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over Conventional 3GPP LTE and Emerging NB-IoT Technologies

Dmitri Moltchanov, Sergey Andreev, Yevgeni Koucheryavy,

Konstantin Samouylov

PII: S0140-3664(17)30680-1

DOI: 10.1016/j.comcom.2018.01.009

Reference: COMCOM 5634

Revised date: 1 December 2017

Accepted date: 18 January 2018

Please cite this article as: Vyacheslav Begishev, Vitaly Petrov, Andrey Samuylov, Dmitri Moltchanov,

Sergey Andreev, Yevgeni Koucheryavy, Konstantin Samouylov, Resource Allocation and Sharing for

Heterogeneous Data Collection over Conventional 3GPP LTE and Emerging NB-IoT Technologies,

Computer Communications (2018), doi: 10.1016/j.comcom.2018.01.009

This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service

to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo

copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please

note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and

all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

Conventional 3GPP LTE and Emerging NB-IoT Technologies

Vyacheslav Begisheva , Vitaly Petrovb,∗, Andrey Samuylovb , Dmitri Moltchanovb , Sergey Andreevb , Yevgeni

Koucheryavyb , Konstantin Samouylova

a Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

b Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Tampere, Finland

T

Abstract

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Tremendous growth in the volumes and diversity of data to be collected in future Internet of Things (IoT) applications

is one of the key challenges for the networking infrastructures as they evolve from 4G+ to true 5G systems. Particu-

CR

larly, ubiquitous deployments of wireless video surveillance cameras force the IoT service providers to support massive

multimedia data transfer together with more ‘conventional’ machine-type communications. Hence, the data services in a

complex IoT network may become heterogeneous, since several categories of traffic need to be supported simultaneously,

each having its own loads, quality-of-service requirements, and radio technology preferences. An emerging example of

US

the latter is the in-band deployment mode of the recently standardized NarrowBand IoT (NB-IoT) technology, where

the same spectrum is shared between 3GPP LTE-connected high-end equipment and NB-IoT-connected low-end devices.

However, while all of the necessary technology enablers are already in place, the question of how to share the available

bandwidth efficiently has not been addressed comprehensively. Targeting the indicated challenge, this paper introduces

AN

feasible strategies for resource sharing between the multimedia and sensory data in a hybrid LTE/NB-IoT wireless

deployment as well as compares them within our rigorous analytical methodology. The conducted numerical study

advocates for one of the allocation strategies – dynamic resource sharing with reservation – as the preferred solution for

reliable collection of heterogeneous data in large-scale 5G-grade IoT deployments.

M

ing techniques, technologies to collect them from numerous

Collection, storage, and processing of data has always

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remained central in information systems. Since the early

ing from miniature niche systems for wired sensor net-

years of computer science, the volume of exchanged infor-

works, featured by non-standard software and even hard-

mation has been increasing steadily and exceeded 1 PB/year

ware [5], they have evolved into large-scale and standard-

in 1996, 1 EB/year in 2000, and 1 ZB/year in 2016, thus

PT

opening the ‘Zettabyte Era’ [1]. Following this trend, vari-

categories of data to be collected [6–10]. The most suc-

ous solutions for automated data processing have improved

cessful examples of such systems rely on machine-type

significantly: trivial calculating machines from the past

or machine-to-machine communications [11] and include

CE

LTE-M, LoRaWAN, GPRS/EDGE-based GSM, SIGFOX,

capable of outperforming humans in many areas, including

and the recently completed NarrowBand IoT (NB-IoT) [12].

finance [2], healthcare [3], and entertainment [4]. Capabil-

The latter three of the above are characterized by tens of

ities to process large volumes of unstructured, diverse, and

kilometers of coverage range, high energy-efficiency, and

AC

low-cost radio design, thus making them technology can-

our everyday life and make intelligent decision-making sys-

didates for big data collection in the future Internet of

tems an essential component of the contemporary ICT

Things (IoT) landscape [13–16].

landscape.

Together with higher penetration of low-cost and low-

∗ Corresponding traffic smart meters and actuators, the forthcoming IoT

Author.

∗∗ The publication was supported by the Ministry of Education and systems will also observe the growing impact of multimedia

Science of the Russian Federation (project No. 2.882.2017/4.6). big data [17], especially those collected by massive video

Email addresses: begishev_vo@rudn.university (Vyacheslav surveillance systems deployed for security and safety pur-

Begishev), vitaly.petrov@tut.fi (Vitaly Petrov),

poses [18, 19]. Located in both publicly-accessible and

andrey.samuylov@tut.fi (Andrey Samuylov),

dmitri.moltchanov@tut.fi (Dmitri Moltchanov), restricted areas, the surveillance cameras may deliver to

sergey.andreev@tut.fi (Sergey Andreev), the big data analytics servers the types of information

evgeni.kucheryavy@tut.fi (Yevgeni Koucheryavy), that trivial sensors are not capable of producing. Same

samuylov_ke@rudn.university (Konstantin Samouylov)

