taught how to effectively carry out and finalize your


improvement plan as well as anticipate problems that may arise
during the implementation (pilot or rollout) of the recommended
solutions.

133
133
Implementation Planning
You have learned that a solution is developed for the purpose of addressing

largely on how well the implementation plan is crafted. Very good solutions

and resources required to implement the solutions. The answers to the


following questions are crucial:

What planning & other What are the activities,


pre-implementation tasks, & subtasks required
work have to be done? to implement the solution?
| 2.3
2.0

to carry out the solutions. interventions to be done in


Resources pertain to money, time, solving the process problem.
PLAN

people, machines, tools, space,


Assess

information, etc. needed to carry layout of the classroom, posting


FINALIZE IMPROVEMENT

out the implementation. visual materials in the classrooms and


hallways, re-locating or setting up
feeding centers near the classroom,
done.
scheduling and conducting the
planning meetings, forming an 4 pupils, inserting fun math activities in
implementation and monitoring addition to the regular lecture, etc.
team, discussing the planned
solutions and implementation
to be performed including all
administrators, teachers, pupils, For
example, administering a special test
require activities such as preparation
purchasing the materials needed,

process activity, documenting the


test, printing of test questionnaire,
administration of the test, proctoring of
procedures and guidelines needed,
preparing the visual materials, etc. graphing test results for analysis and

134
Who is responsible in performing What is the timeline
for implementation?
respective roles of each stakeholder
in implementing the solutions?
each implementation
phase and activity is
supposed to be carried
out.
date or period of each activity

the implementation of the solutions and the involved.

schedule, including pilot


implementation process.

2.3
2.0| FINALIZE
progress.

AssessIMPROVEMENT PLAN
How do you carry out the planned solutions?

implementation phases.

1.

2.

3.

be conducted for some or all of the solutions.


A full scale implementation of a solution means that the solution is applied

or parallel run means that you implement the proposed solution on a

disruptions in the process in the event that the proposed solution does not

135
135
What are the deliverables
and milestones? What are the
necessary reports?

milestone for each implementation phase.


You may also extend this to include the

status report that summarizes the progress of

discussed in the previous point, for example,

songs in class, and test results respectively. What potential problems


or risks do you anticipate
| 2.3

to encounter during the


2.0

implementation of the
PLAN

words measured through improved pupil proposed solutions?


Assess
ASSESS
FINALIZE IMPROVEMENT

measured though the percentage of correct that may arise during the pilot run or
rollout of the solution. A potential

a contingency plan is developed

measured through the percentage of test


implementation. This is necessary
in order to mitigate and minimize
the negative effects of failure in the
achieved or not. A status report is prepared implementation process.
for each of the milestones.

136
FIGURE 7.1: ELEMENTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

Step Aug Sept Dec Jan

Task &
Timeline

Person Communication
or Group & Participation

Finance

2.3
2.0
Sales

2.0
| FINALIZE
Staff Time IS

Assess
Ted 5 h rs

ASSESS
Stakeholders

IMPROVEMENT PLAN
Budget & Resources

How to Check

change made
Plan Actuals

Potential Potential Countermeasures


Potential Step Failure Cause

Problems

137
137
Project Planning Tools
presentation and understanding of the implementation plan. These tools

7.2 shows a sample of these planning tools.

FIgUre 7.2: PlannIng tools

Step Aug Sept Dec Jan

Gantt
Charts
| 2.3
2.0 PLAN
Assess

A Gantt chart
FINALIZE IMPROVEMENT

Respon- Due Whom to Budget


Step Product sibility Date Involve Cost Topics

Planning
Grids

Planning grids are a more comprehensive tool as they not only capture

138
FIgUre 7.2: PlannIng tools

Tree
Diagrams

A tree diagram

2.3
these activities. The why-why diagram discussed in step 5 is a form of

2.0| FINALIZE
a tree diagram. The implementation phases of a proposed solution

AssessIMPROVEMENT PLAN
illustrated using a tree diagram.

Sales Technical Shipping Coordinator

Flowcharts

139
139
Budget and Cost Management Plan

purchase of additional utensils for a feeding station in a

to go to the feeding station is a one-time cost. On the

cost. The salary of additional feeding station personnel,

feeding stations, is another example of a recurring cost.


| 2.3
2.0 PLAN
Assess
FINALIZE IMPROVEMENT

Expense Income

Analysis Budget
FIgUre 7.3: bUDget Plan

140
the implementation of the solution, as well as the plan for
when and how expenditures will occur over the lifetime of

- developing an approximation of the costs of the resources


needed to complete the implementation activities

2.3
2.0| FINALIZE
AssessIMPROVEMENT PLAN
Inputs needed to come
management plan include: On the other hand, the
outputs
and cost management
plan include:

provides a

costs picture of how the


implementation of

to accrue cost over


standards and processes, time
including cost accounts
management

performance of the
implementation
and in reporting

performance against

141
141
| 2.3
2.0 PLAN
Assess
FINALIZE IMPROVEMENT

FIgUre 7.4: resoUrCe Plan

Resource Plan

standards, are the inputs needed to come up with a resource plan. On the other hand,

There are two simple steps required to come up with a sound resource plan. These are:

of the solution.

allocating resources to the implementation plan activities.

142
Risk Management Plan

implementation of your solutions

Risk Assessment

event if it does occur

2.3
2.0| FINALIZE
AssessIMPROVEMENT PLAN
Risk Response Strategy

! Avoidance strategy: performing actions to eliminate the

!
party such as a contractor or through insurance
!

Risk Response Planning

143
143
O
the school level may face are as
follows:
#
These school system and operational
parents, teachers,
following: administrators, etc
#
"
in adopting the proposed
implementation solutions
" #
community requirements which render
#
irrelevant education of school

" #
interventions made at the process level
| 2.3

support
2.0

" #
implementing school changes which
PLAN
Assess

may again render the proposed


FINALIZE IMPROVEMENT

due to the changing customer and does not


have control over include:

" Readiness and commitment of the ○


supplier support
implementation or even cause the ○
dependent on an external
entity such as a consultant or
a product supplier which are

control

school initiative

% develop your implementation plan:

% % Unrealistic implementation target dates lead


will almost always produce

% participants
procedures do not provide %

mechanism necessary
to avoid cost overruns, %

144
Yellow light: Red light: Red light:

High
Proceed with Address before Do not
Caution proceeding Proceed

Probability of Occurence

Medium
Yellow light: Yellow light: Red light:
Proceed with Proceed with Reassess
Caution Caution project

Red light:
Low

Green light: Yellow light:


Proceed with Proceed with Address before
Caution Caution proceeding

Low Medium High

2.3
2.0| FINALIZE
Impact on Project
FIgUre 7.5: rIsK management

AssessIMPROVEMENT PLAN
How is risk assessment and analysis performed?

PROBABILITY IMPACT
& &
HIGH &
(5)
&

& &
MODERATE &
(3)
&
Under-Resourced

& Few Uncertainties Remain


&
LOW &
(1)
&
Fully Resourced
TaBle 7.1: GeneRal Risk RaTinG Guide

145
145
RISK ITEM

ISSUE: ISSUE:
4th Year students are failing math Absenteeism from faculty
CONCERN: CONCERN:
Students are not interested
CONSEqUENCE: CONSEqUENCE:
Lost opportunity for student to graduate Incomplete lessons with students
| 2.3
2.0 PLAN

RISK SCORE
Assess

PROB IMPACT TOTAL PROB IMPACT TOTAL


FINALIZE IMPROVEMENT

3 5 15 5 5 25

1.
2.
3.

RISK SEVERE
TYPE R
1 3 5
HIGH

5 15 25 O
MEDIUM
3 3 9 15 Y
LOW
1 3 5 G
FIgUre 7.6: analyzIng rIsKs

146
FIgUre 7.7: Plan For mItIgatIng measUres

RISK ITEM
occurrence score and the impact score.
ISSUE:
4th Year students are failing math

CONCERN:
Students are not listening in class

CONSEqUENCE:
students do not graduate on time

RISK PROB IMPACT TOTAL


SCORE 3 5 15
of failure and it is recommended to
PLAN

measures.

2.3
ACTION:

2.0| FINALIZE
MEASURE:
OWNER-DATE: Joe - 2/15
RESIDUAL RISK: 5

AssessIMPROVEMENT PLAN
illustrated in Figure 7.6. The output of

RISK ITEM
ISSUE:
for mitigating and reducing the impact
Absenteeism from faculty
CONCERN:
plans involve the following steps:
CONSEqUENCE:
' Incomplete lessons with students
actions with corresponding
measures of success.
RISK PROB IMPACT TOTAL
'
agree on the mitigating action
SCORE 5 5 25
completion date.
' PLAN
ACTION: Review teaching schedule
and assignment
MEASURE: Attendance
OWNER-DATE: Barbara - 12/15
'
RESIDUAL RISK: 5
scores as shown in Figure 7.7.

147
147
FINALIZE IMPROVEMENT PLAN
Assess | 2.3
2.0

FIgUre 7.8: rIsK assessment Format


Step 3: Response Step 4 : Risk Response
Step 1: Risk Identification Step 2: Risk Assessment Strategy Planning

Risk Management
Risk Description of Risk Event Potential Impact
ID Strategy Action
Category Risk Event Trigger if Risk Event Occurs

(1-5)
(1-5)
Severity
Plan/Contingency Plan

( 1 - 25 )

Likelihood
Risk Score
Assigned to

Assess the
Describe the Assess how often
Describe how the severity based on
consequences of each a failure mode or Risk Score = Provide actions to
design or process how bad the
failure mode. It is its cause happens. Severity x eliminate the cause of
Categorize functions (or items) Provide effects of the
extremely important to Rated on a scale Likelihood the risk. The strategy
the risk can fail. The reasons why failure mode is. A Assign a person to be
capture the experiences of of 1 to 10, where Highest Risk should lower the impact
1 according to question being asked the failure rating of 10 responsible for tracking and
the customer. Thus, we 10 means that Score of the risk by reducing
its here is “How could it mode can or means that an managing each identified risk
must put ourselves in the failure is certain warrants first the likelihood of
consequence fail” not “If it will fail”. will occur. effect is so severe,
shoes of the customer and to occur and 1 consideration occurrence, reducing the
it threatens the
know these effects means extremely for analysis. consequence, or both
safety of the
through their perspective. remote.
customer.

FIgUre 7.9: examPle oF rIsK assessment Form

148
Step 3: Response Step 4 : Risk Response
Step 1: Risk Identification Step 2: Risk Assessment Strategy Planning

Risk Management
Risk Description of Risk Event Potential Impact
ID Strategy Action
Category Risk Event Trigger if Risk Event Occurs
(1-5)
(1-5)
Severity

Plan/Contingency Plan
( 1 - 25 )

Likelihood
Risk Score
Assigned to

Create Anti-littering Principal, Head Teachers,


Committee Guidance counselor, Student
Government, Class Advisers,
Class President

on a particular class section or on a particular area of the school.


Include effects of
global warming and
Students will not No strict The student will still Science Teachers
waste management
1 Moderate support the implementation throw their trash 3 3 9
campaign for “Zero of rules; everywhere topics in science
Litter” Project subjects

Award Most Clean Anti-Littering Committee


Room of the Week
Step 7: Finalize Improvement Plans
Lesson Review

1
a. They should have set a tighter
to ensure that the time to conduct the deadline to pressure everyone to
implement their solution.
They should have set a longer
visual management to ensure that the learners deadline in order to give more time
for the painting and procurement of
new trash cans.
c. They failed to assign the person
a.
teachers in charge of the Feeding program trashcans.
so that they can implement it immediately
the next day. d.

3
grade levels within the school. A

2.3
solution to ensure that the time

2.0| FINALIZE
c. for the Feeding program will
of the solution and let the teachers and
staff in charge of the Feeding program

AssessIMPROVEMENT PLAN
d.
and resources needed, and create a plan required materials and everything that
to implement such solution. they need to implement the solution.
e. By the end of the implementation, the
team accounted for the total cost and

2
ended up spending 20,000 pesos for
A the implementation of their solution.
to help learners identify the proper
trashcan to throw their wastes in
order to ensure that the waste is properly this scenario.

trashcans in different colors, each color a. The variance of 15,000 pesos is


pertaining to a particular type of waste. The
team has set the implementation of the
has a lot of money.
time for the painting of existing trashcans or The variance of 15,000 pesos should

implemented strict cost control


mechanisms.
c. The variance of 15,000 pesos should

d. The variance of 15,000 pesos was the

149
149
4
A

method. The team started off with picture drawings to portray the steps. At the
end of the implementation, the team ended up with a video production showing the

each classroom so that they can show the video. They ended up with a cost of 500,000

a. d. The team should have


their expenses.
The team did not properly estimate donations from
the costs of the materials for the
implementation. the cost that the school
c. The team should have canvassed for lessened.
production services. e.
| 2.3

5 6
2.0

A A
a solution to ensure that
PLAN

constantly forget the materials that will students segregate their


Assess
FINALIZE IMPROVEMENT

for the procurement of new


trashcans with different colors, each
color representing a certain type of
i. waste. After the implementation,

useless.
they will use for the trashcans.
ii.
things that the teacher needs for the day.
iii.

implement. a.
iv.
and only considered the one

Which of the following are

a. i only
c.
ii and iii
c. iii and iv
d. d.
e.
e.

150
7 10
A A
y had no prior implement a solution that
experience and there involves the participation

may result in not meeting the intended may not cooperate with the solution

several preventive measures:


a. i.
not proceed with the solution. ones who will surely cooperate.
ii.
planning process of the solution
c.
proceed with caution. iii.
d. teachers to cooperate with the
proceed with no worries. solution implementation or incur
penalties otherwise.
e.

2.3
iv.

2.0| FINALIZE
8
system that will reward teachers
A
the implementation of a solution implement the solution.

AssessIMPROVEMENT PLAN
Which preventive action/s is/
are appropriate to deal with
a.
a. i and iii
management plan. ii and iii
c. c. iii only
d. d. ii and iv
a. a.

9
A
a solution to lessen the setup

with the solution. What is the next step

a.

c.
d.
implementation.
e.
214
151
151
step eight:
Pilot Your Solutions

Learning Output:
Pilot Test Results
3.1

Learning Outcome:
PILOT YOUR SOLUTIONS

1. Understand the basic concepts in testing solutions


and monitoring the implementation status; and
2. Be able to implement an improvement solution
under controlled conditions.

152
ACT 3.1
Pilot Your
Solutions

Introduction:
At this stage, you have already accomplished the following:

1. 9.
relevant school measure; statement among the storm clouds;
2. 10.
comprise the CI team;
3. 11. generated solutions that will
address the root causes of the

3.1
4. 12. developed the future process map

PILOT YOUR SOLUTIONS


5. 13.
process; process in order to address the
6. prepared a data gathering plan;
14.
7. collected relevant data on each of the
resources required for project
implementation and
data gathering plan;
15.
8. analyzed the collected data using the
during the implementation and
appropriate graphical data display
come up with a plan that can
techniques and data analysis tools;

153
153
In this step, you should be able
to test whether the solution is
able to address the problem you
are considering in your project
and you should also be able to
measure the costs and benefits of
applying your solution.

