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# 1.

## Sine wave Voltages

The general equation for any sinusoidal voltage signal is written mathematically as:
v(t)  VP sint (1.1)
OR v( )  VP sin (1.2)
Where
VP is the peak amplitude of the symmetric signal.
The sine wave is shown in fig 1.1.

Fig 1.1
Root Mean Square Value (rms Value)

## The rms value of any time varying voltage is given by:

T
1 2
T 0
Vrms  v dt (1.3)

Now rms value of sinusoidal voltage for one complete cycle is given below.
2
1
Vrms 
2 0 v 2 d (1.4)

## Putting v( ) =Vpsin  [Eq. (1.2)]; into Eq. (1.4), we get:

2
1
Vrms   (VP sin  ) d
2
(1.5)
2 0

## Solving Eq. (1.5), we get:

1 2
Vrms  V P (1.6)
2
VP
Vrms  (1.7)
2
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Average Value

For a sinusoidal wave, the average value over a cycle is zero. The area under the positive half
cycle of the wave is equal to the area under the negative half cycle.
The average value of any time varying voltage is given by:
T
1
Vav   vdt (1.8)
T 0
Where T is the period of the wave. Symmetry is important for the efficient evaluation of this
equation. Sometimes, we only need to integrate over one half or one fourth of the period in order
to find the average value.
The average value of sinusoidal voltage for half cycle is given below.

1
Vav 
  vdt
0
(1.9)

## Putting v( ) =Vpsin  [Eq. (1.2)]; into Eq. (1.9), we get:

1

Vav 
 V
0
P sin   d (1.10)

## Solving Eq. (1.10), we get:

VP
Vav  (1.11)
 /2
Alternate Method for Measuring rms and Average Values of Sinusoidal Voltage

Fig 1.2
A sine wave is defined by the trigonometric sine function. When plotted as voltage (V) as a
function of phase (θ), it looks similar to the figure 2.5. The waveform repeats every 2 radian
(360°), and is symmetrical about the voltage axis (when no DC offset is present). Voltage and
current exhibiting cyclic behavior is referred to as alternating; i.e., alternating current (AC). One
full cycle is shown here. The basic equation for a sine wave (Fig 1.2) is as follows:
v( )  VP sin (1.12)
There are a number of ways in which the amplitude of a sine wave is referenced, usually as peak
voltage (Vpk or Vp), peak-to-peak voltage (Vpp or Vp-p or Vpkpk or Vpk-pk), average voltage (Vav or
Vavg), and root-mean-square voltage (Vrms). Peak voltage and peak-to-peak voltage are apparent
by looking at the above plot. Root-mean-square and average voltage are not so apparent.

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Root-Mean-Square Voltage (Vrms)

As the name implies, Vrms is calculated by taking the square root of the mean average of the
square of the voltage in an appropriately chosen interval. Thus rms value of any time varying
voltage is given by:
T
1 2
T 0
Vrms  v dt (1.13)

In the case of symmetrical waveforms like the sine wave, a quarter cycle faithfully represents all
four quarter cycles of the waveform. Therefore, it is acceptable to choose the first quarter cycle,
2
1
Vrms 
 2  (V
0
P sin  ) 2 d (1.14)

## Solving Eq. (1.14), we get:

VP
Vrms  (1.15)
2

Vrms is the value indicated by the vast majority of AC voltmeters. It is the value that, when
applied across a resistance, produces that same amount of heat that a direct current (DC) voltage
of the same magnitude would produce. For example, 1 V applied across a 1 Ω resistor produces
1 W of heat. A 1 Vrms sine wave applied across a 1 Ω resistor also produces 1 W of heat. That 1
Vrms sine wave has a peak voltage of √2 V (≈1.414 V), and a peak-to-peak voltage of 2√2
V (≈2.828 V).

## Average Voltage (Vav)

As the name implies, Vav is calculated by taking the average of the voltage in an appropriately
chosen interval. For a sinusoidal wave, the average value over a cycle is zero. The area under the
positive half cycle of the wave is equal to the area under the negative half cycle.
The average value of any time varying voltage is given by:
T
1
Vav   vdt (1.16)
T 0
In the case of symmetrical waveforms like the sine wave, a quarter cycle faithfully represents all
four quarter cycles of the waveform. Therefore, it is acceptable to choose the first quarter cycle,
1
 /2
 / 2 0
Vav  VP sin   d (1.17)

VP
Vav  (1.18)
 2
Form Factor

Form Factor= Kf = rms value of pure AC voltage/ Average value of pure AC voltage
V 2 
Kf  P  (1.19)
VP  2 2
2

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Crest, Peak or Amplitude Factor

Crest, Peak or Amplitude Factor= Ka= Peak value of pure AC voltage/ rms value of pure AC voltage
VP
Ka   2 (1.20)
VP 2
Sine wave Voltages with DC Offset
The general equation for any sinusoidal voltage signal having DC Offset is written
mathematically as
v(t)  VP sint  VDC (1.21)
OR v( )  VP sin  VDC (1.22)
Where
VP is the peak amplitude of the symmetric signal.
VDC is the DC offset of the signal.

