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Chapter I Scope and Definitions

300 General Statements


Chapter II Design
Part 1 Conditions and Criteria
301 Design Conditions
302 Design Criteria
Part 2 Pressure Design of Piping Components
303 General
304 Pressure Design of Components
Part 3 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Components
305 Pipe
306 Fittings, Bends, Miters, Laps, and Branch Connections
307 Valves and Specialty Components
308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets
309 Bolting
Part 4 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Joints
310 General
311 Welded Joints
312 Flanged Joints
313 Expanded Joints
314 Threaded Joints
315 Tubing Joints
316 Caulked Joints
317 Soldered and Brazed Joints
318 Special Joints
Part 5 Flexibility and Support
319 Piping Flexibility
320 Analysis of Sustained Loads
321 Piping Support
Part 6 Systems
322 Specific Piping Systems
Chapter III Materials
323 General Requirements
325 Materials — Miscellaneous
Chapter IV Standards for Piping Components
326 Dimensions and Ratings of Components
Chapter V Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection
327 General
328 Welding and Brazing
330 Preheating
331 Heat Treatment
332 Bending and Forming
333 Brazing and Soldering
335 Assembly and Erection
Chapter VI Inspection, Examination, and Testing
340 Inspection
341 Examination
342 Examination Personnel
343 Examination Procedures
344 Types of Examination
345 Testing
346 Records
Chapter VII Nonmetallic Piping and Piping Lined With Nonmetals
A300 General Statements
Part 1 Conditions and Criteria
A301 Design Conditions
A302 Design Criteria
Part 2 Pressure Design of Piping Components
A303 General
A304 Pressure Design of Piping Components
Part 3 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Components
A305 Pipe
A306 Fittings, Bends, Miters, Laps, and Branch Connections
A307 Valves and Specialty Components
A308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets
A309 Bolting
Part 4 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Joints
A310 General
A311 Bonded Joints in Plastics
A312 Flanged Joints
A313 Expanded Joints
A314 Threaded Joints
A315 Tubing Joints
A316 Caulked Joints
A318 Special Joints
Part 5 Flexibility and Support
A319 Flexibility of Nonmetallic Piping
A321 Piping Support
Part 6 Systems
A322 Specific Piping Systems
Part 7 Materials
A323 General Requirements
A325 Materials — Miscellaneous
Part 8 Standards for Piping Components
A326 Dimensions and Ratings of Components
Part 9 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection
A327 General
A328 Bonding of Plastics
A329 Fabrication of Piping Lined With Nonmetals
A332 Bending and Forming
A334 Joining Nonplastic Piping
A335 Assembly and Erection
Part 10 Inspection, Examination, and Testing
A340 Inspection
A341 Examination
A342 Examination Personnel
112A343 Examination Procedures
A344 Types of Examination
A345 Testing
A346 Records
Chapter VIII Piping for Category M Fluid Service
M300 General Statements
Part 1 Conditions and Criteria
M301 Design Conditions
M302 Design Criteria
Part 2 Pressure Design of Metallic Piping Components
M303 General
M304 Pressure Design of Metallic Components
Part 3 Fluid Service Requirements for Metallic Piping Components
M305 Pipe
M306 Metallic Fittings, Bends, Miters, Laps, and Branch Connections
M307 Metallic Valves and Specialty Components
M308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets
M309 Bolting .................................................................. 116
Part 4 Fluid Service Requirements for Metallic Piping Joints ....................... 116
M310 Metallic Piping, General ................................................. 116
M311 Welded Joints in Metallic Piping ......................................... 116
M312 Flanged Joints in Metallic Piping ......................................... 116
M313 Expanded Joints in Metallic Piping ....................................... 116
M314 Threaded Joints in Metallic Piping ........................................ 116
M315 Tubing Joints in Metallic Piping .......................................... 116
M316 Caulked Joints ........................................................... 116
M317 Soldered and Brazed Joints ............................................... 116
M318 Special Joints in Metallic Piping .......................................... 116
Part 5 Flexibility and Support of Metallic Piping .................................. 116
M319 Flexibility of Metallic Piping ............................................. 116
M320 Analysis of Sustained Loads ............................................. 116
M321 Piping Support .......................................................... 116
Part 6 Systems ................................................................. 116
M322 Specific Piping Systems .................................................. 116
Part 7 Metallic Materials ........................................................ 117
M323 General Requirements .................................................... 117
M325 Materials — Miscellaneous ............................................... 117
Part 8 Standards for Piping Components ......................................... 117
M326 Dimensions and Ratings of Components .................................. 117
Part 9 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection of Metallic Piping ...................... 117
M327 General .................................................................. 117
M328 Welding of Metals ....................................................... 117
M330 Preheating of Metals ..................................................... 118
M331 Heat Treatment of Metals ................................................ 118
M332 Bending and Forming of Metals .......................................... 118
M335 Assembly and Erection of Metallic Piping ................................ 118
Part 10 Inspection, Examination, Testing, and Records of Metallic Piping ............ 118
M340 Inspection ............................................................... 118
M341 Examination .............................................................