FigUre 8.1 – TesT solUTions

Why Test Solutions?


As seen in Figure 8.1, testing of solutions or pilot testing is implementing the solution
using a smaller scope as opposed to fully implementing the solution. In this step, it is

provides an opportunity to revisit the project

solutions allows the team to evaluate whether

FigUre 8.2 – BeFore & AFTer solUTion


expected results. Testing of solutions allows
the implementation of the solution considering

costly to apply the solution, especially if the


solution does not provide the expected results.
3.1

Testing the solution also allows us to improve


the solution.
PILOT YOUR SOLUTIONS

In cases when the expected results are not met,


we can enhance the solution and correct areas
that needs improvement. We can also understand

phase, we can convince other teachers and students that


we can achieve expected results through implementing
the solution. We can also validate the expected results

154
When to Test Solutions?
You need to test the solutions when there is a need

of the solution. Testing is necessary when we want to

whether we have enough resources to implement the


solution. In some cases, we need to test the solutions

as in a pilot test. We should also test solutions when changes would have far-reaching,

Some critical issues in planning a test of solution


In planning the testing of solution, we are
focused on identifying where we want to

select a small population out of the entire


scope, say for example, a section out of an
entire grade level.

required. The only important consideration

conditions. That is, all potential conditions

samples.
FigUre 8.3: Using A sAmple
From A popUlATion

put these measures. We also have to consider how we can minimize disruptive impacts
on the school schedule or student learnings while ensuring the validity of the testing.

we should continue with implementing the solution or we should correct some aspects,

155
155
Evaluate the results
After pilot testing, we now have to
evaluate the results. In evaluating, we
have to clearly show what changed with
the performance measures. We typically
use histograms, pareto charts, and other

implementation. Through providing visual

as well as our colleagues can clearly see

Please see the charts in Figure 8.4 for


some examples.

Before After Good

} Improvement

Remaining Gap
Step 4 Changes
Implemented } Target

Before After

} Improvement
3.1
PILOT YOUR SOLUTIONS

A1 A2 A3 A4 A2 A1 A3 A4

Before After

FigUre 8.4 - displAying BeFore And AFTer dATA


156
Absences (Before)
In showing graphs, we 20
18
16
we are showing the data
14
using a similar scale. It is
12
important to continuously
10
monitor the performance
8
measures in order to 6
show whether there had 4
2
the implementation of 0
the solution.

Absences (After)
200
FigUre 8.5 - noTe on 180
CompAring resUlTs on
diFFerenT grAphs 160
140
Make sure 120
the scale is 100

the same 80
60
* Changing the Y-axis 40
* Changing the X-axis 20
00

3.1
total expected cost of each option against

PILOT YOUR SOLUTIONS


much. The steps include:

1.

2. Identify all costs components.

3. Compare and assess

FigUre 8.6
CosT-BeneFiT AnAlysis

157
157
Costs
In terms of cost considerations, we
Non-recurring costs: have non-recurring costs such as those
Implementation Costs, involved in setting up for the purpose of
Training Costs, Facility deploying the solution. Examples are:
Costs, and Meeting Costs. Implementation Costs, Training Costs,
Facility Costs, and Meeting Costs.

Recurring costs are costs that are


Recurring costs:
repeatedly incurred. Examples
Material/Supplies Costs
and Maintenance Costs.
Maintenance Costs. In some cases,

such as extra effort on the part of


teachers or other school personnel.
The time of teachers to implement the

such as in

such as improvement in communication

terms of the respect of students to their teachers and other school personnel or the
quality of health within school premises.
3.1

Depending on the results of the pilot test, some adjustments


PILOT YOUR SOLUTIONS

1. Review the pilot process performance results and

2. Review the process maps and identify any needed


adjustments in the piloted process improvements

3. Draft the revised process maps and update related


supporting documents and materials

158
The key message of
this step is you have to
monitor and manage the
implementation of your
solution in order to assess
whether the solution can
provide the desired results.

of failure as early as this step to assure success


when you roll-out your solution to the entire
school. Piloting the solution allows the team to

should give them enough time to smooth out

solution is in top form, we can then rollout the


solution at a larger, system-wide scale.

3.1
The next section will help us in implementing your solution in a

PILOT YOUR SOLUTIONS


larger scale. Questions such as, How do you ensure that solutions
are applied consistently during roll-out? What level of commitment
do you need to ensure the success of the project? How would
you communicate and gain the buy-in of your solution to your
stakeholders? will be addressed in the following section.

159
159
Step 8: Test your Solution
Lesson Review FigUre 1. 4Th yeAr drop oUT rATe (BeFore)

1 ensure that the feeding program does


not exceed the allotted 30 minutes.
The team has completed the

management plan, the resource plan, and

next most appropriate step that the SI team

a. Implement the solution on a full scale,


involving all grade levels in the school. FigUre 2. 4Th yeAr drop oUT rATe (AFTer)

ready for school-wide implementation

c. Test the solution on a small scale to

improvements if necessary.
d.
and let them implement it. The SI
team should move to the next project.

3
e. None of the choices A
drop out rate of 4th year

2
A learners has tested the solution

method. The team is now ready to and after graph of the drop out
implement the solution to the entire school.
The Team leader explains to the team that 2. Comment on the data of the SI
Team.
3.1

a. The solution is effective. The


(i) So that the team can make drop out rates decreased
PILOT YOUR SOLUTIONS

improvements to the solution. after the implementation of


(ii) So that the team will be able to
scaling of the two graphs are
understand the risks involved.
(iii) So that the team will be able to
validate the expected results.
The solution is not effective.
(iv) So that the team will know the effects of The graph shows that the
their solution on the entire year level. drop out rates increased after
a. i only the implementation of the
solution.
ii and iii
c. i, ii, and iii
d. All of the choices
e. None of the choices
160
5
c. The solution is not effective. A SI team has developed three
The graph shows that there is solutions to ensure that the
no change in the drop out rates feeding program does not
after the implementation of the exceed the allotted time of 30 minutes.
solution. The team is unsure of which solution to
d. The solution is effective. The drop
out rates decreased after the a. Implement all three solutions
implementation of the solution, and compare which one is the
most effective.
graphs.
e. None of the choices teachers and let them worry

team can now move to another


project.

4
A c. Escalate the issue to the School
performance of learners in Science
has implemented a pilot test for what to do.
their solution. They have gathered the
data for the test. What is the next most d.
appropriate step that the team should and choose the solution with the

a. Implement the solution for the e. None of the choices.


rest of the school.
Evaluate the tests results and

6
compare these with the current A SI team is going to perform
state in order to see if there really
are improvements. solution to ensure the proper
c. segregation of waste. Their solution
teachers and let them implement
the solution for the rest of the and assign different colors for each
school. receptacle of waste. The team has
d. Do not implement the solution.

3.1
e. None of the choices. i. Training costs for the teachers
ii. Cost for meetings

PILOT YOUR SOLUTIONS


iii. Cost for trash cans
iv. Cost for trash bags
Which cost should be included

a. i only
i, ii, and iii
c. iii and iv
d. All of the choices
e. None of the choices

161
161
7 9
A SI team has tested a solution to A
increase the Reading Comprehension a solution which involves
scores of learners. The team has teachers using a different
gathered data and found that their
solution is not effective. What should the
to implement the new method
a. Blame each other for the failure of
the solution.
the team gathered the data and
found that the solution was not
and determine if they missed
something. teachers did not implement the
c. Implement the solution to the entire method correctly. Comment on the

a.
d. Blame the teachers and the learners correct. The teachers should
for the failure of their solution.
failure of the solution.
e. None of the choices.

incorrect. They failed to

8
A SI Team has developed a
solution to ensure that teachers can for the solution and how to
use the method. The team
teaching. The team will use the concept relied on the memo of the

teacher is reluctant with the approach of implementation.


c.
a. incorrect. They should have
a memo to force compliance. mentioned in the memo that
non-compliance will result in
Replace the teacher with someone penalties.
who will cooperate.
d.
3.1

c. Choose another grade level to


implement the solution. other solutions to address the
PILOT YOUR SOLUTIONS

d. Include the teacher in the piloting


e. None of the choices.
the effects of the solution.
e. None of the choices.

162
10
A
IV Learners. The team has developed a solution and are
planning to test it. The scores of three of the Grade IV

a. d. Section A and B.
e. All of the Sections.
c.

FigUre 3. seCTion A mATh sCores

FigUre 4. seCTion B mATh sCores

3.1
PILOT YOUR SOLUTIONS
FigUre 5. seCTion C mATh sCores

ANSWERS
ON pAgE
206
163
163
step nine:
Roll-Out Your
Solutions
Learning Output:
The Implementation of Solution
3.2
3.0

Learning Outcome:
ACT
ROLL-OUT SOLUTIONS

1. Understand the basic concepts of standardizing


and monitoring solutions, as well as managing
implementations; and
2. Be able to rollout an improvement solution under
controlled conditions.

164
ACT 3.2
Roll-Out
Your
Solutions

Introduction:
At this stage, you have already accomplished the following:
1. 10.
a relevant school measure;
2. 11. generated solutions that will address
comprise the SI team;
3. 12. developed the future process map

13.
4.

3.0
3.2
5. 14.

ACT
ROLL-OUT SOLUTIONS
required for project implementation;
process;
15.
6. prepared a data gathering plan; during the implementation and
generate plans that can mitigate
7. collected relevant data on each
of the storm clouds in the process
16. tested the effectiveness of our
solution in a small scale group and
8. analyzed the collected data using the
appropriate graphical data display 17.
techniques and data analysis tools; solution.
9.
statement among the storm clouds;

165
165
.

People There are three elements of the people side.


Side These include Communication, Participation, and Education.

Communication is the exchange of information


from you to others and from others to you.
In rolling-out the solution, it is important to

project team, the students, as well as the other


teachers. It is also important to ensure that we

people involved to ensure that the concerns of


each are addressed in the implementation of

from accepting change and will also facilitate

FigUre 9.1: CommUniCATion

Participation means involving the teachers in


the planning and execution of a change so that
they can develop a shared sense of ownership
and commitment. Participation is critical to
3.2
3.0

will follow through with the implementation of


ACT

the solution. Please see Figure 9.2.


ROLL-OUT SOLUTIONS

FigUre 9.2: pArTiCipATion

Education means providing teachers with what

implement the desired changes. It is important


to train teachers to ensure that they have a
common understanding of how and what to
do during the implementation of the solution.
Please see Figure 9.3.

FigUre 9.3: edUCATion

166
Understanding:
to the following questions –what to do, when to do, where it

Capability:

implementation of the solution.

commitment if we guarantee that all teacher concerns

3.0
3.2
We have to account for the commitment of teachers

ACT
their support and remove their resistance from the

ROLL-OUT SOLUTIONS
improvement efforts vital to the accomplishment of

167
167
FigUre 9.4 - CommiTmenT wAll Commitment signing is critical to

involved are really part of the


change initiative. This also ensures
that teachers feel that they are part
of the project. Commitment signing

the posting of photographs on

wall, and including the pictures of


the signing in the school newsletter.
A commitment wall can also help
strengthen the commitment of
teachers. Please see Figure 9.4.

of the project solutions.

Developing a Increase
Communication
List down what we are prepared
Plan
3.2
3.0 ACT
ROLL-OUT SOLUTIONS

Determine exactly what List down what we are prepared


we need from particular
resource intensive.
to complete our project
successfully. This is our

We should state this clearly. e


through the use of

168
1 2

to the idea of continuous improvement at

Apply enough soap to thoroughly


Wet hands with water
wash hands

to the level of enthusiastic support and must 3 4

the project will fail. Rub hands until soap turns into a
fine lather
Wash hands for 15-20 seconds

When comparing the commitment levels of a


teacher to a principal, we expect him or her 5 6

to lend appropriate support while not requiring

Dry hands with cloth or


Rinse hands thoroughly
paper towel

have varying levels of support and we should


not expect the same level of commitment from FigUre 9.5 - sTep-By-sTep insTrUCTions

internal reporting. There is no need to present

Developing Standard
DISCIPLINE
MANUAL

Practices and Procedures


In the solution rollout, we have to develop
standard practices and procedures. Nothing

is what allows high quality to happen on a

to monitor and ensure that the solution is FigUre 9.6 – disCipline mAnUAl
implemented similarly across the whole school
or across the scope of the project. We should
PROjECT TITLE IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

Statement
STAGE 2: ANALYzE

Team Members Value Analysis

implement the solution and achieve the desired


STAGE 1: ASSESS

bACkGROUND

results across time.


Tasks and Timeline

VOC

In this step, standardization & documentation


CURRENT STATE TEST RESULTS
STAGE 3: ACT

elements of a process are performed consistently PRObLEM ANALYSIS kEY LEARNING


STAGE 2: ANALYzE

FUTURE STATE

changes are made only when data shows that


FigUre 9.7 – A3 doCUmenT
illustrate examples of the implementation of
standardization and documentation.
169
169
Standard practices and procedures are the written agreements

Actions that affect the quality, cost, or delivery of the product

improve our desired results. Figure 9.8 illustrates the level of detail
in a process.

FigUre 9.8 level oF deTAil

get up get clean Dress Eat

Select
Dry & Select Watch /
Jewelry

Swing right Straighten


knees and
3.2
3.0

exactly 1/2
rise turn

Standard practices are useful in creating consistency among

gives direction in case of unexpected conditions. The steps in


providing a standard practice are presented in Figure 9.9.

170
1 2 3

that represent

4 5 6

Use the
practice with the standard

7
FigUre 9.9 - CreATing sTAndArd
prACTiCes And proCedUres

standard

in their language. Leaving out the persons performing the activities from
the creation of procedures can result in procedures that are theoretical

Not testing the procedure prior to full scale implementation may create

3.0
3.2
ACT
ROLL-OUT SOLUTIONS

having a method to update procedures renders it useless. Not destroying

171
171
! Increased reliability
!
!

!
!

