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Mass Balance in a flowing Fluid

Equation of Continuity
Mass Flux (ρv)
(ρ y+∆∆y
ρu

(ρw)
(ρ z+∆∆z

∆y (ρu)
(ρ x+∆∆x
(ρu)
(ρ x

∆z
(ρw)
(ρ z
∆x
(ρv)
(ρ y

In any element of fluid the mass balance is given by:

Rate of mass flow in – Rate of mass flow out = Rate of mass accumulation
The mass flux in x direction = (ρ
ρu)x
The mass flow rate in = (ρ
ρu)x∆y∆
∆z
The mass flow rate out x direction= (ρ
ρu)x+∆∆x∆y∆
∆z
The rate of mass accumulation in x direction =

ρu)x∆y∆
∆z - (ρ
ρu)x+∆∆x∆y∆
∆z 1

Similarly
The rate of mass accumulation in y direction =

ρv)y∆x∆
∆z - (ρ
ρv)y+∆∆y∆x∆
∆z 2

The rate of mass accumulation in z direction =



ρw)z∆x∆
∆y - (ρ
ρw)z+∆∆z∆x∆
∆y 3
Rate of mass accumulation in control volume =
∆x∆
∆y∆
∆z(δρ
δρ δt)
δρ/δ
From equations 1, 2 and 3
∆x∆
∆y∆
∆z(δρ
δρ δt) =[(ρρu)x∆y∆
δρ/δ ∆z - (ρ
ρu)x+∆∆x∆y∆
∆z]
+[(ρ
ρv)y∆x∆ ∆z - (ρ
ρv)y+∆∆y∆x∆
∆z] +[(ρ
ρw)z∆x∆
∆y -
4

ρw)z+∆∆z∆x∆
∆y]
Dividing both sides by ∆x∆∆y∆ ∆z
(δρ
δρ δt) =[(ρρu)x - (ρρu)x+∆∆x]/∆x
δρ/δ
+[(ρ ρv)y+∆∆y]/∆y +[(ρ
ρv)y - (ρ ρw)z+∆∆z ]/∆z
ρw)z - (ρ
5
Taking limits as ∆x, ∆y and ∆z approach zero
gives differential equation of conservation of
Mass in a fluid as:
δρ δt = - [δ
δρ/δ δ(ρρu)/ δx +δ
δ(ρρv)/δy + δ(ρρw)/δz] 6
In a vector form:
δρ δt = Vρ
δρ/δ ρV 7

This is also known as equation of continuity


δρ δt = - [ρ δu/δx + u δρ/δx + ρ δv/δy + v δρ/δy
δρ/δ
+ ρ δw/δz + w δρ/δz ] 8

δρ δt + u δρ/δx + v δρ/δy + w δρ/δz = - ρ [ δu/δx


δρ/δ
+ δv/δy + δw/δz ] 9
δρ δt + u δρ/δx + v δρ/δy + w δρ/δz = Dρ
δρ/δ ρ/Dt
Substantial Derivative

ρ/Dt = - ρ [ δu/δx + δv/δy + δw/δz ] 10

For incompressible fluid: Dρ


ρ/Dt = 0
- ρ [ δu/δx + δv/δy + δw/δz] = 0

δu/δx + δv/δy + δw/δz = 0 11

For two dimensional flow: δu/δx + δv/δy = 0 12

For one dimensional flow: δu/δx = 0 13


Shell balance for mass flow
2
Mass flow out = m2
Velocity = v2
Area = A2
Density = ρ2
Diameter = d2

1
Mass flow in = m1 At steady State:
Velocity = v1 Rate of mass flow in = Rate of mass flow out
Area = A1 m1 = m2
Density = ρ1 ρ1v1A1 = ρ2v2A2
Diameter = d1
For incompressible fluid: ρ1 =ρ2 = ρ
v1A1 = v2A2
For circular tube A = πd2/4
V1 = v2 [ d2/d1]2
Example
Crude oil (sp. Gravity = 0.887) flows through a pipeline
as shown in the figure:
A C
10 cm 30 cm 20 cm
B
Q = 6.65 m3/h 20 cm
C

Calculate:
– The mass flow rate in each pipe
– Average velocity in each pipe
– Mass flux in each pipe
Answer

