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IPIII 1 i '~-TD THEIR APPLICATION TO

CROPS IN NIGERIA

FERTILIZER USE SERIES NO. I

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


FEDERAL MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
AND ftURAL DEVELOPMENT

DECEMBER 1980
CONTENTS
Page

Content ....................................... i

List of Tables, and Figures . . . . .. . . iii


P r e f a c e ....................................... iv

Membership of Fertilizer Use Committee .. . . vii

List of abbreviations u s e d ................... viii

Nutrient content of somecommon fertilizer materials ix

Definition of some fertilizer terminology in

common usage x

CHAPTER I - Introduction ................... 1

Historical Account of Fertilizer Use 1

Need for fertilizer U s e ........... 2


Need versus availability .......... 3

Major Nigeria Soils and Agriculture 6

Fertilizer-soil relationships . . . . 17

■ Supplements to chemical fertilizers 26

Fertilizer distribution ............ 29

CHAPTER II -Sole crops and Fertilizer Practices 33

General concept ................. 33

C e r e a l s ............... 33

Fat and O i l s e e d s ................ 62


Grain legumes ................ 76
Vegetable f i b r e s ........... 84
Roots and t u b e r s ................ 92
Stimulants and beverages . . . . 102
Horticultural crops ............ 114
Other economic tree crops . . . . 131

l
Page
/
CHAPTER III - Fertilizer and Crop M i x t u r e ........ 134
Crop categories ........... .... 134
Suggested rules ................... 133
Additional suggestions ........ .. 136

CHAPTER IV ~ Pasture Grasses and Legumes........ 137

General a g r o n o m y ................. 137


Pasture Grasses .................. 139
Pasture legumes .................. 142

CHAPTER V - Major Gaps and Suggestions ........ 144


General Agronomy ................... 144
Continuous testing of crop varieties 145
Specific nutritional problems .... 145
Nutrition in crop mixtures ........ 146
Agronomy of forage crops ........ 146
Fertilizer in Forest Production .... 147
Soil testing facilities .. .. .. 147
Fertility Status of Soil Groups .... 148
Quantity of Fertilizers ........ 148
Fertilizer Formulation and.Blending
Facilities .... 149
Fertilizer Compounds ... .. .. .... 149
Sources of Nitrogen .............. 149
Sources of Phosphorus ........... .. 150
Agricultural Statistics .... .... 150
Missing Extension Linkage ........ 151
Industries; and Agricultural Research 152
Herbicide Residues .. .. 152
Locating Research Institutions .... 152
Financing Research Institutions .... 153

REFERENCES .. ............. .. .. *....... 154

ii
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

_able/Figure No. Content Page

Table 1. List of abbreviations used viii

Table 2. Nutrient content of some common


fertilizer materials ix

Table 3. Definition of some fertilizer


terminology in common usage x

Table A. Total major nutrients available for


use on all crops in various years
in Nigeria and expressed as a
proportion of total requirements for
8 field crops based on minimum and
optimum (suggested) rates. 5

Table 5. Miscellaneous Conversion Factors 191

Figure 1. Map of Nigeria showing main ecological-


zones, states and statecapitals. v

Figure 2. Major soil groups of the northern zone


of Nigeria. 8

Figure 3. Major soil groups of the south-eastern


zone of Nigeria. 12

Figure 4. Major soil groups of the south-western


zone of Nigeria. 16
PREFACE

This report has been compiled by a Committee on Fertilizer


Use at the instance of the Federal Department of Agriculture.
It is the result of painstaking attempt to assemble up-to-date
information on fertilizers and their use on all crops in all
parts of Nigeria; the first published attempt of its kind.
Since high efficiency of fertilizer use is a function of good
crop husbandry, a crop-by-crop discussion of recommended/
suggested fertilizer practices is proceeded by a brief review
of those agronomic practices that would ensure optimum crop
yields. Areas considered as information gaps in the efficient
/■

use of fertilizers for crop, pasture and forest production


have alsf been identified and suggestions made. The report
is concluded with a comprehensive and exhaustive listing of
all published works available in libraries in the country on
fertilizers and fertilization of crops in Nigeria. Thus, the
content and presentation are such as to render the document
valuable not only to those charged with agricultural planning
and extension, but hopefully also to those responsible for
crop research and fertilizer use development.

Despite obvious ecological and edaphic differences, the


development of Nigeria's agriculture has tended to be more
along political boundries with the result that most crop
production practices are unavoidably defined in terms of
states (Fig. 1). In this report, therefore, the country has
been grouped into three areas for ease of reference:
i. northern zone (comprising Bauchi, Benue, Borno Gongola,
Kaduna, Kano, Kwara, Sokoto, Plateau and Sokoto States)

ii. south-western zone (Bendel, Lagos Ogun, Ondo and


Oyo states) and

iii. south-eastern zone (Anambra, Cross River, Imo and


Rivers states).

iv
Kf if 12?

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tf-

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IT-
^ 5v ,T < >
if
If- \^^^^4i4"/^+Kaduna
.j 4 *i\.+7,++i-v*tt±,>
- 4 W++®*jchi
*±t 4 ■ {++
!Cf-
jkfSfat? -Kf
t X 4 jv tfft+ T 4 . j.4 V
■9*
sr-

■fif

-/
7 ]/ K EY
r \ .
Coastal sw am ps
Forest (f
6*
Southern Guinea
Northern Guinea
* Su d an
B^«S^
Sahel
C^BtetS
12° 13°__£_l£J
Fig 1: Map of Nigeria showing main ecological zone, States and State capitals.
Inaugurated in August 1979 with an initial 15 Members,
the Fertilizer Use Committee approved the final draft of this
report about a year later, with an increased totallmembership
of 17. The Committee wishes to put on record its appreciation
to the numerous colleagues in the various research institutions,
universities and ministries of agriculture who offered one
type of assistance or another. It particularly extends grati­
tude to the Assistant Director of the Federal Department of
Agriculture, Kaduna and the Director of the National Cereals
Research Institute, Ibadan, for allowing the free use of their
facilities during national Committee meetings. Finally, the
Committee wishes to express profound thanks to the Director,
Federal Department of Agriculture for entrusting it with such
an important assignments With the need to periodically up­
date and improve on the information assembled in this document,
it is the hope of the Committee that the present effort is
only a beginning.

J. Y. YAYQCK
Chairman
Fertilizer Use Committee

vi
MEMBERSHIP OF FERTILIZER USE COMMITTEE

1. Mr. G . Adamu - MANR, PMB 3078, Kano


2. Mr. J.G.O . Amadasun - MANR, PMB 1060, Benin

3. Mr. N. E. Egbe - CRIN, PMB 5244, Ibadan


4. Mr. C. 0. Ezendu - FDA, PMB 2164, Kaduna

5. Dr. B. T. Kang - IITA, PMB 5320, Ibadan


6. Dr. L. G. Lombin - IAR/ABU, PMB 1044, Zaria

7. Dr. U. Mokwunye - IAR/ABU, PMB 1044, Zaria


8. Mr, B. 0. Njoku - NRCRI, Umudike, PMB 1006,Umuahia

9. Dr. L. A. Nnadi - IAR/ABU, PMB 1044, Zaria


10. Mr. S. C. 0. Nwinyi - NRCRI, Umudike, PMB 1006,Umuahia
11 . Dr, G. I. Nzewi - FDA, Umudike, PMB 1047, Umuahia
12. Mrs . F. 0 . Obakin - NCRI, PMB 5042, Ibadan

13. Dr. B. M. 0juederie - NIFOR, PMB 1030, Benin


14. Mr. S. I. Onochie - MAFP, PMB 1004, Enugu

15. Dr. S. u. Remis»nn - NCRI, PMB 5042, Ibadan


16. Dr. R. A. Sobulo - IAR & T/UNIFE, PMB 5029, Ibadan

17. Dr. J. Y. Yayock — IAR/ABU, PMB 1044, Zaria

vii
Table h List of abbreviation used

Serial
No. Abbreviation Full Meaning
1. N Nitrogen
2. p (p 2 o 5 ) Phosphorus (phosphorus pentoxide)
3. K(K?0) Potassium (potassium oxide)
4. ■ Ca Calcium
5. Mg Magnesium
6. S Sulphur
7. Fe Iron
8. B Boron
9. Cu Copper
10. Zn Zinc
11 . Mo Molybdenum
12. CAN Calcium ammonium nitrate = nitrochalk
13. AS Ammonium Sulphate
14. SSP Single superphosphate
15. TSP Triple superphosphate
16. KCI Potassium chloride = muriate of potash
17. k 2S04 Potassium sulphate
18. MgS04 Magnesium sulphate = epsom salt
19. ZnS04 Zinc sulphate
20. CuS04 Copper sulphate
21 . MnSO^ Manganese sulphate

22. FYM Farm yard manure


23. CEC Cation exchange capacity
24. Meq Milliequivalent
25. EC Emulsifiable concentrate
26. FW Flowable
27. WP Wettable powder
28. ACC Accession
29. FARZ Federal Department of Agricultural
Research Zea mays
30. FARO Federal Department of Agricultural
Research Oryza sativa

31. ULV Ultra low volume


32. One (l)Bag Weighs 50 kg.

vi 1 1
Table 2s Nutrient content of some common fertilizer materials
'

Serial Plant Nutrient Content (%)


No. Fertilizer Material N k 2o
P2°5 S CaO Other

1. Urea 46 — — — — —
2. Calcium Ammonium Nitrate 26 - - - 18 -
3. Ammonium Sulphate 20 - - 23 - -
4. Sodium Nitrate 16 - - - _ -
5. Ammonium Sulphate-Nitrate 26 - - 12 - -
6. Ammonium Nitrate-Sulphate 30 - - 5 - -
7. Ammonium phosphate 18 46 - - - -
8. Potassium Nitrate 13 - 44 - - -
9. Single Superphosphate - 18 - 14 27 -
10. Triple Superphosphate - 45 - 1.5 20 -
11 . Phosphate Rock - 27-41 - - 46 -
12. Basic Slag - 15 - 0.2 45 5MgO
13. Potassium Chloride - - 60 - - -
14. Potassium Sulphate - - 50 17 - -
15. Gypsum - - - 18 32 -
16. Magnesium Sulphate - - - 13 - l6MgO
17. Manganese Sulphate - - - 15 - 26Mn
18. Ferrous sulphate - - - 18.8 - 32.8Fe
19. Copper Sulphate - - - 13 - 25Cu
20. Zinc Sulphate - - - 17.8 - 36 Zn
21. Gypsum (hydrated) - - - 18.6 32.6
22. 15-15-15 Compound 15 15 15 - - -
23. 20-20-0 20 20 - - - -
24. 0-20-20 Compound - 20 20 - - -
25. 12-12-17-2 Compound 12 12 17 - - 2MgO
26. 18-18-7 Compound 18 18 7 — — —

ix
Table 3. Definition of some fertilizer terminology in common
usage
S/No.
1. A FERTILIZER is any substance that is added to the soil
to~~suppTy"'tEose elements required in the nutrition
of plants.
2. A FERTILIZER MATERIAL (CARRIER) is any substance that
containsone or more of the essential elements.
3. A MIXED FERTILIZER is a mechanical (physical) tombina-
tion of two or more fertilizer materials and which
contains two or more essential elements.
4. A COMPOUND FERTILIZER is a chemical combination q-f two
or more fertilizer materials and which contains two or
more essential elements.
5. A COMPLETE FERTILIZER contains the three major plant-
nutrient elements nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
6. FERTILIZER GRADE refers to the minimum guarantee of
the plant nutrient content in terms of total nitrogen
(N) available phosphorus pentoxide (P?0,-) and soluble
potassium oxide (Ko0). For example, T8218-7.
7. FERTILIZER RATIO refers to the relative percentages
ox nitrogen, phosphorus pentoxide and potassium oxide.
For example, 15-15-15 has a 1-1-1 ration of N, P20^
and K^O.
8. FERTILIZER FORMULATION is an expression of the quantity
and analysis of the materials in a mixed or compound
fertilizer.
g
A FILIZER is a make-weight material added to a fertilizer
material, mixed fertilizer or compound fertilizer to
make up the difference between the weight of the added
ingredients required to supply the plant nutrients in
a ton of a given analysis and 908 kg (=2000 lb).
10. An ACID-FORMING FERTILIZER is one capable of increasing
the acidity of the soil, which is derived principally
from the nitrification of ammonium salts by soil bacteria.
11. A BASIC FERTILIZER is one capable of decreasing the
acidity of the soil.
12. A NON-ACID-FORMING OR NEUTRAL FERTILIZER is one that is
guaranteed to leave neither an acid nor a basic residue
in the soil.
13. DRY BULK BLENDING is the process of mechanically mixing
solid fertilizer materials.

x
I
CHAPTER I; INTRODUCTION

A. Historical Account of Fertilizer Use

As in most parts of tropical Africa, the traditional method


of maintaining soil fertility and productivity in Nigeria has,
hitherto, been the bush-fallow system whereby arable land .
is allowed to revert to fallow after 3-4 years of continuous
cultivation. The system envolved out of natural exigencies
and the rate of regeneration of soil fertility is generally
dependent on the length of the fallow period, which, in turn,
is related to the availability of land. In view of growing
human population and other socio-economic pressures, attempts
were made to shorten the fallow period from about 7-10 years
to 2-3 years by planting leguminous and grass fallows.
Although it was clearly demonstrated that soil fertility could
be effectively maintained in this way, its acceptance by the
peasant farmer was hampered by the tedium of land preparations
with native hoes and the economics of the practice; it was
not an easy problem convincing a farmer to adopt a system that
included unproductive fallows.
The next historical development was to replace the fallow
system by the use of manures particularly where there were
large numbers of animals. This brought into eminence the agri­
cultural value of farm-yard manure (FYM), including poultry
droppings, dung and house-hold refuse. By the late 1940’s the
benefits of FYM had been so established that penning of cattle
on the farm and mixed farming were being actively encouraged
by the Nigerian Government.
However, with agriculture becoming more and more intensive,
coupled with the introduction of higher-yielding and more
nutrient-demanding crop varieties, it became obvious that FYM
could not be
2

obtained in sufficient quantities to meet the farmers' demand.


Even where available, transportation problem and labour costs
unavoidably limited its use on a routine basis. In the circum­
stance, attention was turned to mineral fertilizers as the
only obvious alternative.

The first recorded indication of the potential values


of inorganic fertilizers in Nigeria was in 1937 when it was
shown that response of cereal crops to small applications
of FYM was matched by the use of single superphosphate con­
taining quantities of phosphate equivalent to that in the
organic manure. This, together with similar work in parts
of southern Nigeria, marked the beginning of fertilizer
consumption in the country.

A.A.I. Need for Fertilizer Use


The rapid increase in the country's population from
about 60 million in 1963 to an estimated 80 million in 1973
and the general increase in the standard of living has
greatly raised the demand for food and feed grains. In re­
cognition of this need under cultivation was well as intensi­
fying crop production by continuous cropping in rain-fed areas
and through multiple cropping under irrigation schemes.

The maintenance of high crop yields under intensive


cultivation in present-day Nigeria is possible only through
the use of inorganic fertilizers. While fertilizer consumption
figures date back to the late 1930's, actual usage by the
f ' die. voti
farmer did not commence until the late 1940's when the West
African Oilseed Mission recommended the supply of phosphatic
fertilizers to boost groundnut production. By the early 1950's
fertilizer recommendations, mostly based on research informa­
tion, had been established for some of the important crops
in Nigeria.
3

ieei Versus Availability

-lihough there have been tremendous increases in ferti­


lise ever the years, consumption is still on a very small
ffllir.::- ...~ rilnive to the total needs of the country (Table 4),
2, for example, the total nitrogenous and phosphatic
tiers used in the country each represented a mere 1.8%
i®£ irial national needs of only 8 crops based on the in­
ly lov rates existing then. Corresponding values based
rested (optimum) rates were 0.8 and 1.0%. In 1979,
asisj tie nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers were able to
inly 16*3 and 11.1%, respectively, of the needs of these
y.1 .^CT-.S rased on low rates and 7.0 and 5.9, respectively, based
'j ilt*.. irrum rates. Small as the total quantity of potash
5 isc cz" ei into the country was in 1974, this was sufficient
tfcc ~z i 6.7% of the potassium needs of all eight crops, primari-
!y be ause it was used only on maize. Indeed, the shortage
(
—r Tilizer is much more acute and serious than examplified,
illy considering the needs of all types of field and
lion crops based on present national hecterages ns well
as requirements for the increasing land area under develop-
UK'S' y the eleven existing River Basin Authorities for both
ran: i and irrigated agriculture and the numerous other
r.g agricultural projects.

There is thus a big gap between the national require­


m e n t s of fertilizers and their actual usage by farmers,
availability rather than ignorance about their value and
jtapcrtance being the major limiting factor. At present most
Iof the fertilizers used in the country are imported. The

1 0-1 P2^5 manufactured by the lone local plant in

K?79 constituted only 17% of the total phosphate available


in ihe country in that year. Even if the plant had operated
ai full capacity (100,000 tons), the
4

cr '.'.'ould have represented only 45% of the total


er phosphate available to farmers that year and
end 2.7% of national needs for the eight crops
based on low and optimum rates, respectively.
5

Total major nutrients available for use on all crops


in various years in Nigeria and expressed as a
proportion of total requirements for 8 field crops
based on minimum and optimum (suggested)* rates.

Total Importation Available nutrients as propon


(Available) tions (%) of amounts needed
for crops

N P2°5 k 2o N’
’ k 20
P2°5

0,482 5,558 642 1 *1*(0.5)*» 1.5(0.8) 1.4(0.1)

5,083 5,029 617 1.3(0.6) 1.4(0.7) 1.4(0.1)


7,070 6,382 2 £122 1.8(0.8) 1.8(1.0) 4.7(0.3)
6,590 6,179 2,377 1.7(0.7) 1.7(0.9) 5.3(0.4)
13,200 10,700 3,000 3.4(1.4) 3.0(1.6) 6.7(0.5)
66,000 40,000 NA*** 16.8(7.0) 11.1(5.9) NA***

ani ** Estimated total major nutrients needed annually for


all cultivated sorghum, millet, maize, rice, wheat,
cowpea, groundnut and cotton (17.5 mollion hectares)
at currently recommended (low) and suggested (optimum)
rates are, respectively, 393,000 and 931,000 metric
tons of N, 362,000 and 673,000 metric tons of
P20^ and ^5,000 and 609,000 metric tons of K^O.

lata not available.


6

I,B. Major Nigerian Soil Groups and Agriculture

A major difficulty encounctered in discussing soils in


Nigeria is that their description so far has neither been
based on a uniform classification nor on a standardised scale*
Until the recent setting up of the National Soil Correlation
Committee and the subsequent creation of the Federal Depart­
ment of Agricultural Land Resources, different workers or
groups of workers have tended to concentrate their efforts
in different areas of the country. Until a correlated soil
map is produced for the whole country, it is probably best
to describe the major soil groups in three geographical sub­
divisions .

I.B.I. Soils of Northern Nigeria

The soils of northern Nigeria may be divided into


six major groups as follows (Fig. 2).

I.B.I. (a). Juvenile Soils. These are soils with weak


profile development because of the young age of the soil
(Fig. 2, unit 3). The time factor is sometimes enhanced by
dry climatic conditions or by the sandy nature of the parent
material. The two main sub-divisions of importance are:
i. Soils on riverain and lacustrine parent materials and
ii. Soils on aeolian (wind-deposited) sands.

The extent of Juvenile soils in northern Nigeria is


estimated at 6.35 million hectares (63,500 square kilometers
or 9 % of the total land area). The agricultural value of
these soils is limited by low rainfall and low water holding
capacity, particularly those forme# on wind-deposited sands.
Millet is the main crop cultivated on th$se soils.
7

I.B.I. (b). Brown and Reddish-Brown Soils of Arid and


Semi - Arid Regions. These are soils developed under rela­
tively dry climatic conditions (Fig. 2, units 8 and 9). The
sparse vegetation contributes little surface litter and the
small quantitu of organic matter present is well distributed
throughout the profile. Under the prevailing conditions of
low rainfall, weathering and leaching are slight and the soils
often contain appreciable reserves of weatherable minerals.

Brown and reddish-brown soil in northern Nigeria occupy


an estimated 7.83 million hectares (78,300 square kilometers
or 11% of the total land area). They are of considerable
agricultural importance, producing most of the country's
groundnut crop.

I.B.I. (c). Ferruginous Tropical Soils. These soils


occupy nearly half of northern Nigeria. One of their most
typical characteristics is the separation of free iron oxides,
which may be leached out of the profile but most commonly
are deposited in the profile in the form of mottles or concre­
tions. Reserves of weatherable minerals are often appreciable
and the clay fraction consists mainly of Siaolinite, but small
quantities of illite may be present. The cation exchange
capacity is moderately low, of the order 20-40 meg/lOOg of
clay.
The follwing sub-divisions occur based on differences
in parent materials (Fig. 2);
i. Ferruginous Tropical soils derived from sandy parent
material (units 11, 12 and 13),
ii. Ferruginous Tropical soils derived from crystalline
acid rocks and
iii. Undifferentiated Ferruginous Tropical soils.
LEGEND

[TJ Juvenile soils on cauvium and f?l None or weakly leached-fe­ IT7| Ferruginous tropical soils on
’tydromorphic soil. rruginous tropical soils and crystalline acid rocks and
EDjuvenile soils on alluvium hy- lithosols. undifferentiated ferrisols
dromorphic soils and brown ID Eutrophic brown soils and OS Undifferentiated ferruginous
soils. vertisols of lithomophic origin. tropical soils.
Ql Juvenile soils on aeolian Q3 Undifferentiated ferruginous
E ] Ferruginous tropic all soils on tropical soils and on sandy
sands sandy parent material and parent? material.
0 Juvenile soils on hydromOrp­ lithosols on ferruginous cru­
sts. [UHpmic ferrisol and lithosols
hic soils and holomorphic
soils. 0 Ferruginous tropical soils on Undifferentiated ferrisols. -
OSVertisols of topographic dep­ sandy parent material and (73 Undifferentiated ferrisols and
ressions. undifferentiated lithosols. lithosols.
Q Vertisols of topographic dep­ G3 Ferruginous tropical soils on H jFerrallitic soils.
ression and brcwn soils. sandy parent material and cry-
[3 Vcrtisols o f lithomorphic talline acid rocks.
origin. ED Ferruginous tropical soils on
crystalline acid rocks. Scale 1:7000,000 approx.
J3 None or weakly .leached ED Ferruginous tropical soils on
ferruginous soils crystalline acia rocks and
lithosols.
E3 Ferruginous tropical soils on
crystalline acid rocks and
on sandy parent material.
9

It is estimated that Ferruginous Tropical soils occupy


a rotal of 29.8 million hectares (298,000 square kilometers *
41 % of the land area) in northern Nigeria. They are used
for the -cultivation of a wide, range of annual crops, including
cotton, and for fallow grazing. They respond well to fertilizer
application.

I.B.I.(d). Ferrallitic Soils. The characteristics .of


these soils reflect the final effects of weathering and leaching
under humid tropical climates. Tvjey contain little or no
reserves *f weatherable minerals and the clay fraction con­
sists of kaolinite and iron oxides. The cation exchange
capacity is less than 20 meq/lOOg clay. In norther* Nigeria,
these soils are confined to areas where their production is
influenced by a combination Sf prolonged rainy season and
high permeability of the sandstone parent material (Fig. 2,
unit 23).

Ferrallitic soils in northern Nigeria occupy an estmated


£,57 million hectares (25,700 square kilometers or k % of the
total land areav). The agricultural value "*f these .soils is
low owing to strong leaching and are used mainly for the
cultivation of root crops, especially yams.

I.B.I.(e). Ferrisols. These are trasitional soils re­


sembling the Ferrallitic Soils but with relatively retarded
profile development due to erosion. They have a higher hase
content, better structure and higher biological activity than
the ferrallittic soils. The eaticfn exchange capacity is
usually greater than 15 mea/100g clay.

The sub-division 'humic ferrisols' are distinguished by


10

their higher organic matter content (Fig. 2, unit 20).


Ferrisols occupy an estimated 7.15 million hectares (71,500
square kilometers or 10% of the total land area) in northern
Nigeria.

I.B.I. (f). Vertisols. These are soils which exhibit,


at some seasons, deep and wide cracks and are subject to
periodic swelling and shrinking. The dark colour of these
soils is not due to high organic matter content; values
for organic carbon are of the order of 0.3-1.5%. There
are two sub-divisions of these soils in northern Nigeria
(Fig. 2):
i. Vertisols of topographic depressions (units 5 and
6) and
ii. Vertisols of lithomorphic origin, derived from
calcareous shales (unit 7).