!
! Flexible practices that

Training

a common process is trained in the new


methods. Even experienced employees need

Do not try to hold a single training session to


teach people everything that they may ever
3.2
3.0

have to focus on the most critical aspects of


ACT
ROLL-OUT SOLUTIONS

practices.

support. Do not expect everyone to learn

172
In summary, Step 9: Roll out
this step helped your solution
us ensure that
Lesson Review
solutions are
applied consistently
1
A
solution on one section in Grade IV to
by standardizing address the low grades of learners in
our processes.
solution is effective. What is the next most
appropriate step that the team should
Standardization allows us
to maintain the gains of the a. Turn over the solution to the
changes we will roll-out. teachers and let the teachers roll
out its implementation to other
We can do this by sections.
documenting the standard
process that will lead to Roll out the solution to all grade
better implementation and levels.
monitoring. c. Roll out the solution to all sections
in Grade IV.
Lastly, training ensure that
all process users perform d. The project is completed. The team
key tasks in the same way. should now move to other projects.
The next section focuses on e. None of the choices.
identifying ways to make

2
sure that the gains are A SI team is planning to roll out
sustainable in the long run. their solution to ensure that
the feeding program does not
exceed the allotted 30 minutes. The
team has completed the testing, the cost

3.0
3.2
strategies of their solution. Before the
team rolls out the solution, they conducted
a program to inform the teachers involved

ACT
ROLL-OUT SOLUTIONS
the solution. What element of the people
side planning did the team illustrate in this

a. Communication
Participation
c. Education
d. All of the choices
e. None of the choices

173
173
3 5
A SI team is planning to roll A
out their solution to ensure standard procedures and
documentation for their solution
in order to increase the scores of learners
has completed the testing, the cost in Math. The team is now going to orient

strategies of their solution. Before procedures. During the orientation, one of


the team rolls out the solution, they
regularly met with the teachers who will that it is up to the teachers whether they
should follow every single step of the
inputs on how to properly implement procedure. What pitfall did the SI team

as well as other details regarding the a. Not including the persons


implementation. What element of the performing the activities in the
people side planning did the team creation of procedures.
Not testing the procedure prior to
a. Communication full-scale implementation.
Participation c.
c. Education
d. All of the choices d. Telling the teachers to ignore
e. None of the choices procedures or certain parts of the
procedures.

4
A SI team is planning to roll out e. None of the choices.
their solution to ensure that

6
A
allotted time for discussing the lessons standard procedures and
in English. The team has completed documentation for their solution
the testing, the cost computations, and in order to ensure that the feeding
program does not exceed the allotted
solution. Before the team rolls out the
solution, they conducted short training a new methodology on how to conduct
sessions with the teachers involved to the feeding program. The team then gave
3.2
3.0

ensure that the teachers understood how the procedures and documentation to the
to implement the solution. What element teachers and staff in charge of the feeding
ACT

of the people side planning did the team


ROLL-OUT SOLUTIONS

implement it. What pitfall did the SI team


a. Communication
Participation a.

c. Education
d. All of the choices
c.
e. None of the choices procedures or certain parts of the
procedures.
d. Not having a method to update
procedures.
e. None of the choices.

174
7 9
A A SI team is ready to roll out the
standard procedures and solution to ensure the proper
documentation on the process of segregation of waste in the
school. The SI team has determined
that they would need the help of
to the Math teachers. The Math teachers parents in order to remind the learners
regarding the segregation of waste. As
procedures as well. After several years, such, the SI team called a symposium to
orient parents regarding their proposed
method has changed a lot in order to solution and what the parents can do to
adapt with the changes in teaching help. What element of the people side
planning did the team illustrate in this
the procedures and documentations
were not updated. What pitfall did the SI a. Communication with

a. Not telling people how to do a Participation


c. Education
d. All of the choices
c. e. None of the choices
procedures or certain parts of the

10
procedures. A SI team has standardized
d. Not having a method to update the new methodology to
procedures.
The new methodology is their solution
e. None of the choices. to ensure that students understand and

8
A There are currently 5 teachers handling
standard procedures and
documentation to ensure that
Method. With the new standard
for class discussions. What is the next process, the school can ensure that the
most appropriate step that the team method is delivered the same way every

3.0
3.2
time, regardless of who is delivering it.
a. Leave the standard procedures What use for standard practices was

ACT
ROLL-OUT SOLUTIONS
and documentation with the users
and proceed to the next project. a. Create consistency among
Train the users of the standard individuals or groups
procedures and documentation.
c.
c.
d. Give the standard procedure and people.
documentation to the School d. Provide a trail for tracing

e. None of the choices. e. None of the choices. ANSWERS


ON pAgE
211

175
175
step ten:
Check Progress

Learning Output:
Longitudinal data of the current and improved process
3.0
3.3

Learning Outcome:
CHECk PROGRESS
ACT

1. Assess the degree of improvements made in the


problem
2. demonstrate basic concepts on monitoring and
evaluation that will lead to continuously improving
the process.
3. Be able to turn over the monitoring and evaluation
role back to process owners.

176
ACT 3.3
Check
Progress

Introduction:
At this stage, you have already accomplished the following:
1. 11. generated solutions that will address
a relevant school measure;
2. 12. developed the future process map
comprise the SI team;
3. 13.

4. 14.
required for project implementation;

3.0
3.3
5. 15.
the implementation and come up
process; with a plan that can mitigate each of

CHECk
ACT PROGRESS
6. prepared a data gathering plan;
16. tested the effectivity of the solution
7. collected relevant data on each of the in small scale group;
the data gathering plan; 17.
solution;
8. analyzed the collected data using the
appropriate graphical data display 18.
techniques and data analysis tools;
and
9.
among the storm clouds; 19. implemented solution to a larger
10. scale group.

177
177
Coming from the roll-out discussion, it is important to determine if the
improved process continues to perform as expected, and that the intended

measures as well eliminating the causes of unsatisfactory performance.


This will ensure the consistent implementation of improvements and
sustained performance.

improve it further. The cycle never stops until we achieve perfection in

the change in goal. After this step, you need to review the results of your
project if it achieved its goals, if not, then you have to assess your process
again, analyze the data, create new ways to improve the process and

intervention results shown in a graph or interviews of our major customers

you are interested with.

What do you need to check? "


timelines
gather data on the same measures
"
3.3
3.0

the same data collection procedures.

are the methods; document what "


steps are actually followed during
implementation. At this point, you
must recall all the plans that you "
checking
" Failure

to the standardized procedures and


target performance levels.

178
Active Follow-up,
Correction, and Support.
Results gathered from the monitoring phase

SCHOOL
data should give us a signal if there is a need
IMPROVEMENT
performance then the team must gather together
and investigate why it is happening. The team

of happening it again. Follow-up is important


– change is not always automatic. Follow-up is

Inputs Daily Output


Meetings

FigUre 10.1
ACTive Follow-Up,
CorreCTion, And
sUpporT

179
179
FigUre 10.2 levels oF Fix

Process
Measurements Machines

Output

Inputs Fix it
3.3
3.0

Add more data to an existing run chart or control chart.

Prepare new Pareto charts for those you created in the Assess stage.
Ensure that the scale and dimensions the same to accurately judge the
degree of improvement.

Draw new frequency plots on the same scale as the original plots.

successful implementation of the solution, they gather data on the level


of numerates in grade 4 and compare it to the previous performance. The

180
FigUre 10.3 - displAying BeFore And AFTer dATA

BeFore AFTer Good

} Improvement

Remaining Gap
Step 4 Changes
Implemented } Target

BeFore AFTer

} Improvement

3.0
3.3
A1 A2 A3 A4 A2 A1 A3 A4

CHECk
ACT PROGRESS
BeFore AFTer

181
181
Results Methods

desired and actual reduced?

targeted?

that the changes are in place?

This is to supplement the results from the data collected. The team must also
document the unintended effects of their solution. The unintended effects

improvement it was change for good. For example, the project aims to reduce
3.0
3.3
CHECk PROGRESS
ACT

and more people are inspired and encouraged to start their own projects.

182
Project Closure

of progress and of efforts of the teams helps


you may want to do during
the project closure:

time and effort that went into


success of project was communicated to the the initiative.

the methodology and therefore they are now


the initiative:

– About the problem or

3.0
3.3
Project closure does not mean closing or ending process being studied.
the project only. Project closure means turning
– About the improvement

CHECk
ACT PROGRESS
process itself and hand
over responsibilities
to ensure that the process owner recognizes
for standardization
and monitoring to the
appropriate people.
very reason why in step 1 we emphasized that
we need to recognized process owners and – Learnings from the
current project may also
help ensure the success of
they play a very important role in the process
future projects
are still the one who will execute the process.

183
183
Congratulations!
You have now reached the end of the Continuous
Improvement Methodology. To summarize, the SI
#
must be
on our learners and recognize that involvement of your major

This is very logical and practical approach since we exists

# Learn when it’s SI helped us to see what is really happening in our processes

process. SI approach allowed us to have a systematic way of


#
jump into conclusions. The SI gave us ideas on how should

capture learning
and enable the

address system The SI journey seems challenging especially for those who are

#
3.3
3.0

# Celebrate

184
Step 10: Check your Progress
Lesson Review

1. 3.
A SI team has rolled out their solution A
to ensure that the feeding program implementation and roll out of
their solution. They have also
minutes. What is the next most appropriate monitored the solution for a certain time
to ensure that it continuous to perform
a. Close the project and proceed to according to what is expected. What is
the next one. the next most appropriate step that they

Monitor the solution to ensure that


the process continues to perform as a. Document the learning from this
project, recognize the team for

c. Proceed to the next project monitoring and evaluation to the


immediately. process owner, and proceed to
d. Leave the monitoring to the the next project.
teachers and proceed to the next Proceed immediately to the next
project. project.
e. None of the choices. c. Be content with what they
have achieved and with the

2.
performance of the school.
Teaching Learning process of d. Continue with the monitoring
Science for Grade III Learners. of the project performance
to ensure that it continuous
to perform according to
process exceeded the 40 minutes allotted expectations.
time. The team now decided to gather
data on the start and end times of each None of the choices.

4.
process of Science. The team is now going A

3.0
3.3
to implement their solution to address the that the learners have low scores
issue, which data should they gather to in Science. They implemented

CHECk
ACT PROGRESS
remedial classes to help learners with
a. Time data on the start time and low grades improve their performance.
end time of the teaching learning
process a.
Time data on the amount of time in Level 2 Fix the Process
excess of 40 minutes c. Level 3 Fix the System
c. Time data on the amount of time d. All of the choices
spent for recitation
e. None of the Choices
d. Time data on the start time and

teaching learning process


e. None of the choices

185
185
5.
A The solution was unsuccessful. The
that learners have low scores in
Math. The team investigated the
teaching-learning process math and made c. The solution was unsuccessful; the

the failure of the solution.


a. d.
Level 2 Fix the Process was successful or not, additional
c. Level 3 Fix the System
d. All of the choices e. None of the choices.

8.
e. None of the Choices
A

6.
implementation of their solution
A SI team is investigating the drop to speed up the Feeding Program
out rate of a particular school.
data and are ready to analyze the results.
monitoring process and introduced new
policies to ensure the accuracy of the
What should the SI Team evaluate?
attendance and the monitoring of learners i.
with poor attendance records. Which level and actual performance.
ii. Adherence to the implementation
a. plan.
Level 2 Fix the Process iii.
implementation.
c. Level 3 Fix the System
iv. Effectiveness of the solution to
d. All of the choices
e. None of the Choices
a. i, ii, and iii

7.
A SI Team has implemented a
i only
solution to improve the math
c. i and iv
3.0
3.3

Before the implementation there d. All of the choices


were 50% of students who were non-
numerates. After the implementation of e. None of the choices
CHECk PROGRESS
ACT

the solution, they gathered data on the


level of numerates in grade IV and found
that there were still 50% of learners who
were non-numerates. The school standard

a. The solution was successful; the

learners who are non-numerates.

increase and made it consistent.

186
9.
A SI Team has implemented a solution to improve the English

there were 50% of students who were non-readers. After the


implementation of the solution, they gathered data on the reading

were non-readers. The school standard is that at most 10% of learners

i.

learners who are non-readers.


ii. The team should investigate who is the reason for the failure of the

iii. The team should accept the failure of the solution and move on to
the next project.
iv.
it with the plan to see if there are deviations to the plan that caused
the failure.

Which action/s should the SI team do?


a. i only
ii only
c. ii and iii
d. i and iv
e. None of the choices

10
.

have also monitored the solution for a certain time to ensure that
it continuous to perform according to what is expected. They are now ready

3.0
3.3
i. Recognize the time and effort that the team has given into the
project

CHECk
ACT PROGRESS
ii. Capture the learning from the initiative
iii. Develop managerial systems to monitor the implementation
iv.
done

Which action/s should the SI team do for the project closure?


a. i only
i, ii and iii
c. ii and iii
d. i and iv
e. None of the choices ANSWERS
ON pAgE
228
187
187
Review AnSweR KeyS
Step 1: Get Organized for
page
Answer Key 20

The student attendance rate for a particular school has consistently been at 100%
1 in the last 5 years. If quality is measured by student attendance, what dimension of
quality is demonstrated by the performance of this school?
a. Performance. (While performance may seem very similar to the
conformance to desired standards, reliability is a better measure in
assessing the quality of performance through time.)

b. Reliability. (This describes the consistency of performance over time. In this


case, the school’s attendance rate has been at 100% in the last 5 years.)

c. Durability. (A hard-wearing quality, able to withstand pressure and other


challenges. This quality, however, is unrelated to the attendance rate.)

d. Conformance to standards. (While the school’s 100% attendance rate is


certainly remarkable, it is important to note that they have maintained this
standard in the last 5. In this case, reliability is a better dimension to assess
the quality of the school’s performance.)

e. None of the Choices

2
The number of students at risk of dropping out (SARDO) is increasing beyond
the standard set by a particular school. What project should the SI team
conduct?
a. Look into the external factors/ processes that cause students to miss
classes. (SI projects should focus on processes that the SI team can control.)

b. Look into the internal factors/ processes that are used to monitor the
students’ attendance. (SI projects should focus on processes that the SI
team can control.)

c. Help the students’ parents earn more income so that the students don’t
have to work after class. (This is an external intervention that is outside the
responsibility of the SI team.)

d. Construct new classrooms to attract students to go to school. (We don’t


want projects that require capital outlay. Instead, we need projects that
are simple, easy to implement, cost effective, and have a huge impact.
Consider the leverage points.)

e. All of the Choices

An elementary school has set a goal that 25% of Grade IV Learners should

3 be numerates upon completing the grade level. At the end of year 2013, 100
Resources

out of 300 Grade IV Learners were numerates. Which dimension of quality is


demonstrated in this performance?