Mass flow rates

Mass flow rate in pipe A = 887*6.65 /3600


= 1.638 kg/s
Mass flow rate in pipe B = 1.638 kg/s
Mass flow rate in pipe C = 1.638/2 = 0.819kg/s
Answer…..
Velocity = Q/A
• Pipe A = 0.235 m/s
• Pipe B = 0.02615 m/s
• Pipe C = 0.02941 m/s

Mass Flux = Mass flow rate/A


• Pipe A = 208.711 kg/m2
• Pipe B = 23.1951
• Pipe C = 26.08667
Momentum Balance in a flowing Fluid

Equation of Motion
(τyx)y+∆∆y

(τzx)z+∆∆z

∆y (τxx)x+∆∆x
(τxx)x

∆z
(τzx)z
∆x
(τyx)y

The basic equation of momentum balance is given by:

Rate of Rate of Rate of Sum of Forces


Momentum
Accumulation
= Momentum
Entering
- Momentum
Leaving
+ acting on the
system
1
• The momentum enters and leaves
the system partially by viscous
action as a result of velocity
gradient and partially by
convection from flow of bulk of
liquid.

• Let
τxx = Normal stress on x face in x
direction
τyx = x-directed tangential stress on
y face resulting from
viscous action
τzx = x-directed tangential stress on
z face resulting from
viscous action
Net flow of momentum into the control
volume element by viscous action :

(ττxx)x∆z∆
∆y - (ττxx)x+∆∆x ∆z∆
∆y
+
(ττyx)y∆z∆
∆x - (ττyx)y+∆∆y ∆z∆
∆x
+
(ττzx)z∆x∆
∆y - (ττzx)z+∆∆z ∆x∆
∆y 2
Pressure force and Gravitational force
per unit mass: resultant in x direction

(Px – Px+∆∆x )∆
∆z∆
∆y + ρgx ∆x∆
∆y∆
∆z 3
Momentum flow due to convection …..
• The rate of x-component of momentum entering at
face x in x direction = (ρuu)x∆y∆z
• The rate of x-component of momentum leaving face
x+∆x in x direction = (ρuu)x+∆x∆y∆z
• The rate of x-component of momentum entering at
face y in y direction = (ρvu)y∆x∆z
• The rate of x-component of momentum leaving face
y+∆y in y direction = (ρvu)y+∆y∆x∆z
• The rate of x-component of momentum entering at
face z in z direction = (ρwu)z∆y∆x
• The rate of x-component of momentum leaving face
z+∆z in z direction = (ρwu)z+∆z∆y∆x
Net flow of momentum into the control
volume due to convection:

[(ρuu)x∆y∆z - (ρuu)x+∆x∆y∆z]
+
[(ρvu)y∆x∆z - (ρvu)y+∆y∆x∆z]
+
[(ρwu)z∆y∆x - (ρwu)z+∆z∆y∆x] 4
The rate of momentum accumulation in
the control volume………….

[δ(ρu)/δt]∆x∆y∆z 5
Substituting eq. 2, 3,4 and 5 in equation 1 ……….

[δ(ρu)/δt]∆x∆y∆z =
[(ττxx)x∆z∆
∆y - (ττxx)x+∆∆x ∆z∆
∆y + (ττyx)y∆z∆∆x –
∆x + (ττzx)z∆x∆
(ττyx)y+∆∆y ∆z∆ ∆y - (ττzx)z+∆∆z ∆x∆
∆y] +
[(ρuu)x∆y∆z - (ρuu)x+∆x∆y∆z] +
[(ρvu)y∆x∆z - (ρvu)y+∆y∆x∆z] +
[(ρwu)z∆y∆x - (ρwu)z+∆z∆y∆x] +
(Px – Px+∆∆x )∆
∆z∆
∆y + ρgx ∆x∆
∆y∆
∆z 6
Dividing equation 6 by ∆x∆y∆z on both sides……….

[δ(ρu)/δt] = [(ττxx)x - (ττxx)x+∆∆x ]/∆x + [(ττyx)y


(ττyx)y+∆∆y ]/∆y + [(ττzx)z- (ττzx)z+∆∆z ]/∆z + [(ρuu)x-
(ρuu)x+∆x]/∆x + [(ρvu)y - (ρvu)y+∆y]/∆y +
[(ρwu)z- (ρwu)z+∆z] /∆z+(Px – Px+∆∆x)/∆x + ρgx
7
Taking limits ∆x, ∆y and ∆z approaching to zero …………..