It is estimated that Vertisols occupy about 1.32 million


hectares (13,200 square kilometers or 2% of the total land
area) in northern Nigeria. The soils offer considerable
potential for agricultural development particularly under
irrigation, provided problems of management peculiar to
these soils (e.g. drainage and salinity) can be overcome.

I.B.2. Soils of South-Eastern Nigeria.

The soils of south-eastern Nigeria may be conveniently


divided into 5 classes based on their morphology and the
degree of profile development (Pig. 3).

I.B.2(a). Lithosols. These are shallow and stony soils


on steep slopes where profile development is retarded due
to erosion. They are found over resistant rocks (Fig.. 3,'
unit A) and sandy or
11

silty shales (unit B). Although they are relatively fertile


soils, the steep topography is a limiting factor in their
utilization.

I.B.2(b). Young Soils Derived From Recently Deposited


Materials.

These soils are without well developed horizons and are


derived from recent alluvium deposited by river or"sea water
and are sub-divided into (Fig. 3):

i. Soils of fresh water swamps (unit C),


ii. Soils of salt water swamps (unit D) and
iii. Soils of the beach ridges (unit E).

Most of the soils are uncultivated at the present but


some River Basin Authorities are considering some areas for
rice production.

I.B.2(c). Ferruginous Tropical Soils. These are mineral


soils rich in free iron and with a mineral reserve which
may be appreciable. Kaolinite and iron oxides predominate
in the clay fraction. The cation exchange capacity is low
but the degree of base saturation is relatively high. These
soils are found on basalts (Fig. 3, unit F) and acid cry­
stalline parent materials (unit G). The soils on basalts
have excellent physical properties and are rich in nutrients
from the weathering basic rocks. They are the most valuable
soils in south-eastern Nigeria and are particularly suited,
to the production of cocoa, bananas and plantains. Most
of the soils are deficient in phosphorus and have highP-
retention properties.
LEG EN D
LITH O SO LS
fA l Sh allow p ale brow n soils derived from
acid crystallin e ro c k s-
E l Shallow brown soils derived from sa n d y
sh ales.
YOUNG S O IL S D ERIVED FROM RECEN T
DEPOSITED M A T E R IA LS
101 Pale brow n loamy alluvial so ils
fill Dark grey m an gro ve so ils
E Brow nish yellow fine sa n d y so ils derived
from beach d e po sits.
FERRUGINOUS TROPICAL SO IL S
f H Red clayey soils derived from b asalt
EO Red gravelly and brown sandy s o is
derived from acid crystalline rocks
FERRALUTIC S O IL S
IH1 Yelow ish red gravelly and brown
sandy so ls derived from a o d
crystalline ro cks
[ D Deep porous red so ils derived, '
from sa n d y d e p o sits.
[J] Deep porous brown soils
derived from sa n d y
deposits-
1 3 R«J and br
s o ls derived .
sandstone a n
shales.
HYDROMORPHIC
[ □ Reddish brown gravelly
and pale clayey soils
derived from sh a le s
X (A bundant ironstone concretion)
FIG. 3. M ajor so il g ro u p s of the so u th -e a ste r n z o n e of N ige ria
13
I.B.2(d). Ferrallitic Soils. These soils are rich in
free iron but have a lower mineral reserve and lower fertility
than the Ferruginous Tropical soils. The cation exchange
capacity and base saturation are low. The soils are derived
from basement complex (Fig. 3, unit H), from coastal plain
sands (units I and J) and from various complexes of sandstones
and shales on well-drained sites (unit K ) . They are of low
natural fertility, indicating multiple deficiency and (espe­
cially those formed on coastal plain sands, due to low mineral
reserve and high leaching intensity) and respond well to
fertilizer applications. T^e soils are very acid and contain
high aluminium. They could be classified as 'ultisols'.

I.B»2(e). Hydromorphic Soils. These soils are influenced


by seasonal water-logging caused by underlying impervious
shales from which they are derived. Scattered ironstone con­
cretions are a common feature. The natural fertility of
the soils is relatively low, as the shales contain only limited
amounts of weatherable minerals. Rice production on these
soils has expanded rapidly in recent years.

I.B.3. Soils of South-Western Nigeria.


The soils of south-western Nigeria may be divided into
six major groups as follows (Fig. 4).

I.B.3(a). Soils Derived From Metamorphic and Igneous


Rocks Under Savanna Vegetation. The parent materials are
part of crystalline acid rocks (Basement Complex) (Fig. 4,
unit I). The soils occur in the northern part of south­
western Nigeria usually referred to as 'derived savanna'.
The texture is quite coarse but the base saturation is
fairly high. Many of these
14

soils are deficient particularly in nitrogen, sulphur, zinc;


boron and molybdenum.

I.B.3(b). Soils Derived from Metamorphic and Igneous


Rocks Under Forest Vegetation. The parent.materials are
part of crystalline acid rocks of the Basement Complex
(Fig. 4, unit II). These soils occur in the central portion
of south-western Nigeria. They are mainly ferruginous
soils or alfisols and associated entisols. Most of these
soils change in texture downwards from a sandy top soil
to a subsoil high in clay 5 acidity usually increases with
depth. Cation exchange capacity, organic matter content,
total nitrogen and available phosphorus are dependent on
pre-clearing vegetation and range from moderate to low.
A common feature is the presence of gravel concretions and
the susceptibility of the soil to erosion.

I.B.3(c). Soils Derived From Sedimentary Rocks Under


High Rain Forest. This group consists of soils formed on
sandstone, terrace and shales (Fig. 4, unit I I I ) . They
occur mostly in the southern part of south-western Nigeria.
They are either of low base content and high acidity or
high base content and are variously referred to as ultisols
(Alfisols) or Ferrallitic soils.

I.B.3(d). Soils Derived From Sedimentary Rocks Und-wr


Savanna Vegetation. These soils form only a small portion
of the land are in south-western Nigeria (Fig, 4, unit IV).
They occur in the extreme east and west of the region.
The soils are coarse and highly leached.
15

I.B.3(e). Soils Derived from Sediments and Recent Alluvium..


They are influenced by seasonal waterlogging and consist of
mainly colluvial materials (Fig. 4, unit V). The natural
fertility of these soils are relatively high and are presently
used for rice, vegetables and sugarcane production.

I.B.3(f). Soils Derived From Deltaic Deposits. They


are found in the deltas, freshwater swamps as well as under
saline mangrove conditions (Fig. 4, unit VI). A common
feature is the presence of high water table and waterlogging.
This limits their agricultural potential. Swamp rice and
sugarcane may be grown.
to *

CLA SSIFICA TIO N O F SOIL Z O N E S


SOUTH W E S T E R N N IG E R IA

.a g o s
KEY
1 1 l Sa v a n n a h so ils derived from
m etam ophic and igneous rocks
l 2 l Forest so ils derived to m
m etam ophic an d ign e o u s rocks-
I 3 l Forest s o ils derived from
___ sedim entary rocks
I A I Sa va n n a h soils derived from
sedim entary rocks
l 5 l Forest so ils derived from se d im e n ts
and recent alluvium
l 6 l Deltaic deposits, freshwater sw am p so ils
and saline m a n g ro v e -so is
Rainfall boundary .— ✓ Soil z o n e s boundary

Fig. 4 Major s o l g ro tp s of th e so u th -w e ste rn zo n e of N ige ria


17
I.C. Fertilizer-Soil Relationships

Before embarking on a detailed description of the


fertilization practice of individual crops it is desirable
■co have an over-view of some of the general principles and
pre-requisites involved in fertilizer use as well as their
effects on the soil, the natural resource base for crop
production.

Crop Fertilizer Needs.

One of the most important pre-requisites for formula­


ting a sound fertilizer recommendation for a given crop in
a given area is the knowledge of the nutrient status of
the soil,. Soil samples are analysed in soil-testing 'labora­
tories and values for each essential nutrient are calibrated
with field performance of each crop. The level of the nutrient
required for optimum economic returns is thus determined.-
Deficiencies may arise from inherent inadequacy of the element
in the soil or when one nutrient is present in large quanti­
ties and limits the absorption of other elements. It is,
therefore, important that fertilizer recommendations be
strictly adhered to if induced nutrient deficiency is to
be avoided.

The easiest and fastest methods of correcting nutrient


deficiencies is through the use of fertilizers whi#h are
mostly applied indirectly through the soil. The amount of
fertilizer applied in any given season may depend on both
the method of application (e.g. banded or broadcast) and
the maximum net return on the immediate crop and thus neglect­
ing residual effects, or calculating the total requirement
for a number of years and then applying it at the m*st effec­
tive time(s) t/y realise the greatest
18

net return for the period). Correcting nutrient deficien­


cies by direct application of fertilizers by spraying liquid
forms is not commonly practiced at present*

I.C.2* Factors Affecting Fertilizer Use Efficiency^

The major elements applied to crops include N, P and K


although secondary elements such as S, Mg and trace elements
such as Fe, Mn, B, Cu, Zn and Mo are essential for some crops
in certain environments* Nitrogen fertilizers are easily
leached beyond the rooting zone whilst P fertilizers may be
fixed in the soil and thus rendered unavailable to plants*
Leaching losses can often be appreciably reduced through
improved farm management methods. Practices to be used
vary widely with the soil, amount of rainfall, cropping system
as well as the type and amount of fertilizer used. Minimum
tillage not only helps to maintain the structure and permea­
bility of the surface soil, but also helps to hold bases
against leaching and phosphate against fixation.

I.C.3. Nitrogen Fertilization and Soil Properties.

Nitrogen has long been recognized as a very essential


nutrient in crops because of its key role in protein formation.
It is responsible for lush vegetative growth and a dark green
leaf colour. Its deficiency is usually recognized first by
pale green or yellowish-green colour of the leaves, followed
by premature necrosis of the older leaves.

With the exception of legumes, all crops require the


addition of nitrogenous fertilizers if high yields are to be
expected. Where the soils is rich in organic matter, such
as where the land has just been cleared after a long fallow,
a fair amount of
19

nitrogen would be made available to crops through the decom­


position of the organic matter.

Nitrate-N is highly mobile in the soil and could thus


be lost by leaching if planting is not properly timed so
that the crop could use the applied or mineralized N. Under
water-logged condition it may be lost through denitrification.
Application of ammonium-N on the soil surface without proper
incorporation may lead to volatilization losses. All these
losses result in low efficiency of utilization of nitrogen \
fertilizers. In fact, crops rarely recover more than 50%
of applied N. Ways of preventing losses include the avoidance
of large applications of N and the growing of cover crops
where feasible. Coating urea with sulphur reduces its leacing
but its use is prohibitive because of the high cost relative
to other N sources.

Among N sources, ammonium sulphate is known to cause


major soil acidity problems. Although a good source of N
for alkaline and flooded soils, its continuous use on
slightly acid to acid upland soil with low CEC results in
deterioration of chemical soil properties. Even though urea
and calcium ammonium nitrate are less acidifying (urea is
about •§ as acidifying as ammonium sulphate and CAN contains
enough calcium to neutralise about 80% of the potential re­
sidual acidity from the ammonium nitrate), their continuous
use at high rates results in increased soil acidity.

I.C.4. Phosphorus Fertilization and Soil Properties.


Next to soil acidity, shortage of phosphorus is the
major constraint to food production in the humid tropics.
In the semi-arid tropics, phosphorus deficiency is only second
to nitrogen as the most frequently encountered agronomic
problem. The parent
20

mss-rials of most df the Nigerian soils is low in apatite-


res ring rocks, thus giving rise to soils low in native
phosphorus.
lack of phosphorus in the plant often manifests itself
in cue or more of the following observable symptoms:, stunted
growth, premature leaf fall, purple or red anthocyanin pig­
mentation and the development of dead necrotic areas on the
leaves, petioles or fruits. Phosphorus is highly mobile in
mhe plant and, as a result, older leaves show the deficiecy
symptoms before the young leaves. In general plants are
relatively inefficient users of phosphates in the field and
rarely more than 20-30% of the amount supplied as fertilizer
is taken up. The effectiveness of applied phosphorus fertilizer
largely depends on the quantity of phosphorus that it releases
inro soil solution. Soil properties such as pH and the nature
cf the soil colloid govern not only the amount of the fertili­
zer phosphorus which remains in soil solution, but also the
ability of the soil to recharge the soil solution phosphorus
as it becomes depleted through plant uptake. In acid soils,
phosphorus is fixed by active iron, aluminium and manganese
compounds whilst in alkaline soils it is fixed by calcium
compounds. It should be borne in mind that different crops
require different amounts of soil solution phosphorus for
optimum growth. Placement of phosphorus may be important to
increase the efficiency of phosphatic fertilizers in acid soils.

1.1.5. Potassium Fertilization and Soil Properties.


Potassium is one of the major nutrient elements required
in relatively large quantities by plants. Adequate supply
cf potassium to crops increases their ability to resist pest
and disease attack thereby ensuring good quality produce.
Visible deficiency symptoms include a mottled chlorosis
f :U n w e d by the
21

development of necrotic areas at the tips and margins of


leaves. Grain stalks are spindly and more susceptible to
lodging.
Nigerian soils developed from basement complex materials
have higher content of total potassium than soils developed
from sandstone. In general, soils under Savanna vegetation
have higher potassium contents than soils in forest regions.

The amount of potassium in soil solution (potassium in­


tensity) in Vertisols, alluvial soils and forest soils is
low. These soils usually have a low potassium saturation
of the exchange complex. In Savanna soils the potassium
saturation of the exchange complex is high and the potassium
intensity is therefore high. However, the ability to main­
tain potassium intensity is higher in the Vertisols, alluvial
soils and forest soils which have a higher cation exchange
capacity. Thus, uuGei. intensive cropping most of the Savanna
soils would become rapidly depleted of available potassium.

I.C.6. Fertilization and Cation Balance in Soils.


Fertilizer treatments are generally considered in
relation to their immediate effects on crop fields and all
too often their residual effects are ignored. Yet when farming
is continued on the same site for several years, residual
effects of fertilizer treatments adopted earlier may oonsider-
ably affect the soil chemical properties and consequently
the yields of crops grown in later years. One- of these re­
sidual effects of applied fertilizers is on the relative abun­
dance of the cations in the soil subsequent to fertilizer
application. There is evidence that the availability of cations
to crops may depend less on the absolute amounts of each
cation present in the soil and more on the balance existing
between the various cations in soil solution. As an
22

illustration, it has been conclusively shown that use of


ammonium-containing N-fertilizers in Savanna environments
results in the development of soil acidity, loss of cations
and a re-distribution in the relative amounts of the various
cations in soil solution. In. both the Savanna and Forest
belts of Nigeria, it has been observed that magnesium de­
ficiencies in crops may be caused not only by inadequate
amounts of exchangeable magnesium, but also by excessive
applications of potassium.

Cation imbalances are accelerated by use of incomplete


fertilizers and improper management of crop residues. Use
of incomplete fertilizers (e.g. N and P sources only) chosen
primarily on the basis of short-term economic returns can
only aggravate the creation of cation imbalance in soils
and must be discouraged. There is ample evidence to show
that judicious use of inorganic fertilizers (right types and
quantities of primary, secondary and trace elements) will
maintain, and in some cases, improve soil fertility and crop
yields for fairly long periods of continuous cropping.

I.C.7. Fertilizer Use Under Irrigation.


Regulated moisture supply through irrigation may
favourably change the physical, chemical and biological
processes in the soil and improve its fertility status.
Increased root development and free movement of nutrient ions
to the roots favour efficient use of applied fertilizers
under irrigation. Similarly, well nourished plants make
better use of available soil moisture. Thus, nutrient and
water use efficiencies are matually complementary to each
other. Irrigation water also supplies such nutrient cations
as Ca, Mg and K to the crop. Increased crop yield and nutrient
uptake under irrigated agriculture deplete soils of elements
not supplied in fertilizers;
23

secondary and trace element deficiencies develop faster under


these circumstances. Thus, in order to sustain high crop
yields under irrigated conditions, more types of nutrient
elements and higher rates of fertilizers must be applied than
would be the case under rainfed agriculture.

Poor drainage and bad water management under irrigation


lead to salinization and alkalization, two phenomena which
decrease the efficient use of applied nutrients. Reduced
oxygen diffusion not only restricts root respiration and nu­
trient uptake, but also increases the denitrification loss
of nitrate- This is the reason for the preference of ammonical
nitrogen for rice under flooded condition. Excess water also
increases the leaching loss of soluble nutrients (NO,- K),

particularly in sandy soils.

Proper fertilizer use under irrigation involves the


application of required nutrients in adequate amounts and at
appropriate times so as to achieve optimum crop production.
Since N fertilizers are highly soluble, they have to be applied
in split doses in sandy soils to reduce leaching losses.
Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers can be incorporated prior
to planting. Certain sandy soils (e.g. Bakura) require Mg
and Zn fertilizers-in addition to N, P and K for optimum yield.
Periodic monitoring of soil and irrigation water for nutrient
deficiencies and excesses will help formulate proper and
balanced fertilizer use.

I.C.8. Soil Salinity and Alkalinity.

Saline and alkaline soils occur in small patches in


the semi-arid belt of northern Nigeria. Such soils rarely
occur in the southern parts of the country where high rainfall
affords considerable leaching of salts beyond the root zone.
24

Salinity surveys of irrigated schemes in northern Nigeria


have shown that certain soils in Bomo, Gongnla, Kano and
Sokoto States vary from non-saline to moderately saline. The
level of salinity around South Lake Chad is generally very low 5
values of electrical conductivity in excess of 4 mmho/cm are
uncommon and have a very random distribution throughout this
are, Yau' Sheme soils on lowland or in slight depression
areas are seriously affected with salinity problems. Areas
around Daya in Borno State are strongly saline-sodic in the
sub-soils. In the Hadejia River Basin area, about 20-40%
of the soils are slightly alkaline. Soils at Kalmalo, Tungun
Rundu and Wurno in Sokoto State are slightly saline in nature.

Soils from area of high-clay content are becoming saline


due to high water-table and/or poor1- drainage; internal
drainage is therefore, recommended. Sodic soils would, however,
require such chemical amendment as the application of gypsum,

I.C.9. Soil Acidity and Liming.

Soil acidity is a major factor influencing the natural


distribution of plants, soil fauna, micro Sauna and micro
flora. The adverse effects of soil acidity on plant nutrition
are usually the_ deficiency of essential plant nutrients (e,g,
Ca, Mg and P) and toxicity of minor nutrients (e.g. Al, Fe
and Mn). It is a soil condition common in all regions where
precipitation is high enough to leach appreciable amounts of
exchangeable bases from the surface layers of soils; it is
sometimes developed by continuous use of acid-forming fertili­
zers.

Two major types of acid soils limit food production in


Nigeria — the leached acid soils (ferallitic soils, pH 4.5)
in high rainfall areas of the south, and the acid sulphate
soils
25

(pH 3.5) of the delta area and marshy caasts. Poor growth
of crops like maize and cowpea in these areas is attributable
to the prevailing acid conditions.

Liming acid tropical soils to near-neutrality has not


produced the desired effects. In trials conducted in the
ferrallitic and ferruginous soils in the Imo-Anambra areas,
far example, liming acid soils to pH 6.5 and 7.0 for maize
depressed plant growth and yield. Similar trials conducted
on the acid soils of Agege and Ikenne have shown that the
use of lime in combination with manure and some essential
trace elements gave better yields than lime alone. The poor
growth of crops in trials with liming alone has been attri­
buted to the induced micro-nutrient deficiencies, particularly
zinc, in the soil as a result of excessive liming. Liming
on this soil should be based mainly on the reduction of the
level of extractable (exchangeable) aluminium in the soil
to a tolerable level.

Considering the causes of soil acidity in tropical soils,


a more realistic approach to better food crop production on
acid soils in Nigeria should aim at the neutralization of
excess exchangeable aluminium and the addition of essential
exchangeable cations deficient in the soil. In addition,
species of crop more adaptable to acid conditions should be
grown.
26

I.D. Supplements Chemical Fertilizers

I.D.1* Cr«p Residues and Organic Manures.

Organic amendments such as crop residues and livestock


manures could be used to supplement chemical fertilizers. The
potassium content in crop residues is very high and most of
it virtually water-soluble. Thus, a crop of millet that
yields 1,000 kg/ha of grain would contain about 51 kg/ha of
XpO in the straw.

Livestock manures improve soil fertility by improving


both the chemical and physical properties of the soil. But
for this effect to be noticeable, large amounts of the FYM
(e.g. 10 t/ha) need to be applied. This means that the use
of manure for crop production in the country will, for the
present, be limited to back-yard gardens and small areas in
close proximity to farmers’ homes. There is much variability
in the nutrient composition of manures and this appears t^i
be dependent on the type of animal and how the manure has
been stored and handled. In general, however, manure is largely
an N-K fertilizer and, therefore, best returns might be
expected when applied to non-legumes.

While the value of crop residues and manures in improving


soil fertility is undisputable, for best results these materials
need to be properly mixed with the soil. In the absence of
adequate machinery to incorporate the materials, farmers resort
to burning crop residues. This results in the loss of nitrogen
and sulphur but the other nutrients are fairly well conserved.
The manure is often left on the soil surface or just barely
mixed with the soil. This could lead to high losses «f N.
27
In the drier Savanna areas most of the residues are
removed for other purposes (e.g. roofing, fencing, fuel,
livestock feed). If the fertility of the soil is to he main­
tained, the nutrients carried off the farm would need to
be replaced. The problem in the proper management of crop
residues in the humid parts of the country is mostly that
of providing suitable machinery for incorporation. Zero
tillage practices (with the crop residues left on the soil
to protect it and eventually decompose) could be a suitable
alternative.

I^D.2. Biological Nitrogen Fixation.

Leguminous crops such as cowpea, groundnut and soya­


bean, are capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen into
the ammonium form in the nodules of these crops. This process,
known as dinitrogen fixation, is a symbiosis between the
crop and Rhizobia. All the other essential nutrients should
be adequate in the soil if the fixation rate of the crop is
to be high. High levels of soil or applied nitrogen will
decrease fixation rates.

Leguminous crops vary in their capacities to fix atmos­


pheric nitrogen and also in the amounts of nitrogen they
leave in the soil after the economic yield has been removed..
A good soil crop of groundnut may leave about 50 kg/ha of
N, while cowpea leave only 20-25 Kg/ha of N.. When these
crops are intercropped, the amount of N fixed per hectare
as well as the residual nitrogen may decrease sharply, depend­
ing on the ratio of the legume to non-legume in the mixture.
Allowances must, therefore, be made for any residual nitrogen
from previous legume crops when recommending fertilizer nitro­
gen for subsequent crops.

Dinitrogen fixation in the soil can also be brought


about by certain free-living organisms such as the blue-
green algae and
spirillum. Blue-green algae are Important in flooded rice
paddies.. It has been estimated that free-living organisms
»ay fix up to 20 kg/ha of N in rice paddies.
29

I.E. Fertilizer Distribution

I.E.1. Handling.

There are occupational hazards inherent in the


handling of fertilizers, particularly the nitrogenous forms
and such soil amendment forms as lime. This is especially
so when large quantities of fertilizers are involved and when
the handling procedures are manual (as is presently the case
at the Nigerian Ports). Stinging sensations, blisters, Itching,
irrigations and erythema of the skin are common complaints
among dock workers handling fertilizers. At the farmer's
level, the rick of undue exposure to fertilizers is minimal
since he handles only a small quantity in a retatively short
space of time during the growing season.

To minimise body contact with the commodity at the ports,


specifications on bagging should include a thick polyethylene
inne layer and a wo von r>olvpropylene outer layer. Simple
precautionary measures such as wearing of gloves and protective
clothing should be advocated.

I.E.2. Storage.

The quality of some fertilizers deteriorate rapidly


when they come into contact with moisture or other soil
amendments like lime. As far as possible, fertilizers should
be protected from rain and water. Tarpaulins should be used
to give additional protection to the fertilizers stored at
port warehouses and at field depots of ministries of agricul­
ture and all other agricultural agencies.
30

As far as possible, farmers should be encouraged to


construct simple fertilizer stores within family compounds.
Ministry and Local Government stores should be such that the
different types of fertilizers are stacked separately for
ease ®f access. Stacking height should be 18-20 bags to
prevent slippage and for easy stock-taking. Fertilizer columns
should not rest on the floor of the store but on wooden plat­
forms; columns should not rest on the walls of the store but
a distance 'of 2-3m should be allowed around the ro#m for free
air circulation .and easy movement.
*

I.E.3. Supplies and Sales.