188
a. Performance. (A standard goal has been set. Conformance to this standard
is the best dimension to demonstrated in this case.)

b. Durability. (This quality is unrelated to the students being numerates.)

c. Conformance to standards. (The school was able to reach its desired


standard, even surpassing it.)

d. Reliability. (We are not looking at the quality of the performance over time.)

e. All of the Choices

A SI team is investigating the Teaching-Learning Process for Reading to determine

4 why many of students are still non-readers. The team decided to observe the
Teaching-Learning Process of a particular teacher, but failed to inform the
teacher the reasons behind the observation. In effect, the teacher thought that
he/ she was being audited and geared away from his/ her normal teaching-
learning process. What challenge did the SI team experience in this scenario?
a. No Project Accountability. (While certainly not idea, this situation shows that
there are people in charge or are accountable for the project.)

b. No Clear Process Owner. (The situation clearly shows that the teacher is the
process owner.)

c. No Buy-in with the Process Owner. (The process owner wasn’t informed
about the objectives of the observation.)

d. Project Sponsors did not break road blocks. (This was not a major road
block that required project sponsor intervention.)

e. None of the Choices

A SI team is looking into the Teaching-Learning Process for Reading to

5 determine why many students are still non-readers. Two months into the project,
the team felt the need to consider the Feeding Program because most students
in the class seemed malnourishe While looking into the Feeding Program
Process, the Team decided to look into the process of cooking foo By the end
of the year, the SI project is still ongoing and the team no longer knows what to
do. What challenge did the SI team experience in this scenario?
a. ope of the project. (“Scope creep”

of the project at the onset, resulting in an unmanageable range of topics to


consider.)

b. Lack of Stakeholder Management. (There is no mention of stakeholders in


the scenario.)

c. Lack of concept and understanding of a process. (There is no indication that


the SI team don’t understand what the process is.)

d. Mismatch of project team members. (There is no indication that there is


tension between project team members.)
Resources

e. None of the Choices

189
189
6
A SI team is looking to improve their school’s performance by raising the their

Teaching-Learning Process for Math. At the end of the project, the SI team was
able to generate a revised Teaching-Learning Process to help students solve
Word Problems. By the next NAT, the students’ scores in Math increased by
10%. Math teachers were very happy with the project because they were able to

grades. The output of the project is _________ while the outcome is ________.
a. 10% increase in Math NAT Scores; Revised teaching learning process (These
concepts are stated the other way aroun)

b. Revised teaching learning process; 10% increase in NAT Scores.


(The project outputs refer to tangible deliverables while project
outcomes are the impacts of the outputs to the end customer.
The project was able to deliver a revised teaching learning process,
resulting in a 10% increase in NAT score.)

c.

quantify as a school measure.)

d.

e. All of the Choices

A SI team is trying to determine why students are unable to solve word problems
7 problems. The SI team then shifted their attention from the Math Teaching-
Learning process toward the Reading Comprehension Teaching-Learning
process. This scenario demonstrates the concept of--
a. Scope Creep. (There is no indication of the project’s increasing scope.)

b. Lack of Focus. (There is no indication that the team lacks focus.)

c. Systems Thinking – interrelationships of processes within the school system.


(The SI team was able to look at the relationships between the students’
ability to understand word problem and their ability to solve for it.)

d. Shifting the Burden. (There is no indication that the SI team passed the
problem to English teachers.)

e. None of the Choices

An elementary school has set a goal

8 that 25% of Grade IV Learners should be


numerates upon completing the grade
level. Given the data in Figure 1, this is the
most appropriate background statement
for a SI project:
a. 163 out of the 178 (92%) Grade IV
Learners are Non-numerates. (The
Resources

standard set by the school is based


on the number of learners being
numerates.)
190
b. 175 out of the 178 (98%) of Grade IV Learners have not reached the
level of Numerates. (This can also be a correct answer, however, Letter
D presents a more accurate statement of the problem.)

c. There is a high level of Non-numerates Learners in Section 1, Section 3,


and Section 4. (This statement is vague and is not supported by dat)

d. Only 3 out of the 178 (1.68%) Grade IV Learners are Numerates.


(This is in line with the standards set by the school, and the low
percentage level is more accurate than what is stated in Letter )

e. All of the Choices

9 The result of the diagnostic reading test that was administered to Grade 6
learners last 2013 shows that 83% of 633 students were diagnosed with to
the Frustration reading level in word recognition. The school has set the
desired goal that no student should be left at the Frustration level. Which
process should the SI team investigate to address the school’s problem?
a. The Remedial Process for Reading.(Remedial is a reactive process. We
want to be proactive.)

b. Teaching-Learning Process of Reading. (This process has a direct


impact on the performance of learners in reading and serves as a
preventive action as well.)

c. Attendance Monitoring Process of Students. (This is not related to the


performance of learners in reading.)

d. Feeding Program Process (This is not directly related to the performance


of learners in reading.)

e. All of the Choices


10 A SI team is looking into the Teaching-Learning Process for Science. Who is
the Process Owner?
a. The School Head (The School Head can oversee the health of the
teaching learning process but he/ she is not the implementer of the
process nor the improvements.)

b. SI team. (There is no mention that the SI team is composed of Science


teachers. They are simply process improvement specialists looking to
improve the process.)

c. Local Government Units. (These are external stakeholders, not process


owners.)

d. Science Teachers. (They are able to monitor the overall health of the
process and can implement improvements into it.)

e. All of the Choices


Resources

191
191
Step 2: Talk with Stakeholders
Answer Key
for
page
35

1
A SI Team has decided to investigate the Teaching-Learning Process
of Math to increase the NAT Scores of their students in Math. The
stakeholders for the Teaching-Learning Process for Math are the
Learners, Parents, School Head, and Society. Which of the following

a. Learners – Primary; Parents – Secondary; School Head –


Internal; Society – Tertiary (The learners receive the primary
service of education in math; parents are indirect recipients
of the service; the school head is part of the school system
thus he/ she is an internal stakeholder; society is a tertiary
stakeholder– less direct but crucial.)
b. School Head – Primary; Learners – Secondary; Parents –
Internal; Parents – Tertiary
c. Parents – Primary; Learners – Secondary; School Head –
Internal; Society – Tertiary
d. Society – Primary; Parents – Secondary; Learners – Internal;
School Head – Tertiary
e. None of the choices

A SI Team looking into the Teaching-Learning Process for Science

2 has discovered that there are learners who perform better when the
teachers conducts graded recitations. The team also discovered
that there are learners who understood the lesson better when the
teacher used graphs and pictures. Additionally, there are learners
who do well when they have hands-on activities to understand the
lesson. Therefore, in understanding the needs and wants of their
learners, the team decided to group the learners into three different
types. What concept did the SI team show in this scenario?
a. Voice of the Stakeholder (The team has not started gathering
the needs and wants of the stakeholders.)
b.
c. Stakeholder Segmentation (the different types of learners
have different needs and wants. As such, they need to be
segmented.)
d.
in order to get better insights.)
Resources

e. All of the choices

192
3
A SI Team has decided to interview Grade 1 students to gather
the VOS regarding their performance in English. What is the most
appropriate VOS method that the team should use to ensure that the
students will not be afraid to speak up?
a. Personal Interviews (One-on-one interviews with teachers may
intimidate the learners.)
b. Home Visits (The learners’ performance in English is related to
the Teaching-Learning process which occurs in the classroom.
There is no need to observe the learners at home.)
c. Dyads/ Triads (Interviewing by pairs or triads will help ease the
nerves of the learners and the SI team will be able to gather more
valuable information.)
d. Expert Opinion (Because we are looking into the performance
of learners in English, the VOS should directly come from the
learners.)
e. All of the choices

A SI Team is creating interview questions to gather the VOS from their

4 learners. One question that they want to ask is “What do you think are
the problems that the school will encounter if students are provided
with computers in class?” What bias is shown in this question?
a. Unstated Criteria (No criteria is needed for the question.)
b. Loaded Question (The question has only one idea.)
c. Ambiguous wording (The wordings are clear.)
d. Leading Question (The questions is leading us to think that there
is a problem with computers in class.)
e. All of the choices

A SI Team is creating interview questions to gather the VOS from their


5 learners. One question that they want to ask is “What factors, such
as good learning environment and good acoustics, do you think are
necessary for learners to effectively understand the lesson?” What
bias is shown in this question? Choose the most appropriate answer.
a. Loaded question (The questions has only one idea.)
b. Leading question (The questions is neutral.)
c. Example containment (The question gives examples that may
limit the answers of the participants.)
d. Unstated criteria (No criteria is needed for this question.)
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e. None of the choices

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6
A SI Team interviewed a learner and she said, “The classrooms should be
air-conditioned.” The SI Team noticed that the learner expressed a stated
need and not a real need. What could be the real need of the learner that
they interviewed?
a. I need to hear what the teacher is saying. (Air-conditioned rooms
prevents outside noise from coming in.)
b. I need a classroom that is conducive for learning. (Air-conditioned
rooms provide a better environment for learning.)
c. I need to be relaxed while learning so I can understand the lesson.
(Air-conditioned room provide a more relaxed environment.)
d. I need to focus on the lesson. (Air-conditioned rooms prevent outside
noise from coming in, helping learners focus)
e. All of the choices (All choices can be the real needs of the learner.)

The following are the statements that a SI Team has gathered from
7 learners regarding their Science Subject:
I want a quiet class so I can hear what the teacher is saying.
I want a comfortable chair so I can focus on listening to the teacher.
I want enough lighting to see what the teacher is writing on the board.

What is the most appropriate theme for this group of VOSs?


a. Proper Instructional Materials (The VOSs are not related to
instructional materials.)
b. Applicability of the lessons in real life (The VOSs are not related to
lesson application.)
c. Enough time to understand the lesson (The VOSs are not related to
time.)
d. Conducive environment for learning (The VOSs all speak about the
learning environment of the learners.)
e. All of the choices

A SI Team interviewed a learner and he said, “I want a personal computer


8 in class.” The SI Team noticed that the learner expressed a solution for an
intended usage and not a need for an actual usage. What could the actual
usage of the learner be?
a. I need proper learning materials. (This VOS provides an actual usage
and is not leading to a solution.)
b. I need to use MS Excel for calculations. (This VOS is still an intended
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usage. The VOS should not suggest a solution. A calculator can also
be used for computations.)

194
c. I need to use the internet. (This VOS is still unclear as to why
the learner needs to use the internet.)
d. I need to use MS Word for taking notes. (This VOS is still an
intended usage. The VOS should not suggest a solution. A
notebook and pen can also be used to take notes.)
e. All of the choices

The VOS that a SI Team gathered expresses the need to have


9 “enough time for class to learn.” What is the most appropriate
measure to quantify this VOS?
a. Total class time (There could be other activities covered in the
class time that is not related to learning.)
b. Total teaching and learning time
(This provides a good measure of the learning of students.)
c. Total time for exams (Exams are just a way to measure
performance, it doesn’t cover the learning aspect.)
d. Total class recitation time (Recitations are just a way to
measure performance, it doesn’t cover the learning aspect.)
e. All of the choices

A SI Team is looking into the Feeding Program Process and they


10 want to observe the learners as they undergo the process in order
to determine the learners’ needs and wants. What appropriate
form of qualitative research can the team use?
a. Home visits (The feeding program happens in school so there
is no need to visit the learners at home.)
b. Process Observation (The team wants to observe the learners
in their natural environment while undergoing the feeding
program process.)
c. Conversations with Experts (The learners are the ones who
experience the process, not the experts.)
d. Survey Questionnaires (The objective is to observe the
learners while undergoing the process. Survey questionnaires
will not show what is actually happening.)
e. All of the choices
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Step 3: walk the Process
Answer Key for
page
58

1
A SI team decided to improve the NAT Scores of their students
in Science because it has consistently been below the school
standards. They gathered the VOS of the learners in a particular
grade level and found that one of the prominent themes that
came out was the need for “hands-on applications for the
concepts taught.” Given the VOS theme, which is the most
appropriate process that the SI Team should focus on?
a. Feeding Program Process (This is not related to the VOS.)
b. Remedial Process (This may be related but is a reactive
process.)
c. Guidance Counseling (This is not related to the VOS.)
d. Lesson Planning Process (This is the most applicable
process to address the VOS. The applications can be
included in the lesson plan.)
e. All of the Choices

A SI Team decided to look into the Waste Management Process

2 of a particular school. The process begins when the learners


throw their garbage. The garbage is either thrown in the thrash
container or it is thrown anywhere in the campus. If the learner
decides to throw their garbage in the trash container, they need
to properly segregate it. If the garbage is properly segregated,
there is no need to segregate it again. If the learner does not
segregate garbage before throwing it, someone will need to
segregate the garbage at the end of the day. If the learners
throw their trash anywhere in the campus, the janitor needs to
pick it up and throw it in the proper container.
Given the described choices, which is the most

should utilize?
a. SIPOC (This is used for high-level process mapping.)
b. Activity Flowchart (The process is complex with a lot of

applicable.)
c. Deployment Flowchart (This is used when there is a lot of
hand-off phases in the process.)
d.
for this scenario.)
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e. All of the Choices

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3
A SI Team decided to focus on the Feeding Program Process for a particular
grade level. The process begins when the learners proceed to the designated
feeding area during the break. When the learners arrive at the feeding area, the
teachers and staff assigned there would give them utensils, paper plates, and

water into their cups. When the students are fed, they return to their classrooms.
Identify the Supplier, Inputs, Outputs, and Stakeholders of this process.
a. Supplier – teachers, staff, and b. Supplier – learners; Inputs – utensils,
canteen personnel; Inputs – paper plates, paper cups, and food;
utensils, paper plates, paper cups, Outputs – fed learners; Stakeholders
food, and hungry learners; Outputs – teachers and staff
– fed learners; Stakeholders–
c. Supplier – teachers, staff, and
learners (The utensils, paper plates,
canteen personnel; Inputs –
paper cups, food, and hungry
learners; Outputs – fed learners;
students are necessary to begin
Stakeholders – Parents
the process. The teachers, staff,
canteen personnel provide these d. Supplier – Principal; Inputs – hungry
inputs. The process gives out learners; Outputs – fed learners;
learners who are fed. The direct Stakeholders -- LGUs
stakeholders are the learners.)
e. None of the Choices

A SI Team is mapping the current state of the Teaching-Learning Process for


4 a. What they think the process is c. What the process could be
(This perspective is biased.) (We are mapping the current status of
the process, and not its future state.)
b. What the process really is
(This is what we want in order d. What the process should be
to understand what is actually (We are mapping the current status of
happening in the process.) the process, not its future state.)
e. All of the choices

A SI Team is looking into the Enrollment Process for a particular school. They

5
getting the details of the payment, they need to proceed to the cashier to pay

Enrollment Assessment Form. Given this process, which is the most appropriate

a. SIPOC (This is used c. Deployment Flowchart (The process


for high-level process has a lot of hand-off phases. As such,
mapping.)
technique to be used.)
b. Activity Flowchart
(The process is not that d.
complex.) is not being mapped in this scenario.)
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e. All of the Choices

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6
A SI Team is mapping the current process for Guidance Counseling. The

Stakeholders, Walk the Process, Identify priority Improvement Areas, Do


Root Cause Analysis, Develop Solutions, and Implement the Solution. Which
common mistake did the SI Team commit?
a. Mapping the Project Processes (The steps mapped are the steps involved
in executing improvement projects, the triple A steps.)
b.
c.
d. Trying to create the “perfect’ process map (We cannot determine that the
team is trying to create the perfect process.)
e. None of the Choices – the SI Team did not commit
any error.

A SI Team is looking into the process

7 for the Reading Comprehension Test.


Figure 2 below shows the process chart.
Given the process chart in Figure 2, Figure 2. reading
which common mistake did the SI Comprehension
team commit? TesT proCess
a.

the process, and there are not a lot of hand-off phases involved.)
b. Mapping the Project Processes (The process activities are based on the
Reading comprehension test.)
c. Mapping the process at different levels (The activities are mapped in
different levels. Most of the activities are at level 1 but the procedure for
distributing the exams was detailed at level 2.)
d. Trying to create the “perfect’ process map (There is no indication that the
team is trying to create the perfect process.)
e. None of the Choices – the SI Team did not commit any error.