[δ(ρu)/δt] =-[δ/δx(ττxx)+δ/δy(ττyx)+ δ/δz (ττzx) ]


-[δ/δx(ρuu)+ δ/δy(ρvu)+δ/δz(ρwu) ]- δP/δx
+ ρgx
8

[δ(ρu)/δt] = uδρ/δt + ρδu/δt


[δ(ρu)/δt] = uδρ/δt + ρδu/δt
• From the equation of continuity …………
δρ/δt = -[ρ(δu/δx + δv/δy + δw/δz)
-(uδρ/δx + vδρ/δy + wδρ/δz)] 9

[δ(ρu)/δt]=-[uρ(δu/δx + δv/δy + δw/δz)


-(u2δρ/δx + uvδρ/δy + uwδρ/δz)]+ ρδu/δt
10
δ/δx(ρuu)+ δ/δy(ρvu)+δ/δz(ρwu)
= uρ(δu/δx + δv/δy + δw/δz) +
ρ(uδu/δx + vδu/δy + wδu/δz) +
u(uδρ/δx + vδρ/δy + wδρ/δz) 11

For constant density system ------ZERO


Substituting eq. 10 and 11 in equation 8 ……….

ρδu/δt + ρ(uδu/δx + vδu/δy + wδu/δz) =


-[δ/δx(ττxx)+δ/δy(ττyx)+ δ/δz (ττzx) ] - δP/δx + ρgx
12
For constant viscosity system……….
τxx = -µ(δ
µ(δ δx)
µ(δu/δ
δx(τxx) = -µ(δ
δ/δ µ(δ2u/δ
δx2) similarly………
δy(τxy) = -µ(δ
δ/δ µ(δ2u/δ
δy2) 13

δz(τxz) = -µ(δ
δ/δ µ(δ2u/δ
δz2)
Combining equations 12 and 13 …………….

ρ(δu/δt +uδu/δx + vδu/δy + wδu/δz) =


µ[(δ2u/δ
δx2) + (δ2u/δδy2) + (δ2u/δ
δz2)] - δP/δx
+ ρgx 14
For constant density and constant viscosity
system …………….
ρ(δu/δt +uδu/δx + vδu/δy + wδu/δz) =
µ[(δ2u/δ
δx2) + (δ2u/δ δz2)] - δP/δx + ρgx
δy2) + (δ2u/δ
15

v/ t +uδv/δx
ρ(δv/δt u v/ x + vvδv/δy
v/ y + w
wδv/δz)
v/ z) =
µ[(δ2v/δ
δx2) + (δ2v/δ δz2)] - δP/δy + ρgy
δy2) + (δ2v/δ
16

ρ(δw/δt +uδw/δx + vδw/δy + wδw/δz) =


µ[(δ2w/δ
δx2) + (δ2w/δ δz2)] - δP/δz + ρgx
δy2) + (δ2w/δ
17
Navier- Stokes Equation
In vector form ………

2
ρ DV
Dt = −∇P + µ∇ V + ρ g

For Constant Density and negligible viscosity system (Inviscid)

ρ DV
Dt = −∇P + ρ g
Euler Equation
Mechanical Energy Balance

Bernoulli Equation
Energy balance equation, applied to flowing fluid. Can
be derived on the basis of conservation of energy

Assumptions
• Fluid is incompressible
• Flow through stream tube (Unidirectional flow)
• Neither eddies nor circulation can form within
the stream (Irrotatinal flow)
• Steady flow
• Friction can not develop, so that there is no
dissipation of mechanical energy into heat
Point 2
Bernoulli Equation Pressure= P+∆
∆P
Elevation= Z+∆∆Z
Velocity =u+∆
∆u