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

as smart meters, surveillance cameras may be deployed our study, we advocate for the third strategy as the most

across a larger area (e.g., a factory, plant, or city block) appropriate in the heterogeneous traffic scenarios as well

and placed in locations where wired connectivity is not fea- as demonstrate how to best parametrize it for particular

sible due to technical or economic reasons, such as lamp- IoT traffic patterns.

posts, walls, and roofs of buildings. Meanwhile, the exist- The main contributions of our work are therefore the

ing 4G and 4G+ machine-type communications solutions following:

cannot fully support the scalability and reliability require-

ments of such massive video surveillance due to insufficient • We demonstrate that static resource sharing between

capacity for video streaming purposes. Hence, the use of LTE and NB-IoT is highly sensitive to the offered

long-range high-rate (naturally, cellular) wireless technolo- traffic load. To achieve the optimal performance,

gies becomes the primary viable option. the allocations need to be dynamically updated ac-

The combination of two or more heterogeneous big data cording to immediate traffic fluctuations. The latter

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streams is one of the key features in 5G mobile networks, requires precise knowledge of the arrival patterns,

which increases the intelligence and reliability of decision- which may not be available in practice;

IP

making and, consequently, unleashes the full potential of • We confirm that dynamic resource sharing between

the IoT [20, 21]. For instance, intrusion or fire detection LTE and NB-IoT drastically improves the overall

signals reported by a group of smart meters may be im-

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system performance. However, it does not auto-

mediately cross-verified against the video monitoring infor- matically provide any performance guarantees to the

mation. At the same time, the collection of such hetero- over-the-top services and may unpredictably degrade

geneous big data poses a number of specific resource man- performance, especially when the offered traffic load

agement related challenges, where the reliability of data

streams plays a key role [22]. This need has been recently

recognized by 3GPP with the ratification of a dedicated in-

band deployment mode in LTE Rel. 13 [23–25], where the

“conventional” LTE radio – that can be used for large-

US across sub-systems is non-uniform;

• We illustrate that the introduction of minimal re-

source guarantees on top of dynamic resource sharing

between LTE and NB-IoT alleviates the problem of

AN

scale video surveillance [26] – shares the radio spectrum system performance degradation, while keeping the

with the emerging NB-IoT technology for low-end sensor network-centric metrics at adequate levels.

traffic [27]. Today, this combination receives significant

support from industry and is predicted to become one of The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Sec-

tion 2, a model of the envisioned IoT system that serves

M

in various IoT applications [28–31]. both NB-IoT and LTE traffic is outlined. The proposed

However, even by offering the needed flexibility in how performance analysis is conducted in Section 3. Numerical

radio resources may be shared between LTE and NB-IoT assessment is further summarized in Section 4. Conclu-

ED

technologies, 3GPP does not provide specific guidelines on sions are drawn in the last section.

how these resources should be shared. Meanwhile, assum-

ing the limited amounts of radio resources owned by the 2. Proposed System Model

IoT service provider, the choice of the best resource allo-

PT

cation strategy for both (i) a smaller number of high-rate In this section, we first introduce our model of a surveil-

video cameras and (ii) a larger number of low-rate smart lance operator that establishes heterogeneous monitoring

meters will have significant implications on the decision- services in LTE bands by using both LTE and NB-IoT ca-

CE

making accuracy as well as the overall system performance. pabilities. Then, we proceed with formalizing the deploy-

Along these lines, one has to carefully balance the analytics- ment and traffic processes, the resource allocation strate-

centric metrics, such as the session loss probability for in- gies, as well as the metrics of interest. The notation used

dividual data streams, with the network-centric metrics, in this paper is summarized in Table 1.

AC

is extremely convoluted, since these objectives are inher- 2.1. Considered Surveillance Service

ently conflicting, while the instantaneous values of data In this work, we consider an operator planning its area

volumes are hard to predict. surveillance system. The system to be deployed is a hybrid

In this paper, we target to resolve the above chal- solution consisting of (i) multiple video cameras to perform

lenges by contributing an analytical framework for per- video monitoring, (ii) a large number of sensor nodes for

formance modeling of heterogeneous data collection over intrusion and fire detection as well as for temperature and

a 5G mobile network. Using the developed modeling tool, pressure monitoring, and (iii) big data processing units ca-

we characterize and compare three feasible strategies for pable of detecting certain events by intelligently combining

resource allocation and sharing between LTE and NB-IoT the streams from both the video cameras and the smart

sub-systems, namely, static, dynamic, and dynamic with meters, see Fig. 1.

reservations. We also illustrate the related scaling laws of Since wired or Wi-Fi connectivity is not always avail-

their operation in typical usage scenarios. As a result of able for the outdoor cameras (e.g., those monitoring large

2

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

Dedicated network

spectrum resource Radio resources

with network slicing Data analytics servers

Dynamic separation

Heterogeneous subject to resource

data sources allocation strategy LTE/NB-IoT Operator’s cloud network

base station

T

Figure 1: Considered system design in a nutshell.