8
A SI team decided to focus on lowering the number of dropouts in a particular
school in order to achieve a school’s standard. The SI Team interviewed several
students at risk of dropping out (SARDO) and found that a common theme
coming from the VOS is “The teacher doesn’t care whether I go to class or
not.” Given this VOS Theme, which is the most appropriate process that the SI
Team should look into?
a. Attendance Monitoring Process (This is the school process that can have
an impact on SARDO.)
b. Feeding Program Process (This is not related to SARDO.)
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198
c. Remedial Process (This is not related to SARDO.)
d. Guidance Counseling (This may be related to SARDO, however, it does
not directly address the VOS concern.)
e. All of the Choices

A SI Team is looking into the Lesson Plan Preparation Process. They now want
9 ensure that the project will focus only on the Lesson Plan Preparation Process.
They also want to avoid scope creep as the project progresses. Which is the

a. SIPOC (SIPOC is for high- c. Deployment Flowchart (The


level process mapping and team needs a high-level map
that can be used for scoping.)
project.)
d.
b. Activity Flowchart (The team the data is not being mapped in
needs a high-level map that this scenario.)
can be used for scoping.)
e. All of the Choices

A SI Team is now looking to create the process map for the Teaching-Learning
10 Process for Science. The Project Team Leader briefs the team regarding some
guidelines that they should remember when mapping the process.

i. The SI Team should have a meeting in the a. All guidelines


are correct
in the Teaching-Learning Process. (This is
incorrect. The team should go to where b. All guidelines
the process is happening and observe the are wrong
personally in oder to map it out accurately.) c. Only ii and iii
ii. We should divide the process into several are correct
groups then send different persons to map d. Only iv is
correct
also incorrect. The team should map together
to have a full understanding of the process and e. Only ii and iv
not just parts of it.) are correct

iii. If the team must gather time data, they can ask

particular step in the process. (The team should


gather the data and not rely on data provided
by the teachers.)
iv. Remember that the team is supposed to be
mapping the current process and not its future
state. (This is correct. The team needs to map
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out what is currently happening.)

199
199
Step 4: identify Priority improvement Areas
Answer Key for
page

Figure 1: sChool drop ouT


86 Figure 2: english and maTh
sCores oF grade iV sTudenTs.
raTe For 2000-2014
Drop Out Rate
120
5

4.5 100
4

3.5
80

English
3

2.5
60
2
40
1.5

20
1

0.5

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 0
0 20 40 60 80 100
The Drop out rates for all year levels of Math

1
a particular high school for the last 15
years is shown in Figure 1. The School

2
Head is concerned that the drop out A SI Team is looking into
rate has been increasing since year 2000. the Math Scores of learners
What should the School Head do? in Grade IV. From the VOS,
the team found that learners
a. Form a SI Team to tackle the drop need to understand and
out rate of the school. (The drop comprehend the problems
out rate of the entire school is a big properly before they can solve
problem with several factors that it. The team gathered data on
affect it. The team cannot be sure if the English and Math Scores of
all year levels encounter the same the learners. The scores can be
problems with their dropouts.) seen in Figure 2. What analysis
b. Disaggregate the data further can the SI Team gather from
to determine which year level
contributes to the increasing trend a. As English Grades go up,
of the drop out rate. (The school so do Math Grades. (The
needs to investigate the issue scatter plot shows that
further. The problem may not be the English and Math grades
same for all year levels and for all are positively related.)
sections.)
b. As English Grades go up,
c. Start a home visitation program Math Grades go down.
to entice students to go to school (English and Math grades
and prevent dropouts. (The SI are positively related.)
team cannot be sure that a home
visitation program will solve the c. Math and English Grades
problem. This solution comes out are not related. (English
of nowhere if the team does not and Math grades are
determine the root cause of the positively related)
problem.)
d. Math teachers are better
d. Call a meeting for all teachers and than English Teachers.
scold them regarding the increasing (The data does not show
drop out rate. (The system is the the performance of
problem, not individual persons) teachers.)
e. All of the choices e. None of the choices
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200
Table 1. sCienCe grades
oF grade Vi learners

3 A SI Team is looking into the Science grades


of Grade VI learners. Table 1 below shows the
data that the team has gathered. The school
91
83
76
71
81
93
95
89
93
56
has set a standard that the passing grade for 54 81 95 59 62
Science is 75. The SI Team now wants to know
how many students were able to get a score 99 89 59 93 97
of 75 or higher, and how many students failed. 67 79 95 53 89
The team also wants to know the distribution 83 99 42 74 40
of the grades of the students.
58 74 88 65 51
Which type of graphical data display will help 98 90 40 60 86
the SI Team in their analysis?
a. Line Graph (A line graph is c. Histogram (A histogram shows the
used to show the behavior distribution of data over a given range.)
of data through time.)
d. Scatter Plot (A scatter plot is used to show
b. Pareto Chart (A Pareto the relationship between two variables.)
Chart is used when the
categories are qualitative.) e. None of the choices

Table 2. misTake Type FrequenCy

4
A SI Team is looking into the Math Grades of
Learners in Grade IV. The 1st grading exam was
Mistake Frequency
what type of questions learners made the most Asked 591
mistakes on. Table 2 below shows the data that the SI Operation 387
Team was able to gather.
Expression 372
Which type of graphical data display will help the SI
Given 223
Team determine the type of mistake in order to help
Total 1573

a. Line Graph (A line graph is c. Histogram (A histogram shows the


used to show the behavior distribution of data over a given range.)
of data through time.)
d. Scatter Plot (A scatter plot is used to show
b. Pareto Chart (A Pareto the relationship between two variables.)
Chart is used when the
categories are qualitative.) e. None of the choices

A SI Team is looking to improve the NAT Scores of its learners in Math. The team

5 focuses on the Teaching-Learning Process of Problem Solving in Math and found


the following storm clouds:
i. Inconsistent discussion time: discussion time ranges from 15-30 Which among
minutes (This issue can be observed in the Teaching-learning
process of problem solving and has an impact on the NAT scores.) these storm
clouds should
ii. Learners can’t perform basic operations: Item analysis shows that
learners get the lowest scores in this area (This issue can be
observed in the Teaching-learning process of problem solving focus on?
and has an impact on the NAT scores.) a. i, ii, and iii
iii. Delay in providing feedback: it takes a month for the teachers to b. i only
return the results of the exam (This issue can be observed in the
Teaching-learning process for problem solving but it does not have c. i, ii, and iv
a direct impact on NAT scores. The team needs to focus on storm
clouds that affect the school measure under investigation.) d. ii and iv
iv. Learners can’t comprehend the given problem: Item analysis shows e. All Storm
that students don’t perform the correct operations asked in the
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clouds
problems (This issue can be observed in the Teaching-learning
process of problem solving and has an impact on the NAT scores.)

201
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6
A SI Team is looking into the Teaching-Learning process of Science for Grade
III Learners. During the walk the process phase, the team observed that the
entire Teaching-Learning process exceeded the 40-minute allotted time. The
team now decides to gather data to further investigate this storm cloud. What is
the most appropriate data that the team should gather in order to identify the
factors which contribute to the excess time?
a. Time data on the start time and end time of the Teaching-learning process

process is taking the longest time.)


b. Time data on the amount of time in excess of 40 minutes (This data will not

c. Time data on the amount of time spent for recitation (This data is too
focused. It is just one sub-process in the entire Teaching-learning process.
This data will limit the investigation on which sub-process causes the delay.)
d. Time data on the start time and end time of each sub-process of the
As such, the team can investigate which sub-process causes the delay.)
e. All of the choices

A SI Team is looking into a particular school’s Feeding Program. The team has

7 cloud that the team is focusing on is the excessive length of time for the feeding
program. The team is now ready to formulate the focused problem statement.
Which is the most appropriate focused problem statement for this process?
a. The feeding program is poor. d. The feeding program
(This problem statement is vague.) takes 30 minutes.
(This problem
b. The feeding program is taking too long. statement is still
(This problem statement is vague.) vague. There is no
c. The feeding program takes between 20-30 comparison with the
standard and when it
standard of 15 minutes. This is based on occurred.)
data gathered last June 2014. e. None of the choices
(This problem statement is focused. It states
the standard, the actual time the process
takes, and when the problems occurred.)

8
A SI Team is looking into the scores of Grade III learners in Science because
majority of learners failed to reach the passing rate of 75%. The SI team found
further investigated the performance of the learners and gathered data. Now
the team is ready to craft their focused problem statement. Which is the most
appropriate focused problem statement?
a. d. Only 29% of learners
(This problem statement is vague.) answered the item on
inferring about sense
b. Learners are getting low scores in organs correctly.
Inferring. (This problem statement is (This problem
vague.) statement is focused.
It provides data and
c. 50% of Learners fail in Science 3. it is based on the
(This problem statement is considered a investigation of the
high level problem statement. The team team.)
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why learners fail in Science.) e. None of the choices

202
9
A SI team looking into the discussion time Figure 3. pareTo CharT on disCussion Time
of the Teaching-Learning process for English
has gathered time data and created a Pareto 700 120%
Chart to help establish the focused problem Freq. %

statement. Comment on the team’s Pareto 600


100%
Chart (as shown in Figure 3).
500
a. The Pareto chart is correct. The team

Cumulative % Cont.
80%

should focus on the 41-50 minute 400

Frequency
discussion time. (The data categories are 60%
qualitative. The team should not have 300
used the Pareto chart.) 40%
200
b. The Pareto chart is wrong. The Pareto
Chart is only used when data categories 100
20%

are qualitative. The team should have


used a histogram instead. (The data 0
41 to 50 21 to 30 31 to 40 10 to 20
0%

categories are qualitative. The team


should not have used the Pareto chart.) Discussion Time

c. The Pareto chart is wrong. The cumulative percentage should only be up to


100%. (The data categories are qualitative. The team should not have used
the Pareto chart, and the problem with 100% is just a formatting issue.)
d. The Pareto chart is correct. The team should focus on 80% of the problem,
which are the 41-50, 21-30, and 31-40 minute discussion times. (The data
categories are qualitative. The team should not have used the Pareto chart.)
e. None of the choices

A SI Team is investigating the Math Scores of two sections of Grade IV Learners.


10 The team created a histogram of the grades of the two sections in order to help
them establish their focused problem statement. What analysis can the SI Team
get from the graphs?
a. The scores of section A are higher than section C. The team should focus
on the scores of section A and determine why the learners are getting high
scores. (Section A is already doing well. The team should focus on section C,
which has lower grades.)
b. The scores of section C are lower than section A. In fact, with the passing
standard of 75%, no learner passed in section C. The SI team should look
into the reasons for why the scores of section C are very low. (This is the
most appropriate analysis taken from the graph. It shows a real problem as
well as the magnitude of the problem.)
seCTion a maTh sCores c. Only a few students got a score of
90.3 in Section A. The SI team should
focus on increasing the grades of
Figure 4. seCTion a and C

section A. (Section A is already doing


maTh sCores hisTogram

well. The team should focus on


section C, which has lower grades.)

seCTion C maTh sCores


d. The scores of section A are higher
than those of section C. The SI team
should ask the students of section A
to mentor the students of section C.
(This is already a solution. The SI team
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the root cause of the problem.)


e. All of the choices

203
203
Step 5: Root Cause Analysis
Answer Key
for

1
A SI Team is looking into the reasons for why the Feeding
page
103
Program takes 30 minutes when the students’ break only

for the problem as shown in Figure 1. Which common


Figure 1 mistake in RCA did the team commit?
a. Missing link between causes (There is no direct link
between the duration of the feeding program and
the distance from the classroom to the canteen.
There should be another cause stating that the
travel time of the students from the classroom to the
canteen takes a long time.)
b. Focusing on the who, not on the why (There is no
mention of a person/s in the root cause analysis.)
c. Causes that begin with “no,” “none,” or “lack of”
(The cause does not begin with “no,” “none,” or
“lack of.”)
d.
(There is no indication that the cause is a non-
standard occurrence.)
e. None of the choices

A SI Team is looking into the reasons for why the Feeding


Figure 2 2 Program takes 30 minutes when the students’ break

some causes for the problem as shown in Figure 2. Which


common mistake in RCA did the team commit?
a. Causes that begin with “no,” “none,” or “lack of”
(The causes don’t begin with “no,” “none,” or “lack
of.”)
b.
(There is no indication that the cause is a non-
standard occurrence.)
c. Focusing on the who, not on the why
(The analysis focuses on the learners when it should
focus on why the process takes too long. SI Teams
must never focus the on the people because it is the
processes that we should look into.)
d. Missing link between causes
(There are no missing links between the causes.)
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e. None of the choices

204
Figure 3

A SI Team is looking into the

3 reasons for why the discussion


time of a particular topic
takes 30 minutes, causing the
Teaching-learning process
to exceed the allotted 40

some causes for the problem


as shown in Figure 3. Which
common mistake did the team
commit?
a. Causes that begin with “no,” “none,” and “lack of”
(The focus of the analysis should be on the process. Phrasing causes
like this tends to suggest solutions.)
b.
indication that the causes are non-standard occurrences.)
c. Focusing on the who, not on the why
(The causes should focus on the process, and not on the persons.)
d. Missing link between causes
(There are no missing links between the causes.)
e. None of the choices
Figure 4

A SI Team is looking into the

4 reasons for why the discussion


time of a particular topic takes 30
minutes, causing the Teaching-
learning process to exceed the
allotted 40 minutes. The team

problem as shown in Figure 4.


Which common mistake did the
team commit?
a. Causes that begin with “no,” “none,” and “lack of”
(The cause don’t begin with “no,” “none,” or “lack of.”)
b.
(This cause is a non-standard occurrence. Visitors talking to teachers
do not happen often and is not part of the process.)
c. Focusing on the who, not on the why
(The cause is not blaming a person.)
d. Missing link between causes
(There is no missing link between the causes.)
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e. None of the choices

205
205
Figure 5

A SI Team is looking into the reasons for why the discussion time of a
5 particular topic takes 30 minutes, causing the Teaching-learning process to

problem as shown in Figure 5. Which common mistake did the team commit?
a.
that the causes are non-standard occurrences.)
b. Causes disguised as solutions (The causes are geared towards the
solution of providing the teachers with more training.)
c. Missing link between causes (There are no missing links between the
causes.)
d.
the causes.)
e. None of the choices

Figure 6

A SI Team is looking into the reasons for why the Feeding Program takes 30
6 minutes when the students’ break should only last for 15 minutes. The team

mistake in RCA did the team commit?


a.
that the causes are non-standard occurrences.)
b. Causes disguised as solutions (No solution is mentioned in the analysis.)
c. Missing link between causes (There are no missing links between the
causes.)
d.
regarding the distance between the canteen and the classroom.)
e. None of the choices
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206
Figure 7. reading Comprehension
and maTh Word problem sCores

A SI team is looking into the reasons for why the learners from Grade

7 Math. The team gathered the data regarding the learners’ Reading
Comprehension and Math word problem scores. The team is now
ready to do a root cause analysis. Their focused problem statement
is “Only 5 out of the 45 learners are able to solve word problems
based on an item analysis of their exams.”