## The rms value of sinusoidal voltage having DC offset is given below.

2
1
Vrms 
 2  (V
0
P sin   VDC ) 2 d (1.23)

## Solving Eq. (1.23), we get:

V2P
Vrms   V 2 DC (1.24)
2
V 2P
Putting  V 2 rms ( ac ) in equation (1.25), we obtain:
2
Vrms  V 2 rms(ac)  V 2 DC (1.26)
Where Vrms (ac) is rms value of pure AC voltage.

Average Value

The average value of sinusoidal voltage having DC offset for is given below.
1
 /2
 / 2 0
Vav  (VP sin   VDC )d (1.27)

## Solving Eq. (1.27), we get:

V
Vav  P  VDC (1.28)
 /2
Vav  Vav ( ac )  VDC (1.29)
Where Vav (ac) is the average value of pure sinusoidal voltage.

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2. Triangular Wave Voltages

Fig 2.1
When plotted as voltage (V) as a function of phase (θ), a triangle wave looks similar to the fig
2.6. The waveform repeats every 2 radian (360°), and is symmetrical about the voltage axis
(when no DC offset is present). Voltage and current exhibiting cyclic behavior is referred to as
alternating; i.e., alternating current (AC). One full cycle is shown here. The basic equation for a
triangle wave is as follows: For 0     2
2
V   VP   (2.1)

There are a number of ways in which the amplitude of a triangle wave is referenced, usually as
peak voltage (Vpk or Vp), peak-to-peak voltage (Vpp or Vp-p or Vpkpk or Vpk-pk), average voltage
(Vav or Vavg), and root-mean-square voltage (Vrms). Peak voltage and peak-to-peak voltage are
apparent by looking at the above plot. Root-mean-square and average voltage are not so
apparent.

## Root-Mean-Square Voltage (Vrms)

As the name implies, Vrms is calculated by taking the square root of the mean average of the
square of the voltage in an appropriately chosen interval. Thus rms value of any time varying
voltage is given by:
T
1 2
T 0
Vrms  v dt (2.2)

In the case of symmetrical waveforms like the triangle wave, a quarter cycle faithfully
represents all four quarter cycles of the waveform. Therefore, it is acceptable to choose the first
quarter cycle, which goes from 0 radians (0°) through  /2 radians (90°).
2
1 2
Vrms 
 2 0
( VP   ) 2 d

(2.3)

## Solving Eq. (2.3), we get:

VP
Vrms  (2.4)
3
Vrms is the value indicated by the vast majority of AC voltmeters. It is the value that, when
applied across a resistance, produces that same amount of heat that a direct current (DC) voltage

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of the same magnitude would produce. For example, 1 V applied across a 1 Ω resistor produces
1 W of heat. A 1 Vrms triangle wave applied across a 1 Ω resistor also produces 1 W of heat. That
1 Vrms triangle wave has a peak voltage of √3 V (≈1.732 V), and a peak-to-peak voltage of 2√3
V (≈3.464 V).

## Average Voltage (Vav)

As the name implies, Vav is calculated by taking the average of the voltage in an appropriately
chosen interval. For a sinusoidal wave, the average value over a cycle is zero. The area under the
positive half cycle of the wave is equal to the area under the negative half cycle.
The average value of any time varying voltage is given by:
T
1
Vav   vdt (2.5)
T 0

In the case of symmetrical waveforms like the triangle wave, a quarter cycle faithfully
represents all four quarter cycles of the waveform. Therefore, it is acceptable to choose the first
quarter cycle, which goes from 0 radians (0°) through  /2 radians (90°).
1
 /2 2
 / 2 0 
Vav  V P    d (2.6)

## Solving Eq. (2.6), we get:

V
Vav  P (2.7)
2
Form Factor

Form Factor= Kf = rms value of pure AC voltage/ Average value of pure AC voltage
V 3 2
Kf  P  (2.8)
VP 2 3
Crest, Peak or Amplitude Factor

Crest, Peak or Amplitude Factor= Ka= Peak value of pure AC voltage/ rms value of pure AC voltage
VP
Ka   3 (2.9)
VP 3

## Triangular wave Voltages with DC Offset

The general equation for any triangular wave voltage signal (Fig) having DC Offset is written
mathematically as
2
v(t)  VP  t  VDC (2.10)

2
v( )  VP    VDC (2.11)

Where
VP is the peak amplitude of the symmetric signal.
VDC is the DC offset of the signal.