Fertilizer supplies to all states should be completed


at least three months before the rainy season begins to allow
rime for their distribution. Vehicles carrying fertilizer
should be provided with tarpaulins in case of rain. To
minimise breakages, such vehicles should not be allowed to
carry other loads on top of fertilizer consignments. Fertilizer
/*
stores should not contain other inputs (e.g. grains and chemicals)
and should, ideally, be within 20-km of every farming community
and well stocked throughout the year. Where this is not
possible stores should be well stocked at such strategic
periods as land preparation and the periods of nitrogen applica­
tion for cereals. Fertilizers should also be available for
iry season farming.

Fertilizer sales should be made at all times and may


involve one or a combination of the following avenues;
i. directly from fertilizer stores;
ii. through commissioned agents contracted for the purpose;
iii. co-operative societies;
iv. agro-service centres, and
v. such local community organizations as Farmers Unions
and Young Farmers’ Clubs.
31
I.F. Principles of Fertilizer Application

Once the choice of fertilizer has been made for a given


crop, there remains the important problem of determining
how and when the job should be done to obtain the best yields.
This is particularly important when a limited supply of
fertilizers is to be used to obtain optimum increases in crop
yields. T^e selection of the best method of fertilizer
application depends on a number of factors, notably the kind
of soil, its moisture status, its fixing power for the diffe­
rent nutrients, previous management, the crop to be treated,
its root development and the ability to extract nutrients
in the soil as well as the kind and amount of fertilizer to
be used.

Generally, methods used for applying fertilizers may


be grouped into broadcasting and placement.

I.F.1. Fertilizer Broadcasting.


The main objectives in broadcasting are, firstly, to
distribute the fertilizer evenly and to incorporate it with
part of, or throughout, the plough layer. Secondly, broad­
easting is used when applying large quantities of fertilizers
that can be safely applied at the time of planting. In
broadcasting, the fertilizer is spreas over the entire soil
areas to be treated, either before the land is ploughed,
immediately before planting or while the crop is growing. The
latter is usually referred t® as side-dressing if the crop
is in wide rows, and as top-dressing if the crop is in
narrow rows or not in rows.
Delayed applications of nitrogen are made, commonly as
top-dressing; top-dressings of P and K are ordinarily made
only on pasture that occupy the land for several years.
32

I.F.2. Fertilizer Placement.

Placement refers to applying fertilizers into the


soil, but without special reference to the location of seed
cr plant. When the fertilizer is placed close to the seed
cr plant the application is said to be 'localised'. The
placement of solid fertilizers can be done with the help
of simple implements (e.g. ploughs) and such hand-tools as
hoes. Plant, hill or row placement refers to applying the
fertilizers either in bands or localised areas near the
plants or along the planted row, but often in a definite space
relationship to the seed or plant. This method allows for
a greater availability of nutrients by reducing losses of
P and K through fixation than when fertilizers are mixed
with the soil. The greatest hazard of placing fertilizers
near the seed is that germination may sometime be hindered
or the young plant damaged by an excessive concentration of
soluble salts if the materials are put too close to the seed
or plant. Such injury is greatest in dry sandy soils,

I.F.3. Fertilizing Tree Crops/Plants

The method of fertilizer application to tree plants


is often a compromise between broadcasting and localised
placement. Often, the fertilizer is broadcast under tho
tree to a distance of 30-60 cm beyond the spread of the
branches. On the other hand, when a cover or green manure
crop is grown between the trees a large part of the fertilizer
may be applied to this crop. In Forest zones and on very
sandy soils the fertilizer application may be repeated several
times during the season.
33

CHAPTER II; SOLE CROPS AND FERTILIZER PRACTICES

II.A. General Concept

Fertilizer recommendations for sole crops emanate almost


exclusively from extensive laboratory and /or field trials over
Time and space. Such trials result in average recommendations
for a crop within an area which are normally put out by approved
extension agencies for adoption by farmers. Where an approved
fertilizer practice is considered inadequate or where no formal
recommendation is available, the Fertilizer Use Committee has
put forward suggested practices on the basis of existing infor­
mation, individual or common knowledge and experience.

II.A.I. Improved Crop Husbandry


In discussing the fertilization of crops in this chapter
"brief mention has been made about related husbandry practices
which could be presumed to influence the effectiveness of applied
fertilizers and the efficiency of their use. It should be noted
that unlike unimproved (local) varieties of crops which are
characterised by a low-yielding potential, improved varieties
generated by the various breeding programmes are more responsive
to such improved technologies like the use of chemical fertili­
zers. It should similarly be noted that since most crops are
grown on ridges spaced 1 m apart or more, there is a narrow
limit placed on the arrangement of plants and on the plant popu­
lations that could be attained relative to flat planting,
recause there are rarely significant inherent advantages (excepting
root and tuber crops) in planting on mouded ridges, it is
suggested that wherever possible and particularly with regard
to large-scale farmers, crops should be sown in well prepared
flat beds.
34

It is thus reasonable to expect that there is a lot to be


rained from the use of appropriate and adequate fertilizers
■under improved agronomic packages involving the use of correct
-rep variety, seed dressing (Aldrex-T or Fernasan-D), spacing
ani seeding rate as well as in timely sowing and effective weed,
insect and disease control. In contrast, the farmer who habi­
t-ally sows late using unimproved crop varieties, the seed of
h'hich is rarely dressed and invariably incorrectly spaced with
a consequent poor germination and sub-optimal plant population,
would hardly be justified to expect much benefit from the use
•f fertilizers, particularly if these are incorrectly and/or
insufficiently applied.

The nutrient content of common fertilizer materials used


in Nigeria or mentioned in this document are summarised in
Table 2 (Page ix).
35
II.B. Cereals

I*.3.1. MAIZE (Zea mays)

II.B.1(a). Area Under Crop. As estimated 2 - 3 million


hectares are currently under maize in Nigeria and its cultiva­
tion in the Savanna continues to increase.

II.B.(b). Varieties. The following are the improved maize


varieties currently recommended in the various states of the
Federation. Note that with the exception of Upper Volta Early
(UVE) which is a short-season (90-day) variety suited for the
upper Sudan and Sahel areas, all others are 120-day varieties
*r more.

Serial
N«. State Maize Variety
i.; Anambra, Cross River Farz 7 (= Bulk-3 =Wester Yellow);
Im* and Rivers Farz 27 (= TZPB); Farz 34 (=TZB).

ii. Bauchi and Borno Farz 1 (=NS-1); Farz 6 (=Discol-V-


153);
Farz 7; Fafz 11 (=NCA); Farz 12 (N
Farz 22 (= Samaru 1-2-3); UVE.

iii. Bendel, Lagos, Ogun, Farz 7; Farz 17 (NCC): Farz 23


Onde and Oyo (= 096-EP6); Farz 27; Farz 34.

iv. Benue and Platmau Farz 7; Farz 11: Farz 12; Farz 14
(= Biu Y x C-10); Farz 22.
v. Gongola Farz 1; Farz 6 ; Farz 7; Farz 11;
Farz 22.

vi. Kaduna Farz 1; Farz 7; Farz 11; Farz 12;


Farz 22; UVE.
vii. Kan* Farz 7; Farz 11; Farz 12; Farz 22;
ft UVE.
viii. Kwara Farz 1; Farz 6 ; Farz T ; Farz 11;
Farz 12.
ix. Niger Farz 1; Farz 4 (=H-503); Farz 6 ;
Farz 7; Farz 11; Farz 12.
x. Sokoto Farz 1; Farz 4; Farz 6 ; Farz 7;
Farz 11; Farz 12; UVE.
36

II.B.1(c). Cultural Practices. Seed at 25-35 kg/ha of


grain to achieve 37-66,000 plants/ha.(90x30cm - 60x25cm),
depending on variety, plant arrangement and level of management.
In the southern states and Forest areas where the rainy season
is long enough for two crops, plant in March/April for the first
(early) crop and in August for the second (late) crop. In the
Northern Guinea, Sudan and Sahel zones where oxily one er*p is
possible, plant as soon as the rains are established.

With regard to weed control, atrazine is the herbicide*


currently recommended for use in most of souther# Nigeria*' It
is applied pre-plant (or latest 2 days after planting) at 3.'f kg
a.i./ha in 225 litres of water. No other formal recommendati#ns
are currently available for chemical weed control. However, if
properly used, any of the following suggestions will effectively
check weeds in the Southern Guinea, Northern Guinea and Sudan
Savannas, except where specified.

i. 1.33 kg a.i. Metolachlor + 0.67 kg aii* Atr&zind


( = 4 lit. Primetra)/ha, or
ii. 1.0 kg a.i. Metolachlor + 1.0 kg a.i. Atrazine (= 4 lit.
Primagram)/ha.
iii. If Rottboelia exaltata institutes a problem (as in
large mechanised schemes), use 2.6 kg a;i. Pendimethalin
+ 2.0 kg a^i. Atrazine (6 lit. Stomp + 4 lit, Gesaparim
or Atranex 500 FW)/ha.

iv. If Cyperus esculentus constitutes a problem (as in


mechanised farms and irrigated schemes), use either
(i) above, or 2.0, kg a.i. Alachlor + 1.0 kg a.i, Atrazine
( = 4 lit. Lasso + 2 lit. Gesaprim 500 FW)/ha pre-£mej*gMee

v. In case of Cyperus rotundus / Cyperus tuberosus


infestation in irrigation schemes, use either -
37

3.0 kg a.i. Butylate + 1.0 kg a.i. Atrazine ( = 4 lit..


Sutan + 2 lit. Gesaprim 500 FW)/ha pre-plant
incorporated, or
3.0 kg a.i. EPTC (antidote) + 1.0 kg a.i. Atrazine
( = 4 lit. Eradicane + 2 lit. Gesaprim 500 FW)/ha
pre-plant incorporated.

On the lighter soils of northern areas of Sudan Savahna


the rates should not exceed § of those given above.
It should be noted that great caution should be exercised
in the selection and handling of all herbicides in view of their
inherent hazards to crops and animals, including humans.

II.B.1(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms

i. Nitrogen deficiency: -Leaves yellow; older leaves dying


at tips and progressively along mid-vein; stalks
slender; stunting.
ii. Phosphorus deficiency; Leaves purplish during early
growth; slow maturity; irregular ear formation,
iii. Potassium deficiency: Yellow or yellowish-green streaks
especially on lower leaves, followed by marginal scorch;
short internodes; weak plants easily lodged.

II.B.1(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. Fertilizer


recommendations and/or suggestions for maize in various parts
cf the country may be summarised as followss
38

?rial
No. Nutrient/ha Material/ha Recoromendation/Suggestion
65 kg N Urea, 145 kg(3 bags)* Existing recommendation
or CAN, 250 kg(5 bags) 120-day maize in 10
45 kg P2 05 SSP, 250 kg (5 bags) northern states = 65 kg/
or TSP, 100 kg (2 bags) ha N + 45 Kg/ha P 2 ° 5

65 kg N Urea, 145 kg (3 ba^s) Suggested practice for


or CAN, 250 kg(5 bags) 90-day maize and dry
45 kg P2 0 5 SSP, 250 kg(5 bags) areas of Sudan and
or TSP, 100 k g (2 bags) Sahel zones. = 65 kg/ha
30 kg K 2 0
KCI, 50 kg (1 bag) N +45 kg/ha P2°^

or K 2 S0 ^ 6 0 kg ( 1 bag) + 30 kg/ha K 2 0 .

120 kg N Urea, 265 kg(5 bags) Suggested practice for


or CAN, 460 kg(9 bags) 1 2 0 -day maize, irrigated
75 kg P£05 SSP, 415 kg ( 8 bags) maize and maize grown
or TSP, 170 kg (3bags) in net areas of
60 kg K 2 0
KCI, 100 kg(2 bags) 10 northern states
or K2S04, 1 1 c'kg( 3 bags) = 1 2 0 kg/ha N + 75 kg/
ha P2 ° 5 + 60 kg/ha K 2 0 .

50 kg N Urea, 116 kg(2 bags) Existing practice in


or CAN, 195 kg (4 bags) the western states for
or SA, 250 kg(5 bags) newly opened land
25 kg P 2 0 5 SSP, 140 kg (3 bags) = 50 kg/ha N + 25 Kg/ha
or TSP, 55 kg(1 bag) PgO^ + 25 kg/ha K2 ).
25 kg K 2 0 KCI, 40 kg (1 bag) Under continous crop­
or K 2 00 ^ 50kg(l bag) ping rates should be
doubled to 1 0 0 ' kg/ha
N + 50 kg/ha P 2 0^ +
50 kg/ha K 2 0 . ;
v. 15 15-15
- compd.3 0 0 kg ( 6 bags) Alternative.practive
under continuous cropp­
ing in 5 western states
= 300 kg/ha 15 - 1 5 - 1 5
compound. For soil
under derived Savanna ar
additional dose of 45
kg/ha N (= 100 kg/ha Ure
or 2 bags) is applied.
Each’bag is 50 kg in weight (Table I)
39

Serial
Nutrient/ha____ Material/ha Recommendation/Suggestion

vi. 15-15-15 Compd.400kg(8 bags) Existing practice in


4 eastern states 400
kg/ha 15-15-15 compound.
vii. 1 kg/ha Zn Zn SO^ 3kg Suggested as supplement
’ for soils under derived
Savanna of south­
western Nigeria.

"ere that in areas where sulphur deficiency exists, sulphur-con-


raining fertilizers should be used.

II.B.1 (f). Fertilizer' Application, .


i. In the 10 northern states, the existing recommendation is
to apply half of the N at planting and the remainder
about 4-6 weeks later; P and K are applied in furrows
before splitting old ridges. It is suggested that for
this area, particularly the drier Northern Guinea and
Sudan zones, all the N should be dribbled along a 5cm-
deep groove about 8cm away from the row of plants at 3 weeks
after sowing and co~ -r with soil.

ii. Under newly opened land in the western states the practice
is to apply all of the W at 4-6 weeks after sowing.
Under continuous cropping split-apply the N at planting
and about 4-6 weeks later. If 15-15-15 compound is used,
apply all at planting; any additional N is applied at
4-6 weeks later.

II.B.1(g). Yield Expectancy, Farmers' maize yields vary widely


be'Tween 200 and 2,000 kg/ha of dry grain. Following recommended/
suggested practices yields of up to 3,500-5,000 kg/ha of grain are
40

’Kib3.«rw 5*4.«id jxrten-fcial f©r> maize is estimated at 7-8,000


fe/da of grain in the Northern Guinea zone and between 4-5000
-:' in Southern and Forest zones. Where a second (late) crop
is gr#wn yields are generally lower.

®il may be commercially extracted from the maize gern and


one content varies from 50-56%. Protein content averages
about 9.5%.
41
II.B.2. GUINEA CORN (Sorghum bicolor)

II.B.2(a). Area Under-Crop. An estimated 6-6.5 million hectares


are currently under guinea corn in Nigeria.

11.5.2(b). Varieties. Improved guinea corn varieties currently


recommended in the various areas are as follows.

TFffir State Area Guinea corn Mean Height


No. Variety _ (m)
— • Bauchi Azare YG-5760; KBL 3.60; 1.81
Barazo SFF-60; FFBL 4.00; 4.60
Bauchi SK-5912 ;L-1499 2.60; 2.00
Hong SL-187 ,80
ii. Benue Yandev C-7-4; ML-4 4.00* 4,00
iii. Borno Maiduguri, Gwoza C-59;B-E-S;HP-3■ 3.70;1 .60;1.30
Potiskum YG-5760 3.60
Fika K.B.L., 1.81

iv. Gongola Mubi FFBL; L-1499 4.60; 2.00


04
Jalingo, Ganye C-7-4; FD-1 o 4.00
o
v> o

v._ Kaduna Daudawa,Maigana SFF-60 4.00


Zaria FFBL 4.60
Zaria,Kaduna
Zonkwa,Kafinsoli SK-5912;SL-187 . 2.60; 1.80

vi. Kano Kano, B/kudu YG-5760 3.60


KBL 1 .81

contd
42

la rial Guinea corn Mean Height


i-t v • State Area Variety (m)
I " w ii. Kwara Kaima 0-7-4 4.00
Osara ML-4; FD-1 4.00; 4.00
n ir i. Niger Tununfana SFF-60 4.00
Mokwa C-7-4 4.00
Kwali ML-4 4.00
lx. Plateau Laf ia 0-7-4; ML-4 4.00;4.00
Lowland,
Langtang FD.1 4.00
X. Sokoto Zuru FFBL; L-1499 4.60, 2.00
Gusau YG-5760; KBL 3.60; 1.81

H . 2.2(c). Cultural Practices. Seed at 10-20 kg/ha of grain t*


a rtf eve 37-66,000 plants/ha (90x30cm-60x25cm) depending on
taariety, plant arrangement and level of management. Since guinea
« m ia largely grown in the Savanna and Sudan zones, it should
Be planted as soon as the rains are well established and
farce iiately after a good rain. There is presently no approved
clerical weed control package for guinea corn; however, when
■rrperly applied any of the following suggestions will effectively
■heck weeds in the Southern and Northern Guinea and Sudan zones,
except where specified.

i. 0.75 kg a.i. Terbutryne + 0.75 kg a.i. Terbuthylazine


( = 3 lit. Sorghoprim)/ha.

o
43

ii. Q a8 kg a.ii Atrazine. + 0,8 kg a.i. Terbuthylazine


(= 1.6 lit. Gesaprim 500 FW + 1 . 6 lit. Gardoprim)/ha.
On lighter soils of northern areas lower rates (about
0.5 kg a.i. each) are preferred.

iii. 1.0 kg Atrazine (= 2 lit. Gesaprim 500 FW)/h a . A lower


rate, O.5-0.8 kg a.i., is preferred for lighter soils.

Great caution must be exercised in the selection and hand­


ling of all herbicides.

II.B.2(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.


Nitrogen deficiency; jn young sorghum plant there is
a stunted spindly growth and yellowish green foliage;
in later growth the leaves become definitely yellow,

ii. Phosphorus deficiency; Mild deficiencies are characte­


rized by stunted growth but n® clear-cut symptom; more
severe deficiencies usually cause purling or browning
of leaves, starting with older leaves; delays matura­
tion.
iii. Potassium deficiency; Shortened internodes and
dwarfing of plants; a more severe deficiency produces
bronze to yellow discolouration along the edges of
lower leaves; marginal discolouration is continuous
from tip to base of leaf.

II.B.2(e). Fertilizer sources and Rates. Fertilizer recommenda­


tion and/or suggestions for guinea corn may be summarised as
follows;
44

S erial--------------------------------- -------------- --- ----------------


No. Nutrient/ha Material/ha Recommendation/Suggestion

33 kg N Urea,- 70 kg(1 bag) Existing recommendations


Vr CAN, 130 kg(3 bags) = 33 kg/ha N + 25 kg/ha
25 kg P205 SSP, 14# kg( 3 mgs) P2*5 ;

or TSP-, 55 kg('1 nag)

75-100 kg/ha N Urea, 165-220kg(3-4 Suggested practice


bags) f*r improved varieties
50-75 kg/P^Oc- or CAN, 290-390 kg(6-8 under adequate m»is-
bags) ture conditions and
50 kg K o0 oq-d os4b, /i0r> good management =
2 SSP’ 28f-42°nkg ± . 75-100 kg/ha N +
- Dags' 50-75 kg/ha P,0- +
*r TSP, 110-170 kg 50 kg/ha K£0 z 5
(2-3 bags)
KCI, 85 kg(2 bags)
*r K^SO^ 100kg(2 bags)

11.2.2(f). Fertilizer Application. The existing recommended practice


L s zc apply P fertilizer in furrow bottoms before spliting the old
fcdges; N fertilizer is applied in two splits, half at 2-3 weeks
■tfPter planting and the other half at 6-8 weeks after planting. It
Mm suggested that applying P and K fertilizers in old furrows before
Ire-ridging and planting and the placement of all the N in grooves
■bn f r W the row of plants at 3-4 weeks after planting would result
^■improved yields and a reduction in application costs.

2(g) . Yield Expectancy. Farmers' yield#- »f guinea corn vary


y between 350 and 1,700 kg/ha of dry grain. By adopting re-
nded practices yields of up to 2,500 kg/ha are possible. The
potential for'guinea corn is estimated at 4-5,00 kg/ha.
re in content is estimated at about 10%.
45

II.B.3. MILLET (Pennisetum typhoideum)

m ..5 .3(a). Area Under Crop. It is estimated that al^out 5-5.5


■tfllicn hectares of land is cropped to millet annually.

p . B r.3(o). Varieties. Millets can he classified into three types”

1. Gero is a short season variety taking 90 days to maturity.


The variety "Ex-Borno" is suggested for the Daura,
Birnin Kebbi and Yandev areas; for other areas the most
popular local variety is suggested.

Maiwa is a longer season millet, taking upwards of 120


days.ta maturity. The selections 'Ex-Gasb.ua’, 'Ex-Riyom'
and ’Ex-Tukur1 are recommended for the Kano, Kasarawa
and Potiskum areas, respectively. For other areas the
best local varieties should be used.

iii. lauro is a transplanted long season millet which generally


grows shorter than Maiwa. No varieties are recommended
and it is suggested that the best local varieties
should be used.

S.3,:;. Cultural Practices. Seed at 10-15 kg/hef of grain to


air*-- 60,000 plants/ha (90x25cm-75x25cm). Plant 'gero' millet
tfce onset of established rains and 'Maiwa' 3-6 weeks later. No
1 recommendations are currently available for chemical weed
1; however, it is suggested that any of the following
files will control weeds in the main millet-growing areas
{Hue Northern Guinea and Sudan zones.

Hi. 0.5 kg a.i. Atrazine + 0.5 kg a.i. Terbuthylazine


(= 1 lit.
Gesaprim 500 FW + 1 lit. Gardoprim)/ha.
46

ii. 0.8 kg a.i. Atrazine (= 1.6 lit. Gesaprim 500 FW)/ha.


A lower rate of Atrazine (0.5 kg a.i.) is preferred for
the lighter soils of Sudan zone.

It should "be noted that great care needs to be taken in


selecting and handling herbicides.

llLH.3(d). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. Fertilizer recommendations


■hd/rr suggestions for millet in various parts of the country may
In* summarised as follows;

Nutrient/ha Material/ha Recommendation/Suggestions

13 kg N Urea
or CAN, covering particularly
11 kg SSP, the Sudan and Sahel zones
P2°5
or TSP,
p2®5 .
50 kg N- Urea 1 1 kg(2 bags)
0

*r CAN,
18 kg SSP,
P2°5 or TSP, growing conditions =
15 kg
o

KCI,
0

or k £s o '
4 » 30k g b a g ) P205 + 15 kg/ha P20,

■LB.3(e). Fertilizer Application. Spread P and K in old furrow


Hrttcr.s before making new ridges and planting. Drill all the N
Ip weeks after planting in grooves about 8cm from the row of
■Harris and cover with soil.

H b .3 (f). Yield Expectancy. Farmers' yields range between 450


fac. ' ,400 kg/ha of grain. Under improved cultural practices yields
■ 2,000-3,500 kg/ha are possible. Protein content is estimated
''miTt*" „
(■BUlk . • • •
47

II.B.4, RICE (Oryza sativa)

[a). Area Under Crop. An estimated 0.3-0.5 million


r is under rice annually.

,'z) . Varieties. Basically two types of rice are grown;

. Upland rice grown under rainfed conditions and

. Swamp rice grown on flood plains, irrigated schemes


and deep flood areas. The improved varieties listed
below are currently recommended for the various states,

Rice Variety

Swamp/Lowland Upland

Aranhra, Faro 1 (= BG-79) Faro 11(=0S-6)


Tmss River, Faro 8 (=Mass 2401)
Iro and Rivers Faro 12 (= SML 140/10)
Faro 13 (=IR-S)
Fare 15
Faro 16
Faro 19(= IR-20)
Faro 23(= IR-5)
Faro 25

Eauchi Faro 5 (=Makali*ka Fare 3(=Agbede)


Earo 12

Bended, Lagos, Faro 3


Ggun, Ondo, Oyo - Fare 11
Faro 25
I erne Faro 12

Be m o Faro- 2 (=D-114) Fare 3


Faro 12

contd
48

Serial Rice Variety


No. State Swamp/Lowland Upland

vi. Gongola Faro 12:


Faro 13 -

vii. Kaduna Faro 2 Faro 3


Faro 12 Faro 11

viii. Kano Faro 12 Faro 3

ix. Kwara, Niger Faro 12 Far® 11

X. Plateau Faro 1
Faro 10( = Sindano) Faro 3
xi. Sokoto Faro 12 Faro 3
Faro 11

In addition to the above varieties, Faro 14 is suggested as


floating rice for the flooded areas of Sokoto and Hadejia and
Faro 7 (=Maliong) for flooded areas in southern Nigeria.