Guided by the data that the team gathered as shown in Figure 7,


which causes are the most appropriate to answer the question of
why only 5 out of 45 learners are able to answer word problems?
a.

(This analysis is a direct result of the interpretation of the data


that shows a direct proportion between the learners’ scores in
math problem solving and reading comprehension.)
b.
can’t perform basic operations. (This analysis is not supported
by the given data.)
c.
teacher did not give the learners enough practice exercises.
(This analysis is not supported by the given data.)
d. The learners do not understand how to solve word problems.

supported by the given data.)


e. All of the choices
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207
A SI team is looking into the performance of its Grade VII learners in

8 Reading because their NAT scores were below the school’s standards.
The team was able to focus on a particular section that showed a low
performance in reading. The team conducted an item analysis and found
that only 3 out of 43 students were able pass the exams on identifying

Figure 8. Why-Why diagram For reading

a. The why-why diagram of the team is correct. The team should now
look into helping the families earn more income. (The analysis is
wrong. It focused on issues that are beyond the control of the team.)
b. The why-why diagram is still incomplete. The team should look
further into the reasons for why the learner’s family has low income.
(The analysis is wrong. It focused on issues that are beyond the
control of the team.)
c. The why-why diagram is wrong. There is a missing cause for why
only 4 out of 43 students passed. The cause “the students did not
understand the lesson” should be added. (Although this is correct,
the overall analysis is still wrong because the team focused on
external factors that are beyond their control.)
d. The why-why diagram is wrong. The SI team should not look into
causes that are outside of their control. (The analysis is wrong.
It focused on issues that are beyond the control of the team.)
e. None of the choices

A SI team is looking into the performance of its Grade VII learners in

9 Reading because their NAT scores were below the school’s standards.
The team was able to focus on a particular section with low performance
in Reading. The team conducted an item analysis and found that only

speech. The team is pondering on the next steps that they should take.
i. The team should perform a Root Cause Analysis to determine the
root cause of the problem before identifying solutions. (The triple

implementing solutions.)
ii. The team should initiate a review program for learners to help the
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not implement a solution before determining the root cause of the


problem.)

208
iii. The team should look into the data that they have gathered
on the Teaching-learning process for Reading in order to help
them conduct a root cause analysis. (The triple A approach is

implementing solutions.)
iv. The team should buy visual aids to help the students understand

look into the root causes of the problem.)

should take?
a. i, ii, and iv.
b. ii and iv
c. i and iii
d. All of the choices
e. None of the choices

A SI team conducted a Root Cause Analysis and found that one of the
10 root causes for why the feeding program takes 30 minutes is because that
the canteen is too far from the classroom. The team is now pondering on
their next steps.
i. The team should build a new canteen Which is/ are the
closer to the classroom. (The team should most appropriate

capital outlay, which is not encouraged.) team should do?


a. i or iii
ii. The team should gather data to verify
b. ii only
(Validating the root cause gives the team
c. iv only
This is an important step before identifying d. i, iii, and iv
solutions.)
e. None of the
iii. The team should transfer the classrooms choices
closer to the canteen. (The team should

capital outlay, which is not encouraged.)


iv. The team should just bring the food to the

before generating solutions.)


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209
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Step 6: Develop Solutions
Answer Key
for
page
130

1
A SI team conducted a Root Cause Analysis and found that one of the
root causes for why the Feeding Program takes 30 minutes is because

resulting in delays. Which concept should the SI Team to use in order


to generate solutions?
a.
wasteful activities in the process. Although delays are wasteful, it is
the result of the lack of knowledge of the process which cannot be

b. Visual Management (Visual management will help the learners


understand what to do next, resulting in the reduction or elimination
of the delays in the process)
c. Good Housekeeping (This concept is geared towards cleaning and

this scenario.)
d.
mistakes, and is not the main issue that the team wants to address.)
e. None of the Choices

A SI Team conducted a Root Cause Analysis and found that one of the

2 root causes for why the discussion time of a lesson in Math takes 30
minutes is because there are many unnecessary activities in class before
the lesson is discussed. Which concept is the most appropriate for the SI
Team to use in order to generate solutions?
a.

activities and eliminate them from the process.)


b. Visual Management (This concept is used to manage a process
through the use of visual signals. This is not the issue that needs to
be addressed in this scenario.)
c. Good Housekeeping (This concept is geared towards cleaning and

scenario.)
d.
mistakes, and is not the main issue that the team wants to address.)
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e. None of the Choices

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A SI Team conducted a Root Cause Analysis and found that one of
3 the root causes for why the discussion time of a lesson in Science
takes 30 minutes is because the teacher is always scrambling to look
for materials to be used during the lesson. Which concept is the most
appropriate for the SI Team to use in order to generate solutions?
a. c. Good Housekeeping (This
for materials is an unnecessary concept focuses on cleaning
activity which can be addressed by

a more appropriate solution materials needed for class.)


concept is Good Housekeeping.)
d.
b. Visual Management (This concept is geared towards preventing
is used to manage a process mistakes, and is not the main
through the use of visual signals. issue that the team wants to
This is not the issue that needs to address in this scenario.)
be addressed in this scenario.)
e. None of the Choices

4
A SI Team implemented a solution to ensure that learners know where
to go and what to do during the Feeding Program. The team made use
of signs pointing the learners to where the feeding area is, and posted

there will be no delays and that the process will be completed within the
allotted 15 minutes. Which solution concept did the team apply?

a. c.
(This concept aims to used to eliminate non-value activities
prevent learners from from a process. Although the delays
making mistakes. This were eliminated through the team’s
was not addressed by solution, the team used visual
the team’s solution.) management effectively.)
b. Good Housekeeping d. Visual Management (This concept is
(This concept is geared towards letting the learners
know what to do next through visual
cleaning, which are not signs.)
addressed in the team’s
solution.) e. None of the Choices

5
A SI Team found that the Root Cause of students not throwing their trash in the
proper receptacle for segregation is because the students do not know which
trash can is used for biodegradable wastes, which is for non-biodegradable
waste, and which is for recyclables. What should the SI team do?
a. Blame and scold the students for not listening when they were
oriented regarding the proper trash cans for segregation. (This is not
a good solution because it does not help the students identify the
proper trash can for segregation.)
b. The SI team should implement visual management by labeling the
trash containers properly and painting them with different colors
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for easier differentiation. (This action helps the students identify the
proper trash can for segregation.)

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c.

and is not sustainable.)


d. Hire more people to segregate the waste from the trash cans.
(This solution is reactive. The SI team needs to be proactive.)
e. All of the Choices

A SI team found that a one root cause for why Teachers exceed the allotted
6 time for class is because the Attendance Checking procedure takes too long.
The teachers make a roll call of each student. What can the SI team do?
a. c. Buy a biometric scanner and
simplify the Attendance Checking place one in each classroom.
process and lessen the time Ask the students to scan their
to conduct it. They can ask the biometrics and it will serve
students to sit alphabetically and as their attendance. (This
just check names of the students solution is expensive and is not
assigned to the vacant seats. These advisable. There are cheaper
will identify the absentees without and simpler solutions than this.)
having to call out every student’s
name. (This solution is simple and d. Use a time card and ask each
does not require capital outlay.) student to scan their time
cards. This will serve as their
b. Eliminate the process of checking attendance, (This solution is
attendance because it is non-value expensive and is not advisable.
adding. (Although checking the There are cheaper and simpler
students’ attendance may be non- solutions than this.)
value adding, it is necessary for the
school and cannot be disregarded.) e. None of the Choices

A SI Team found that a cause for why teachers exceed the allotted time

7 blackboard which was used by the previous teacher. Which concept can the
SI Team use to develop solutions to this problem?
a.
necessary in this scenario.)
b. Good Housekeeping (This concept is geared towards cleaning and

c.
Though erasing the blackboard is a wasteful activity, it can be more
appropriately be resolved by good housekeeping.)
d. Visual Management (This solution can be used to put signs informing
the teachers to clean the blackboard, but good housekeeping is more
appropriate because it deals with cleaning the workstation.)
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e. None of the Choices

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8
A SI Team found that a cause for why teachers exceed the allotted time for
class is because the teachers constantly forget the materials that they will be
using for class. The SI Team implemented a solution wherein the teachers
are given a checklist of items that they should bring to class. Which solution
concept did the SI team use?
a. d. Visual Management
scenario prevents the teachers from (This solution is for
making mistakes.) providing visual signs
to help teachers and
b. Good Housekeeping (This solution is
learners, which is
not necessary in the
which is not necessary in the scenario.)
scenario.)
c.
e. None of the Choices
eliminating wasteful activities, which is not
necessary in the scenario.)

9
A SI Team found that a root cause of the problem that learners cannot
complete the AGONA method in solving word problems is because the

the steps in the AGONA Method can help the students remember it. Which
solution concept did the SI team use?

a. d. Visual Management
preventing mistakes, which is not shown in (This solution is for
the scenario.) providing visual signs
to help teachers and
b. Good Housekeeping (This solution is learners, which is
shown in their solution.)
which is not shown in the scenario.)
e. None of the Choices
c.
eliminating wasteful activities, which is not
shown in the scenario.)

A SI team conducted a Root Cause Analysis and found that one of the root
10 causes for why the Feeding Program takes 30 minutes is because the staff

utensils, paper plates, and paper cups. The SI Team implemented a solution
wherein the materials are arranged properly in one container and labeled

concept did the SI team use?


a. d. Visual Management
preventing mistakes, which is not shown in (This solution is for
the scenario.) providing visual signs
to help teachers and
b. Good Housekeeping (This solution is learners, which is not
shown in the scenario.)
which is shown in their solution.)
e. None of the Choices
c.
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eliminating wasteful activities, which is not


shown in the scenario.)

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Step 7: Finalize improvement Plan
Answer Key for
page
149
A SI Team has developed a solution to ensure that the time to conduct the

1 Feeding program will be within the allotted 15 minutes. The team will be using
visual management to ensure that the learners know how the process will take
place. What is the most appropriate step that the SI team should do next?
a. Call a meeting to brief the implementation of the solution and
staff and teachers in charge let the teachers and staff in charge
of the Feeding program so of the Feeding program implement
that they can implement it it. The SI Team should look for a new
immediately the next day. project. (The team should plan the
(The team should plan the
pilot test. The team should also be
conduct a pilot test.) hands-on in the implementation.)
b. Draft a memo indicating d. Determine the different activities,
that this solution should be timeline, and resources needed, and
implemented immediately create a plan to implement such
on all grade levels within the
school. (The team should plan and then implement the solution.)

conduct pilot test.) e. None of the Choices

c. Set a target date for the

A SI Team has developed a solution to help learners identify the proper trashcan

2 to throw their wastes in order to ensure that the waste is properly segregated.
The SI Team will paint the trashcans in different colors, each color pertaining to
a particular type of waste. The team has set the implementation of the solution
one week from now in order to give time for the painting of existing trashcans
or buying new trashcans. A month has passed by and the solution has not been
implemented. The School Head called a meeting to ask the SI team why the
solution has not been implemented. The SI team mentioned that the trashcans
have not been painted. The School Head asked who is in charge of painting the
trashcans and the SI team looked at one another in silence. What mistake did the
SI team commit in this scenario?
a. They should have set a tighter deadline c. They failed to assign the person
to pressure everyone to implement responsible for painting and
their solution. procuring trashcans. (This is the
(The deadline is not the issue in the issue in the scenario. No one
scenario.) was given the responsibility
to oversee the project’s
b. They should have set a longer deadline implementation.)
in order to give more time for the
painting and procurement of new trash d. They failed to ask the School
cans. (The deadline is not the issue in Head for a budget to buy the
the scenario.) new trashcans. (The budget is
not the issue in the scenario.)
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214
A SI Team has developed a solution to ensure that the time for the Feeding program will

3 be within the allotted 15 minutes. The team will be using visual management to ensure
that the learners know how the process will take place The team set a budget of 5,000
pesos to buy all the required materials and everything that they need to implement the
solution. By the end of the implementation, the team accounted for the total cost and
ended up spending 20,000 pesos for the implementation of their solution. Comment on
the budget variance of 15,000 pesos that the SI Team incurred in this scenario.
a. The variance of 15,000 pesos is acceptable as long as the SI Team can justify it.
Furthermore, the school still has a lot of money. (The variance is quite big, and
having a lot of money does not justify the variance.)
b. The variance of 15,000 pesos should have been prevented if the SI Team
implemented strict cost control mechanisms. (This is the issue in this scenario.
The team failed to implement control mechanisms.)
c. The variance of 15,000 pesos should have been prevented if the SI Team declared
a higher budget. (Having a higher budget will not ensure the elimination of the
variance.)
d. The variance of 15,000 pesos was the result of one teacher’s action. It should
be charged to that person. (The team is blaming an individual person, which is
discouraged in the triple A approach because the individual is only a victim of the
system having a lack of cost control mechanisms.)

A SI Team has developed a solution to help students remember the AGONA method.