118
M342 Examination Personnel ................................................... 118
M343 Examination Procedures .................................................. 118
M344 Types of Examination .................................................... 118
M345 Testing .................................................................. 118
M346 Records ................................................................. 118
Parts 11 Through 20, Corresponding to Chapter VII ................................... 118
MA300 General Statements ...................................................... 119
Part 11 Conditions and Criteria ................................................... 119
MA301 Design Conditions ....................................................... 119
MA302 Design Criteria .......................................................... 119
Part 12 Pressure Design of Nonmetallic Piping Components ........................ 119
MA303 General .................................................................. 119
MA304 Pressure Design of Nonmetallic Components ............................. 119
Part 13 Fluid Service Requirements for Nonmetallic Piping Components ............. 119
MA305 Pipe ..................................................................... 119
MA306 Nonmetallic Fittings, Bends, Miters, Laps, and Branch Connections ....... 119
MA307 Valves and Specialty Components ........................................ 119
MA308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets ............................. 119
MA309 Bolting .................................................................. 119
Part 14 Fluid Service Requirements for Nonmetallic Piping Joints .................... 119
MA310 General .................................................................. 119
MA311 Bonded Joints ............................................................ 119
MA312 Flanged Joints ........................................................... 119
MA313 Expanded Joints ......................................................... 119
MA314 Threaded Joints .......................................................... 120
MA315 Tubing Joints in Nonmetallic Piping ...................................... 120
MA316 Caulked Joints ........................................................... 120
MA318 Special Joints ............................................................ 120
Part 15 Flexibility and Support of Nonmetallic Piping .............................. 120
MA319 Piping Flexibility ........................................................ 120
MA321 Piping Support .......................................................... 120
Part 16 Nonmetallic and Nonmetallic Lined Systems ................................ 120
MA322 Specific Piping Systems .................................................. 120
Part 17 Nonmetallic Materials ..................................................... 120
MA323 General Requirements .................................................... 120
Part 18 Standards for Nonmetallic and Nonmetallic Lined Piping Components ........ 120
MA326 Dimensions and Ratings of Components .................................. 120
Part 19 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection of Nonmetallic and Nonmetallic Lined
Piping ................................................................. 120
MA327 General .................................................................. 120
MA328 Bonding of Plastics ...................................................... 120
MA329 Fabrication of Piping Lined With Nonmetals .............................. 120
MA332 Bending and Forming .................................................... 120
MA334 Joining Nonplastic Piping ................................................ 120
MA335 Assembly and Erection ................................................... 120
Part 20 Inspection, Examination, Testing, and Records of Nonmetallic and
Nonmetallic Lined Piping ............................................... 120
MA340 Inspection ............................................................... 120
MA341 Examination ............................................................. 120
MA342 Examination Personnel ................................................... 121
MA343 Examination Procedures ..................................................