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Table 1: Notation used in this paper.

ing of acquired spectrum resources between the two types

Parameter Description of end nodes, surveillance cameras and NB-IoT sensors,

C Number of basic channels thus raising the key question of efficient resource alloca-

CR

S Number of RBs in a cell

c Number of basic channels in a single RB tion. Here, the reliability of both traffic streams becomes

λ Intensity of NB-IoT session arrivals of primary importance since the processing server may sur-

λ(1) Intensity of NB-IoT session arrivals per device vive without some of the sensed data, but cannot make in-

NN Number of connected NB-IoT devices

formed decisions if the entire stream becomes temporarily

US

θ Mean NB-IoT session volume

ν Intensity of LTE session arrivals unavailable (i.e., the amount of received data drops under

ν (1) Intensity of LTE session arrivals per device

NL Number of connected LTE devices

a certain limit). One of the possible examples here is a fire

1/µ Mean LTE session duration detection system, which is deployed across a certain area

ρ = λθ NB-IoT offered traffic load where any false positive alert is extremely costly (e.g., an

AN

a = ν/µ LTE offered traffic load

RN Number of basic channels reserved for NB-IoT industrial factory). Hence, if the processing unit gener-

RL Number of basic channels reserved for LTE ates a fire alert from smoke/temperature sensor readings,

c(m) Number of channels currently occupied by NB-IoT

CL Maximal number of channels allocated for LTE it needs to first cross-check it with the video monitoring

CN Maximal number of channels allocated for NB-IoT channel (video stream from a camera nearby), and only

M

d Number of channels required by one LTE session

when confirmed announce the emergency evacuation.

M Maximum number of NB-IoT sessions in RB To address the above issues, we first introduce our sys-

m(t) Number of active NB-IoT sessions at time t tem model and then proceed with formalizing the candi-

n(t) Number of active LTE sessions at time t

date resource allocation and sharing strategies.

ED

p(m, n) Probability of having m NB-IoT and n LTE sessions

G(X ) Normalization constant

pN NB-IoT session loss probability

2.2. Deployment and Traffic Processes

pL LTE session loss probability We consider an LTE cell of circular coverage area with

BN , BL Loss sets of NB-IoT/LTE sessions

a base station located in its center. Recall that the cover-

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E[TN ] Mean NB-IoT session duration age radius of the cell for LTE service is much smaller as

E[NN ], E[NL ] Mean number of NB-IoT/LTE sessions compared to the coverage range of NB-IoT service. The

E[bN ], E[bL ] Mean number of occupied channels by NB-IoT/LTE

E[sN ], E[sL ] Mean number of occupied RBs by NB-IoT/LTE entire set of available radio resources is measured in terms

CE

E[bN L ] Mean number of occupied channels by NB-IoT+LTE of its smallest granularity, termed an NB-IoT channel. In

what follows, we name it the basic channel. There are C

NB-IoT channels available in the uplink direction that can

be characterized as C = cS, where S is the number of re-

parking spots), LTE is assumed as a connectivity option

AC

for surveillance cameras. Connected sensors and smart

in a single RB [33].

meters are assumed to communicate via NB-IoT as one

There are in total NL connected LTE devices and NN

of the most prominent technologies for long-range IoT ap-

connected NB-IoT devices in the modeled scenario. The

plications that receives global standardization support. In

session arrival process at an LTE device is Poisson in na-

addition, the envisioned combination of radio solutions can

ture with the intensity of ν (1) . Hence, the aggregate LTE

effectively coexist within the same network. Since both

session arrival process is also Poisson having the inten-

technologies operate in the licensed bands, a reliability-

sity of ν = ν (1) NL . Duration of a session is assumed to

oriented service provider may acquire a certain frequency

be distributed exponentially with the mean of 1/µ, while

resource from the network operator via e.g., network slic-

the number of requested basic channels is exactly d. Let

ing mechanisms [32] in order to guarantee uninterrupted

a = ν/µ denote the offered traffic load over LTE. Simi-

and predictable service operation regardless of the actual

larly, NB-IoT sessions arrive according to the Poisson pro-

loading on other operator’s spectrum bands.

cess having the intensity of λ = λ(1) NN , where λ(1) is

3

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RN=CN

CN > RN > 0

RL = 0, CL = C

RN = 0, CN = C

RL=CL=C-CN

CL > RL > 0

T

a) static b) fully dynamic c) dynamic with reservation

IP

Figure 2: Considered resource allocations strategies.

the intensity of NB-IoT session arrivals per an individual A unique property of the considered model is that the

CR

connected device. Each arrival is characterized by an ex- basic channels are assumed to be scheduled sequentially by

ponentially distributed data volume with the mean of 1/θ taking into account the features of in-band NB-IoT tech-

and requires exactly b basic channels. We also let ρ = λθ nology [34, 35]. This process is illustrated in Fig. 3. Ac-

denote the offered traffic load over NB-IoT. Similarly to cordingly, consider a system with no active sessions and

the LTE sessions, NB-IoT devices are assumed to remain

static throughout the entire duration of their session.