II.B.4(c). Cultural Practices. For swamp rice, use 20-25 kg/ha


of seed and transplant 2 seedlings per hole spaced 30x30cm apart.
For upland rice, use 30-40 kg/ha of seed drilled on the flat at
30x30cm. Plant swamp rice late May or early June and transplant
late in June or early July when seedlings are 2-4 weeks old.
For upland rice plant when the rains are regular, this being
between mid-March and mid-April in the southern states. Apart
from Stam F-34 (Propanil) which is recommended to be sprayed at
5 kg a.i./ha at 14-21 days after transplanting in the Badegi
area, no formal recommendations have been made regarding chemical
weed control in rice under savanna and Sudan conditions. It is,
49

however, suggested that any of the following herbicides may prove


effective on large-scale farms under irrigation:

i. Preforan (Flu^rodifen) at 2.0 kg a.i./ha sprayed 5-10


days after transplanting, and

ii, Saturn (Benthiocarb) at 3.0 kg a.i./ha sprayed 5-14 days


after transplanting.

In the five south-western states it is suggested that either


Xamarise (propanil + benthiocarb) or Risane (propanil + fluorodifen)
or Basagran (propanil + bentazon) can be used on upland rice by
spraying at 3.0-kg a.i./ha active ingredient in 220 litres of
water at 14-21 days after planting.

Caution must always be exercised in selecting and handling


all herbicides.

II.B,4(d). Nutrient Deficiency Sumptoms.


i. Nitrogen deficiency: Characterised by general yellowing
of the lower leaves.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency: Poor tillering; poorly developed


root system; narrow leaves.

iii. Potassium deficiency: Short stem; weak plants and


therefore susceptible to certain diseases (e.g. brown
spot)

iv. Sulphur deficiency: Yellowish colouration of particu­


larly young leaves,

v. Iron deficiency: Yellowish colouration seen only on


young leaves with lower leaves remaining green - but
this is mainly on upland rice. Iron toxicity (bronzing)
may occur in flooded or swamp rice.
50

Serial
No. Nutrient/ha Material/ha Recommendation/Suggestion

i.. 80 kg N Urea, 175 kg(4 bags ) Existing recommendation


or SA , 400 kg(8 bags) for swamp rice in 10
SSP, 185 kg (4 bags \ northern states = 80 kg/
33 kg P205
' ha N + 33 kg/ha PgO^.
It is suggested that CAN
should not be used.

ii. 33 kg N Urea, 75 kg(2 bags) Existing recommendation


or CAN, 165 kg(3 bags) for upland rice in 10
northern states = 33 kg/
ha N only. P not
recommended at present.

iii, 15-15-15 compd. 100kg(2bags) Existing recommendation


Urea, 45 kg (1 bag) for upland rice in 5
20 kg N or SA , 100 kg(2 bags) south-western states =
100 kg/ha of 15-15-15 +
20 kg/ha N. It is sugge^
sted that SA should not
be used in Bendel, Ogun
and Lagos states.
iv. 15-15-15 Compd.400kg(8 bags) Existing practice for
Urea, 45 kg(1 bag) swamp rice in 4 south­
20 kg N or SA , 100 kg(2 bags) eastern states = 400 kg/
ha of 15-15-15 + 20
kg/ha N.

It should be noted that recent findings suggest that the use of


potassium may. be beneficial in the Niger-Kaduna-Gboko flood plains.

II.B.4(f). Fertilizer Application.


i. For swamp rice, half the N should be applied at transplanting
and the remainder broadcast at 6-8 weeks after transplanting
(or booting stage), depending on the variety. Phosphorus
should be broadcast at seedbed preparation.

ii. For upland rice, apply N in furrows between rows at 3 weeks


after planting in the northern zone. In the south-western
51

zone apply all the compound fertilizer after the first


weeding and top-dress with urea or sulphate of ammonia
(except in Bendel, Ogun and Lagos States) about 8 weeks
after planting. In the south-eastern zone broadcast all
of the compound fertilizer either before planting or at
2-4 weeks after and top-dress with sulphate of ammonia at
panicle initiation (about 8 weeks).

II.B.4(g). Yield Expectancy. Farmers' yields range between 900


and 3,000 kg/ha for swamp rice and 900-1,700 kg/ha far upland rice.
With improved practices yields of up to 4-5,000 and 2-3,000 kg/ha
of paddy are possible for swamp and upland rice, respectively.
The yield potential is estimated at 5-6,000 kg/ha and 3-4,000
rice is estimated at about 7.5%.
52

II.B.5. WHEAT (Triticum aestivum)

II.B.5(a). Area Under Crop. At present the production of wheat is


largely confined to dry season irrigation schemes in areas where
weather conditions are favourable for its cultivation. An estima­
ted 8,000 hectares of land is presently under wheat annualy
and the area is likely to increase as irrigation facilities
are developed. The locally produced crop is still relatively
small and hardly occupies more than a total of 1,000 additional
hectares of land annually.

II.B.5(b). Varieties. The following varieties have been found


tc be not only well adapted to conditions in the areas of pro­
duction, but are also of high-yielding potential and possess
desirable (bread) baking qualities; Siete Cerros, Senora 65,
Florence Aurore 8195 and (Lee x N 10-B) GB55-GB56.

II.B.5(c). Cultural Practices. Seed at 90-100 kg/ha of good


quality seed dressed with Aldrex-T (not Fernasan-D). The
existing practice is to drill wheat in 60cm rows. For maximum
yield planting should be done in mid-November and the crop matures
try March. Irrigated wheat can be kept relatively free of weeds
try using any one of the following herbicides;

i. 1.2 kg a.i. Bantazone (= 2,5 lit. Basagran)/ha applied


post-emergence when broad leaved weeds and sedges are
present.
ii. 0.8 kg a.i. Chlortoluron (= 1 kg a.i. Diuron 80 WP)/ha
applied post-emergence when broad-leaved weeds and
grasses are present.

Caution needs to be exercised in the selection and handling


of all herbicides.
53

11.2..5(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency; Stunted spindly growth and


yellowish-green foliage.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency; Mild deficiency is characterised


by stunted growth but without clear-cut leaf symptoms;
more severe deficiency is characterised by purpling and
browning of leaves; delay in maturation.

oil. Potassium deficiency; Leaves become bluish-green;


older leaves turn yellow, then brown and finally die at
tips and margins; stalks short and weak; plants show
profuse tillering but flowering stems are few.

11.2.5(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. The fertilizer recom­


mendation summarised below is considered adequate for the present.

Nutrient/ha______Material/ha____ Recommendation/Suggestion

".00 kg N Urea, 220 kg(4 bags) Existing recommendation


or CAN, 385 kg (8 bags) = 1 0 0 kg/ha N + 45 kg/
45 kg SSP, 250 kg (5 bags; ha P20^. P°r sandy
30 kg KpO KCI, 50 kg (1 bag ) soils of Sokoto-Rima
and Hadejia-Jama'are
River Basin Supply
30 kg/ha K^O.

11.2.5(f). Fertilizer Application. Nitrogen can be applied as a


single dcse prior to planting by broadcasting, except on very
■Budy soils when N should be split-applied at planting and 4 weeks
.Hater. The second application may be tcp-dress and immediately
fell'"'.-ed by light irrigation. Both P and K should be applied at
■podded preparation.
54

1.3.5(g).- Yield Expectancy. Farmers’ yields of wheat range .


etween 900 and 1,900 kg/ha of dry grain.. By adopting improved
ractices yields can be increased to 2,500-3,500 kg/ha. The
ield potential at Kadawa is currently estimated at up to 4,500
g/ha; yields are lower at other existing areas of production,
he protein content of wheat grain is estimated at 12.2%.
55

II.B.6. BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare)

H..E.6{a). Area Under Crop. Barley is a relatively new crop


fceinr introduced into the country and production is presently
cmifined to experimental fields at irrigation sites in the north
W3er? growth conditions are favourable.

JUJU.6(c). Varieties. Screening work is in progress and no


varieties of barley have yet been recommended. However, the
Jfolicking 5 varieties have consistently proved superior in
terns ci yield and/or malting qualities? Zephyr, Ark Royal,
Tellus, Piroutte (all long-season, maturing in 120-14$ days)
■sc letch (a short-season variety, requiring 90-100 days to

II.*:.6(c) . Cultural Practices. While work on the basic agronomy


is still in progress, it is suggested that barley should be s«wn
by the middle of November at 100 kg/ha of seed. The existing
practice is to drill barley in rows 60cm apart.

11.1.5(1). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency; Leaves yellowish-green; older


leaves dry up; stalks slender, erect and purplish-
green; tillers are few, heads are small.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency: Slow growth; leaves may be dark


green with purple cast.

iii. Potassium deficiency: Leaves bluish-green and older


leaves turn yellow, then brown and finally die at tips
and margins; stalks are short and weak; profuce tillering
but few flov/ers.
56

HI.5.6(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. There are no fertilizer


■peecnrnendations at present hut the following package is suggested°

Nutrient/ha Material/ha______ Recommendation/Sugges tic

60 kg N

40 kg P205
5

HL.Z.e'f). Fertilizer Application. Apply about -g- of the N (i.e.


5 0 kg/ha = 1 bag of Urea or 75 kg/ha = 1 % bags of CAN) at
planting and the balance (i.e. 80 kg/ha = 2 bags of urea or 155
kg/ha = 3.5 bags of C M ) about 3 weeks later as a top-dressing,
fcllcved by a light irrigations. Phosphorus should be applied
at seedbed preparation.

11.2.6(g). Yield Expectancy. Yields of 2,500-4,500 kg/ha of


grain have been obtained under experimental conditions at
Kadaw a. The protein content of barley grain is estimated at
57
II.B. 7. SUGAR CANE (Saccharum o.fficinarum)

II.B.7(a) * Area Under Crop. An estimated 15-20,000 hectares of


lend is under sugar cane annually. This includes not only the
expensive area locally cultivated along river valleys, fadamas
and swampy flood plains throughout the country, but also the
6,000 hectares each cultivated plantations by the Bacita and
Savanna Sugar Companies.

H . 5.7(b). Varieties. Local clones of sugar cane vary frrm place


UbP' place but for commercial cultivation it is recommended that
ex:ole varieties Co-1001 and Co-957 should be used in the southern
arrases; in the northern states use Co-4301, B.4744, Ajax.

Bi. '(c). Cultural Practices. For propagation use either stem


Tiers or whole cane setts. For local soft canes where
■prwpagaTion is by cuttings, there should be one or two cuttings
■aer sxand at a spacing of 90x90cm; for commercial varieties
fcianTing should be in rows 1.2m apart. For whole cane seed-
ts buried end-to-end in furrows, space at 1.5m between rows,
grown on upland (e.g. in the southern states) plant in March/
il when the rains are steady; for swampy patches and flood
ns, plant in late August/September. Where the crop is
gated as in commercial estates, planting is preferred
een October and November for twelve-month old canes.

'(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency; Leaves yellowish-green to yellow,


drying off prematurely at tips and margins; older leaves
reddish purple; leaves narrow; stems thin; reduced
tillering.
58
ii. Phosphorus deficiency; Leaves show narrow bluish-green
lines; older leaves turn yellow and show tip die-back;
stalks are slender with short internodes; stunted growth.

iii. Potassium deficiency; Young leaves are initially dark


green; as they grow older leaves turn pale yellow and
show definite reddish colouration on upper surface of
mid-rib; older and lower leaves die-back at tips and
margins but before they dry up they show minute chlorotic
spots between veins followed by necrosis; stalks are
short; juice quality reduced.

II.B.7(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. The following fertili­


zer recommendations are considered adequate for the present;

Serial ’ "
> . ____ Nutrient/ha_______Material/ha_____ Recommendation/Suggestic
**•
— 13° kg N Urea, 285 kgj( 6 bags]) Existing practice for
or CAN, 500 kg(, 1 0 bags') sugar cane in 1 0
65 kg P 90,- SSP, 360 kg ( 7 bags') northern states = 1 3 0
kg/ha N + 65 kg/ha
P2e5 ’

ii. 125 kg N Urea, 275 k£T (a w o Existing practice


54 kg P2 0 5 or SSP, 300 kg(?6 baffs! ] for suoar cane in
KCI, 125 kg(>2 ,
,0 oags;
southern states =
1 2 5 k y ha N + 5 4
75 kg K~0
C.
kg/ha PpOc- + 7 5 kg/ha
k 2o . * ^

II.B.7(f). Fertilizer Application. The fertilizers should be


sixed, broadcast and lightly worked into the soil before laying
the cane seed setts or planting cuttings.
59

II.B.7(g). Yield Expectancy. Under local practices sugar cane


yields range between 7-38 tons/ha of cane; under improved
practices yield could average 40-60 tons/ha. Potential sugar
cane yield is estimated at up to 100 tons/ha.
60

II.B.8. ACCA (Digitaria exilis)

II.B.8(a). Area Under Crop. Acca is grown mostly in the uplands


of Plateau and southern Kaduna states and total area is probably
not more than 10,000 hectares.

II.B,8(b). Varieties. There are no improved varieties of acca


and, therefore, none is recommended. It is suggested that the
best local varieties should always be used.

II.B.8(c). Cultural Practices. No formal recommendations are


available but acca is known to perform well in areas with annual
rairifall of 1 ,000-1,300mm. Soils should be light sandy and not
necessarily very fertile. It is suggested that planting should
be done in May-June as this allows the crop to be harvested under
cool and dry weather. Seed should be broadcast immediately
following a shower at the rate of 45-55 kg/ha on the flat or
slightly raised ridges.

II.B.8(d). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. No recommendations are


presently available, but in order to maintain the fertility of
the soil a token application of N and P is suggested as follows:
13 kg/ha N (i.e. 50 kg/ha of CAN or 30 kg/ha of Urea)
+ 9 kg/ha P^O^ (i.e. 50 kg/ha of SSP),

II.B.8(e). Fertilizer Application. Both N and P should be


broadcast and lightly worked into* the soil a day or two before
seeding.

II.B.8(f). Yield Expectancy. Farmers are known to obtain yield


which vary between 30v) and 1,000 kg/ha of unthreshed dry grain.
61

II.B.9. MISCELLANEOUS CEREALS

No fertilizer and other agronomic informations are available


in respect of the following other cereal crops.

i. Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana)


62

II.C. Fat and Oilseeds

II.C.1. GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea)

II.C.1.(a). Area Under Crop. Land area put to groundnut


annually is estimated at 0.8-1.5 million hectares.

II.C,1.(b). Varieties... The suitability or otherwise of


any one variety is not only a function of the soil condition,,
but also depends on the rainfall in relation to early planting
and timely harvest - the start, distribution, total amount,
duration and termination of the rains. As a rule of thumb,
early varieties with a maturity period of 100-110 days are
agronomically suited to Sudan and Sahel conditions while those
(late varieties) that require between 120-1 AO days to mature
are more suited to conditions in the Northern and Southern Guinea.
Medium maturing varieties, requiring 110-120 days to mature
and typified by F.439-2 and F.452-4, are perform well in the
Sudan zone.

It is on the basis of the above that the fallowing


varieties have been suggested for the ten states where pro-
duction is mainly based:

Groundnut Maturity Period (No. of days)


Serial
No. State 100 - 110 110 - 125 120 - 140

i. Bauchi Spanish 205 , F.439-2, G.153


55-437 F.452-4,
RLB*.M.599-24*

ii. Benue T.28-204 F.439-2, MK. 374, M..25-68*,


Spanish 205 F.452-4 69-101*,RMP-12*f
RMP-91*

contd.
63

Serial . Gr<fundnut Maturity Period (No. *f days)


M. State 100 - 110 110-125 12® - 34*.

iii. B*rno Spanish 205, F.439-2, DS.5418, Samaru 61,


.55-437 F.452-4, G.153
RLB*,M.599-
24*

iv. Gfengola Spanish 205, F.439-2, MK.374,M.25-68*,


F.452-4, 69-101*,RMp-12*,
r RLB^M.599- RMP-94* '
24*

V. Kaduna Spanish 205, F.439-2,. DS. 569, Samaru *»1 ,


55-437 Fv452-4, Samaru 38, MK.374,
RLB*,M.599- M . 25-68*, 69-101*,
24* RMP-12*, RMP-91 *

Vi. Kano Spanish 205, F.439-2,


55-437 F.452-4, Samaru 61, DS.569
RLB*,M,599-
24*

vii. Kwara T.47-56 MK.374,MS.539


Spanish 205 RLB*,M.599- M. 25-68*, 69-101*,
i
24*
RMP-12*, RMP-91*

viii. Niger Spanish 205 RLB*,M.599- MK.374, M S . 539,


24* Samaru 38,M ^25-60#
69-101*,RMP-12*,
RMP-91*

ix. Plateau Natal Common, ■ F.439-2, Samaru 38, MK.374,


Spanish 205' T . 452-4, G.153, M.25-68*,
RLB*,M.599- 69-101*,,BMP-12*,
24* RMP-91*
x. Sokoto Spanish 205, F.439-2, MK.374, M S . 539,
55-437 F 4S2-4 Samaru 61 ,
RLB*,M.599- T.37-47
24*
*' Rnsette resistant/tolerant.
11.0.1(c). Cultural Practices. Existing practice calls for
seeding, at 33-45 kg/ha of kernel-* depending on seed-size-and
9 - - * *

spacing; plant at 20cm apart on 90cm ridges to give 55,000 plants/


ha.. The use of 75cm ridges is, however, preferred, thus giving
64

66,000 plants/ha. Under high level of crop husbandry and/or


favourable growth conditions, it is suggested that planting on
the flat to give 100-150,000 plants/ha (60x16cm - 60x10cm)
results in improved yields, provided leaf-spot diseases are
controlled.

Plant groundnut early, as soon as rains are established.


.-.Irhough there are no formal recommendations at present for
chemical weed control, it is suggested that the following measures
are applicable to partially mechanised grounds.

cuthern Guinea

i. 1.5 kg a.i. Metolachlor or Alachlor (= 3 lit. Dual


500EC or 3 lit. Lasso)/ha.
ii. 1.0 kg a.i. Metolachlor or Alachlor + 0.5 kg a.i.
Terbutryne (2 lit. Dual 500EC or 1 lit. Lasso + 630g
Igran 80 WP or 1 lit, Igran 500 FW)/ha,
iii. 200EC Metolachlor + 200EC Terbutryne (= 4 lit.Igran Combi).

i-rthem Guinea
iv. Apply (i), (ii) or (iii) above, and in addition, 1.5 kg
a.i. Bentazone (= 3 lit. Basagran)/ha post-emergence.

Infan Zone
v. Apply (i) or (ii) but not (iii). In addition apply 1.5 kg
a.i. Bentazone (= 3 lit. Basagran)/ha post-emergence.
-.slnfed Groundnut on Irrigation Schemes
vi. 1.5 kg a.i. Metolachlor or 3.6 kg a.i. Alachlor (= 3
lit. Dual 500EC or 6 lit. Lassr>)/ha, followed by ".5 kg
Bentazone (= 3 lit. Basagran). This treatment may require
supplementary hoe-weeding and/or earthing up.

As always, caution must be exercised in the selection and


'handling of all herbicides.
V-

65
11.0.1(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.
i. Nitrogen deficiency; Plants "become light green;
lower leaves are affected first but other leaves
soon follow; lower leaves fade to pale yellow, then
brown with latc-r shedding.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency; Plants are dark green;


petioles and leaflets tilted upwards; plants spindly
and stunted.

iii. Potassium deficiency^ Leaves become light green


with necrotic areas along margins which may merge
to produce scorched effect.

Il.C.I.(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates

Nutrient/ha__________ Material/ha Recommendation/Suggestioi


18 kg SSP, 100 kgl 2 bags) Existing recommendatioi
P2°5
or TSP, 55 kg(!i bag )* = 18 kg/ha P20p_.

36 kg SSP, 200 kgl(4 bags) Suggested practice


■^2^5
TSP, 110 kgl 2 bags)* under high management
30 kg K 0p KCI, 50 kgl 1 bag ) and/or favourable
or K 2S04 >60 kgl'1 bag ) growth conditions = 36
kg/ha PpCh + 30 kg/ha
k 2o . * 9

11.0.1(f). Fertilizer Application. Both P and K should either


be applied in old furrows before splitting the ridges or they
Should be side-dressed at or shortly after planting.

It should be noted that if a source of P other than SSP


is used, then Sulphur must be supplied.
66

II.C.T.(g). Yield Expectancy. Farmers' yields of groundnut


range between 500 and 1,500 kg/ha of dry (unshelled) pods. With
improved practices the yield range is 2,000-2,500 kg/ha of pods.
The yield potential in the Northern Guinea and Sudan zones is
3,000-4,500 kg/ha.

Oil content of groundnut varies from 38-54% and protein


content 24-29%.
67
II.C.2 . .BENNISEED (Sesanum indicum)

II.C.2(a). Area Under Crop. An estimated 80,000 hectares


under benniseed annually.

11.0. 2(b). Varieties. An improved variety of benniseed


yet to be formally recommended, but ’Yandev 55' is suggested
its absence the most popular local variety should be used.

11.0. 2(c). Cultural Practices, Alfput 3-5 kg/ha of seed


suggested as the seeding rate. If planted on 90cm ridges
ce stands 15cm apart and twf plants per stand; for higher
ids plant on the flat and thin to 60 x 15cm.

11.0. 2(d). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. No fertilizers


recommended at present, but it is suggested that 13 kg/ha
28 kg/ha of Urea = i bag or 5% kg/ha of CAN = 1 bag) + 9 kg/
(50 kg/ha of SSP = 1 bag) would be advantageous and
c help maintain soil fertility.

11.0. 2(e). Fertilizer Application. Both N and P should


applied and worked into the seedbed prior to or at planting.

II.C.2(f). Yield Expectancy. Under farmers conditions


r.iseed yield is between 200 and 450 kg/ha |f dry seed;
ever, up to 500-800 kg/ha can be obtained by adopting
roved practices.

Benniseeds contain about 50% semi-drying oil; commercial


raction varies from 35-50% according to method.
3. OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis)

11.0.3(a). Area Under Crop. An estimated 3 million hectares


r.d are currently under oil palm iln Nigeria and about *
00 hectares are grown in estates and private farms with
ved varieties, mostly in Bendel, Cross River, Ogun, Ondo,
ra and Imo States. It is anticipated that by the year 1985
ved cultivars alone would occupy up to 0.5 million hectares
rx of an on-going rehabilitation programme.

II,C.3(b). Varieties. In contrast to wild varieties which


~c yield in 6-7 years, the improved variety 'Teneraf
ss in 3-4 years.

II.C.3(c). Cultural Practices. The oil palm is seei-


gated and improved seedlings are currently obtainable from
ational Oil Palm Research Institute, Agricultural ministries
oher government agricultural agencies. The number *f
ry seedlings per hectare is ab*ut 48,00^. Seedlings are
planted into the field as so^n as the rains become fairly
lished and should be completed by the end of May or early
It is important to include a leguminous cover crop x»
ess weeds and control erosion in the year of establishment.
*il palm at 8.8m triangular in areas where it does well
xrees/ha); in marginal areas (e.g. savannas) the spacing —
be reduced. In order to enable maximum use of applied
lizer, it is necessary that the inter-line cover crops'
xher plants be slashed and the oil palm circles clean-weeded
asm three times a year.
69
9.3(d). Nutrient Defficiency Symptoms.
i. Nitrogen deficiency; Chlor«sis (yellowing) of all
leaves, including the mid-ribs of yound palms;
leaves become pale green in mild cases and light
yellow in severe cases.

ii. Potassium deficiency: Mil-crown yellowing; initia­


lly leaves become chlorotic and later develop broad
orange-yellow hands, mostly baout half-way along
leaflets between the mid-rib and margin of the lamina;
severe cases result in premature desiccation of
older leaves.

iii. Magnesium deficiency: Prevalent in nurseries and


fields in coastal lowlands. Characterised by chlorosis
of older leaves; in the mild form the symptom is
yellowing colouration of leaves from tip towards the
base of the leaflet and frond; in acute cases it turns
to a bright orange (orange frond).

1.3(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates.

Nutrient/ha_________Material/ha_____Recommendation/Suggestion

220 kg N SA, 1100 kg(22 bags) Existing recommenda­


198 kg P205 S3P,1100 k g (22 bags)
tion Nursery: a mixture
KOI, 955 kg(19 bags) of N,P,K and Mg fer­
572 kg K20 or K2S0^,1100kg(22bags) tilizer materials in
221 kg Mg the ratio of 1:1:1:2
MgSO^,2290kg(44bags)
and applied at 1l4g
per seedling = 5.5
metric tons of mixture.

contd
70

it*. Nutrient/ha______ Material/ha Recommendation/S»ggestion


15 kg N SA, 75 kg/1-g- bags} Existing recommendation
24 kg K20 KGI, 40 kg(1 bag ) for the year of trans­
*r K2S0^, 46 kg(1 bag) planting into the field
4 kg Mg = 1 5 kg/ha N + 24 kg/ha
MgSO^, 40 kg(1 bag)
K 2€ + 4 kg/ha Mg.