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Root Mean Square Value (rms Value

The rms value of triangular wave voltage having DC offset is given below.
2
1 2
Vrms 
 2 
0
( VP    V DC ) 2 d

(2.12)

## Solving Eq. (2.50), we get:

2
VP
Vrms   V 2 DC (2.13)
3
V 2P
Putting  V 2 rms ( ac ) in equation (2.13), we obtain:
3
Vrms  V 2 rms(ac)  V 2 DC (2.14)
Average Value

The average value of sinusoidal voltage having DC offset for is given below.
1
 /2 2
 / 2 0 
Vav  ( V P    VDC )d (2.15)

## Solving Eq. (2.15), we get:

V
Vav  P  VDC (2.16)
2
Vav  Vav ( ac )  VDC (2.17)
Where Vav (ac) is the average value of pure triangular wave voltage.

## 3. Square Wave Voltages

Fig 3.1
When plotted as voltage (V) as a function of phase (θ), a square wave looks similar to the fig 3.1.
The waveform repeats every 2 radians (360°), and is symmetrical about the voltage axis (when
no DC offset is present). Voltage and current exhibiting cyclic behavior is referred to as
alternating; i.e., alternating current (AC). One full cycle is shown here. The basic equation for a
square wave is as follows:
For 0    
v( )  V P (3.1)

For     2
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v( )  VP (3.2)
There are a number of ways in which the amplitude of a square wave is referenced, usually as
peak voltage (Vpk or Vp), peak-to-peak voltage (Vpp or Vp-p or Vpkpk or Vpk-pk), average voltage
(Vav or Vavg), and root-mean-square voltage (Vrms). Peak voltage and peak-to-peak voltage are
apparent by looking at the above plot. Root-mean-square and average voltage are not so
apparent.

## Root-Mean-Square Voltage (Vrms)

As the name implies, Vrms is calculated by taking the square root of the mean average of the
square of the voltage in an appropriately chosen interval. The rms value of any time varying
voltage is given by:
T
1 2
T 0
Vrms  v dt (3.3)

In the case of symmetrical waveforms like the square wave, a quarter cycle faithfully represents
all four quarter cycles of the waveform. Therefore, it is acceptable to choose the first quarter
cycle, which goes from 0 radians (0°) through  2 radians (90°). The rms value of square wave
voltage having DC offset is given below.
2
1
Vrms  V d
2
P (3.4)
 2 0

## Solving Eq. (3.4), we get:

:
Vrms  VP (3.5)

Vrms is the value indicated by the vast majority of AC voltmeters. It is the value that, when
applied across a resistance, produces that same amount of heat that a direct current (DC) voltage
of the same magnitude would produce. For example, 1 V applied across a 1 Ω resistor produces
1 W of heat. A 1 Vrms square wave applied across a 1 Ω resistor also produces 1 W of heat. That
1 Vrms square wave has a peak voltage of 1 V, and a peak-to-peak voltage of 2 V.

## Average Voltage (Vav)

As the name implies, Vavg is calculated by taking the average of the voltage in an appropriately
chosen interval. For a sinusoidal wave, the average value over a cycle is zero. The area under the
positive half cycle of the wave is equal to the area under the negative half cycle.
The average value of any time varying voltage is given by:
T
1
Vav   vdt (3.6)
T 0
In the case of symmetrical waveforms like the square wave, a quarter cycle faithfully represents
all four quarter cycles of the waveform. Therefore, it is acceptable to choose the first quarter
cycle, which goes from 0 radians (0°) through  2 radians (90°).
1
 /2
 / 2 0
Vav  V P d (3.7)

## Solving Eq. (3.7), we get:

Vav  VP (3.8)

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Form Factor

Form Factor= Kf = rms value of pure AC voltage/ Average value of pure AC voltage
V
Kf  P 1 (3.9)
VP
Crest, Peak or Amplitude Factor

Crest, Peak or Amplitude Factor= Ka= Peak value of pure AC voltage/ rms value of pure AC voltage
V
Ka  P  1 (3.10)
VP
Square wave Voltages with DC Offset

The general equation for any square wave voltage signal (Fig) having DC Offset is written
mathematically as

## v( )  VP  VDC (3.11)

Where
VP is the peak amplitude of the symmetric signal.
VDC is the DC offset of the signal.

## Root Mean Square Value (rms Value

The rms value of square wave voltage having DC offset is given below.
2
1
Vrms 
 2  (V
0
P  VDC ) 2 d (3.12)

## Solving Eq. (3.12), we get:

Vrms  V 2 P  V 2 DC (3.13)
Putting V 2 P  V 2 rms ( ac ) in Eq. (3.13), we obtain:
Vrms  V 2 rms(ac)  V 2 DC (3.14)
Where Vrms (ac) is rms value of pure square wave voltage.

Average Value

The average value of sinusoidal voltage having DC offset for is given below.
1
 /2
 / 2 0
Vav  (VP  VDC )d (3.15)

## Solving Eq. (3.15), we get:

Vav  VP  VDC (3.16)
Vav  Vav ( ac )  VDC (3.17)
Where Vav (ac) is the average value of pure square wave voltage.

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