4 The team will be using pictures portraying the steps of the AGONA method. The team
started off with picture drawings to portray the steps. At the end of the implementation,
the team ended up with a video production showing the steps of the AGONA. The team

show the video. They ended up with a cost of 500,000 pesos. What is missing with the
implementation of the SI Team that caused their expenses to balloon to 500,000 pesos?
a. The team did not create a budget to limit their expenses. (Failing to set a budget
will result in uncontrolled expenses, which occurred in this scenario.)
b. The team did not properly estimate the costs of the materials for the
implementation. (Proper estimation will have an impact on the cost, but without a
budget, costs can still run away from the team.)
c.
production services. (Without a budget to compare to, the team cannot determine
if an item’s price is within the budget.)
d.
cost that the school will shoulder will be lessened. (Donations will help reduce the
costs shouldered by the school but it will not prevent the team from incurring a high
cost.)
e. None of the Choices

A SI Team found that a cause for why teachers exceed the allotted time for class is that

5 because they constantly forget the materials that will be used for class. The SI Team will
implement a solution wherein teachers are given a checklist of items to bring to class.

i. The teacher might forget his/ her checklist, rendering the team’s solution as useless.
(This is a valid risk associated with the solution.)
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215
ii. The checklist might not include all the things Which of the following
that the teacher needs for the day. (This is a valid are legitimate risks for this
risk associated with the solution.) solution?
iii. The checklist might not be reusable, making it a. i only
an expensive solution to implement. b. ii and iii
(This is a valid risk associated with the solution.)
c. iii and iv
iv. The checklist items might be too small, making
the teachers forget some items. (This is a valid d. None of the Choices
risk associated with the solution.)
e. All of the Choices

A SI Team implemented a solution to ensure that students segregate their waste

6 properly. The team budgeted for the procurement of new trashcans with different
colors, each color representing a certain type of waste. After the implementation,

the trashcans. These trash bags are to be replaced regularly. What led the SI team to
face such problem after the implementation of their solution?
a. The team failed to budget for the recurring costs (trash bags) and only
considered the one time costs (trash cans). (Recurring costs, and not only one
time capital costs, should be included in the budget.)
b. The SI Team did not foresee the costs of trash bags as a risk. (The trash bags are
not a risk in the team’s solution implementation.)
c. The SI team did not assign a person responsible for buying the trash bags. (This
will not resolve the issue. Even if a person is responsible, without budgeting for
the trash bags, there will be no money to procure these.)
d. The SI Team forgot to estimate the costs for the trash bags. (This will not resolve
the issue. Even if the team was able to estimate the costs of the trash bags they
still won’t be able to procure them because it’s not in their budget)
e. None of the Choices

7 kind of risk and that there are major uncertainties regarding that risk. The team also

the solution. What should the SI Team do?


a. The risk is a showstopper. The c. The risk is low. The team can
team should not proceed with proceed with caution. (The
the solution. (The conditions conditions mentioned puts the risk
mentioned puts the risk in the in the category of a showstopper.)
category of a showstopper.)
d. There is not much risk. The team
b. can proceed with no worries. (The
conditions mentioned puts the risk
proceeding. (The conditions in the category of a showstopper.)
mentioned puts the risk in the
e. None of the Choices.
category of a showstopper.)
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216
8 from certain personnel/ teachers. What should the SI team do?
a. Create an implementation plan. (An implementation plan is not appropriate for
the scenario.)
b. Create a budget and cost management plan. (There is no mention of costs or a
budget.)
c. Create a resource plan. (A resource plan looks into the needed resources for the
solution’s implementation and ensure the availability of these resources.)
d. Create a risk management plan. (The team is not looking into the risks
associated with the implementation.)
e. None of the Choices

A SI Team is going to implement a solution to lessen the setup time of teachers before

9 that the team should take?


a. Implement the solution. (The team is taking a high risk by implementing the
solution without planning for risk mitigation strategies.)
b.
(This is the most appropriate action. The team should plan on how to handle
and mitigate risks.)
c. Create a cost estimate for each risk. (This is an appropriate but incomplete risk
management strategy.)
d. Do not proceed with the solution implementation. (There is no mention that the

e. None of the Choices

A SI Team is going to implement a solution that involves the participation of Grade V


10
i. Lay-off the teachers and get new ones who will surely
cooperate. (This action will not address the issue.) Which preventive
action/s is/are
ii. Include the teachers in the planning process of the
solution so as to ensure their buy-in. (This action will appropriate to deal
help mitigate the risk by ensuring the teachers’ buy in.) with this risk?
a. i and iii
iii. Create a memo ordering the teachers to cooperate
with the solution implementation or incur penalties b. ii and iii
otherwise. (This will create forced buy in, which can be
c. iii only
problematic in the future.)
d. ii and iv
iv. Create a rewards and recognition system that
will reward teachers who are able to successfully e. None of the
implement the solution. (This action will help ensure Choices
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the buy in of the teachers.)

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Step 8: Pilot your Solution
Answer Key
for
page
150

1 does not exceed the allotted 30 minutes. The team has completed the
implementation plan, the budget and cost management plan, the resource
plan, and the risk management plans. What is the next most appropriate
step that the SI team should take?
a. Implement the solution on a full scale, involving all grade levels in the
school. (Implementing the full scale solution is very risky. The team may
not even know if the solution can be effective.)
b. Ask the School Head to draft a memo making the team’s solution

(Implementing the full scale solution is very risky. The team may not
even know if the solution can be effective.)
c. Test the solution on a small scale to determine if it really works, and

determine its effectiveness and to plan for the risks associated with it.)
d. Hand over the solution to the teachers and let them implement it. The

project up to a full roll-out of the solution.)


e. None of the choices

method. The team is now ready to implement the solution to the entire

2 school. The Team leader explains to the team that they need to test their

i. So that the team can make improvements to the solution. a. i only


(Having tested the solution, the team can then make
improvements if certain problems or issues arise during b. ii and iii
the testing.) c. i, ii, and iii
ii. So that the team will be able to understand the risks d. All of the
choices
planning phase could appear during the testing phase.)
e. None of the
iii. So that the team will be able to validate the expected choices

solution will work.)


iv. So that the team will know the effects of their solution
on the entire year level. (Testing the solution does not
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guarantee its effectiveness on a larger population.)

218
Figure 1. 4Th year drop ouT raTe (beFore) Figure 2. 4Th year drop ouT raTe (aFTer)

A SI Team looking into the drop out rate of 4th year learners has tested the

3 solution and has gathered data. The before and after graph of the drop out

a. The solution is effective. The drop out rates decreased after the
implementation of the solution. However, the scaling of the two graphs

before and after performances.)


b. The solution is not effective. The graph shows that the drop out rates
increased after the implementation of the solution. (The solution is

school’s before and after performances.)


c. The solution is not effective. The graph shows that there is no change
in the drop out rates after the implementation of the solution. (The

compare the school’s before and after performances.)


d. The solution is effective. The drop out rates decreased after the

graphs. (The solution is effective, but the graphs use different

performances.)
e. None of the choices

A SI team looking into the performance of learners in Science has


implemented a pilot test for their solution. They have gathered the data for

4 the test. What is the next most appropriate step that the team should take?
a. Implement the solution for the rest of the school. (The team should

solution.)
b. Evaluate the tests results and compare these with the current state in
order to see if there really are improvements. (Evaluating the results will
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help the team determine whether the solution is effective or not.)

219
219
c. Hand over the solution to the teachers and let them implement the

project up to the full roll-out of the solution)


d. Do not implement the solution. (There is no indication that the
solution is not effective and should not be implemented.)
e. None of the choices.

A SI team has developed three solutions to ensure that the feeding

5 program does not exceed the allotted time of 30 minutes. The team is
unsure of which solution to implement. What should the team do?
a. Implement all three solutions and compare which one is the most

to do.)
b. Hand over the solutions to the teachers and let them worry about
which to implement. The team can now move to another project.

solution.)
c. Escalate the issue to the School Head and let him/ her decide what
to do. (The SI team should think of what needs to be done and
should not divest its responsibility on the school head. The school
head, in turn, can give helpful suggestions.)
d.

e. None of the choices.

6 ensure the proper segregation of waste. Their solution is to label the trash
cans properly and assign different colors for each receptacle of waste. The

Which cost should be included


i. Training costs for the teachers
(This should be included in the
analysis as a non-recurring cost.) a. i only
ii. Cost for meetings b. i, ii, and iii
(This is a non-recurring cost
that must be included.) c. iii and iv

iii. Cost for trash cans d. All of the choices


(This is a capital cost that
must be included.) e. None of the choices

iv. Cost for trash bags


(This is a recurring cost
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that must be included.)

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7
A SI team has tested a solution to increase the Reading Comprehension
scores of learners. The team has gathered data and found that their
solution is not effective. What should the team do?
a. Blame each other for the failure of the solution. (The team should not
blame each other for the failure of the solution. The solution’s failure
could caused by something that they missed in the analysis.)
b. Go back to the root cause analysis and determine if they missed
something. (The team might have missed something in the analysis or
in the solution generation phase that led to the failure of the solution.)
c. Implement the solution to the entire school, hoping that the bigger
population will yield better results. (A bigger population does not
guarantee better results. The cause of the solution’s failure might be
something the team missed in their analysis, and they should review
that.)
d. Blame the teachers and the learners for the failure of their solution.
(The team should not blame the teachers and the learners for the
failure of their solution. The cause of the solution’s failure could be
something that the team missed in their analysis.)
e. None of the choices.

A SI Team has developed a solution to ensure that teachers can

8 concept of good housekeeping. However, one teacher is reluctant with the


approach of the SI team. What can the team do?
a. Ask the principal to give the teacher a memo to force compliance.
(Forced compliance will be problematic in the long run because the
teacher is still not convinced in the team’s solution.)
b. Replace the teacher with someone who will cooperate. (Replacing the
teacher will not ensure the substitute’s buy in.)
c. Choose another grade level to implement the solution. (The solution
should be implemented on the grade level where the issue is present.)
d. Include the teacher in the piloting of the solution so he/ she can feel
the effects of the solution. (Including the teacher in the pilot effort will
make him/ her feel effects of the solution, resulting in the teacher’s
buy-in.)
e. None of the choices.

A SI Team is about to test a solution which involves teachers using a

9 different method for teaching AGONA. The team asked the teachers to
implement the new method through a memo sent by the School Head.
After the pilot testing, the team gathered the data and found that the
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solution was not effective because some of the teachers did not implement
the method correctly. Comment on the approach taken by the SI team.

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221
a. The team’s approach was correct. The teachers should be reprehended for the
failure of the solution. (The team’s approach was incorrect. The team did not
explain the reason for the solution and how to implement it. Additionally, the
team should not blame the teachers for the failure of the solution.)
b. The team’s approach was incorrect. They failed to secure the teachers’
buy-in by not explaining the reason for the solution and how to use the
method. The team relied on the memo of the School Head for the solution’s
implementation. (The team’s approach was incorrect. They did not explain the
reason for the solution and how to implement it.)
c. The team’s approach was incorrect. They should have mentioned in the
memo that non-compliance will result in penalties. (The team’s approach
was incorrect. They did not explain the reason for the solution and how to
implement it. Imposing penalties will not ensure the teachers’ compliance and
may create more problems in the future.)
d. The team’s approach was correct. They must think of other solutions to
address the problem. (The team’s approach was incorrect. They did not
explain the reason for the solution and how to implement it. The solution is

e. None of the choices.

A SI Team is looking to increase the Math


10
Figure 3. seCTion a maTh sCores
Scores of Grade IV Learners. The team has
developed a solution and are planning to test
it. The scores of three of the Grade IV sections
before the implementation of the solution can
be seen in Figures 3-5. Which section should
the SI team test the solution on?
a. Section A Only. (The solution should be
implemented on the section where the
issue is present. The grades of Section A Figure 4. seCTion b maTh sCores
learners are high.)
b. Section B Only. (The solution should be
implemented on the section where the
issue is present. The grades of Section B
learners are average.)
c. Section C Only. (The solution should be
implemented on the section where the Figure 5. seCTion C maTh sCores
issue is present. The grades of Section C
students are low and no one passed the
school’s standards.)
d. Section A and B. (The solution should be
implemented on the section where the
issue is present. The grades of Section A
and B learners are high and average.)
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e. All of the Sections.

222
Step 9: Roll-Out your Solution
Answer Key
for
page
173

1 to address the low grades of learners in Science. Based on the learners’


test results, the team was able to prove that their solution is effective.
What is the next most appropriate step that the team should take?
a. Turn over the solution to the teachers and let the teachers roll out

project up to the full roll out of the solution. The team should then
guide the teachers during the roll out.)
b. Roll out the solution to all grade levels. (The issue that the team is

not be applicable to other grade levels.)


c. Roll out the solution to all sections in Grade IV. (The issue that

solution should be rolled out to other Grade IV sections.)


d. The project is completed. The team should now move to other

out of the solution. The team should guide the teachers during the
roll out.)
e. None of the choices.

A SI team is planning to roll out their solution to ensure that the

2 feeding program does not exceed the allotted 30 minutes. The


team has completed the testing, the cost computations, and the risk
management strategies of their solution. Before the team rolls out the
solution, they conducted a program to inform the teachers involved
about the details of the implementation, when the implementation is
going to be conducted, as well as the rationale behind the solution.
What element of the people side planning did the team illustrate in this
scenario?
a. Communication (The team shared information about the solution
with the teachers so the teachers will know what is going to
happen.)
b. Participation (The scenario does not show the teachers being
involved in the planning and execution of the solution.)
c. Education (The scenario does not show the teachers being given
what they need to successfully implement the solution.)
d. All of the choices
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e. None of the choices

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3
A SI team is planning to roll out their solution to ensure that learners know
how to do the AGONA method. The team has completed the testing, the
cost computations, and the risk management strategies of their solution.
Before the team rolls out the solution, they regularly met with the teachers
who will be involved and asked for the teachers’ inputs on how to properly
implement the solution, what needs to be done, as well as other details
regarding the implementation. What element of the people side planning
did the team illustrate in this scenario?
a. Communication (The scenario does c. Education (The scenario
not show the sharing of information does not show the
regarding the solution.) teachers being given what
they need to successfully
b. Participation (The team was
implement the solution.)
involving the teachers in the
planning and execution of the d. All of the choices
solution.)
e. None of the choices

A SI team is planning to roll out their solution to ensure that the teachers

4 don’t exceed the allotted time for discussing the lessons in English. The team
has completed the testing, the cost computations, and the risk management
strategies of their solution. Before the team rolls out the solution, they
conducted short training sessions with the teachers involved to ensure that
the teachers understood how to implement the solution. What element of the
people side planning did the team illustrate in this scenario?
a. Communication (The scenario does c. Education (The team was
not show the sharing of information training the teachers so
regarding the solution.) that the teachers can
successfully implement
b. Participation (The scenario does the solution.)
not show the teachers being
involved in the planning and d. All of the choices
execution of the solution.)
e. None of the choices

A SI team has established standard procedures and documentation for their

5 solution in order to increase the scores of learners in Math. The team is now
going to orient the teachers who will be using these procedures. During the
orientation, one of the SI Team members told that teachers that it is up to
the teachers whether they should follow every single step of the procedure.
What pitfall did the SI team member commit in this scenario?
a. Not including the persons c. Not stating the result to be
performing the activities in the obtained. (The scenario does
creation of procedures. (The not show the lack of results.)
scenario does not show the non-
d. Telling the teachers to ignore
involvement of persons using the
procedures or certain parts of
procedures during its creation.)
the procedures. (The scenario
b. Not testing the procedure prior shows the speaker encouraging
to full-scale implementation. the participants to skip certain
(The scenario does not show parts of the procedures.)
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the team’s failure to test the


e. None of the choices.
procedure.)

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A SI team has established standard procedures and documentation

6 for their solution in order to ensure that the feeding program does
not exceed the allotted 30 minutes. The team’s solution involves a
new methodology on how to conduct the feeding program. The
team then gave the procedures and documentation to the teachers
and staff in charge of the feeding program, and asked them to read
it then implement it. What pitfall did the SI team commit in this
scenario?
a. Not explaining how to do a step/s. (The scenario shows that
the teachers were asked to study the procedure and determine
how to do execute these by themselves. The teachers were not
oriented on how to do it.)
b. Not making the procedures readily available to people. (The
scenario does not show the unavailability of the procedures.)
c. Telling workers to ignore procedures or certain parts of the
procedures. (The scenario does not encourage the ignorance of
steps in the procedure.)
d. Not having a method to update procedures. (The scenario does
not show the need to update the procedures.)
e. None of the choices.