15 kg N SA, 75 kg(1§ bags) Existing recommendation


45 kg k 2o KCI, 75kg(1-4- bags) for the 1 st' year after
•r K2SOz+,86 kg(2 bags) transplanting = 1 5 kg/ht
7 kg Mg MgS04 , 75kg (l^bag's) N + 45 kg/ha KpO + 7
kg/ha Mg. ^

30 kg N SA , 150 kg(3 bags) Existing recommendation


6© kg k 2© KCI, 100 kg( ) for 2nd and each subse­
10 kg Mg or K2S0^,115kg(2ibags) quent year after trans­
MgSo^,100kg(2 bags) planting = 3® kg/ha N +
60 kg/ha KP© + 1 0 kg/ha
Mg.
¥m 30 kg N SA , 150 kg(3 bags) Suggested practice in
75 kg k £o KCI, 125 kg(3 bags) the 4 south-eastern
or K2S0^,144kg(3 bags) states for 2nd and each
17 kcr 'Mg
MgSO^,175kg(3ibags) subsequent year after
transplanting = 30 kg/ha
N + 75 kg/ha K ^ O + 1 7
Kg/ha Mg.

■E»C.3(f). Fertilizer Application.

i. Nursery; Fertilizers should be properly mixed and divided


into two equal lots to be applied at 2 and 8 months
after seeding. Each seedling should receive a total of
1l4g of the mixture.

ii. Field; The fertilizers are mixed and spread in a ring


round the base of the oil palm up to 1.5m radius, the %
size of clean-weeded circles. During the year cf
71

transplanting out into the field half the N plus


all of the K and Mg should he applied at 6 weeks
after transplanting; the balance of the N should be
applied 5-6 months after transplanting. For all
•ther years, all the fertilizers should be applied
at the same time in April or May, before the rains
become too heavy and frequent. Mote that present
observations are that once the oil palm is trans­
planted into the field the application of phosphate
fertilizer is not necessary.
■*

I-*C«3(g). Yield Expectancy. The yield of oil palm varies


the age of the plant and the.level of management. Average
' yield is 2-3 metric tons of fresh fruit bunches per
.re per annum during the first few years of harvest, and
■«tric tons anytime after 9 years of transplanting. Urfder
intensive management yields range from 4-6 metric tons of
fruit bunches per hectare per year for the first few years
-rest; as from the 10th year after transplanting the yield
tres 16 metric tons.

"hi content of the pulp varies considerably but a fair


3 e would be 56%* Palm kernels yield 46-48% oil.
72

U.C.4 COCONUT PALM (Cooos nucifera)

II.C.4(a). Area Under C r o p . An estimated 8,000 hectares


is under coconut palm annually, mostly in Lagos and Rivers
States•

II.C.4(b). Varieties. Over 50% of the estimated land area


is grown with wild coconut palms. Among improved varieties in
cultivation are the West African tall and the West African dwarf-
tall hybrids for commercial purposes as well as Nigerian dwarf
■preen, Nigerian dwarf yellow and Malayan dwarf red for ornamen­
tal purposes.
73

II,C,5* SUNFLOWER (Helianthus annus)

II.C,5(a). Area Under Crop. Although sunflower is more


suited to conditions in the riverain areas, its cultivation is
as far north as the northern fringes of the Sudan zone. The land
area put to sunflower annually is not known at present, hut
it is unlikely to exceed 1,000 hectares.

11.0. 5(b). Varieties. Little research work has so far been


done on sunflower and no varieties have been formally recommended.
But it is generally true that grey-seeded varieties (such as
•Saturn') are higher yielders than black-seeded types (such as
'Pole star', Jupiter' and 'Southern Cross').
%

II.C.5(c^. Cultural Practices. In order to produce seed


of high quality, sunflower should be planted anytime during the
period mid-June to the 3rd week in July. Plants are spaced
60cm apart on 90m ridges and 1-2 plants per stand. Plant more
closely at 30cm (or less) between plants within the row and 3-4
plants per stand, if sunflower is grown for silage.

II.C.5(d). Fertilizer Sources, Rates and Application. There


are no existing fertilizer recommendations for sunflower. But
from the limited research undertaken so far, it is suggested
that 45 kg/ha N (225 kg/ha of SA = 4 bags) + 45 kg/ha ?2®5
kg/ha of SSP = 5 bags) should be applied about 10 days after
planting.

11.0. 5(e), Yield Expectancy. Yields of sunflower vary


according to variety, from 1,500 kg of seed for the black-
seed-d types to 1,650 kg/ha for the variety Saturn. Under research
74

cions yields of up to 2,000 kg/ha are easily possible


he potential is estimated at 3,000 kg/ha of seed*

leeds o-f improved sunflower contain over 40% oil in


ast to low-gra<ie varieties which yield only 20-32% nil.
ir. content averages '12.6%,
75

5.6. MISCELLANEOUS FAT AND OILSEEDS

No fertilizer and other agronomic informations are


able in respect of the following other fat and oilseed crops:

i. Nigerseed (Guizotia abyssinica) - contains 38-50% eil,


if. Castor (Ricinus communis) - contains 33-55% oil, with
an average of 44%.
ill. Sheanut (Butyrospermum parkii) - whole seed contains
34-44% fat and the kernel usually 40-55% £at.

iv. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica)

Linseed flax (Linum usitatissimum) - Oil content »f seed


varies according to type and management from 35-44%,
and commercial extraction varies from 32-36%.

vi. Neem (Azadirachta indica and Melia azadirachta) - Oil


content of kernel is 40-45%.

vii. Rape seed (Brassica campestris and B. napus) - Oil


content of B,napus 40-46% and B. campestris 40-44%,

mil. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) - Current commercial


seed types have an oil content of about 36-45%.
76

IIo D„ Grain Legumes

XI.D.1. COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata)

II.D,1(a). Area Under Crop. An estimated 3-3.5 million


hectares of land is put to cowpea annually, most of this being
in the Northern Guinea and Sudan Savannas.

II„D01(b). Varieties. The following cowpea varieties are


suggested for cultivation as described.

Serial H jC O - L O ^ X ^ cI-L Seed


No. Area Cowpea Variety Colour

i. Sudan ACCS.341, 339-1, 176 B,593 White


ACCS.355, 335 Brown
ii. Northern Guinea ACCS.341, 176B, 339-1,1696,
588/2 White
ACCS.355, 353 , Ife Brown Brown

iii. Southern Guinea ACCS.339-1 , 341 White


ACCS.335, 353, Ife Brown Brown
i
iv. Derived Savanna
and Forest zones Kano 1636, Vita 5 White
Ife Brown Brown

Note that with the exception of ACC.1696 whose maturity


period varies from 80-120 days depending on the time of year,
all other varieties mature in 90-105 days.
77
II.D.1.(c). Cultural Practices. In order to obtain high
seed quality it is desirable that the planting date should be
such as to enable the crop mature at the end of the rainy season.
Consequently cowpea should be planted during the first week
of Jbly in the Sudan, by mid-July in the Northern Guinea, by
the third to the fourth week of July in the northern half of
the Southern Guinea, and as soon as the late season rains start
in the southern third of the Southern Guinea (derived) Savanna
and Forest zones, about mid-August to early September.

The existing practice is to space cowpea 30cm between plants


on ridges 90cm apart. For higher yields closer spacing are
suggested; 25cm between plants on 75 or 60cm ridges. Cultivation
on the flat enables not only the attainment of even higher popu­
lation densities but also ensures judicious use of space. In
terms of weed control, any of the following measures is suggested;

i. 1.5 kg a.i. Metolachlor + 1.0 kg a.i. Prometryne (= 3 lit,.


Dual 500EC + 2 lit, Premetryne 500 FW)/ha. 4

ii, 1.5 kg a.i, Metolachlor + 0.8 kg a.i. Diuron ( + 3 lit.


Dual 500EC + 1 kg a.i, Diuron 80 WP)/ha.

iii. 0.4 kg a.i. Norflurazone 0.8 kg a.i. Diuron (=0.5 kg


a.i. Zorial 80 WP + 1 .0 kg a.i. Diuron 80 WP)/ha.'

iv. 1.5 kg a.i. Metolachlor + 1.0 kg a.i. Metobromuron


( = 3 lit. Dual 500 EC + 2 lit. Patoran 500 FW)/ha.

v. 1.0 kg a.i, Metolachlor + 1.0 kg a.i. Metobromuron


(= 4 lit. Galex 500 FW)/ha.

Only half the rates given in (i), (ii) and (iii) will be
needed for soils with less than 0.6% organic matter.

Great care should be exercised in the selection and handling


of all herbicides.
78

The control of pests and diseases is a must of all


existing cowpea varieties. In the south-western states it is
recommended that the crop should be sprayed weekly with Nuvacron
60 at 30ml/9 litres of water beginning from the 5th week after
planting and for 4 consecutive weeks. (Care should be taken in
handling Nuvacron). In the northern states, the existing
practice is to apply any of the following chemicals to control
insect pests:

i. Didigam (Vetox 20) at 5.6 lit/112 lit. of water.

ii. 2.0% Cypermethrin ULV at 2.5 lit/ha. But because of


the recent improtance of scab (Sphaceloma sje.), brown
blotch (Cdleto trichum capsici) and septoria leafspots
(Septoria- spp.) diseases in parts of the main-producing
areas (Northern Guinea and Sudan), it is suggested that:

iii. A mixture of Dithane M-45 (2.5 kg/ha) + Beniate (0.6


kg/ha) applied bi-weekly, beginning at 4-^ weeks, would
check all three diseases.

II.D.1(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency: Leaves become pale green with


a yellowish tinge; later leaves become distinctly
yellow over their entire surfaces; symptoms first
appear on leaves at the base of plants and progres­
sively spread to the upper parts.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency: Retarded rate of growth;


spindly plants with small leaflets; leaves turn
dark or bluish-gredn; delayed maturity.

iii. Potassium deficiency: Leaflets are more or less


mottled; followed by necrosis and ragged appearance
after necrotic tissues fall out.
79
II.D.1(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates, The following fertilizer
pregrammes are recommended/suggested.

Serial
No. Nutrient/ha Material/ha Recommendation/Suggestio
i. 18 kg P205 SSP, 100 kg(2 bags) Existing recommendation
throughout the northern
states; largely applica­
ble to Sudan and Sahel
zones = 1 8 kg/ha P 20^.

ii. 15-15-15 . . Compd-. 100 k g (2 bags) Existing practice in


south-western Nigeria
= 10© kg/ha of 15-15-15.

iii. 36 kg P2°5» SSP, 200 kg (4 bags) Suggested practice in


south-western States as
well as south-eastern
states = 36 kg/ha P2^5*

iv. 36 kg P 205 SSP, 200 kg(4 bags) Suggested practice in


KOI, 50 kg(1 bag ) the Northern and Southen
3# kg K 20 * r K 2S04>58 ks(1 baS ) Guinea'«r other areas
with favourable growth
conditions = 36 kg/ha
P2^5 + ^ kg/ha K 20.

*&*■

If cowpea is planted following a fertilized cereal crop


within the same year (as it is often the practice in southern
Nigeria where the*rainy eeason is long enough for two crbps)
then further fertilization is not nfccessary if soil tests shew
that there is a need to apply this fertilizer.

II* D*1(f). Fertilizer Application. When applied pre-plant,


the fertilizers should he broadcast and incorporated into the
seedbed hefere ridging. If application Is made at or within
1-2 days after
80

nting the fertilizers should be dribbled along grooves made


m the line of planted holes.

II.D.1(g). Yield Expectancy. Under local conditions cowpea


Ids vary widely between 230 and 1 ,000 kg/ha of dry grain,
adopting recommended practices and good management, yields
fcevween 1,500 and 2,000 kg/ha are easily possible. The
ential grain yield is estimated at up to 3,500 kg/ha of grain.

Cowpeas generally contain between 23-35% crude protein.


81

II.D.2. SOYBEAN (Glycine max)

II.D.2(a). Area Under Crop. An estimated 50,000 hectares


«f soybean is cultivated annually, most of this being in Benue
State.

II.D.2(b). Varieties, No soybean variety has formally been


recommended to farmers. However, many exotic lines have shovm
great promise, among which are Malayan 216, Malayan 281,
Improved Pelican and Bossier varieties.

II.D.2(c). Cultural Practices. In the northern states It


is recommended that soybean should be planted as soon as rains
are well established. Plant 2 plants per stand, stands being
15cm apart on 90cm 'ridges. For higher yields, plant closer
(e.g. 5cm between plants on rows 60cm apart). If possible plant
on the flat to achieve even higher plant densities and better
plant arrangements (e.g. one stand of 1-2 plants per 300 square
cm).

Where the rainy season is long enough to allow for two


crops, the first (early) planting should take place in May and
the second (late) in mid to end of August.

II.D.2(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency; Leaves becomes pale green


with a yellowish tinge; later leaves become dis­
tinctly yellow over their entire surfaces;
deficiency symptom usually appears first on leaves
at the base of plant.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency; Plant are delayed in


blooming and in maturity; leaves show brown spots
after flowerring; root development is poor; leaf
82

blades are united upwards.

iii. pocassium deficiency? Irregular yellow mottling


around edges of leaflets particularly in the lov/er
parts of the plant” chlorotic spots merge to form
continuous yellow borders around the tips and along
the sides of leaves ; necrosis of chlorotic areas
follows with a downward cupping of the leaf edges;
dead tissues then fall out, giving the leaflets a
ragged appearance -

II.D. 2«(e ) Fertilizer Sources and Rates. Work on the


nutritional requirement and other basic- agronomy of soybean is
in progress. As such the suggested practice of applying phospho­
rus at 18 kg/ha P ^ ^ (100 kg/ha of SSP = 2 bags) in the northern
states and 36 kg/ha Po0c (200 kg/ha of SSP = 4 bags) in the south-
western states is only tentative„ Where soil tests give total
N values below 0-05% the application of a starter dose of 20 kg/ha
N (45 kg/ha of Urea ~ 1 bag or 75 kg/ha or CAN = % bag) may be
necessary. Innoculation with appropriate Rhizobium innoculum
is also suggested,

II„D.2(f). Fertilizer a p plication -


All fertilizers,
including N (if used), should be broadcast and incorporated
before planting., In newly opened land fertilizers should be
placed in grooves 8cm sway from the row of seed at planting or
immediately after germination.

II.D.2(g). Yield Expectancy, Farmers* yields average 300-


1,000 kg/ha of threshed grain. Under research conditions yields
of over 3,000 kg/ha have been recorded.

Soyabeans contain 13-20% oil according to variety end about


38-44% protein.
83

11.D.3 * MISCELLANEOUS GRAIN LEGUMES

No fertilizer and other agronomic informations are


available in respect of the following;

i. Lima or Butter Beans (Phasc-olus lunatus) - contains


about 27% protein,.

ii. Bambarra Nuts (Voandzeia subterranea)

iii. Pigeon Peas (Caianus ca.jan) - contains about 20.9% protein,

iv. Green-Gram (Phaseolus aureus) - contains about 24% protein.

v. Dry or kidney or Haricot Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)


contains 22-25% protein,

vi. Sword Beans (Canavalia ensiformis (= ? gladiatn)


/ X
vii. Yam Beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa)

viii. Chick Peas (Cicer arietinum) - contains about 20% protein.


84

II.E. Vegetable Fibres

II.E.1. COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense)

II.E.1(a). Area Under Crop. An estimated 0.6-0.8 million


hectares of land is put to cotton annually. The major prod^tion
areas are Kaduna, Srtkoto, Kano, Plateau, Bauchi, Borno and
Gongola States.

II,E.1(b). Varieties. Currently recommended varieties


include 'Samaru 71' for Sokoto, Kaduna, Kano, Plateau and Niger
States. 'Allen 26J 1 is still the popular variety in the Okpebbo,
Agbazilo, Etsako and Akoko-Edo Local Government areas of Bendel
State.

II.E,1(c). Cultural Practices. Plant 4-6 cotton seed per


hole, d°pending on seed quality, and thin to 2 plants per stand,
stands should be 25cm af>art on 90cm ridges. Most of the cotton
is Planted after mid-July, but the best yields are obtained from
the cr-ip planted in mid-June. No herbicides are presently
recommended for use on cotton, but it is suggested that if
properly applied, any of the following measures will effectively
control weeds.

Soils with High (above 1,5/0 organic Matter (= more than 0.81
Carbon)

i. 0.8 kg a.i. Norflurazone + 0.8 kg a.i. Diuron


(1.0 kg a.i. Zorial 80 WP + 1.0 kg a.i. Diuron
80 WP)/ha.

ii. 0.4 kg a.i. Fluridone + 0.8 kg a.i, Diuron (0.8


Fluoridone 50 WP + 1.0 kg a.i, Diuron 80 WP)/ha.

contd
85
'1:11s Low (less than 1,5%) in Organic Matter (= less than
18% Carbon)

iii. 0,4 kg a.i. Norflurazone + 0.8 kg a.i. Diurnn


(0.5 kg a.i. Zortial 80 WP + 1.0 kg a.i. Diurcn
80 WP)/ha. The field must not he plantdd with a
cereal crop in the following year.

Treat caution should be exercised in handling all


herbicides.

1.11 well-grown cotton (like the June-sown crop) must be


projected against insect pests by using any of the following
Insecticides;

i. Vetox 20 (= Didigam = Audugatox) at 5.6 lit/225


lit. of water/ha.

ii. Vetox 85 (= Sevin 85 - Dicarbam 85) at 11 kg/225 lit


of water/ha.

iii. Carbary1 25% ULV at 2.5-3.0 lit/ha.

iv. Endosulfan 25% ULV (= Thiodan ULV) at 2.5-30 lit/ha.

v. Becamethrin 0.7% ULV at 2.5 lit/ha.

vi. Cypermethrin 2.0% ULV at 2.5 lit/ha.

uii. Fenalerate 3.0% ULV at 2.5 lit/ha.

Triii. Permethrin 3.0% ULV at 2.5 lit/ha.

gin spraying 9-10 weeks after planting and apply a total


sprays at regular weekly intervals for large volume sor
octal of three sprays at bi-weekly intervals for ULV
f particularly pyrethr^ids. Enforcing full pest non trcl
as on a poor cotton crop (like one sown late in July or
August) is uneconomical.
86
II.E.1(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency; Yellowing and drying of lower


leaves 5 lower leaves finally turning brown.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency; Leaves dark green; plants


dwarfed; maturity delayed.

iii. Potassium deficiency: Leaves show yellowish-while


mottling, changing to loght yellowish green; yellow
and necrotic spots occur between veins; tips and
margins curl downwards; leaves finally become
reddish brown, dry and are shed prematurely; bolls
are improperly developed, giving fibre of poor
quality.

iv. Boron deficiency; Die-back involving terminal buds,


resulting in multiple branched plant; young leaves
yellowish-green; flower buds chlorotic; early
indications are banded petioles and ruptured
peduncles.

II.E.1(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. The following


Ster~ilizer programmes are recommended/suggested:

Nutrient/ha_____ Material/ha_______ Recommendation/Suggest ion


30 kg N CAN, 115 kg(2 bags) Existing recommendation
22 kg P20 SSP, 125 kg(3 bags) for well-grown (early)
5 cotton in the main zone
0.7 kg B (in Boronated SSP) = 30 kg/ha N + 22 kg/ha
P^O^ + 0 . 7 kg/ha 3.
No fertilizer recommenda­
tion currently exists for
poorly grown (laze)
cotton.
87

Serial
No.____ Nutrient/ha_____ Material/ha________ Recommendation/Suggest ici.

ii- 50 kg N Urea, 110 kg(2 bags) Suggested practice for


or CAN, 195 kg (4 bags) well-grown (sown June o.
22 kg P205 SSP, 125 kg (3 bags) early July) cotton in
main zone. = 50 kg/ha
20 kg K20 KCI, 33 kg (1 bag ) N + 22 kg/ha P£05 + 20
0.7 kg B (in Boronated SSP) kg/ha K^O + 0.7 kg/ha B.

ill. 25 kg N Urea, 55 kg (1 bag) Suggested practice fcr


or CAN, 96 kg (2 bags) poorly-grown (late sown
11 kg p 2o 5 SSP, 61 kg (1 bag ) in July or August) in
main zone = 25 kg/ha N +
0.35 kg B (in Boronated SSP 11 kg/ha Pp0[- + 0.35
kg/ha B. 9

iv. 35 kg N CAN, 135 kg(3 bags) Existing practice in


or SA , 175 kg(3fcbags) south-western Nigeria
20-20-0 or Compd.17kg (3ibags) = 35 kg/ha N.

II.E.1(f). Fertilizer Application. Apply N at sowing or


shortly after germination by burying in 5om-deep grooves, 8om away
from the line of seeds or plants; it is not necessary to split-
arc ly. P, K and compound fertilizers should broadcast in old
-arrows before splitting ridges.

It should be noted that nearly all the single superphosphate


■currently used on cotton is in the boronated form; the recommended/
suggested rates of the fertilizer, therefore, satisfy the needs
fcr both and P and B. In the event that ordinary single super-
pftcsphate is used, then enough boron-containing material
Ipreferrably borax, Na2B^_0y.10H20) should be added to give the
■nproptiate rate of boron. Borax contains 10.6% B.
88

II.E.1(g). Yield Expectancy, In general cotton yields


about 82 kg of seed for each U-3 kg of fibre. Farmers usually
obtain yields averaging 300 and 500 kg/ha of seed cotton for
July (late) and June (early) sown cotton, respectively. With
improved management, including sowing about mid-June, yields of
up t# 1-2,000 kg/ha may be obtained.

Undercorticated cotton seed has an oil content, ranging


according to variety, from about 15-25%; the commercial extrac­
tion rate is usually 13-18%.
89
TI.E.2.' KENAF (Hibiscus cannabinus)

II.E.2(a), Area Under Crop. Because kanaf is grown in almost


every part of the country largely in small, backyard gardens, it
is difficult to estimate the land are it occupies in any one
year; it is probably not more than 20,000 hectares.

II.E.2(b). Varieties. There are several improved exotic


varieties among which are 'Cuba 108' and 'Guatamala 45'. In the
absence of improved Varieties use the best local kenaf.

II.E.2(c). Cultural Practice. Seeding rate for fibre


production i& about 13 kg/ha of seed and fpr seed production about
3 kg/ha. Prepare a level and find seed bed that is free of weeds.
Dibble the seed thinly in rows 20-25cm apart. Sow as early as
the rains are established. Do not grow kenaf after cowpea:
both crops are very susceptible to root knot nematodes (oelworm)
which can kill the kenaf plants. For effeotioe weed control
apply any of the following herbicides.

i. 1.5 kg a.i. Metolachlor (= 3 lit. Dual 500EC)/ha.


ii. 1.5 kg a.i. Alachlor (= 3 lit. Lasso)/ha.
iii. 0.5 kg a.i. Norflurazone (=0.63 kg a.i. Zorial
80 WP)/ha.

II.E.2(d). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. The follov/ing


recommendations are in practice.

Serial
>lo. Nutrient/ha Material/ha Recommendation/Suagesrion
i. ' 24 kg N CAN, 95 k g (2 bags) Existing practice in
northern states for seed
production = 24 kg/ha N

contd.
90

Serial
, No,. Nutrient/ha Material Recommendation/Suggestion

ii. 30 kg N CAN, 115 kg(2| bags) Existing practice in


northern states for fibre
production = 30 kg/ha N.

iii. 25-10-0 Comp. 335 k g (7 bags) Existing practice in


south-western states for
fibre production = 335
kg/ha 25-10-0.

II.E.2(f). Fertilizer Application. Apply fertilizer oust


before or just after sowing.

II.E.2(g). Yield Expectancy. Under experimental conditions


yields of 1,300-1,500 kg/ha of ribbon are relatively easy to
obtain.
91

II.E.3. MISCELLANEOUS VEGETABLE FIBRES

No fertilizer and other agronomic informations are

available in respect of the following fibre crops.

i, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa)

ii. Silk Cotton (Ceiba pentandra)

iif. Jute (Corchorus capsalaris and C. ditorius)


iv. Sisal (Agave sisalana)
92

II.F . Roots and Tubers

II.F.1. YAMS (pioscorea spp)

II.F.1(a). Area Under Crop. Between 1,5 and 2 million


hectares ox land are put to yams annually,

II.F.1(b). Varieties. The best variety in the locality


should be used.