USassume that a new NB-IoT session arrives. In this case,

a new RB is made available to NB-IoT, where the arrival

occupies exactly b NB-IoT basic channels for the exponen-

tially distributed service time. From now on, new NB-IoT

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session arrivals occupy the reminding channels in this RB.

The considered resource allocation and sharing strate-

Further, upon a new NB-IoT session arrival, if all of the

gies between LTE cameras and NB-IoT metering sensors

channels in an RB already scheduled for NB-IoT are oc-

are illustrated in Fig. 2. Here, the maximum number of

cupied, there is another free RB accessible for the NB-IoT

basic channels that can be allocated for NB-IoT and LTE

M

are CN = C − RL and CL = C − RN , respectively. RL

and RN are the minimum number of channels that are al-

2.4. Metrics of Interest

ways available and guaranteed for LTE and NB-IoT traffic,

In this paper, we assume that the surveillance system

ED

allocation strategies: operator targets to balance the service reliability and the

system performance metrics in the uplink direction. In

• Static (STAT). This case corresponds to the situa- terms of the service parameters, we consider the session

tion where the minimum and maximum numbers of drop probability – the probability that a new session is

PT

basic channels allocated to NB-IoT and LTE coin- dropped due to the insufficient amount of available radio

cide, such that RL = CL and RN = CN . In other resources – for both NB-IoT and LTE sessions. As an

words, all of the resources are strictly divided be- example of the system performance indicator pertaining to

CE

tween NB-IoT and LTE and no resources are shared the economic factors of running the service, we concentrate

between them. on the radio resource utilization – the ergodic fraction of

radio resources jointly occupied by both types of service

• Dynamic (DYN). In this case, no minimum amount in frequency–time domain.

of resources are allocated to both NB-IoT and LTE,

AC

of resources CL = CR = C and the entire set is fully 3. Performance Evaluation Model

shared between NB-IoT and LTE traffic. In this section, we formalize and solve the model of

• Dynamic with reservations (DYNRES). In this case, the introduced service. We first represent the number of

the maximum allocations allowed for NB-IoT and NB-IoT and LTE sessions in the system by using a two-

LTE are determined, such that CN = C − RL > 0 dimensional Markov process. We further demonstrate that

and CL = C − RN for some RN > 0, RL > 0, rep- our model allows for an analytical solution in case of the

resenting the minimum amounts of resources exclu- equilibrium state probabilities. Finally, we proceed with

sively assigned to NB-IoT and LTE traffic, respec- deriving the metrics of interest. We would also like to

tively. The rest of the resources are shared between note that the evaluation methodology developed below is

the two types of traffic. sufficiently flexible to be adjusted to any cellular IoT tech-

nology, should it have radio resource management similar

4

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

to that employed by LTE. As an example, the LTE plus process, {m(t), n(t), t > 0}, over the following state-space

NB-IoT deployment studied in this paper may be replaced

with the LTE plus LTE-M [36] or LTE-M plus NB-IoT X = {m ≥ 0, n ≥ 0 :

setup by adjusting the corresponding numerical parame- nd ≤ C − RN , c(m) ≤ C − RL , nd + c(m) ≤ C}, (1)

ters.

where c(m) = cdbm/M e is the number of basic channels

occupied by the NB-IoT sessions, M is the maximum num-

3.1. Analytical Model of Service

ber of NB-IoT sessions that can be served in a single RB,

M = dc/be, and bm is the number of basic channels re-

quired to serve these sessions.

It is easy to see that {m(t), n(t), t > 0} is Markov in

nature. The generic state of the state transition diagram

with the associated transition rates is illustrated in Fig. 4.

T

Let p(m, n)(t), {m, n} ∈ X , be the probability of having m

IP

NB-IoT and n LTE sessions in the system at an arbitrary

time t. Due to the lossy nature of the system, there is

always stationary state distribution

CR

p(m, n) = lim p(m, n)(t), {m, n} ∈ X . (2)

t→∞

US

Figure 4: Generic state and related transitions of {m(t), n(t), t > 0}.

To derive the local balance equations, consider an ar-

bitrary contour in the state transition diagram demon-

strated in Fig. 5. First, as one may observe, the pro-

cess {m(t), n(t), t > 0} is reversible, which implies that

AN

the stationary state distribution satisfies the local balance

The system described in Section 2 can be modeled by equations

using a mixed service queuing system with two arrival pro- m

cesses having different block-based service disciplines, re- p(m, n) = p(m − 1, n)λ, m > 0, (m, n) ∈ X ,

θ

spectively [37]. Observe that the system permits for losses

M

of both NB-IoT and LTE sessions. Note that similar queu-

ing models have been heavily studied in the past in the con- Using the recurrence form in (3), we obtain for m > 0

text of servicing systems with multiple inputs each charac-

ED

p(m, n) = p(m − 1, n) =

The key difference in the model formulated and solved m

ρ

below is in the complex sequential block-based resource = p(m − 1, n) =

allocation strategy. m

ρ2

PT

LTE session is accepted if at least d out of CL = C − RN m(m − 1)

channels are available at the moment of its arrival. This ρ3

decreases the number of available basic channels by d and = p(m − 3, n) , (4)

m(m − 1)(m − 2)