A SI Team has established standard procedures and documentation

7 on the process of teaching learners the AGONA Method. The


procedures have been turned over to the Math teachers. The Math
teachers have been trained on how to perform the procedures
as well. After several years, the process of teaching the AGONA
method has changed a lot in order to adapt with the changes in
teaching methods and learner needs. However, the procedures and
documentations were not updated. What pitfall did the SI team
commit in this scenario?
a. Not telling people how to do a step/s. (The scenario does not
show the lack of training of people on how to do the step/s in
the procedure.)
b. Not making the procedures readily available to people. (The
scenario does not show the unavailability of the procedures.)
c. Telling workers to ignore procedures or certain parts of the
procedures. (The scenario does not encourage the ignorance of
steps in the procedure.)
d. Not having a method to update procedures. (The scenario
shows the need to update the procedures because the actual
process has already changed but there remains no method on
how to execute it.)
e. None of the choices.
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8
A SI team has established standard procedures and documentation
to ensure that teachers don’t exceed the allotted time for class
discussions. What is the next most appropriate step that the team
should take?
a. Leave the standard procedures and documentation with the users
and proceed to the next project. (The users should be trained
properly so that they know how to apply the procedures.)
b. Train the users of the standard procedures and documentation.
(The users should be trained properly so that they know how to
apply the procedures.)
c. Keep the standard procedures and documentation in the library.
(Procedures and documentations should not be kept in the library.
These should be kept near the place where the process will be
executed so that people can easily refer to the procedures and
documentations when needed.)
d. Give the standard procedure and documentation to the School
Head. (The School Head can have a copy of the procedures and
documentation. However, these should still be given to the users.)
e. None of the choices.

A SI team is ready to roll out the solution to ensure the proper


9 segregation of waste in the school. The SI team has determined that
they would need the help of parents in order to remind the learners
regarding the segregation of waste. As such, the SI team called a
symposium to orient parents regarding their proposed solution and
what the parents can do to help. What element of the people side
planning did the team illustrate in this scenario?
a. Communication with stakeholders (The team shared information
with stakeholders so that the stakeholders will know what is going
to happen and that they can provide their inputs and support.)
b. Participation (The scenario does not show the parents being
involved in the planning and execution of the solution.)
c. Education (The scenario does not show the parents being given
what they need to successfully implement the solution.)
d. All of the choices
e. None of the choices
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10 method. The new methodology is their solution to ensure that students
understand and know how to do the AGONA method. There are
currently 5 teachers handling Math subjects for Grade IV and all of them
are teaching the AGONA Method. With the new standard process, the
school can ensure that the method is delivered the same way every time,
regardless of who is delivering it. What use for standard practices was
illustrated in this scenario?
a. Create consistency among individuals or groups
(This makes the process output more predictable. Creating a
standard procedure ensures that the process will be delivered
consistently every time, regardless who is doing it.)
b. Provide “know-why” for teachers and leaders currently on the job.
(The scenario does not show the procedure helping the teachers
do what they need to do.)
c. Provide a basis for training new people (The scenario does not
show the procedures being used to train new people.)
d. Provide a trail for tracing problems (The scenario does not show the
procedures being used to trace problems.)
e. None of the choices.

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Step 10: Check your Progress
Answer Key for
page
185

1
A SI team has rolled out their solution to ensure that the feeding
program doesn’t exceed the allotted 30 minutes. What is the next
most appropriate step that they should make?
a. Close the project and proceed to the next one. (the team should
monitor the solution to ensure it continuously performs according
to expectations before closing it)
b. Monitor the solution to ensure that the process continues to

monitor the solution to ensure it continuously performs according


to expectations before closing it)
c. Proceed to the next project immediately. (the team should
monitor the solution to ensure it continuously performs according
to expectations)
d. Leave the monitoring to the teachers and proceed to the next
project. (monitoring should initially be done by the team,
and they should set up a monitoring system that they should
handover to the process owners)
e. None of the choices.

A SI Team is looking into the Teaching Learning process of Science


2 for Grade III Learners. During the walk the process the team observed
that the entire Teaching Learning process exceeded the 40 minutes
allotted time. The team now decided to gather data on the start
and end times of each sub-process of the teaching learning process
of Science. The team is now going to implement their solution to
address the issue, which data should they gather to assess and
monitor the implementation?
a. Time data on the start time and end time of the teaching
learning process (this data is not consistent to what they
collected in Step 4)
b. Time data on the amount of time in excess of 40 minutes (this
data is not similar to what they collected in Step 4)
c. Time data on the amount of time spent for recitation (this data is
not similar to what they collected in Step 4)
d. Time data on the start time and end time of each sub-process
of the teaching learning process (this data gathers how long
each sub-process took, this is consistent with the data that they
gathered in Step 4.)
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e. None of the choices

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3 solution. They have also monitored the solution for a certain time to
ensure that it continuous to perform according to what is expected.
What is the next most appropriate step that they should take?
a.
their contribution, handover the monitoring and evaluation to
the process owner, and proceed to the next project. (the team
should take these actions to properly close the project)
b. Proceed immediately to the next project. (proper closing of the
project should be done)
c. Be content with what they have achieved and with the
performance of the school. (the team and the school should
never be content they should pursue continuous improvement)
d. Continue with the monitoring of the project performance to
ensure that it continuous to perform according to expectations.
(the team should know when to let go and proceed to other
projects)
e. None of the choices.

4
A SI team is looking into the issue that the learners have low scores
in Science. They implemented remedial classes to help learners with

apply?
a. Level 1 Fix the Output (this level is corrective, the output is being

b.
that produces the output)
c.
and procedures within the system)
d. All of the choices
e. None of the Choices

A SI team is looking into the issue that learners have low scores in
5 Math. The team investigated the teaching-learning process math and

a. Level 1 Fix the Output (this level is corrective, the output is being

b.
that produces the output)
c.
and procedures within the system)
d. All of the choices
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e. None of the Choices

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6
A SI team is investigating the drop out rate of a particular school. They looked
into the attendance monitoring process and introduced new policies to ensure
the accuracy of the attendance and the monitoring of learners with poor

a.
b.
produces the output)
c.
within the system)
d. All of the choices
e. None of the Choices

7 IV learners. Before the implementation there were 50% of students who were non-
numerates. After the implementation of the solution, they gathered data on the
level of numerates in grade IV and found that there were still 50% of learners who
were non-numerates. The school standard is that at most 10% of learners being
non-numerates is acceptable. Comment on the results of the solution of the SI
team?
a. The solution was successful; the team was able to sustain 50% of learners
who are non-numerates. They were able to prevent its increase and made it
consistent. (SI improvement projects aim to meet the standards set by the
school or make improvements from the current state)
b. The solution was unsuccessful. The team was not able to reach the standard
set by the school. (The team was not able to meet the performance standard
set by the school or even improve their current situation)
c. The solution was unsuccessful; the team should blame the teachers for the
failure of the solution. (Yes the solution was unsuccessful but the team should

d. It’s hard to say whether the solution was successful or not, additional data
should be gathered. (the data shows that the solution is unsuccessful, the
team was not able to meet the target performance or even improve the
current performance)
e. None of the choices.

8 Feeding Program process. They gathered ‘before’ and ‘after’ data and are ready

i. The difference between the desired and actual performance.


(this is correct because it shows whether the solution is
effective) a. i, ii, and iii
ii. Adherence to the implementation plan. (this is correct b. i only
because it shows whether the plan was followed)
c. i and iv
iii.
d. All of the
not initially planned but are still important) choices
iv. Effectiveness of the solution to target the causes e. None of the
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choices

230
9 Grade IV learners. Before the implementation there were 50% of students who
were non-readers. After the implementation of the solution, they gathered

of learners who were non-readers. The school standard is that at most 10% of
learners being non-readers is acceptable. What should the SI team do after
getting this result?
i. The team should re-evaluate the analysis that they did and
look into the reasons of why they were not able to bring Which
down the number of learners who are non-readers. (this is action/s
correct because the team looks back into their analysis to
determine why their implementation failed) should the SI
team do?
ii. The team should investigate who is the reason for the a. i only
failure of the solution so they have someone to blame. (this
is wrong, the team should not blame people for failure, b. ii only
instead evaluate the process that they followed and their
analysis) c. ii and iii

iii. The team should accept the failure of the solution and move d. i and iv
on to the next project. (this is wrong, the team should not e. None of
give up whenever they experience failure, they should look the choices
into the reasons why it failed and improve)
iv. The team should look into the actual implementation and
compare it with the plan to see if there are deviations to
the plan that caused the failure. (this is correct because the
team looks into the implementation to see if deviations from
the plan happened which might have caused the failure.)

10 solution for a certain time to ensure that it continuous to perform according to


what is expected. They are now ready to close the project. What activities should
they undertake for the closure?
i.
into the project (this is correct, the team should be Which
action/s
projects) should the SI
ii. Capture the learning from the initiative (this is
team do for
correct because the learning will help future project the project
implementations) closure?
a. i only
iii. Develop managerial systems to monitor the
implementation (this is correct because the monitoring b. i, ii and iii
should be handed over to the process owner, and a
system will make it easy for them) c. ii and iii
iv. Celebrate and be content with the improvement that d. i and iv
they have done (celebration is correct, the team should
e. None of the
celebrate their achievements but they should not be
choices
content with the improvements made, we want to instill
a culture of continuous improvement)
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PROjeCT FORMS

PROjeCT TiTle

Name of the School and project

STAGe 1: ASSeSS Team Members

bACKGROunD

School Measures
VoC
project Scoping (SIpoC)

CuRRenT STATe

process Map +
Data gathering and presentation

problem statement

PRObleM AnAlySiS
STAGe 2: AnAlyze

root Cause analysis


Validation of Causes

prioritization of Valid Causes


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FuTuRe STATe
objective
Statement
STAGe 2: AnAlyze Solution generation
Value analysis
Improved process Diagram

iMPleMenTATiOn PlAn
Tasks and Timeline
Budget and resource
Stakeholder analysis

evaluation of Implementation risks

TeST ReSulTS

piloting

rollout

Before and after


STAGe 3: ACT

Key leARninG

project Closure

project Sharing
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Si RiSK TeMPlATe
Step 3: Response Step 4 : Risk Response
Step 1: Risk Identification Step 2: Risk Assessment Strategy Planning

Risk Management
Risk Description of Risk Event Potential Impact
ID Strategy Action
Category Risk Event Trigger if Risk Event Occurs

(1-5)
(1-5)
Severity
Plan/Contingency Plan
( 1 - 25 )

Likelihood
Risk Score
Assigned to

Assess the
Describe the Assess how often
Describe how the severity based on
consequences of each a failure mode or Risk Score = Provide actions to
design or process how bad the
failure mode. It is its cause happens. Severity x eliminate the cause of
Categorize functions (or items) Provide effects of the
extremely important to Rated on a scale Likelihood the risk. The strategy
the risk can fail. The reasons why failure mode is. A Assign a person to be
capture the experiences of of 1 to 10, where Highest Risk should lower the impact
1 according to question being asked the failure rating of 10 responsible for tracking and
the customer. Thus, we 10 means that Score of the risk by reducing
its here is “How could it mode can or means that an managing each identified risk
must put ourselves in the failure is certain warrants first the likelihood of

234
consequence fail” not “If it will fail”. will occur. effect is so severe,
shoes of the customer and to occur and 1 consideration occurrence, reducing the
it threatens the
know these effects means extremely for analysis. consequence, or both
safety of the
through their perspective. remote.
customer.

Step 2: Risk Step 4 : Risk Response


Step 1: Risk Identification Step 3: Response Strategy
Assessment Planning

Risk Management
Risk Description of Risk Event Potential Impact
ID Strategy Action
Category Risk Event Trigger if Risk Event Occurs
(1-5)
(1-5)
Severity

Plan/Contingency Plan
( 1 - 25 )

Likelihood
Risk Score
Assigned to

Principal, Head
Create Anti-littering Committee Teachers, Guidance
counselor, Student
Government, Class
Advisers, Class
Students will Include effects of global warming and President
The student will
not support No strict waste management topics in science
still throw their
1 Moderate the campaign implementation 3 3 9 subjects
trash
for “Zero of rules;
everywhere
Litter” Science Teachers
Project
Award Most Clean Room of the
Week
Strategy Planning

Risk Management
Risk Description of Risk Event Potential Impact
ID Strategy Action
Category Risk Event Trigger if Risk Event Occurs

(1-5)
(1-5)
Severity
Plan/Contingency Plan

( 1 - 25 )

Likelihood
Risk Score
Assigned to

Assess the
Describe the Assess how often
Describe how the severity based on
consequences of each a failure mode or Risk Score = Provide actions to
design or process how bad the
failure mode. It is its cause happens. Severity x eliminate the cause of
Categorize functions (or items) Provide effects of the
extremely important to Rated on a scale Likelihood the risk. The strategy
the risk can fail. The reasons why failure mode is. A Assign a person to be
capture the experiences of of 1 to 10, where Highest Risk should lower the impact
1 according to question being asked the failure rating of 10 responsible for tracking and
the customer. Thus, we 10 means that Score of the risk by reducing
its here is “How could it mode can or means that an managing each identified risk
must put ourselves in the failure is certain warrants first the likelihood of
consequence fail” not “If it will fail”. will occur. effect is so severe,
shoes of the customer and to occur and 1 consideration occurrence, reducing the
it threatens the
know these effects means extremely for analysis. consequence, or both
safety of the
through their perspective. remote.
customer.

eXAMPle Si RiSK TeMPlATe


Step 2: Risk Step 4 : Risk Response
Step 1: Risk Identification Step 3: Response Strategy
Assessment Planning

Risk Management
Risk Description of Risk Event Potential Impact
ID Strategy Action
Category Risk Event Trigger if Risk Event Occurs

(1-5)
(1-5)
Severity
Plan/Contingency Plan

( 1 - 25 )

Likelihood
Risk Score
Assigned to

Principal, Head
Create Anti-littering Committee Teachers, Guidance
counselor, Student
Government, Class
Advisers, Class
Students will Include effects of global warming and President

235
235
The student will
not support No strict waste management topics in science
still throw their
1 Moderate the campaign implementation 3 3 9 subjects
trash
for “Zero of rules;
everywhere
Litter” Science Teachers
Project
Award Most Clean Room of the
Week

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SIPOC TEMPLATE
Supplier Inputs Process Output Customer

236
Process Steps
SAMPLE DATA COLLECTION PLAN 1
(THIS IS ONLY A SAMPLE DATA COLLECTION PLAN, TEMPLATE CAN BE
CHANGED DEPENDING ON THE DATA NEEDED)
Data Collection Plan Project ________________________
What questions do you want to answer?

237
237
Data Operational Definition and Procedures
What Measure How measured Related conditions Sampling How/where
type/ Data 1 to record 2 notes recorded (attach
type form)

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SAMPLE DATA COLLECTION PLAN 2


(THIS IS ONLY A SAMPLE DATA COLLECTION PLAN, TEMPLATE CAN BE CHANGED DEPENDING ON THE DATA NEEDED)

Process Step Time Start Time End Cumulative Time Notes

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SChOOl iMPROveMenT STORy

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