12
1
MA344 Types of Examination .................................................... 121
MA345 Testing .................................................................. 121
MA346 Records ................................................................. 121
Chapter IX High Pressure Piping ...................................................... 122
K300 General Statements ...................................................... 122
Part 1 Conditions and Criteria ................................................... 122
K301 Design Conditions ....................................................... 122
K302 Design Criteria .......................................................... 123
Part 2 Pressure Design of Piping Components .................................... 125
K303 General .................................................................. 125
K304 Pressure Design of High Pressure Components ........................... 125
Part 3 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Components ......................... 129
K305 Pipe ..................................................................... 129
K306 Fittings, Bends, and Branch Connections ................................. 129
K307 Valves and Specialty Components ........................................ 129
K308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets ............................. 129
K309 Bolting .................................................................. 130
Part 4 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Joints ............................... 130
K310 General .................................................................. 130
K311 Welded Joints ............................................................ 130
K312 Flanged Joints ........................................................... 130
K313 Expanded Joints ......................................................... 130
K314 Threaded Joints .......................................................... 130
K315 Tubing Joints ............................................................ 131
K316 Caulked Joints ........................................................... 131
K317 Soldered and Brazed Joints ............................................... 131
K318 Special Joints ............................................................ 131
Part 5 Flexibility and Support .................................................... 131
K319 Flexibility ................................................................ 131
K321 Piping Support .......................................................... 131
Part 6 Systems ................................................................. 132
K322 Specific Piping Systems .................................................. 132
Part 7 Materials ................................................................ 132
K323 General Requirements .................................................... 132
K325 Miscellaneous Materials .................................................. 137
Part 8 Standards for Piping Components ......................................... 137
K326 Requirements for Components ........................................... 137
Part 9 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection ....................................... 137
K327 General .................................................................. 137
K328 Welding ................................................................. 137
K330 Preheating ............................................................... 141
K331 Heat Treatment .......................................................... 141
K332 Bending and Forming .................................................... 141
K333 Brazing and Soldering ................................................... 142
K335 Assembly and Erection ................................................... 142
Part 10 Inspection, Examination, and Testing ...................................... 142
K340 Inspection ............................................................... 142
K341 Examination ............................................................. 142
K342 Examination Personnel ................................................... 144
K343 Examination Procedures .................................................. 144
K344 Types of Examination .................................................... 144
K345 Leak Testing ............................................................. 145
K346 Records ................................................................. 147
Chapter X High Purity Piping......................................................... 148
U300 General Statements ...................................................... 148
Part 1 Conditions and Criteria ................................................... 148
U301 Design Conditions ....................................................... 148
Part 2 Pressure Design of Piping Components .................................... 148
Part 3 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Components ......................... 148
U306
Fittings,
Bends, Miters, Laps, and Branch Connections .................... 148
U307 Valves and Specialty Components ........................................ 148
U308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets ............................. 148
Part 4 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Joints ............................... 149
U311 Welded Joints ............................................................ 149
U314 Threaded Joints .......................................................... 149
U315 Tubing Joints ............................................................ 149
Part 5 Flexibility and Support .................................................... 149
U319 Piping Flexibility ........................................................ 149
Part 6 Systems ................................................................. 149
Part 7 Metallic Materials ........................................................ 149
Part 8 Standards for Piping Components ......................................... 150
Part 9 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection ....................................... 150
U327 General .................................................................. 150
U328 Welding ................................................................. 150
U330 Preheating ............................................................... 150
U331 Heat Treatment .......................................................... 150
U332 Bending and Forming .................................................... 150
U333 Brazing and Soldering ................................................... 150