CE

dd/ce is always an integer, such that dd/ce ≥ 1. Oth- which leads to

erwise, the LTE session is dropped. In case of NB-IoT

arrivals, if upon an arrival of a session there is already an ρm

AC

RB scheduled for NB-IoT and the number of basic chan- p(m, n) = p(0, n) =

m(m − 1)(m − 2) . . . 1

nels in this RB is higher than b, then the NB-IoT session ρm

is accepted to this RB. If the number of available basic = p(0, n), (5)

m!

channels is lower than b and a new RB is available for the

NB-IoT traffic, then this RB is scheduled for NB-IoT and where m > 0, (m, n) ∈ X .

the session is accepted, thus decreasing the number of ba- Using (3), we can also establish p(0, n) as

sic channels in this RB by b. In other cases, the NB-IoT a

session is dropped. p(0, n) = p(0, n − 1) =

n

Let m(t), t > 0, and n(t), t > 0, define the numbers of a2

active NB-IoT and LTE sessions, respectively. Hence, the = p(0, n − 2) = ... =

n(n − 1)

system state of the LTE cell serving both NB-IoT and LTE

an

traffic can be described by a two-dimensional stochastic = p(0, 0), n > 0, (m, n) ∈ X . (6)

n!

5

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

[

C − RN RN

BL = m, :0≤m≤

d b

[

RL C − RN C − (n + 1)d C − nd

(m, n) : ≤n≤ − 1, +1≤m≤ . (17)

d d b b

Substituting (5) and (6) into (3), we produce Define the following division of the state space X

ρm an S

[

p (m, n) = G−1 (X ) , (7) X = Xs , (15)

m! n!

T

s=0

where the normalization constant G(X ) is given by

where Xs = {(m, n) ∈ X : c(m) = sc}.

IP

X ρm an The proposed division of the state space is shown in

G(X ) = . (8)

m! n! Fig. 6. Here, we also illustrate the subspaces correspond-

(m,n)∈X

ing to the blocking states of LTE and NB-IoT sessions.

CR

Knowing the stationary state distribution of the system

provided in (7) and (8) and operating over (15), the sought

blocking probabilities specified in (12) follow readily. Par-

ticularly, using (15) the blocking subspaces for the LTE

AN

∪ {(m, n) ∈ X : (n + 1)d > C − RN } =

S

[

= {X : (n + 1)d > C − max(c(m), RN ), c(m) = sc} =

Figure 5: Existence of local balance equations. s=0

S

[

M

C − max(sc, RN ) mb

= X :n+1> , =s =

3.3. Performance Metrics s=0

d c

[

The drop probability for LTE and NB-IoT may be writ- C − RN RN

= X :n= ,0≤m≤

ED

ten as d b

X X [S

pN = p(m, n); pL = p(m, n), (12) C − max(sc, RN ) mb

X :n= , s−1< <s ,

(m,n)∈BN (m,n)∈BL s=0

d c

PT

(16)

where the associated sets are

and, finally, the sought subspace takes the form of (17),

BL = {(m, n) ∈ X : d(n + 1) > C − max(c(m), RN )} , thus leading to the following LTE session blocking proba-

CE

(13)

j k

RN

The mean session duration of an NB-IoT sessions is b

X

AC

P C − RN

pL = p m, +

(m,n)∈X mp(m, n) d

E[TN ] = . (14) m=0

λ (1 − pN ) C−RN

d X−1 b C−nd

Xb c

The calculation of session drop probabilities in (12) + p(m, n). (18)

by directly applying (13) is computationally expensive. R

n= dL m=b

C−(n+1)d

b c+1

The reason is that the state space of the system is rather

large and may reach the value of few tens of thousands.

To alleviate this limitation, we develop a dedicated nu-

merical algorithm based on a recurrent relation between

non-normalized probabilities of macro states that is briefly

sketched below.

6

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

[

C − RL c RL C − mb RN C − RL c

BN = ,n : 0 ≤ n ≤ (m, n) : n = , ≤m≤ . (20)

c b d d b c b

C − max( sc, RN )

d bCN /bc b[CL −c(m)]/dc

X X X

E[NN ] = mp(m, n) = mp(n, m),

BL (m,n)∈X m=0 n=0

...

BN X X X

E[NL ] = np(m, n) = np(m, n). (23)

T

(m,n)∈X m=0 n=0

IP

...

cupied by LTE can now be calculated directly. However,

1 due to the elastic nature of NB-IoT sessions the mean num-

CR

M

... ... ber of NB-IoT sessions and the mean number of channels

0 m

allocated to the NB-IoT sessions need to be established

s =1 s s=S

separately. Particularly, the mean number of RBs allo-

cated to the NB-IoT sessions is

Figure 6: Proposed division of X by macro states.