II.F.1(e). Cultural Practices, , Yam is planted in November


(early yam) and February (late yam). The seeding is 2-3 ton/ha
of seed yam; in general the overall yield is highest with 3 0 0 -
500 g setts. Planting may be in heaps or ridges. Generally heaps
are preferred, in the southern parts of the country where most ©f
the yam is staked; the use of heaps and staking are rare in the
Northern Guinea, Heaps should be spaced 1-1*5m apart while
ridges should be 1.2m apart and the seed yam spaced 60em apart.
The use of any of the following herbicides f o r weed control
is suggested,

i. 1 . 0 'kg a.i. Ametryne + 1 lit. Paraguat/ha applied at


1-5 weeks has proved effective in parts of south-western Nigeria,
particularly in Oyo state.

ii* 2.0 kg a.i. Ametryne + 2.0 kg a.i. Alachlor ( = 1 lit.


Gesapax 500 FW + 1 lit. Lasso)/ha.

iii. 2,0 kg a.i, Atrazine + 2.0 kg a.i. metola<ihlar (= 8 lit.


Primagram 500 FW)/ha,

iv. 2.0 kg a.i. Flumetoron (- 1 1 lit. Cotoran)/ha.

Caution should be exercised in the selection and handlinf


of all herbicides.
Recent research has shown that it is possible to propagate
yams by means of true seeds ana vine cuttings. However, this
technology is yet to be introduced to farmers.

II.F.l(d). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. The following


fertilizers and fertilizer rates are suggested.

Serial
No. Nutrient/.ha Material/ha Re commendstion/Suggestion
i. 25 kg N SA, 125 kg(3 bags) Existing recommendation
in northern states = 2 5
kg/ha N as S A .

ii. 15-15-15 Compd.J.j.00-600kg Existing practice in


(8 - 1 2 bags) south-eastern states
or 12-12-17-2 Compd.300-5©9kg = i|X)0 -6 0 0 kg/ha of
(6 - 8 bags) 15-15-15 or 3 0 0 -5.00
kg/ha of 1 2 - 1 2 - 1 7 -2 *
iii. 12-12-17-2 Compd.300kg( 6 bags) Suggested practice for
acid soils in south­
western Nigeria = 300
kg/ha of 1 2 -1 2 - 1 7 -2 .
iv. 50 kg K SA, 200 kg(j.i bags) Suggested practice for
60 kg K 2 0 KCI,100 kg(2 bags) other soils in south­
western Nigeria = 50
kg/ha N + 60 kg/ha K.o0.

II.F.l(e), Fertilizer Application. Place the fertilizer in a


circle or in ho3.es 1 5 cm from the base of the vine and about 3 -$cm
deep. Apply fertilizers about eight weeks after planting or as
soon as the soil is sufficiently moist.

II.F.1(f). Yield Expectancy. Under farmers'conditions yields


of yam vary between 7 - 1 2 tons/ha. Pith good management -yields of
up to 25 tons/ha are possible. Crude protein content is estimated
at 1 -2 .8 %.
Recent research has shown that it is possible to propagate
yams by means of true seeds ana vine cuttings. However, this
technology is yet to be introduced to farmers.

II.F.1(d). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. The following


fertilizers and fertilizer rates are suggested.

Serial
No. Nutrient/ha Ms terial /'ha Recommendation /Sugg est ion
i. 25 kg N SA , 125 kg(3 bags) Existing recommendation
in northern states = 25
kg/ha N as SA.

ii. 15-15-15 Compd.)..i.00-600kg Existing practice in


(8-12 bags) south-eastern states
or 12-12-17-2 Compd.300-Ij.99kg = if.00-600kg/ha of
C6—8 bags) 15-15-15 or 3 0 0 -li00
kg/ha of 12-12-17-2.
iii. 12-12-17-2 Compd.300kg( 6 bags) Suggested practice for
acid soils in south­
western Nigeria = 300
kg/ha of 12-12-17-2.
iv. 50 kg K SA , 200 kg (if. bags) Suggested practice for
60 kg ICjO KCI,100 kg(2 bags) other soils in south­
western Nigeria = 50
kg/ha. N + 60 kg/ha Kp0 .

II.F.l(e), Fertilizer Application. Place the fertilizer in a


circle or in holes 15cm from the base of the vine and about 3-5cm
deep. Apply fertilizers about eight weeks after planting or as
soon as the soil is sufficiently moist.

II.F.l(f). Yield Expectancy. Under farmers'conditions yields


of yam vary between 7-12 tons/ha. V’ith good management "yields of
up to 25 tons/ha are possible. Crude protein content is estimated
at 1-2.8%.
95

II.F.2. CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta)


|
II.F.2(a), Area Under Crop. Cassava is such a hardly crop
that it is widely cultivated and extends as far north as the
Sudan zone. It is estimated that 2-2.5 million hectares of land
is devoted to cassava annually, most of which is in the south.

II.F.2(b). Varieties. Many improved varieties are currently


available, among which are the following:

Serial
No# ______ Area _____ _ _____ Cassava Variety__________

i. South-eastern Nigeria,
including Imo, Anambra, 60506, 60li55, 5055, 1525,30325
Cross River and River 30555 and TMX-30211, Nwugo
State.

ii, South-western Nigeria,


including Bendel, Lagos, 60506, Ghana, Loyinbo and
Kwara, Ondo, Oyo and Bomodekole 53101, 3055, 30211.
Ogun State.

iii. Northern states, especia­ 60596, 631025, Nwugo, 375,30572


lly Benue, Niger, Plateau, 30017, 30110, 30337, 30555,5313X
Kaduna, Gongola, Borno, 30395, R10/15508, At.50357.
Sokoto and Kano States

II.F.2(c). Cultural Practices. Stem cuttings are the main


mode of propagation of cassava. For best yields cassava should be
planted as soon as rains are established, around April in the south
and June in the north. However, because most farmers give higher
priority to other field crops, cassava is often planted late;
because of the high incidence of diseases, cassava should be planted,
as early as possible. Cuttings should be 25cm long and planted in
a slanting position at a spacing of 1 x 1m. Three quarters cfthe
95

total length should be buried in the soil. Chemical weed control


being introduced in south-eastern Nigeria include the use of
Primextra at the rate of 5 lit/ha. Rapid propagation techniques
developed in research centres are yet to be made available to
farmers.

II.F.2(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms. Among deficiency


symptoms after observed but for which it is not possible at
present to a ttribute a specific nutrient element are stunted
growth* yellowing of leaves and scorching of leaf margins.

II.F.2(e) Fertilizer Soiarces and Rates. Very rich soils


do not require any fertilizers; for most sandy soils apply the
following fertilizers:

Serial
Mo * . Nutrient/ha________ Material/ha____ Recommendation/Suggestion

1. 15-15-15 Compd. ,lj.00kg(8 bags) Existing practice in


or12-12-17-2 Compd. ,500kg(8bags) south-eastern Nigeria =
500 kg/ha of 15-15-15
or 500 kg/ha of
12-12-17-2.

ii. 60 kg N Urea , 135kg([2%bags) Suggested practice in


or CAN, 230kg I Op; bags) south-western Nigeria =
or SA , 300 kg I[6 bags) (a) 60 kg/ha N + 30 kg/ha
30 kg c o p , 170kg~i[3>&bags)
uor
P2°5 P205 + 30 kg/ha h^O.
30 kg K 0 KCI, 50kg l [1 bag ) or (b) 200 kg/ha of
or K2SBh ,60kg (1 bag ) 15-15-15 + 20 kg/ha N.
15-•15--15
Compd , ,200kg(5bags)
iii. 16 kg T\i
i\T Urea , 35 kg(1 bag )
Existing practice in
or CAN } 62 kg (l bag )
northern Nigeria = 1 6
15 kg p2°5 SSP, 85 kg (1 bag )
kg/ha N + 15 kg/ha P90^
65 kg k 2°
KCI ,110 kg 1(2bags )
or -f 65 kg/K^O.
k 2s o . , 125kg(2% bags
96

II.F.2(f). Fertilizer Application. Phosphorus and E!otassium


should be broadcast and incorporated at the time of planting.
Nitrogen application should be by placement at 1+-6 weeks after
planting. In the south-eastern area compound fertilizer i§,
applied 8-12 weeks after planting.

II.F.2(g). Yield Expectancy. Farmers yields average 7-20


tons/ha of tubers; under more intensive management and proper
fertilization a yield of kO-5’0 tons/ha could be expected.
Protein content is estimated at between 'l-2%,
97

II.F.3. IRISH P0T7TO (Solanum tuberosum)

II.F.3(a). Area Under Crop. A relatively new crop in the


country, Irish potato grows well in the area between Zaria, Kano
and the Jos Plateau. The total land area under th: crop is thus
presently small and not more than 10,000 hectares.

II.F.3(h). Varieties. The variety 'Up-to-date' is currently


one of the most popular cultivars.

II.F.3(c). Cultural Practices. For the wet season crop


which is dependent on rainfall plant early, in April or May, soon
after rains have become established. Plant on 90cm ridges and
space the seed potato 30cm apart. The dry season crop is planted
in November, followed by irrigation.

Seed potato should be of good quality and weigh between


k0-70g; it should be allowed to sprout before planting.

II.F.3(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency; Leaves are light green; older


leaves turn yellow and shed; stems are few and
slender; growth upright, tubers small.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency: Leaves shown forward roll


and marginal scotch; the older ones drop; growth
is upright and spindly; tubers may have internal
lesions.

iii. Potassium deficiency: Leaves are first bluish-green


older leaves become yellow, followed by necrosis
and bfowning starting from the tips and margins;
A leaflets are cupped and crowded together; stalks are
slender with short internodes; tuber flesh is
bluish.
98

II.F.3(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates, The present


fertilizer regime is as follows;

Serial
No, Nutrient/ha Material/ha Recommendation/Suggestion

i. 50 kg N CAN, 195 kg (4 bags ) Existing recommendation


45 kg p 2o 5 SSP, 250 kg (5 bags ) = 50 kg/ha N + 45 kg/ha
4.0 kg K^O KCI, 70 kg (l%bags ) P205 + 40 kg/ha K20.

II.F.3(f).- Fertilizer Application. Apply p and K in old


furrows before splitting ridges. Nitrogen should be applied at
planting by placing the material about 8cm from the seed.

II.F.3(g). Yield Expectancy. Imder experimental conditions


yields of 12-15 tons/ha of tubers have been obtained.
99

II .F.ip. S9EET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas)

II.F.Ii(a). Area Under Crop. Sweet potato is widely grown in


many parts of the country, including the Sudan zone, but it
performs best under wetter conditions. The land area 'under sweet
potato is estimated at up to 2 0 0 - 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 hectares annually.

II.F.k(b), Varieties. No improved varieties are currently


in use and it is recommended that good local planting materials
should be used.

II.F.k(c). Cultural Practices. Propagation of sweet potato


is by vines, 20cm long, which are inserted to a depth of 8-1Ocm
in the soil. Vines are spaced 30-lj.0cm apart on 90cm ridges. In
areas where the rainfall is relatively lowr the crop should be
planted as soon as the rains are well established.

II.F.Ij.(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency; Typified by chlorotic leaves.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency; Stunted growth; narrow-


leaves; purplish colour.

iii. Potassium deficiency: Old leaves show chlorosis


and. necrosis at margins between veins with downward
cupping and some shedding; stems are few; growth is
reduced.

II.F.l|(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. The present


practice in the northern states is for phosphorus to be applied
at U5 kg/ha P90^ (SSP, 250 kg/ha = 5 bags). The application of
100

farm yard manure, if available, is beneficial. Apply the


phosphate fertilizer and/or manure in old furrows before splitting
the ridges.

II.F .i|(f ). Yield Expectancy. No reliable yield data are


available, but it is estimated that farmers normally harvest
15-20 tons/ha of fresh tubers. Under experimental conditions in
south-western Nigeria, yield of between 3 O-I4.O tons/ha of tuber
can be obtained. Crude protein content is estimated at 0.9-2.Lpt
101

II.F.5. C0C0YAM (Colocosia sp. and Xanthosama sp.)

II.F.5(a). Area Under Crop. Cocoyam is a crop of the wet


regions of Nigeria but it is grown extensively in all parts, and
as far north as the Sudan zone. An estimated 0.3-0.8 million
hectares of cocoyam is cultivated each year in the country.

II.F.5(b). Variety. No improved varieties have so far been


released to farmers but it is suggested that good local cultivars
be grown.

II,F.5(c). Cultural Practices. The time of planting extends


from March/April when the rains start to July or August; most
farmers in the south plant between May and June. Depending on
location, planting is done either on mounds (heaps), ridges or
flat beds. The suggested spacing is 1 x 0.6m.

II.F.5(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptom. Some of the


symptoms often observed include stunted growth, yellowing of leaves
and general- chlorosis of leaves presumably due to N deficiency.

II.F .5(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. Compound


fertilizers 15-15-15 and 12-12-17-2 are the most commonly used
materials in south-eastern Nigeria. However, like in other parts
of the country, only a negligible proportion of farmers fertilize
their cocoyam. Where these compounds are used the rates vary from
125-300 kg/ha (2^-6 bags). It is best to broadcast the fertilizer
before planting.

II.F.5(f). Yield Expectancy. The crop is ready for harvest


7-9 months after planting. Yields of less than 5 tons/ha are
normally obtained under farmers conditions; but with improved
practices yields of over 15-20 tons/ha are possible. Protein
content varies between 1.3-3.7%.
102

II.G*. Stimulants end Beverages

II.G.1. COCO/ (Thcobroma cocoa)

II.G.1(a), Area Under Crop. Cocoa is a major crop of


southern Nigeria and particularly in the south-western zone,.
The total land area presently under cocoa is estimated at 0.6-0.8
million hectares.

II.G.1(h). Varieties. The main variety of cocoa in current


production is 'Amelonado'; others include Amazon F3 and Trinitario..

II.G.1(c), Cultural Practices. Cocoa is grown from seeds


sown in nurseries. Four to six month-old seedlings are trans­
planted out in the field between May and June when the rains are
well established.. Seedlings should be spaced at 3x3m, The
provision of shade is vital for the young coe*oa plants for the
first three yeats; shade trees may be planted before the cocoa
seedlings are'transplanted.

It is essential to spray cocoa against nests (capsids) and


diseases (black pod).

II.G.1(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms. Deficiency symptoms


of macronutrients are not very prevalent at present on mature
cocoa.

i. Nitrogen deficiency: Uniform chlorosis of mature


leaves which are also small in size.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency: Has not been observed in the field,

iii. Pnt.aan ii;m deficiency: Orange colourations along the


edges of older leaves; later developing into marginal
necrosis; considerable defoliation may occur in severe
cases.
103

iv* Zinc deficiency; Occurs more frequently in nurseries


then in mature cocoa farms. Symptoms consist principally
of foliar malformations, including -sickly leaf” or long
narrow leaves which may be twisted.

v. Boron deficiency: Profuse flushing; branching and chupon


formation; frequent flushing without much fruit set;
tree develops dense foliage.

II.G.1(e), Fertilizer Sources and Rates. The following


fertilizer programme is recommended;

Serial
No, Nutrient/ha Material /ha Re cornmendati on/Sugq es tion

Suggested practice for


00 kg(ll)bl cocoa grown on soils
68 kg P20^ derived from basement
complex rock after 10
years = 1ii0 kg/ha N +
68 kg/ha P^O^ Per annum•

II.G.1(f). Fertilizer Application. Fertilizers should be


split applied to reduce leaching losses: April/May and August/
September of each year. The fertilizers'should be broadcast in
wide bands between the rows of trees.
10ij.

II.G.l(g). Yield Expect ar cy. Cocoa starts bearing fruirs


5-5 years after transplanting but does not reach the peak of its
productivity until after the 10th year. Yields of 500 kg/ha of
dry cocoa beans are obtaned by the farmer. Under good manage, ent
Aficionado yields up to 900 kg/ha.
105

II.G.2, COFFEE (Coffea robusta and C. arabica)

II.G.2.(a). Area Under Crop. Only about 10,000 hectares is


under coffee in Nigeria today, with about 600 hectares located in
the Mambilla Plateau of Gongola State. Coffee robusta is mostly
grown in the lowlands of southern Nigeria while Coffea arabica
has been successfully established in the high altitude parts of
Gongola State , especially the Mambilla plateau district.

II.G.2. (b). Cultural. Practices. Coffee is grown from seed;


seedlings are raised in nurseries and are transplanted into the
field 6 months after sowing, between April and the end of June.
Mulch at transplanting and prune as necessary.

II.G.2(c). Yield. Expectancy. Yield of dry beans is about


600-1,500 kg'/ha.
106

I I .G.3. kola (Cola nitida and C. acuminata)

II.G.3(a). Area Under Crop,. Land area presently under kola


is estimated at 50-80,000 hectares. The two main species in
Nigeria are Cola nitida (local name: gbanja) and Cola acuminata
(local name: abata). Cola, nitida is of greater importance in
international trade.

II.G.3(b). Cultural Practices. Kola is normally grown from


seed, although it can also be propagated by budding, marcottage
and cuttings. Seedlings are transplanted into the field between
April and June and spaced 9x9m apart.

II.G.(c). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms. Deficiency symptoms


of Boron and Copper have been indentified as being very prevalent
in kola grown on soils derived from basement complex rocks.
Deficiency of -Boron results in abnormal development of the leaves,
flowers and fruits.

II.G.3(d). Yield Expectancy. Kola begins to fruit 6-7


years after transplanting and yields vary widely. Studies in
southern Nigeria show that up to 505 of trees of C. nitida
local kola popations yield only 0-100 nuts per year and that 72%
of the total yield is produced by only 21% of the trees. Thus,
the national average yield of kola is estimated at 500 kg/ha
(250 nuts/tree) of fresh nuts per annum.
107

11.G .I}.. TOBACCO (Nicotina tab acum)

II.G.L|.(a). Area Under Crop. Annual production of tobacco


in Nigeria is estimated at between 7-10 million kg from a total
land area of 10-20,000 hectares. About 70;c of the crop is produced
in the northern states, with Sokoto, Kaduna and Kano being major
producing states. At present most of the tobacco is grown under
contract for tobacco companies operating in the country.

11.G „ ( b ). Varieties. Among improved varieties cultivated


by farmers in the- northern states are ’Rio’ for upland areas
and 'Amalolo' for fadamas. The Virginia hybrid1'Ishen' is
reported to also yield well.

II.G.i|.(c). Cultural Practices. Seedlings are raised in the


nursery and planted out when 6-8 weeks old. The Sokoto crop is
mostly grown on residual moisture in fadamas after annual flood
has subsided. The crop around Zaria is grown after millet, about
the second half of August. Spacing varies from 20 x IpOcm to
60 - 120cm; depeding on the variety. Bright, hot sunshine is
required for high quality leaf and a dry season for harvesting;
harvest takes place from late November to early December.

II.G.k(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency; Effects are general on whole


plant: yellow and drying up or 'firing' of lower
leaves; plants light green.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency: Plants dark green; lower


leaves initially yellow and may dry to greenish-
brown and finally black colour; stalks short and
slender if element is limiting in later growth
stages.
4

108

iii. Potassium deficiency; Lower leaves mottled or


chlorotic with small or large spots of dead tissue
small spots of dead tissue between the veins at
leaf tips and margins which are tucked or cupped
under; stalks generally slender.

JI.G.ljXe). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. Probably because


of the direct involvement of private commercial companies in the
production of tobacco in Nigeria, little of no research has se­
er teen undertaken on the crop But from available information
and experience it is obVious that phosphorus and nitrogen are
one most important nutrient elements needed by tobacco. Nitrogen
is used especially for cigar tobacco, but an excess may result in
goo much vegetative growth, with leaves cured to a dull colour
•ith a greenish tinge and a consequent lowering of the quality of
especially flue-cured tobacco. Air-cured tobacco seems to
golerate more II. Potassium is reported to improve the burning
quality of tobacco; in this respect the sulphate form (K9S0, ) is
« • / % c— *~ r

superior to the chloride (XCI) which tends to cause the burned


-si to fuse. The level of soil calcium required for the best
■rowth of flue-cured tobacco is generally considered to be
relatively low; for good quality the ratio KuCa in the leaf should
be about 1;1.

Tobacco requires different amounts of fertilizers of


different stages of growth. For example, the rates suggested for
growth in the seedbed (nursery) is not the same as in the field,
after transplanting. The types and rates of fertilizers used by
tobacco growers is not generally known. It is usual for tobacco
companies to supply all the fertilizers, packaged as types A or
3; one of these is believed to be 15-15-17-2MgO at IpOO kg/ha
(b bags). It is, however doubtful that the practice is based
on research findings.
10S

In the absence of field data on which to base a firm


recommendation for tobacco, the following fertilizer programme
is suggested as an interim measure;

Serial
No. Nutrient/ha Material/ha____ Re commo na at ion/Sugge st ion

kg( * 3 -
i. 5 kg K 25 Suggested for seedbed=
01"CAN, 20 kg! :-i ■ 5 kg/ha N + 25 kg/ha
o r U r e a 9 •d1*11
<
kg! PJj c + 5 kg/ha K^O or
k g PpOc S S P , lipO
c\i

kg! h bags
■ r'
a v o r TSP, kg! : i bag 100 kg/ha of 5-25-•5
55 - c ompound.,
5 v n K_S 0 Lj» kg-
xV2°

ii. 10 k c r N SA, 5 0 kg! (1 Suggested for the field


o r CAN, ll_0 kg! (1 ■ on more fertile alluvial
o r U r e a 922 kg! <<2 1 •bag ) and fadama soils = 1 0
30 kg S S P , 1 7 0 kg! ( I i D e l 0 '; ) kg/ha N + 30 kg/ha PhO
P2 ° F
o r TSP, 7 0 kg! ( 1 2
+ 5 0 kg/ha KpO,
5 0 k g K2 0
K2S0 ,,4 -9 1 00kg (2
6t
)u a.1 o

For more sandy soils


use 20 kg/ha N + 30 kg/ha
p20.- + 5 0 kg/ha K20.

It should be emphasized that if potassium is used on tobacco


grown in the Savanna, the source should be K SO) not KCI,

II.G.U(f). Fertilizer Application. Phosphorus, potassium


and compound fertilizers should be applied (broadcast) to the
seedbed before or at transplanting. In view of the small quantity
of nitrogen suggested, it could be applied all at once some 3 -I4.
weeks after transplanting.

II.G.ij-(g). Yield Expectancy. Since tobacco is a crop


where quality is so highly important, both soil characteristics
and fertilizer treatments need to be carefully considered. Farmers’
110

yields vary between J4.OO and 600 kg/ha of cured tobacco leaf;
under improved management, including the use of fertilizers,
yields of 1,700-2,000 kg/ha arc possible.

Tobacco seeds contain between 33~h3% oil, depending on


variety and management.
111

H.G.5. FEPFERS AND CHILLIS (Capsicum sup.)

II.G.5(a). Area Under Crop. Peppers and chilles are widely


grown in Nigeria and probably occupy as much as 10-20,000
hectares of land annually.

11.0.5(h). Varieties. There are a wide variety of peppers


and chilles which vary in pungency, size, colour and fruits-. The
two main species in Nigeria are Capsicum annum (Nigerian bird-eye
chille or green peppers) and Capsicum frutescens (red-hot peppers).
Varieties of C . annum include ’tattassai’ and ’California Wonder1 ;
and those of C, frutescens include *Sakarho' or ’Dan Mayere’.

II.G.5(c). Cultural Practices. The crop requires a warm


rainy season with good rainfall. Seedlings are raised in nursery
in the first week of June and transplanted after 3-k weeks at a
height of 7-15cm. Space seedlings 30-60cm apart on 75 or 90cm
ridges.

II.G.’5(d), Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms. The mottling of


leaves at margins and between veins as well as the crinkling of
leaf surface is believed to be due to deficiency of pottosiurr..

II.G.5(c). Fertilizer Sources and Ratos. The following


fertilizer programme is suggested:
p
i. Apply to the nursery bed, 21g/m of SEP (equivalent from
38 kg /ha FuCV = 210 kg/ha SSP = ip|- bags of SSP).

ii. Apply to the field plots, 52 kg/ha N (200 kg/ha CAN =


k bags) + 55 kg/ha PJX- (250 kg/ha SSP * 5 bags).
^ 5
A naturally fertile soil or the use of organic matter may be
adequate in the absence of inorganic fertilizers.

