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COMMUNICATION ARTS 2

ENG102

THE SENTENCE
A set of words that is complete in itself, typically containing a subject and predicate, conveying a statement,
question, exclamation, or command, and consisting of a main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate
clauses.

BASIC PARTS OF A SENTENCE

 SUBJECT
The word subject includes several meanings:
- It may be that which is identified or spoken about.
- The subject is that “to or for” whom the action is performed.
- That subject is “that which undergoes an action”.
- It is “that which is described”.

 PREDICATE

The predicate is the part of a sentence (or clause) that tells us what the subject does or is. To put it another
way, the predicate is everything that is not the subject.

 CLAUSE

A clause in grammar is a subject plus a verb. The subject is the entity “doing” the action of the sentence
and the verb is the action that subject completes. There are two of principal kinds of clause;

Dependent Clause – a group of words that also contains a subject and a verb, but it is not a complete thought, a
dependent clause cannot stand on its own; it is dependent on being attached to an independent clause to form a
sentence.

Dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. Below are some of the most common subordinating
conjunctions:

 after  though
 although  unless
 as  until
 because  when
 before  whenever
 even though  whereas
 if  wherever
 since  while

Independent Clause - An independent clause is a group of words with a subject and a predicate. It
expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.

 PHRASE

A phrase is a grammatical term referring to a group of words that does not include a subject and
verb.
Example: after the meal.
In the air.
Different Types of Phrase

 Noun Phrase - a noun and any words in the sentence that modify it. Words that can modify
nouns include articles (a, an, the), adjectives, participles and possessive pronoun. A noun phrase
can be a single word-just the noun-or more than one word.
Example: A yellow house.
A skate board.
The glistening snow.
 Verb Phrase - A verb phrase consists of a main verb alone, or a main verb plus any modal and/or
auxiliary verbs.
Example: We all laughed.
 Adverbial Phrase - An adverb phrase is simply two or more words that act as an adverb. It can
modify a verb, adverb, or adjective and can tell “how”, “where”, “why”, or “when.”
Example: Bob nodded as if he understood.
Meet me at the mall.
She went online for more information.
We will reconvene on the 25th of next month.
 Gerund Phrase – A gerund phrases are essentially noun phrases that begin with a gerund.
Example: running through the woods
jumping like a kangaroo
 Prepositional Phrase - A prepositional phrase will begin with a preposition and end with
a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, the "object" of the preposition.
Example: At home.
Under the warm blanket.

CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCE
I. According to Purpose
Declarative sentence - A declarative sentence states a fact and ends with a
period.
Imperative sentence - An imperative sentence is a command or a polite request.
It ends with an exclamation mark or a period
Interrogative sentence - An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with
a question mark.
Exclamatory sentence - An exclamatory sentence expresses excitement or
emotion. It ends with an exclamation mark.

II. According to Syntax/Structures


Simple sentence - A simple sentence has the most basic elements that make it a sentence: a
subject, a verb, and a completed thought. A simple sentence can also be referred to as
an independent clause.

Example: Joe waited for the train.

Compound sentence - A compound sentence refers to a sentence made up of two independent


clauses (or complete sentences) connected to one another with a coordinating conjunction.
Coordinating conjunctions are easy to remember if you think of the words "FAN BOYS": (For,
And, Nor, But, Or, Yet and So)

Example: Joe waited for the train, but the train was late.

Complex Sentence - A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and one or


more dependent clauses connected to it.

Example: Both the cockroach and the bird get along very well without us, although the
cockroach would miss us most.

Compound-Complex Sentence - A compound-complex sentence has at least two


independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.

Example: I stopped believing in Santa Claus when he asked for my autograph in a department
store, but I still want to believe in him.

III. According to Form


Periodic sentence is a form of sentence where the core idea or the main thought is not
completed until the final word.
Cumulative sentence is a form of sentence wherein the subject and the verb are stated early
and whatever additional modifier qualifications or exemptions are just added.
Balance sentence, the structure and the phrasing of the second clause is considered as
repetition of the first clause. This sentence is just one sentence possessing two balance
elements.