Point 1
Pressure= P
∆L
Elevation= Z
Velocity = u
∆Z
Z2 + ∆Z

θ
A ∆L ρ g sinθ
Z

x x

Fluid element traveling the distance ∆L in time ∆t


Bernoulli Equation
• Let
A= Cross sectional area of the tube
ρ = density of the fluid
θ = The angle with the horizontal
Bernoulli Equation
• The forces acting on the fluid element
• Pressure force in the direction in the of flow at
section 1= PA
• Pressure force in the opposite to the direction of
flow at section 2= (P+∆P)A
• The body force due to gravity = A ∆L ρ g sinθ
But, sinθ = ∆z/∆L

• The body force due to gravity = A ∆z ρ g


According to Newton’s Second Law of Motion, the sum
of all forces will be equal to change in momentum…………..
Change in momentum = ρ A ∆L(∆u/∆t)
Hence……..
ρ A ∆L(∆u/∆t) = PA - (P+∆P)A - A ∆z ρ g 1

ρ A ∆L(∆u/∆t) = -∆PA - A ∆z ρ g
ρ A ∆L(∆u/∆t) + ∆PA + A ∆z ρ g =0 2

But ∆u/∆t = (∆u/∆L)(∆L/∆t) = (∆u/∆L)u 3

Hence: ∆L(∆u/∆t) =u∆u


ρ A u∆u + ∆PA + A ∆z ρ g =0 4

Dividing both sides of equation by ρ A ∆L


u(∆u/∆L) + (∆P/ρ∆L) + g(∆z/∆L) = 0 5
If change in pressure, velocity and height are expressed
in differential form then equation 5 becomes………..

u(du/dL) + (dP/ρdL) + g(dz/dL) = 0 6

(d(u2/2)/dL) + (1/ρ) (dP/dL) + g(dz/dL) = 0 7

d(u2/2) + dP/ρ + gdz = 0 8

For incompressible fluid density is constant hence..


u2/2 + P/ρ + gz = constant 9
Bernoulli
or
Equation
u2/2g + P/ρg + z = constant 10

P/ρg----Pressure head
u2/2g–-- Kinetic head
z ----- Potential head
If Bernoulli Equation applied between any two
points 1 and 2 in a flowing fluid…………….

u12/2g + P1/ρg + z1 = u22/2g + P2/ρg + z2

u12/2 + P1/ρ+ gz1 = u22/2 + P2/ρ + gz2


Corrections of Bernoulli Equation
Kinetic Energy correction factor

Laminar flow : 2
Turbulent flow: 1.05
Correction factor for fluid friction
hf OR hfs
Pump work
If Wp is the work done by the pump and η is the efficiency
of the pump then energy added to the fluid will be: η Wp

α1u12/2g + P1/ρg + z1+ ηWp = α2u22/2g + P2/ρg + z2 +hf

Corrected Bernoulli Equation


Applications of Bernoulli Equation
• Bernoulli equation finds wide applications in the
solution of fluid flow problems
• The other most commonly used equation is equation
of continuity
• These two equations together are used to solve
most of the fluid flow problems
α1u12/2g + P1/ρg + z1+ ηWp = α2u22/2g + P2/ρg + z2 +hf
Applications of Bernoulli Equation

• Orificemeter
• Venturimeter
• Pitot Tube
Examples
1) A liquid of density 1.15 g/cc flowing from point A to point
B which is 5 cm above point A. The frictional losses in the
pipeline of 4 cm ID are 0.1 m. For the volumetric flow rate
of 500 m3/s, if point A and B are at atmospheric pressure
and velocity at point A is zero.
a) Calculate the pump work required in m
b) If efficiency of the pump is 0.6 what will be the work
supplied in m by the external source
B

5m

A
Solution B

Given:
PA = PB = 1 atmosphere
5 cm
hf = 0.1 m, VA = 0
Q = 500 cc, ID = 0.04 m
αA = αB = 1 (As not given) A
Area = π/4(D2) = π/4(0.042)
Velocity at point B = VB = Q/A = 500* 4/ π (0.042)

Applying Bernoulli equation


αΑuA2/2g + PA/ρg + zA+ ηWp = αΒuB2/2g + PB/ρg + zB +hf

ηWp = uB2/2g + (zB – zA) +hf


ηWp = [500* 4/ π (0.042)]/[2*9.81] + 0.05 +0.1
ηWp = 0.158 m
Wp = 0.158/0.6 = 0.263 m
Examples