US E [sN ] =

j

C−RL

X b

k

$

C−max (d M

X

d

e N)

m c, R

%

lmm

p(m, n). (24)

AN

M

BN = {(m, n) ∈ X : c(m + 1) > C − nd } ∪ m=0 n=0

∪ {(m, n) ∈ X : c(m + 1) > C − RL } = The mean number of basic channels occupied by a sin-

S

[ gle NB-IoT session is provided by

= {X : c(m + 1) > C − max(nd, RL ), c(m) = sc} =

M

$ %

s=0 j k C−max (d M e N)

m c, R

d C−RL

RL C − RL c [ X X lmm b

d c b M

ED

m=0 n=0

[S

C − mb max(RN , C − sc) c

X :n= ,m = , The mean number of RBs allocated to the LTE sessions

s=0

d c b

is

(19) $ %

PT

k C−max(d M ec, RN )

m

j

C−RL

thus eventually yielding (20) and resulting in the following Xb

X

d

expressions for the NB-IoT session blocking probability E [sL ] = n p(m, n). (26)

CE

j k m=0 n=0

RL

X d

C − RL c The mean number of channels occupied by the LTE

pN = p ,n +

n=0

c b sessions is

j k $ %

AC

C−RL

c

c

b j k C−max (d M e N)

m c, R

X C − mb C−RL d

b

+ p m, . (21) X X

j

R

k d E[bL ] = d n p(m, n). (27)

m= bN

m=0 n=0

The mean session duration in (14) takes the form of The mean of the total number of the basic channels

$ % occupied by both types of traffic is finally delivered as

j k C−max (d M e N)

m c, R

E [bN L ] = E [bN ] + E [bL ].

RL d

Pd

P m

M p(m, n)

E[TN ] = n=0 n=0

. (22) 4. Numerical Assessment

λ (1 − pN )

In this section, we apply our developed analytical model

to produce the quantitative and qualitative performance

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STAT, γ =0.6

0.40 DYNRES, RL =0.6C We begin with Fig. 7 that presents the camera ses-

Probability of LTE session drop

0.35 STAT, γ =0.8 sion drop probability over LTE as a function of the to-

DYNRES, RL =0.8C tal number of connected NB-IoT sensors in static resource

0.30 DYN

allocation scheme, STAT, where the entire pool of radio

0.25

resources is strictly divided between the two services. For

0.20 this strategy, we introduce a resource division coefficient,

0.15 γ, which characterizes the fraction of resources reserved

0.10 for the NB-IoT service, γ = RN /C. As one may observe,

0.05 the characteristics of STAT strategy depend only on the

0.00 selected γ value, but not on the load from the NB-IoT sen-

0 20K 40K 60K 80K 100K sor nodes due to the hard separation between the resources

Number of NB-IoT devices

T

allocated to LTE and NB-IoT services. The reason is that

STAT strategy constructs two independent virtual wireless

IP

Figure 7: LTE drop probability vs. NB-IoT load.

systems: one for the LTE and another one for the NB-IoT

0.35 traffic. While this strategy is the simplest in terms of its

STAT, γ =0.4 implementation, it can be recommended only for systems

CR

Probability of NB-IoT session drop

STAT, γ =0.2

where the average load from all the concurrent services

0.25 DYNRES, RN =0.8C (i) seldom changes in time, (ii) is known in advance, or

DYN (iii) can be well predicted. Such traffic behavior is rarely

0.20 observed in practice.

0.15

0.10

US In contrast, the drop probability in DYN strategy, where

the entire pool of resources is available to both services,

heavily depends on the current load from the NB-IoT seg-

ment. For lower numbers of connected NB-IoT devices,

AN

0.05

DYN strategy clearly outperforms STAT solution in that

0.00 it makes the full band available to the LTE devices in the

0 100 200 300 400

Number of LTE devices absence of the NB-IoT traffic. The growth of the NB-

IoT traffic is naturally followed by an increase in the drop

M

Figure 8: NB-IoT drop probability vs. LTE load. probability for DYN strategy as the NB-IoT traffic starts

competing for the resources with the constant load com-

ing from the LTE traffic. Finally, with the extremely large

results for the considered system in a characteristic sce- number of NB-IoT devices, sensor traffic begins dominat-

ED

nario. We compare the properties of the discussed resource ing in the shared band. Eventually, the drop probability

allocation strategies by focusing on the underlying scaling becomes higher than that for STAT strategy, regardless of

laws and optimization. Particularly, we first address the the chosen resource division coefficient value. Therefore,

performance of service-related metrics that concentrate on DYN resource allocation strategy can be recommended

PT

LTE and NB-IoT session drop probabilities. Then, we ana- for systems where the average loads demanded by each

lyze operator-centric resource utilization metrics. Finally, stream (measured in Hz/s) are comparable. At the same

we demonstrate the process of adjusting the selected strat- time, DYN strategy remains an adequate solution for un-

egy by taking into account the requirements of data ana-

CE

lytics servers. The parameters of the system constructed or when one of the streams is dominating the other(s).