V
112

II.G.5(f). Fertilizer Application. The. phosphorus applied


to the nursery bed sho Id be finely ground and worked into the
top 8cm of the soil before seeding. For field application,
superphosphate should, be spread in old furrows and the ridges
split over before transplating. The nitrogen should be applied
in two equal splits, at 2 weeks after transplanting and at the
first set of fruits.

II.G.5.(g). Yield Expectancy. Peppers and chilles lose


65~70°& of their fresh weight on drying. Farmers' yields
characteristically range between 550 and 1,000 kg/ha of fresh
weight (350-560 kg/ha of dry weight). With improved practices
C . annum can yield up to 10-15 tons/ha of fresh pepper; the
C. frutescens can yield about 3-5 tons/ha of dry pepper.
113

II.G.6* MISCELLANEOUS STIMULANTS AND BEVERAGES

Very little fertilizer and other agronomic information are


available in respect of the following other stimulant and
beverage crops.

i. Tea (Camellia sinens1s)


ii . Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
111+

II.H* Horticultural Crops

II.H.1. TOMATO (Lyeopers icurn esculentum)

II.Ho 1(a). Area Under Crop. Tomato is a major garden crop


throughout the country and. total land area covered annually may
well be over 1 million hectares. Most of the production comes
from the Northern Guinea and Sudan Savannas.

II.H.1(b). Varieties. Improved tomatoes currently in use


are as follows:

Serial Area Processing Tomato Fresh Market


No i Cultivars Tomato Cultivars

W et Season Tomato

i. South-western
Nigeria Ronita Ife No. 1, H9-1-6

ii. South-eastern Mar Globe, Valiant!,


Nigeria Dwarf Gem, Bonny
Best, Money-Maker,
Zuarunau, Roma VF.

iii, Sudan Savanna Cirio-56, Marzanino,


Piacenza 0161+, Har­
vester, Chico- La La Bonita, Ife
Bonita. Roma VF No. 1,Enterpriser

iv. Northern Guinea Cirio-56, Marzanino, La Bonita, Ife


Piacenza 0161+, Har­ No. 1,Enterprister
vester, Gamad, Gemed
F „ Roma VF
.*

v. Southern Guinea Cirio 56, Marzanino,


Piacenza 0161+, Har­ La Bonita, Ife
vester, Gamad, No. 1,Enterprise
Ronita, La Bonita

contd,
115

ia‘1 Processing Tomato Fresh Market


o. Area Cultivars Tomato Gultivars

i. Bauchi -
Plateau area

Dry Season Tomato

i. S ou t h -■w e s t e rn
Nigeria Ronita Ife No.1, -6

•— • S ou th-e astern Mar Globe, Valian


Nigeria - Dwarf Gem, Bonny
Best, Money-Maker
Zuarunau. Roma VF

.i. Sudan Savanna Roma V F ,M s r z anino, Enterpriser,.


Harvestar. Ronita Ife No. 1

■V. Northern Guinea Chico,Msrzanino,


La Bonita, Enterpriser,
Piacenza 0165 La Bonita

v*• Southern Guinea Roma V F ,Marzanino,


Harvester, Ronita, Enterpriser,
Piacenza 0165 La Bonita

vi. Bauchi — Ma r z anino, Harve-


Plateau area iter, Ronita,
Piacenza 0165, Enterpriser,
La Bonita La Bonita

II.H.1(c ). Cultural Practices. Tomato is produced from


is sown in nursery. The crop can be grown thropnout the year
vided it is irrigated5 the best crop is obtained in the dry
z o n under irrigation. Seedlings are raised in beds 1 - 1 . 5m
i€ and as long as necessary (about 10m). For good seedling
rpence and establishment, apply Nemagon 20 to control soil
' c o 0 s . Put Nemagon 20 into the soil at 7 g/nl" and fork the
into the seedbed to 3 depth of l5 "2 0 cm. Compact the
116

oil to avoid the escape and loss of Nemagon 20 fumes. (it


hould be noted, that Nemagon 20 is a dangerous chemical and
hould be handled carefully). Seed should not be planted until
fter 3 weeks. Transplanting is done at 3-Ip weeks after seeding,
n June for the rainy season crop and November for the dry seaso
rop. In the south where the length of the rainy season allows
or two crops, the early (first) crop is transplanted between
id-March end mid-April and the late (second) crop in Augustj a
bird crop is transplanted from late September to October but it
s partly irrigated. A spacing of 60crn between plants on 90cm
idges is suggested for norm-staked tomato and 3-0 x 90cm for the
taked crop (mostly practised in the south). In the south-
estern areas seedlings are 'spaced at i\S x 60cm.

In the event of attack by;

i. Fruit worm (Heliothis spp.) - use Vetox 20 or Didigam at


1 kg/220 lit. of water/ha. beginning with the formation
of the first fruit and therafter at 2-weekly intervals.

ii. Crickets -■ use Agrocide 7 at 32g mixed with 5 kg bran


( !dusa ’), dampened with water and spread around the
seedbed area, or in the field after transplanting.

iii. Diseases (e.g. caused by Aiternaria solani and Septoria


lycopersici)- use Lithane MJx5 or Difolatan 80 WP at
2 kg in 1,100 lit. of water/ha or 2.7-3 kg/ha in 10 lit.
of water using a Micron ulva battery operated sprayer
with a red fed-stem, starting 3 weeks after transplanting
and at weekly intervals until 5-6 days before each
harvest. If Difolatan 5 FW is used it should be mixed
at 2 ports to 1 port of water, strained before use.
Feronox may also be used at 3-1-1- kg in 1,100 lit. of water/
ha at 2-weekly intervals.

1
117

No herbicides have been recommended for’ use onttomato


but Diphenamid (Enide 50W) has been found to control many grass
and broad leaf weeds? it is* however, not effective against
spear and nut grass. Apply Diphenamid at 2-3 kg a.i./ha in at
least 350 lit, of water. Incorporated to a depth of 2-5cm
immediately after application.

II.H.1(d)* Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency? Leaves are light green;


lower leaves turn yellow and dry up; veins become
deep purple; stems are hard and purple; flower buds
turn yellow and drop.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency; Leaves are olive-green;


underside shows a purple cast; stems •re slender;
foliage is sparse; plants are stunted.

iii. Potassium deficiency; Lower leaves become yellowish


or greyish-green along margins and at tips, followed
by necrosis; dead areas turn brown giving the lower
part of the plant a bronzed appearance; stalks are
• slender and may show necrotic areas in extreme
cases; fruit ripens unevenly and lacks solidity.

II.H.l(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. Wherever possible


farm yard manure should be used rp to 25 tons/ha. The fertilizer
programme suggested'for tomato may be summaried as follows;

Serial
No. Nutrient/ha Material/ha Recommendation/
Suggestion
i. 20-10-10 Cornpd .,210kg (lx bags) Existing recommen­
or 12-21;-12 Corapd.,350kg(7 bags) dation for nursery
bed in northern -
states = 20-10-10
at 210 kg/ha or
350 kg/ha of
1 2—2lj_—12 cc; mound.

contd
A -1 P
I I >J

Serial
. No, Nutrient/ha Material/ha Recommendstion/Suggestion
ii. FYM FYM, FYM, 25 tons Existing recommendation
2 0 1 0 -1 0
- Compd.., 21 Okg (5 hags) for field in northern
or 12-25-12 or Compd.,350kg(7 hags) states = FYM at 25 tons/
or 1 2 - 1 5-15 or Compd.,360kg(7 bags) ha or 2 0 - 1 0 - 1 0 , 1 2 - 2 5 - 1 2
65 kg N CAN, 250 kg (5 bags) or 1 2 -1 5 - 1 5 at 2 1 0 kg/ha
+ 65 kg N as top dressing
split-applied at 2 weeks
after transplanting and
3 weeks after the first
set of fruits.

.1 1 . 12 5 kg N Urea,, 270 kg (5i-bags) Suggested practices under


or 0 ■"N 580 kgt 10 ba gs) irrigated in the northern
50 kg Po0^ SSP, 280 kg (6 ba gs) states = 125 kg/ha N + 50
O\
o*r

y-^n
h/t. kg/ha PpO- + 50 kg/ha
cm

50 J 1.j 82 ~“O (2 ba.gs)


or K2S05»95 kg (2 ba gs) KpO. Apply the N in 3
splits at 0 , 3 and 6
weeks after transplanting.
P and K are broadcast in
furrow bottoms before
splitting ridges.
iv. 15-15-15 Compd.,200kg(5 bags) Existing practice in
south-western Nigeria =
15-15-15 at 200 kg/ha and
split-applied at 0 and 6
weeks after sowing.
v. 60 kg N Urea , 130 kg (3 bags) Suggested practice in the
or CAN, 230 kg (5 bags) Savanna zone of south­
55 kg p2°5 SSP, 250 kg (5 bags) western Nigeria = 60 kg/
33 kg K o0 KCI, 55 kg \ t1 bag ) ha N + 5 5 kg/ha P^O^ +
or K„S0 63 kg( 1 bag ) 33 kg/ha Ko0. The addit­
ion of 1 kg/ha B as
Borax may be necessary,

vi 30 ]<• N
O '
Urea, 65 Kg (1 bap* ) Suggested parctice in the
or CAN, 115 kg (2 bags) Forest zone of south­
90 kg P2 °b SSP, 500 kg ( 1 0 bags) western Nigeria^ 30 kg/'
67 kg K5 O" KCI, 1 1 0 kg ( 2 bags) ha N+90 kg/ha Fo0r-
30 kg KgO MgS0u .7K,30 ,3 1 0 kg(6 ba r67 kg/ha K 90 + 30 kg/ha
r. * ' NgO
contd.
119

Serial
Mo. Nutrient/ha- Materj na Recoromendation/Suggeation
vii. 15-15-15 Compd. ,Ij.00kg(8 bags) Existing practice in
or 12-12-17-2 Compd. ,680kg( 1i|..bags) south-eastern Niger

VH-
= kOO kg/ha of 19-1
or 680 kg/ha of
12-12-17-2 compound.

II.H.1(f). Yield Expectancy. Farmers obtain about 6 tons/ha


of fresh tomatoes. Under improved management, including the
correct use of fertilizers, yields of up to 30 tons/ha are
obtainable under irrigation; under rainfed conditions yields
are about half those of an irrigated crop in the dry season.
120

11 oH „2 ONION ( a p p ium cepe) .

II.H.2(a). Area Under Crop. Onion is widely g r o w n in


the parts of the northern states, especially in Sokoto, Kaduna,
Plateau and Borno. The total land area annually cropped to
onion is estimated at 0.1-0.2 million hectares.

II.H.2(b). Varieties. The best local onion variety available


should be used; in the Zaria area the variety 'Wuyan Bijimi* is
widely grown.

II.H.2(c). Cultural Practices. Procution of seed crop is


from setts or bulbis whilst the edible part (dulb) is normally
from seed. A good-size onion is cut horizonatally and the bottom
half with roots is planted in a well prepared seedbed. Once
bulbis are formed they are cut and planted out; within 3~h months
flowers are formed and seed produced.

To produce the edible onion, seeds are sown itn well manured
nursery beds,*1-1,£m wide and as long as desired (10); seedlings
re ready for transplanting after 6-8 weeks c-iiU. d i e spaced 10cm
apart within rows l5-20cm apart. Three crops of onion are
produced annually under northern states conditions. Seeds of
the first crop are sown in the nursery late in April, transplanted
in mid-June and harvested between August and September. For the
second crop the seeds are sown in June, transplanted between
July and August and harvested between November and December.
This second crop invariably required supplemental irrigation.
The third crop is grown entirely during the dry season under
irrigation; seedlings are raised between September and October,
transplanted between November and December on flat beds (1 x 2m)
and the crops is- ready for harvest in Harch/April.
121

~.H.2(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

Nitrogen deficiency; Leaves are light green; old<r


leaves show bleached yellowish colour; leaves of
small diameter; grows stiff end upright.

11, Phosphorus deficiency; Older leaves wilt,showing


tip-dieback and mottling of green areas.

in, Potassium deficiency; Older leaves first shown slight


yellowing, followed by wilting and death;
drying and dying starts at sips of elder leaves;
bulb formation is poor.

II.H.2(e). Fjetilizer Sources and Rates. The following


;ilizer recommendation is based on conditions in the northern
ares oi Nigeria and particularly the Northern Guinea and
fan Savannas.

•rial
No. Nutrient/ha .al/ha Recommends uggestion
38 kg P20c SSP, 210 kg (Ip bags) Existing recommendation
for the nursery = 21
g/m of finely ground
SSP. Wherever possible
also use FYM.

50 kg N Urea, 110 kg (2 b
or CAN, 200 kg (II b ;xor m e field = yu Kg/ ha
U5 kg SSP, 250 kg (5ba N + l\S kg/ha PpOcj wher' P
p 2°5
possible use FYM at
5-6 t/ha.

II.H.2(f). Fertilizer Application. All FYM and superphosphate

sw£.d be worked into the seedbed before planting. Nitrogen

..If be applied to the field plots in two equal splits at 2-3

ks and at 6-7 weeks after planting.


122

II.H.2(g). Yield Expectancy. If onions are not harvested on


time bulbs are used to regenerate new growth, flowers and subse­

quently seeds are st. Yields are highest with the dry season
crop where 25 tons/ha of bulbs are easily possible.
123

II.H .3. OKRA (Hibiscus esculentus)

II.H.3(a). Area Under .Crop. Okra is grown in every part of

the country and the total land area covered in any one year is

estimated at up to 1 - 2 million hectares ...

II.H.3(b). Varieties. Use local varieties of good quality.


The cultivar ’White Velvet' is popular in many parts of the

northern states. 'Lady's Fingers’ is widely grown in the

southern parts of the country.

II.H.3(c). Cultural Practices. In places where the rainy

season is long enough for only one cropr okra can be sown anytime

between April and July 5 but because of pest problem early in the

rains farmers *invariably sow late. In the southern states two

okra crops are possible; the first (early crop) is sown in

March-April at the start of the rains and the second (late crop)

In August. Tall varieties should be spaced 60cm between, plants

on ? 5 cn; ridges; dwarf varieties should be planted closer, 30 cm

apart. Planting at even higher plant densities (e.g. 30 x L\.Ocm)

result in considerable yield increases.

II.H .3(d ). Fertilizer Sources, Rates and Application. Like

most vegetables, okra benefits from the application of organic

manures; wherever possible apply FYM at the rate of 25 tons/ha

worked into the soil at land preparation. Apply 250 kg/ha of

SSP, i.e, 5 bags ( kg/ha PnO^-) to the seedbed before or Just

after planting. The nitrogen should be applied at 50 kg/ha of

N (110 kg/ha of Urea = 2 bags or 2.00 kg/ha of CAN = 1|. bags) in

two equal splits, the first dose at 2 weeks after planting and

the second dose at first set of fruits.


12k

II.H .3(e). Yield Expectancy. Early-planted okra invariably

yields higher than the late-planted crop. Yields under local

conditions generally vary between 6-12 tons/ha of fresh pods;

yields of up to 22 tons/ha have been obtained under experimental

conditions using improved varieties fertilizers and high level

of crop husbandry.
125

II.H.5. CARROTS (Caucus carota)

II.H.5(a), Area Under Crop. Carrot grows well in sandy

loam or silt loam soils which are deep and free-draining,

PH of 6.5 is ideal.

II.H.5(b); Varieties. Use the varieties Nantes, Touchon,

Chantenay or any good local variety.

II.H.5(c). Cultural Practices. Make 1cm-deep drills along

the length of the bed and dribble the seed thinly. Rows should

be 20“'25cm apart. Because of the small-size of the seed they may

be mixed with some dry sand and sown, together. If necessay thin

to 2.5cm between seedlings. The crop is sown when the rains are

established but dry season (irrigated) carrots are planted in

November.

11.H .5.(d) . Nutrient Def iciency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency; Leaves are light-green, then


become yellowish; petioles weak.

ii. Phosphorus deficiency; Leaves are dull green with

purple cast; older leaves die, petioles are upright.

iii. Potass1um def1ciency; Leaves arc slightly


chlorotic, followed by browning; roots are spindly.

IX.H .5(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. Carrots remove a


lot of pota sh from the soil and, if available, wood ash at the
rate of 500 kg/ha should be applied to the bed before sowing.
Otherwise apply fertilizers as follows:
126

Serial
No . Nutrient/ha Material/h Recommendation/Suggestion

x. 50 kg N SA, 250 kg(5 hags) Existing practice for

0
< jl]
>z~~1
195 kg (it. bags) carrots in northern

0
u
0 D
3d kg S S F , 210 kg(/. bags) states = 50 kg/ha N +
P20S
38 kg/ha Po0c
- + 60 kg/ha
60 kg K?0 KCI, 100 kg/2 bags)
k 2o . ^ ^
or K:
oS0 ,1l5kg(2 bags)
?S0i

II.H.li/f) „ Feetilizer Application. Apply wooda^fa, phosphate


and potash during seedbed preparation and incorporate thoroughly.
Nitorgen is applied in two doses at 2 and 6 weeks after planting.

II.H.it(g), Yield Expectancy. Accurate yield data are not


available but up to 6-10 tons/ha of fesh carrots have been
obtained under good crop management.
127

II.H .5. CITRUS SPF.

II.If.5(a). Area Under Crop. Citrus is a minor crop grown in


all parts of Nigeria. At present its cultivation is more as a
luxury crop and. large orchards are rare. Reliable figures are
not available but the land area currently put to citrus is in
the region of 2-3 million hectares and this increases each year.

II.H.5(b). Varieties. The genus 'Citrus* comprises species


which include sweet orange (varieties Valencia, Wshington
Naval, Kind, Ibadan Sweet, Nigerian Green Skin, Parson Brown),
grape fruit (varieties pink-flashed Foster, March Seedless,
Thompson, Scion 1/8), tangerine (varieties Dancy, Algerian),
tangelior (varieties Lake, Thornton), lemon and lime.

II.H.5(c). Cultural Practices. Seedlings are raised in the


nursery to a height of 8-15cm and planted out t at the begining
of the rainy season (May-June). Planting holes are dug (90 x
90 x 60cm or as appropriate) about a week before transplanting
and fill'with top soil. Sweet orange is spaced 3m x 5.5m apart
pi ants/ha) whilst grape fruit is 5.2 x 6m apart ( 1 5 5
(2 )4 .2

piants/ha).

II.H.5(d). Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms. Specific


information is currently lacking but stunted growth; yellowing of
leaves; scorching of leaves; defoliation; curling and deformation o
leaves are often observed. Zinc deficiency is typified by
interveinal chlorosis of young leaves. Magnesium deficiency is
typified by the yellowing of older leaves

II.H.5(e). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. A mixture of the


following fertilizers is recommended for use especially in
southern Nigeria;
12 6

Serial
No.. Nutrient/ha Material/ha^ Recomroendation/Sugges ti on

i. 68 kg N SA, 3k0 kg( 7! bags) Existing practice for


122 kg P.CV SSP ,680 kg(1,1+ bags) nrrsery seedbed = 68g
2 5
20k kg K 0 KCI,3k0 kg( 7 bags) SSP + 3kg SA + 3kg
Potash/m .

ii. 60 kg N Urea,130 kg( 3t s) Fertilizers mixed and


or CAN, 230 kg( ba o° applied at:
or SA, 300 kg( 6 bags
S kg : SSP, 30 kg( 1 ba g a) . 3 kg/fruiting citrus
p2°5 tree, 3 times a year
52 kg K?° KCI, 37 kgk 2 ba gs in May, July and
or KpSO, ,100kg( 2 ba.gs September.
10 kg Mg MgSO, ,100kk( 2 ba gs b) . 1.3 kg/tree not yet
k kg Mn MnSOj , '15kg in fruiting, 3 times
c~ 0 5 k g
s
Cu CuSO, , 10kg -
in May, July and
k September.
In the absence of other
fertilizers it is sug­
gested that between
0.5-1.3 kg/tree, thrice
a year, of NPK mixture,
might suffice.

II.H.5(f). Fertilizer Application. Fertilizers ere applied


broadcast in a circular area extending from about 30cm from the
tree trunk to 30-60cm beyond the canopy of young trees and 90-120
beyond that of cider trees. Fertilizers should be hoed and disked
into the soil.

II.H.5(g). Yield Expectancy, Oranges yield between 600-1,200


fruits per tree; with improved crop husbandry and especially, the
use of fertilizers yields of 3*000 fruits per tree are possible.
Under poor management as few as 200-700 grape fruits are recorded
per tree* with improved practices yields could be as high as
2,,000-2,500 grape fruits per tree.
129

ll.H.6.

II.H.6(a). Area Under Crop. Mango grows in all parts of


Nigeria but thrives best in areas where- the annual rainfall is
between 760-1,020mm and temperatures of 2k-27°C. ;he total land
area under the crop is difficult to estimate but could be a:
high as 1 million hectares.

II.H.6(b). Varieties . Improved cultivars include Julie,.


Alphonse, Fitter, Dabsha and Peach.

II.H.6(c). Cultural Practices. 'Mango is propagated mostly


by germinated seeds but improved varieties are reproduced
vegetatively. Budded, seedlings are transplanted after one year
at a time (May?June) when the rains are well established and
spaced at 10 x 1 3 m.

II.H.6(d). Fertilizer Sources and Rates. During the first


5 years apply 15kg of FYM -t 200g 3SF + 200g K^SO^ per tree at the
beginning of each rainy season. This should be followed by 1~2 kg
of CAN per tree in two or three equal splits spread over a year.
The fertilizers are applied in furrows 2m around the tree trunk.

II.H.6(e). Yield Expectancy. Yield vary from year to year


and average between 500-2,2500 fruits per tree per year when fully
grown (about 10 years).
130

:i .h . MISCELLANEOUS HORTICULTURAL CROF,

No fertilizer and other agronomic informations are available


in respect of the following other horticultural crops.

i. Guava (Psidium gua.iava)

ii. Pawpaw (Cerics Papaya)

iii. Ca shew (A:na cardium occidantalle)

iv. Pumpkins (Cucurbita spp.)

v. Cucumber (Cucumia sativus)

vi. Egg-Plant (Solanum spp.)

vii. Pineapple (Ananas comosus)

viii. Bananas and PIantaims (Musa spp.


131.

II.I Other Economic Tree Crops

11*1.1* RUBBER (Hevea brasiliensis)

11,1,1(a)> Area Under Crop. Major producing states include


Bendel, Ondo, Imo and Cross River* Total land area under rubber
is estimated at 0 .2 -0 . 5 million hectares.

IT,1.1(b), Varieties. The main recommended1,clones, in order


of increasing rubber y i e l d , include RRINC 76, RRINC 8 3 , RRINC 105,
RRINC 8 6 and RRINC 8 . Others are FRI 107, TJ 16, BD 5 , C~ Clone,
GTI and PB 5 / 5 1.
-m. . -

11.1.1(c). Cultural Practices. Rubber is propagated either


by seed or by bud grafting. Seedlings are transplanted in May
or June when the rains are well established. Depending'cn
location, soil and topography, planting distances could vary
between It. 8 x 5 .5 m , 7 . 5 x 3m, 6 . 6 x 3 .3 m, 9 x 2 . 5 m, o r 6 x 3 .6 m
2
(22 m /plant). The spacing currently recommended for plantation
rubber are 6 . 6 x 3 *3m with thinning *5 .5 m triangular without
thinning. The presence of cover crops is essential.

11.1.1(d) Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms.

i. Nitrogen deficiency; Reduction in growth; reduced


leaf size and number; reduced girth; leaves
yellowish green in colour, fir appearing on older
leaves in the lower storeys.

ii. Phosphorus deficiencyr Bronzing of under surface


of leaves and frequent dying of leaf tip; symptoms
are usually first found on leaves in the middle and
upper storeys and considerable defoliation can occur.
132

ill.. Potassium deficiency; Development of a marginal and


tip chlorosis, followed by necrosis..; symptoms appear
first on older leaves or lower storeys.

iv. Magnesium deficiency; Development of chlorosis


in the interveinal areas of the leaf; -chlorosis
spreads inwards from the leaf margins, giving a
’’herring bone” pattern.

11.1.1(e), fertilizer Sources and Rates. At the nursery


stage P is required in the largest amounts, followed %losely by
N. The need for K seems to depend on the K content and supply­
ing power- of the soil* Rates of N. and P are yet to be refined
but 230g of SA + I).00g of SSP per plant are suggested.

Under field conditions the use of 900g of SA + LfSkg of


rock phosphate + 90Qg KCI + 230g Mg SO^ per tree per year is
suggested.

11.1.1(f). Fertilizer Application. Fertilizers should be


applied in the field broadcast in a circle around the base of
the stem, preferrably when the trees loose their leaves. For
immature trees that do not shed leaves, applications designed to
remedy nutrient deficiencies should be carried out soon after
the observation.