2) Water is flowing from a tap at the bottom of the tank


at a pressure of 350 kN/m2. What is the velocity of
the jet if frictional losses are neglected?
3) Water at 200C is pumped at a constant rate of 9 m3/h
from a large reservoir resting on the floor to open top
of an experimental absorption tower. The point of
discharge is 5 m above the floor and the frictional
losses in the 50 mm diameter pipe from reservoir to
tower amount to 2.5 J/kg. At what height in the
reservoir must be the water level kept if the pump can
deliver only 0.1 KW?
Determination of head loss due to friction

Consider a pipe of length L and diameter d


The total frictional force at the walls is the product
of shear stress τ and the surface area πdL
Hence the frictional force = τπdL
If this frictional force results is drop in pressure ∆P
Then for horizontal pipe:
Drop in pressure force = ∆Pπd2/4
Force balance:
the frictional force = drop in pressure force
τπdL = - ∆Pπd2/4
Determination of head loss due to friction

- ∆P = τπdL/(πd2/4)
- ∆P= 4τ(L/d)
- ∆P= [4τ/ρu2] [(L/d) ρu2]
Pressure head loss = - ∆P/ρg =hf
- ∆P/ρg = [4τ/ρu2] [(Lu2/gd)]
[2τ/ρu2] = Fanning/Darcy friction factor f
[8τ/ρu2] = Moody friction factor f’
Head loss due to friction:
hf = [4fLu2/2gd)] OR hf = [f’Lu2/2gd)]

Moody Diagram
Moody Diagram
Fanning friction factor
Laminar flow
f = 16/Re

Turbulent flow
f = 0.079/Re0.25
f = 0.046/Re0.20
f = 0.0035 + 0.264/Re0.42
f= 0.0014 + 0.125/Re0.32
Flow meters
• Variable head meters: Bernoulli equation
– Orificemeter
– Venturimeter
– Pitot Tube
– Flow nozzles etc

• Variable head meters


– Rotameter
Rotameter
Orificemeter
• Operating principle:
The orifice meter operates on the principle that
by reducing the cross sectional area of the flow
passage a pressure difference is created and
from measurement of this pressure difference
discharge through the pipe is determined.
Construction

Flat circular plate with a circular hole


concentric with pipe axis called orifice
Thickness --0.05 times the pipe diameter
d2 = 0.2 to 0.85 d1 (generally 0.5 d1)
d1 = Pipe diameter; d2 = Orifice diameter
Orificemeter
Orificemeter
Equation of Velocity
1 2
V1

P P
1 2
Continuity equation between 1 and 2: Q = A1V1 = A 2 V2
Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2: ( P2 − P1 ) ( V22 − V12 )
+ =0
ρ 2
If pressure drop is given by monometer (In
terms of height difference—h):
Orifice Meter
• Measure differential pressure
• Easy to install and fabricate
• Advantages: least expensive of all differential
pressure devices and good accuracy (±1%)
• Disadvantages: least efficient, high head loss
• Coefficient of discharge is small
Venturimeter
• Operating principle:
The orifice meter operates on the principle that
by reducing the cross sectional area of the flow
passage a pressure difference is created and
from measurement of this pressure difference
discharge through the pipe is determined.
Venturi Meter
• A venturi tube or meter – converging-diverging
nozzle frequently used to measure the volumetric
flowrate of a fluid. It must be inserted into a
pipe or duct as a part of the pipe or duct.

Convergent Cone: 20±10


Divergent Cone: 5 – 100
d1/d2 = 0.25 – 0.75

1 2
h
Equation of Velocity

1 2

Continuity equation between 1 and 2: Q = A1V1 = A 2 V2


Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2: ( P2 − P1 ) ( V22 − V12 )
+ =0
ρ 2
If pressure drop is given by monometer (In
terms of height difference—h):
Orificemeter Vs Venturimeter
Orificemeter Venturimeter
• Plate with a hole at center • Convergent cone, throat
and divergent cone
• Venacontracta • No Venacontracta
• High energy losses • Low energy losses
• No pressure recovery • Gradual Pressure recovery
in divergent cone
• Low CD [ 0.5-0.65] • High CD [0.95 - 0.98]
• Relatively Cheap • Relatively Costly

1 2
Pitot Tube

2
z V 1
=h
2g
2g
1a 2a

Open Channel flow measurement


Thank You !!!