in what follows are summarized in Table 2. Finally, we study the third strategy, DYNRES, where

Table 2: System parameters in numerical analysis. particular sets of resources are exclusively allocated for the

AC

Par. Description Value

between them. The values of RL are chosen proportional

C Number of basic channels in one LTE cell 100

c Number of basic channels in one RB 4 to the corresponding γ values in the previously considered

RN Number of channels reserved for NB-IoT [0, ..., 100] STAT resource allocation strategy, RL = γC, whereas RN

RL Number of channels reserved for LTE [0, ..., 100] is assumed to be zero. In other words, we compare the

b Number of channels for NB-IoT session 1 static and semi-dynamic allocation options in similar con-

d Number of channels for LTE session 4 ditions. Here, we observe that for the low numbers of NB-

θ Mean NB-IoT session traffic 100 kbit IoT devices, the characteristics of DYNRES strategy are

1/µ Mean LTE session duration 10 s

identical to those observed for DYN alternative. However,

λ(1) Session arrival rate per NB-IoT device 10/min.

an increase in the drop probability for DYNRES is much

ν (1) Session arrival rate per LTE device 1/min.

slower than the corresponding trend for DYN. The reason

is that a part of resources that the LTE traffic could have

occupied is protected by the dynamic separation induced

8

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100 100

95

Radio resource utilization, %

90 90

85

80

80

75

70

STAT, γ =0.6 70 STAT, γ =0.4

DYNRES, RL =0.6C DYNRES, RN .C

=0 6

60 STAT, γ =0.8 65 STAT, γ =0.2

DYNRES, RL =0.8C

60 DYNRES, RN .C

=0 8

DYN DYN

50 55

0 20K 40K 60K 80K 100K 0 100 200 300 400

Number of NB-IoT devices Number of LTE devices

T

IP

Figure 9: Resource utilization vs. NB-IoT load. Figure 10: Resource utilization vs. LTE load.

CR

by RL . Further, for higher loads of NB-IoT traffic, the 4.2. System-Level Performance

LTE drop probability for DYNRES never climbs higher After discussing the reliability performance of the con-

than the respective value for the system with STAT strat- sidered strategies, we focus on the system-centric metrics

egy. For extremely high numbers of NB-IoT devices, the and, particularly, the resource utilization.

curve for DYNRES asymptotically approaches the curve

for STAT, but never crosses it.

Summarizing, the performance of DYNRES strategy

is never worse than that of STAT and DYN strategies.

US To this end, Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 display the average re-

source utilization for the parameters employed to construct

Fig. 7 and Fig. 9, respectively. Using this parametrization,

we learn the scaling laws of the resource utilization value

AN

The explanation is in that DYNRES strategy combines versus both LTE and NB-IoT loads. Studying Fig. 9 and

the strengths of the first two, thus behaving similarly to Fig. 10, we observe that the results are opposite to those

DYN strategy at low loads and similarly to STAT strat- reported by Fig. 7 and Fig. 8. Here, DYN strategy clearly

egy at high loads. Hence, DYNRES strategy can be rec- outperforms all its competitors due to a more aggressive re-

ommended to improve reliability-centric operation. Then, source allocation mechanism: any available RB is immedi-

M

the question of interest is appropriate parametrization of ately granted when requested by any type of traffic. Mean-

the selected strategy. while, STAT strategy demonstrates worse performance as

In more detail, we study an orthogonal cut in Fig. 8 the dominating traffic from one service can never be of-

ED

that presents the NB-IoT session drop probability versus fered resources reserved for another service, even when the

the total number of connected LTE devices. Similarly to latter is currently underloaded. Finally, DYNRES strat-

the previous case, we parametrize DYNRES strategy in a egy demonstrates the median behavior by “cuddling” the

way that the number of resources reserved for NB-IoT in DYN curve at low loads and asymptotically approaching

PT

STAT and DYNRES cases match perfectly. It is important the STAT curve at high loads.

to note that in this case, RN is equal to (1 − γ)C instead

of γC. The values of RL are assumed to be zero. For 4.3. Adjustment of Strategies

such a symmetric case, we observe identical qualitative

CE

behavior with that in Fig. 7. However, there are noticeable Applying our intuition developed in the course of the

quantitative differences between Fig. 7 and Fig. 8. The first two parts of the conducted numerical study, we now

values of NB-IoT drop probability are orders of magnitude consider a more practical scenario: setting dynamic thresh-

lower that those observed for LTE. This is mainly due to olds for the discussed traffic types depending on the re-

AC

lower resource demands of an individual NB-IoT session, quirements as defined by the data analytics algorithms.

hence leading to higher chances of getting served even in These requirements are expressed in terms of the LTE and

a near fully loaded system. In addition, the way NB-IoT NB-IoT drop probabilities. For this study, we disregard

channels are allocated in the in-band mode also favors the DYN strategy as it does not provide the means to achieve

sensor traffic. Indeed, the LTE sessions occupy an integer performance guarantees. Hence, we offer a comparison be-

number of RBs, while the NB-IoT traffic acquires a full RB tween STAT and DYNRES strategies.