11.1.1(g). Yield Expectancy. Yields on farmers' fields


range from 700-900 kg/ha of dry rubber per year. With improved
practices yields of 2,000 kg/ha are possible-.
133

11,1.2. OTHER MISCELLANEOUS TREE CROPS.

No fertilizer and other agronomic informations are


available .in respect of the following other tree crops 2

i. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)

ii. Locust lean (Parkia clappertoniana) contains about


30-33% protein and 19-21% fat.
CHAPTER I l l s F E R T IL IZ E R S AND CROP FIX TU R ES

No fertilizer recommendations are currently available for


crop mixtures grown in Nigeria, nor is it either practicable
or feasible that they be available from the methodology used to
determine those for sole crops. Thus, for the present, and in
fact for the foreseeable future, recommendations for the efficien
use of fertilizers within mixtures must be based on knowledge of
the individual crops and their physiology. By classifying crops
into three broad categories it is possible to suggest rules for
the efficient use of fertilizers in crops mixtures.

II,I.A. CROP Categories

i. Crops which are determinate in the sense that once the


inflorescence has been produced there is no further-
production of leaves, and yield is determined by
translocation from material already stored. This group
is dominated by cereals whose grain yield is heavily
responsive to nitrogen and, to a lesser edtent,
phosphorus and other nutrients.

ii. Crops, mainly leguminous, which are indeterminate in


that growth continues after flowering. Yield in this
group is more heavily dependent upon phosphorus,
nitrogen generally serving to increase the plant frame.

iii.. Root and tuber crops; these produce yield throughout


the season and are variable in their response to
fertilizers.
135

j.iI .B . Suggested,Ruleg

With these simple criteria, fertilizers may be applied to


crop mixtures as follows;

IlI.B.1. Mixtures involving Cereals.

Apply 1.}• the recommendation for each component on a pro-rata


basis to each crop. (This suggestion is based on the fact that
in such replacement mixtures each crop can be expected to yield
some 2 % more than if grown sole). Where millet is included in
the mixture it may be necessary to make a second application to
the 'other' crop, since millet is very aggressive early in growth
and will take up, especially, -nitrogen at the expense of the
'other* c3°op.

Ill, Mixtures Involving Group ii

These are replacement mixtures and, as a general rule, do


not respond to ni tor gen. Therefore, apply 1-| of the combined
recommendation for phosphorus to the seedbed as usual.

IIIoB.3. Mixtures Involving Groups i and ii.

Apply of the combined recommendation for phosphorus to


the seedbed. Apply of the recommendation for nitrogen for
the cereal to the cereal component. These mixtures are generally
superimposed mixtures (total population is greater than either
of the individual sole crops) and any excess nitrogen will serve
to increase the frame of the non-cereal component, which otherwise
would be so suppressed by the cereal.
136

III.B .It. Mixtures Involving U\ roup iii#

Crops in this group are generally widely spaced; 1% of


the individual crop recommendations should be applied on a
pro-rata basis. This will also apply if crops of this group are
mixed with crops from the other groups.

III.C „ Additional Suggestions

i. When in doubt, always apply nitrogen by preference to


the cereal(s) of the mixture; if nitrogen is in short
supply, apply in the following descending order'of
preference; maize, rice, sorghum and millet.

ii. Always share the phosphorus and other nutrients,


137

CHAPTER IV; Jr-i i i STURE GRASSES AND LEGUMES

IV.A. General Agronomy

IV.A.1. Area of Production. Pasture grasses and legumes can be


established even in Forest regions; hov/ever, in terms of cost,
the Savanna area is the best choice because of the few scattered
trees and the considerable proportion of natural vegetation of
tall grasses and herbaceous plants. The greatest potential for
range grazing is found in the Savanna.

A .2. Planting Materials. As a general rule, planting materia


Q JL pasture grasses and legumes should have the following
characteristics.

i. The pspecies should be easy to establish and should


produce viable seeds which can be easily harvested.

ii. It should yield well in all seasons and start growth


immediately the rains commence.

iii. It should be as drought resistant as passible.

iv„ It should be palatable and nutritions to livestock,

v. It should be able to withstand grazing.

vi. It should be easy to eradicate when the ley is to be


ended.

IV.A.3. Land Preparation. Trip first stage in the establishment


ox sown pastures involves under brush felling anti stumping of
trees. If land clearing is done in the dry season, fire plays a
prominent role. Some of the cost of clearing may be recovered,
by growing an early cereal crop such as maize prior to sowing of
pasture.
138

IV.A.Il. Seedbed Preparation. A satisfactory seedbed for sown


pasture can be achieved by disc ploughing and (sometimes) cross-
ploughing after clearing and stumping. This may be followed by
harrowing. The aim is to compact the soil almost to the top, and
yet leave a shallow surface mulch by harrowing.

Pasture raised through cuttings are less demanding in terms


of seedbed preparations. In this case a uniform and weed-free
seedbed is desirable.

I V . A . 5. Pasture Nutrition. In order to justify the cost of


establishment of sown pastures, it should be confined to fertile
soils. Land which will support a good crop of maize, sorghum
or rice is generally suitable for permanent pastures. The most
important fertilizer element required by a pure grass sward in
Nigeria is nitrogen. The application of nitrogen to a grass .
sward not only increase the level of production, but also
improves the nutritive quality of the pasture and extends the
length of the grazing season.

In a grass-legume mixture, the legume component should


produce most of the nitrogen needed and the application of
nitrogen fertilizer to the grass component may be necessary
during the first year.
139
IV.B . Pasture Grasses

IV.B .1. CxiI-ifiA (Andropogon gayanus).

This is a perennial grass, 2-3m tall and. is native to


Nigeria. It is relatively drought tolerant and grows well in
regions with less than 600mm of rainfall a year. Gamba is also
fire resistant and can survive under low soil fertility. It is
a dominant grass over large areas of the northern states.

IV.B.1(b). Cultural Practices. Gamba is established by seed


early in the rainy season. The seedbed should be well prepared.

IV.B. 1(b),. Fertilizer Sources and Rates. No firm recommenda­


tion exist. But published work done in Nigeria suggests the
application of 200 kg/ha of N per year (U-3B kg/ha of Urea = 9
bags; or 770 kg/ha of CAN = 15 bags; or 1,000 kg/ha SA = 20 bags).
Urea is reported to be a less efficient source of nitrogen in
increasing dry matter yield. The use of a token dose of
phosphorus, about 18 kg/ha of P2°5 kg/ha of SSP = 2 bags),
is suggested mainly as a means of maintaining soil fertility.

IV.B.l(c). Time of Application. The time of nitrogen


application has considerable effect on its efficiency in increas­
ing herbage yield. For maximum efficiency nitrogen needs to be
applied soon after the first heavy rain (around May) when leaching
losses are also lowest.

IV.£,l(d>. Yield Expectancy. The mean yield expectation of


a three year-old harvest of dry Gamba ranges between 8-10 tons/ha.
IV.E.2. RHODES GRASS (Chioris gayana). This is a tufted, running
perennial grass which is native to central and eastern Africa.
It is now widely grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions and
in Nigeria it occurs naturally around Lake Chad. Cbloris gayana
is best suited to regions of 7 5 0 -1 ,$00 mm yearly rainfall;
experience at Samaru suggests that it does not perform particularly
well under drier conditions.

IV.B.2(a). Cultural Practices. Chioris gayana is readi1y


established from seed. When grown in rotation with annual field
crops it is kept in check by tillage. The grass is established
by broadcasting or row-sowiag of seed at 7-10 kg/ha.

IV.B.2(b). Fertilization. No firm fertilizer recommendations


are available, but it is suggested that the following fertilizer
package will improve yields: 32 kg/ha of N (125 kg/ha of CAN =
2 bags) + 22 kg/ha of P p 0 ^ (125 kg/ha SSF = 2 % bags).

IV.B.2(c). Yield Expectancy. Yield of Chloris gayana is


estimated at about 2-3 tons/ha of dry matter when unfertilized
and 11-15 tons/ha fertilized. Seed production is good; yield
of seed of up.to 500-600 kg/ha have been obtained.
Firm and consistent fertilizer and other agronomic information
are not available in respect of the following forage grasses in
Nigeria.

i. Buffel grass = African foxtail (Cenchrus ciliaris)

ii. Signal = Palisade grass (Brachiaria spp.)

iii. Bahama = Bermuda grass (Cynodon aactylon)

iVo Giant stargrass (Cynodon nlemfluensis = C. plectostachyus)

v, Jaragua grass (Hyparrhenia rufa)

vi. Guinea grass (Fanicum maximum)

vii. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum)

viii. Other Pennisetum spp. (e.g. Kikuyu grass = P. clandestinum

introduced from north tropical Africa and Indian

P, Polystachyon = perennial Kyasuwa grass, adapted to

the Guinea savanna and Sahel zones).


IV.C.1. STYLO (Stylosanthes guyanensis). A bushy erect or
partially erect herbaceous perennial legume, stylo originated in
Central and South America and was introduced to Nigeria around
1957. It was formerly referred to as S. gracilis.

IV.C.l(a). Cultural Practices. Stylo is probably the most


promising fodder legume in Nigeria and is particularly adapted
to the drier north. It is grown in the tin mine reclamation
sites around Jos, Plateau State. It is mostly grown in mixtures
with such grasses Andropogon gayanus, Panicum maximum and Melinis
minutiflora (molasses grass). When sown alone, the seeding rate
is 5-10 kg/ha; in mixtures 2-3 kg/ha of seed are adequate. The
crops is sown early, between early to mid-July in the northern
states. Like in many tropical legumes which yield a high
percentage of hard seed, the seeds of stylo need scarfication
before sowing; germination can be improved by immersing in water
at 65°C for about 10 minutes before sowing. The use of sulphuric
acid may prove equally effective in seed scarification.

IV.C.l(b). Fertilization. Stylo is reported to be sensitive


to copper deficiency. No firm recommendations exist regarding
fertilization, but the use of 55 kg/ha of PoOc (250 kg/ha of
SSP = 5 bags) is suggested.

IV.C. 1(c).. Yield Expectancy, with inadequate management,


especially when sown late, yields could be much below 1,000 kg/ha
of dry matter. A well-managed stylo crop would, yield upwards of
2,000 kg/ha.
Ih3

tv r o MISCELLANEOUS FORAGE LEGUMES

Available fertilizer and other agronomic informations are


either unavailable or inadequate in respect of the following
forage legumes:

I. Hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab)

ii. Centro (Centrosema pubescens)

iii. Calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides)

iv. Desrnodium spp.

Vo Mucuna (Stizolobium spp)

vi. Pueraria spp.

vii. Such brouse plants as Acacia spp., Leucana leucocephala

and Ca.ianus ca.ian.


Ibil-

CHAPTER V ; MAJOR GAPS AND SUGGESTIONS

Emerging from discussions in proceeding chapters are areas


of information gaps directly or indirectly related to fertilizers
and fertilizer use on crops. While some of the gaps could be
filled through research undertakings as well as by periodic
up-dating and review of this document, others require deliberate
formulations and pursuance of appropriately defined policies of
both Federal and State Governments.

General Agronomy

There is need for basic agronomic information, including


all nutritional aspects, about the following group of crops and
crop plants/trees which have so far received little research
attention. Indeed, crops with asterisks ( •"*) are currently not
being worked on.

i. Cereals barley, sugar-cane, acca*

ii. Fat and Oilseeds soybean, benniseed, niger seedy


sunflower’", castor*, shea (nut)
butter*, coconut, crambe*, linseed.*-*',
Neem*, Rape seed*, safflower*.

iii. Grain legumes lima bean*, bambarra nut*, yam bean*


haricot bean*, sword bean*, pigeon
pea*, green gram*, forage legumes*,
chick peas*.

iv. Vegetable fibres silk cotton*, roselle*, jute,


sisal*, raphia palm.
v. • Root crops Yam, sweet potato, Irish potato,
cocoyam„
iip5

vi. Stimulants kola, coffee, tea*, ginger-5-',


peppers, chilles, tobacco*.
vii. Other tree end citrus, mango, locust bean*, dates
horticultural
crops. barlanas*, plantains*, peneapple*,
okra, onion., cashew.

V.B. Continuous Testing of Crop Varieties.

The primary characteristic of improved crop varieties is


that their potential yield is significantly greater than in
unimproved (local) varieties. Since the various breeding
programmes continually generate new and improved varieties, it is
imperative that there is a programme of continuous assessment
of their nutritional requirements under different growth condi­
tions as well as the interactions between fertilizers with
tillage practices, crop residue management and other agronomic
practices.

Of special mention is the need to continuously test varieties


intended for use under irrigated conditions, since the amounts,
types and application methods of fertilizers may vary with soil
and cropping patterns.

V .C . Specific Nutritional Problems.

Information is required, about certain specific nutritional


aspects in respect of certain crops which have otherwise been
fairly intensively studied; For example, studies on the micro­
nutrient need of maize, groundnuts, and cotton need intensifying.
especially in the Savanna and Sudan zones. There is presently
inadequate information on the long-term effect of the major
nutrients on the soil properties, including the balance of miner
elements. But as indicated in an earlier chap' problems of
114.6

v;.— t ofaxiciency cun be greatly minimised or totally


avoided by a balanced fertilization programme.

Investigations are needed to test the effectiveness and


economic of rock phosphate as a possible source of phosphorus
for tree crops in place of single superphosphate, especially in
the southern parts of the country.

V.D. Nutrition in Crop Mixtures.

Intensive work on.the agronomy of crop mixtures within


Nigeria is of recent origin and has concentrated on ansv/ering
two questions; wnether or not mixtures yield more than equivalent
sole crops and the rationale behind such mixtures. Only within
the last year or two have trials started to determine whether
crops within mixtures respond to fertilizers in the intensified in
this direction and with emphasis on the timing and method of
fertilizer application.

V.E. Agronomy of Forage Crops.

It is evident from this work that forage (pasture) crops


have so far received much less attention than food crops,
particularly in terms of general agronomy and nutrition. This
has come about probably because of the administrative arrangement
whereby animal and crtfp production are separately administered.
Until recently, for example, animal production has been run
almost exclusively in terms of animal health and care, with
little attention to the production of feeds. Crop-oriented
institutions, on the other hand, have tended to devote attention
only to the production of those field crops that are of direct
human value, and little attention has been paid to the production
of crops for direct animal consumption.
Although there is already a trend towards research in
forage crops to be covered by research institutions concerned
with animal production, this should not only be encouraged and
intensified, but also the variou^ Governments should ensure that
this is well understood and practiced.

V..F. Fertilizers in Forest Production.

Probably because the administrative set up of forest


management has always been separate from that of field and
pasture crops, fertilizers are rarely thought of in terms of
commercial forest production. Accurate statistics about the
total fertilizers used annually on forest production are hard to
come by, but the amounts are likely to be negligible in relation
to field crops. However, with the growing importance of forests
and forest products in the national economy, it is imperative
that attention be given to the role of fertilizers in commercial
forest production.

V .G . Soil Testing Facilities.

The importance of soil testing has already been referred to.


The analytical method employed p er se is of relative unimportance,
provided the soil values are well correlated with the requirements
of crops under field conditions. Unfortunately, however, soil
testing as a means of fertility evaluation of fertilizer
recommendation has so far been a neglected aspect of cr%p
production in terms of unavailability of facilities. There is
thus an urgent need for properly planned field, correlation
studies and the establishment of soil testing laboratories in
the various edaphic zones of the country.
V.H. Fertility Status of Soil Groups.

Inadequacy of soil-testing facilities and trained personnel


to undertake soil tests of farmers' fields to determine their
nutrient status at the beginning of each cropping season
constitutes a major bottleneck in the efficient use of fertili­
zers. Since this ideal is presently not feasible and because the
situation is unlikely to improve appreciably in the very near
future, it is suggested that Government and its agencies -should
seek to document the fertility status of major Nigerian soils
in terms of their nutrient content and nutrient requirements
for the production of major crops.

V .l . Quantity of Fertilizers.

The quantities of fertilizers presently available in the


country are grossly inadequate and there is an urgent need to
arrest the situation. Whether the national requirements of
fertilizers are met largely by internal production or by
importation (as it is currently the situation) does not really
matter. However, since the aim of all governments in the country
is to establish a foundation for a sound economy for the purpose
of building a strong nation which would be self-reliant in food
production, then efforts must be directed into expanding
existing manufacturing facilities and appropriately setting up
several more.

Meanwhile, consideration may also be given to decentralise


the importation of fertilizers in order to ensure greater
availability.
11+9

V. J , Fertilizer Formulatiori _and Blending Facilities.

It would be desirable to have fertilizer-mixing plants all


over the country for use on crops which require more than one
type of fertilizer nutrients, particularly P and K. As a
beginning, the existing manufacturing plant as well as at sea
port where imported fertilizers are off-loaded should have
facilities for dry bulk blending and granulating fertilizer
mixtures specific to crops.

V ."'. Fertilizer Compounds .

The large number of fertilizer compounds presently in use


throughout the country have their origin in the early 1970's
when the high demand after the civil disorders coincided with the
general shortage of fertilizers in Europe and North America. In
addition, the unco-ordineted involvement of numerous external
bodies in fertilizer programmes in different parts of the country
partly contributed in introducing the wide variety of compounds.

In the countries where fertilizers are manufactured,


compounds are normally intended to meet the nutritional needs
of specific crops or group of crops. While it may be difficult
to have fertilizers compounded abroad for specific needs in
Nigeria, it is possible to exercise control such that only a few
specified compounds of generally wide application are allowed
into the country. For the moment five compounds, 15-15-15,
20-20-0, 0-20-20, 12-12-1? + 2 MgO and 18-18-7, are suggested.

V.L. Sources of Nitrogen.

T h e bulk of the nitrogen and/or manufactured should


preferrably be in the form of urea and/or calcium ammonium
nitrate. A limited quantity of ammonium sulphate is used on such
1$0

crops as yams and oil palm; it is presently not clear whether


its apparent preference is as a result of the sulphur content
(23% S) or the acidifying effect. Investigations are, therefore,
necessary to determine the possibility of sustaining high yields
of these crops in the absence of such strongly acidifying
fertilizers as ammonium sulphate. Meanwhile, massive use of
ammonium sulphate should be discouraged while suitable sulphur-
containing sources (e.g. ammonium sulphate-nitrate) should be
identified for areas and crops needing sulphur.

V.M. Sources of Phosphorus.

But for its high transportation cost per unit of nutrient


resulting from the lower analysis, single superphosphate is a
better source of P than triple superphosphate which contains
virtually no sulphur. While triple superphosphate may be used
on many crops without adverse effects, its use on groundnuts
(which presently consumes the bulk of the single superphosphate)
must be supplemented with sulphur. Therefore, until a sulphurated
form of triple superphosphate is available for use on groundnut,
the manufacture and/or importation of phosphorus material should
continue to be in the form of single superphosphate.

V .N . Agricultural Statistics.

The lack of accufate agricultural statistics makes difficult


the formulation of sound policies as well as their effective
implementation. It is only when the land area devoted to a
particular crop is knowpt, for example, that its total fertilizer
needs can be nationally estimated. There is thus an urgent
necessity for proper and accurate statistics involving all
aspects of agricultural development.
V . o . Missing Extension Linkage.

There appears to exist a wide gap between resultant


research effort and its practical application by the Nigerian
farmer. While research institutions may be said to be
succeeding in gathering useful data and arriving at practical
conclusions from extensive and intensive field and laboratory
experimental endeavours, most of such vital information invariably
ends up on the pages of learned journals and institutional
newsletters. Indeed, the information that is presently available
is enough to more than double production, where the farmer te be
in a position to have access to all the information and able to
apply them. In order to ensure effective and prompt application
of research findings, including fertilizer recommendations,
to practical farm situations, it is strongly suggested that each
research institution should create on extension unit for the
primary purpose of::

i. Translating technical research results into simple and


practical language and form for direct consumption by
extension agents of the various ministries of agriculture
as well as by all literate farmers.,

ii. Liason, as a reference unit, with ministries of


agriculture in respect of all aspects of agricultural
extension, including the provision of research information
in appropriate forms, the periodic up-dating of such
information, and occasional mounting of general or
specific training programmes involving serving extension
staff of ministries and other agricultural agencies.

iii. , Offering direct assistance to as many farmers and


farming communities and organizations as it is
practically possible, but ensuring that this does not
result in undesirable dunlication of eff§rt with those
of extension agents of ministries of agriculture.
152

iv. Liason with purely research staff in .ensuring that


all research undertakings are not only practical and
aimed at finding solutions to specific field problems,
but also that programmes reflect the priorities and
interests of the farmer and nation at any period of
time.

.P . Industries and Agricultural Research.

Until now Government has been the prime mover and sole
supporter of agricultural research in the country. Being a
nation in hurry to develop every facet of its economy, there is
the need to extend supportive interest in agricultural research
by encouraging as much public involvement as possible.
Specifically, commercial companies who use agricultural products
as raw materials should be encouraged to support research on
the crops they handle.

VoQ. Herbicide Residues.

While the use of herbicides as a means of weed control


should form part of the general agronomy of each crop, special
attention should be devoted to studying their residual effects
on the different crops and soil types.

V .R . Locating Research Institutions.

Although Agricultural Research Institutions are the main


agricultural infommation - gathering bodies in the country,
their distribution is such that the eastern axis is presently
inadequately serviced. For example, information on recommended
fertilizer practices ^.re hard to come by; the only research
153

institution located on the eastern axis of the country is quite


limited in function. It is, therefore, suggested that the siting
of research institutions and sub-staltions should not only be based
on ecological and edaphic considerations, but also functions
should be such as to view agriculture as a system involving all
crops, practises and traditions.

V .S . Financing Research Institutions

The overall experience gained in the preparation of this


document leads to the observation that there does not seem to be
generally adequate appreciation about the importance of informatioh-
gathering as a first step in any meaningful process of growth
and development. In situations such as exists in Nigeria today
where Government is investing heavily in various agricultural
programmes (e.g. basin and river developments, irrigation
schemes, green revolution, rehabilitation of specific crops,
large production farms), the need to beck these with sound
research information cannot be over-emphasized. To attempt the
development of any facet of agriculture in the absence of basic
data and information may eventually prove wasteful. Therefore,
It is suggested that research institutions be adequately financed
and strengthened to enable more extensive and intensive coverage
of activities as well as achieving a quicker turn-over of
research information.
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85. ANONYMOUS. (1976c). Cotton production in the Northern


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89i ANONYMOUS. (I976g), Guide to the production of okra. Ext,


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52. ANONYMOUS. (I976j). New prices for fertilizers. New


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53. ANONYMOUS. (1976k). 175 tons of fertilizers for farmers,


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58. ANONYMOUS. (19761). Prices of fertilizers in Kaduna State


slashed. New Nigerian. 29 May 1976. p.16.

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*

191
Table Miscellaneous Coi

F a c t o r s To Convert
“X E"'orY -X
Multiply by
1. O’
T’JipjTlgS (g) ounces (oz ) 0.0353 28.35
2. kilo r r r V pq (kg) pounds (lb0/ 2 .205 0 .5.55
kg tons (metr ic:
) 0.001 1,000
), g/square net era cz/spuere y?rds 0.0295 33.91
cr« g/hectare cz/-ere 0.01 5.3 70.00
o.
/-
kg/ha lb/e.c O.Sg/i 1.12
r1y• ton/ha ton/sc 0.398 2.509
p centlinete•pp ( e r a ) inches (inch ) 6.39k 2.55
9. • meters (m✓ feet (ft) 3 .2&08 0.3058
10 . kilometerS ( km) miles 0.621 1 .609
11. hectares (he) acres 0 c) 2.571 0 ,505
12. ha sCi.m 0.01 10 0 .
13. ha sq.m. 10 . 000 0.0001
-1
i1| •
L\- sq.km sq. mile 0.3661 2.590
15. sq. km ac 2 5 7 .1 0.00505
16 . litres (lit) gallons (USA gal)0.265.2 3.785
17. lit gal (Imperia1) 0.22 5.55
18. Imp. gal USA gal 1. 20 0. 833
19. lit/ha gal/sc 0 . 08s 11.23
20. /o b ^ 0 r - % P 0.53 2. 29
2.1. 1 i^O % K 0.83 1.20
22. /o C
L aCO., % CaO 0.56 1.79
23. 9c CaCC3 % Ca OJ4.O 2. 50
2k. % CaO % Ca 0.71 1.5-0
''u r ' 0/ M
Y> 9 % MgCO-j /i. M g 2. 857 3. 50
26. 9oMgO 0/ lyr...
/o M g 0.5968 1.67
27. A- U 0 r , % S 0.5 2.0
28. Plants/'ha Plants/a 0.505 2.571