even though a single session does not occupy it completely. To parametrize the resource allocation strategies, we

Therefore, the next several NB-IoT sessions will definitely first determine the maximum tolerable level of drop prob-

be served, since the remaining part of the already allocated ability for the LTE and NB-IoT services. Here, we set this

RB cannot be occupied by any LTE stream. Regardless value to 1% for both types of traffic. We then apply our

of the quantitative values for the LTE traffic, DYNRES framework described in Section 3 to determine the mini-

system always wins the competition. mum and maximum values of γ, γmin , and γmax required

to “protect” the traffic streams from each other. We also

9

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

10-1 46.70

10-2 46.65

Session drop probability

10-3

46.60

10-4

46.55

10-5

46.50

10-6

46.45

10-7 STAT, LTE session DYNRES, LTE session

STAT, NB-IoT session DYNRES, NB-IoT session STAT DYNRES

10-8 46.40 0.56 0.58 0.60 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.70

0.56 0.58 0.60 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.70

STAT strategy LTE resource share STAT strategy LTE resource share

T

IP

Figure 11: Drop probability vs. resource division coefficient, γ. Figure 12: Resource utilization vs. resource division coefficient, γ.

CR

set the same resource division coefficients for DYNRES

strategy, such that RL = γmin C, while RN = (1 − γmax )C. ence is on the order of few percents and is accompanied

For the selected drop probability thresholds and the cho- by the considerably higher reliability levels, since the drop

sen stream loads, 50 LTE-connected video cameras and probabilities for DYNRES in such extreme conditions are

30K NB-IoT sensors, the resource division coefficient val- an order of magnitude lower than those achievable with

ues are γmin = 0.55 and γmax = 0.7. In other words, 55%

or resources have to be allocated exclusively to the LTE

segment, while 30% more resources are to be “protected”

US DYN, see Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.

5. Conclusions

AN

for the NB-IoT sessions. The question of interest is how to

efficiently share the resources between the γ values, 15% In this paper, we studied efficient collection of hetero-

in our case. geneous data over an IoT wireless network. We partic-

Targeting to answer the above question, we compare ularly focused on the simultaneous transmission of high-

STAT strategy, where γ ∈ [γmin , γmax ] with DYNRES al- rate video streams coming from LTE-connected surveil-

M

ternative, where the available common resources are dy- lance cameras and low-rate sensory data collected from

namically shared between the streams depending on their numerous NB-IoT-connected devices (considering the in-

instantaneous loads. Fig. 11 presents an analytics-centric band LTE/NB-IoT deployment). We thus developed an

ED

study of the drop probabilities for both LTE and NB-IoT analytical performance evaluation framework that captures

streams, while Fig. 12 focuses on the resource utilization both service- and network-centric metrics of interest as

analysis. Regarding Fig. 11, we notice that DYNRES is well as considers the peculiarities of resource sharing be-

preferred over STAT: there is a very “narrow” operational tween LTE and NB-IoT transmissions. Finally, by ex-

PT

regime (γ ≤ 0.56), where NB-IoT drop probability for ample of a surveillance operator implementing a complex

STAT is lower than that for DYNRES (0.5·10−6 vs. 10−6 ). monitoring system for further data processing, we evalu-

At the same time, this slight advantage is compensated by ated three alternative resource sharing strategies between

a considerable loss in the LTE session drop probability: multimedia and sensory data.

CE

10−2 for STAT vs. only 0.5 · 10−3 for DYNRES. Mean- Our numerical study demonstrated that the simplest

while, any higher values of γ lead to much worse perfor- STAT strategy with complete isolation between services

mance of STAT in terms of both probabilities. by strictly assigning resources to them is highly sensitive

Finally, we focus on the resource utilization curves in to the offered load and requires precise knowledge of the

AC

the same conditions, as shown by Fig. 12. Here, we ob- traffic through dynamic updates to achieve the desired

serve that DYNRES clearly outperforms STAT for all of performance. We also revealed that DYN strategy with

the allowed values of γ. Despite this fact, the quantitative the fully dynamic allocation, on the one hand, achieves

difference is not massive and we can still conclude that the highest system throughput, but on the other hand,

DYNRES resource allocation strategy is the best option for cannot guarantee any demanded service reliability. Our

the considered heterogeneous data collection system under preferred dynamic allocation strategy with resource reser-

both stable and time-varying loads. With adequate selec- vation, DYNRES, allows for satisfying the feasible relia-

tion of RL and RN parameters, DYNRES always performs bility requirements defined by the needs of big data ana-

better than STAT. At the same time, there is a single load lytics, while keeping the resource utilization at high lev-

regime, where DYNRES is worse than DYN in terms of els. The proposed DYNRES strategy is therefore recom-

the resource utilization: a clear domination of one type of mended for the forthcoming IoT deployments over 5G mo-

traffic over another one, e.g., extreme load from LTE and bile networks.

10

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

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