U335 Assembly and Erection ................................................... 150
Part 10 Inspection, Examination, and Testing ...................................... 152
U340 Inspection ............................................................... 152
U341 Examination ............................................................. 152
U342 Examination Personnel ................................................... 153
U343 Examination Procedures .................................................. 153
U344 Types of Examination .................................................... 153
U345 Testing .................................................................. 153
U346 Records ................................................................. 154
Part 11 High Purity Piping in Category M Fluid Service ............................. 154
UM300 General Statements ...................................................... 154
UM307 Metallic Valves and Specialty Components ............................... 154
UM322 Specific Piping Systems .................................................. 154
UM328 Welding of Materials ..................................................... 154
UM335 Assembly and Erection of Metallic Piping ................................ 154
UM341 Examination ............................................................. 154
UM345 Testing .................................................................. 154
Figures
300.1.1 Diagram Illustrating Application of B31.3 Piping at Equipment ............ 3
302.3.5 Stress Range Factor, f .................................................... 18
304.2.1 Nomenclature for Pipe Bends ............................................ 22
304.2.3 Nomenclature for Miter Bends ........................................... 22
304.3.3 Branch Connection Nomenclature ........................................ 25
304.3.4 Extruded Outlet Header Nomenclature ................................... 27
304.5.3 Blanks ................................................................... 30
319.4.4A Moments in Bends ....................................................... 41
319.4.4B Moments in Branch Connections ......................................... 41
323.2.2A Minimum Temperatures Without Impact Testing for Carbon Steel
Materials .............................................................. 50
323.2.2B Reduction in Lowest Exemption Temperature for Steels Without Impact
Testing ................................................................ 52
328.3.2 Typical Backing Rings and Consumable Inserts ........................... 65
328.4.2 Typical Butt Weld End Preparation ....................................... 65
328.4.3 Trimming and Permitted Misalignment ................................... 65
328.4.4 Preparation for Branch Connections ...................................... 66
328.5.2A Fillet Weld Size .......................................................... 67
328.5.2B Typical Details for Double-Welded Slip-On and Socket Welding Flange
Att
achment
Welds ..................................................... 67
328.5.2C Minimum Welding Dimensions for Socket Welding Components Other
Than Flanges .......................................................... 67
328.5.4A Typical Welded Branch Connections ...................................... 68
328.5.4B Typical Welded Branch Connections ...................................... 68
328.5.4C Typical Welded Branch Connections ...................................... 68
328.5.4D Acceptable Details for Branch Attachment Welds ......................... 68
328.5.4E Acceptable Details for Branch Attachment Suitable for 100%
Radiography .......................................................... 68
328.5.4F Acceptable Details for Integrally Reinforced Branch Connections .......... 69
328.5.5 Typical Fabricated Laps .................................................. 71
335.3.3 Typical Threaded Joints Using Straight Threads ........................... 79
341.3.2 Typical Weld Imperfections .............................................. 85
A328.5 Typical Plastic Piping Joints .............................................. 109
K323.3.3 Example of an Acceptable Impact Test Specimen .......................... 135
K328.4.3 Pipe Bored for Alignment: Trimming and Permitted Misalignment ........ 140
K328.5.4 Some Acceptable Welded Branch Connections Suitable for 100%
Radiography .......................................................... 140
U304.5.3 Blanks ................................................................... 149
U335.7.1 Face Seal Joints .......................................................... 151
U335.8A Hygienic Clamp Joint Assembly .......................................... 151
U335.8B Hygienic Clamp Types ................................................... 152
U335.8C Hygienic Ferrules ........................................................ 152
Tables
300.4 Status of Appendices in B31.3 ............................................ 10
302.3.3C Increased Casting Quality Factors, E
..................................... 16
302.3.3D Acceptance Levels for Castings ........................................... 16
302.3.4 Longitudinal Weld Joint Quality Factor, E
c
................................ 17
302.3.5 Weld Joint Strength Reduction Factor, W .................................. 20
304.1.1 Values of Coefficient Y for t < D/6 ........................................ 22
304.4.1 BPV Code References for Closures ........................................ 29
308.2.1 Permissible Sizes/Rating Classes for Slip-On Flanges Used as Lapped
j
Flanges ................................................................ 33
314.2.1 Minimum Thickness of External Threaded Components ................... 36
323.2.2 Requirements for Low Temperature Toughness Tests for Metals ........... 48
323.2.2A Tabular Values for Minimum Temperatures Without Impact Testing for
Carbon Steel Materials ................................................. 51
323.2.2B Tabular Values for Reduction in Lowest Exemption Temperature for
Steels Without Impact Testing .......................................... 53
323.3.1 Impact Testing Requirements for Metals .................................. 55
323.3.4 Charpy Impact Test Temperature Reduction .............................. 56
323.3.5 Minimum Required Charpy V-Notch Impact Values ....................... 57
326.1 Component Standards ................................................... 60
330.1.1 Preheat Temperatures .................................................... 71
331.1.1 Postweld Heat Treatment ................................................. 73
331.1.2 Alternate Postweld Heat Treatment Requirements for Carbon and Low
Alloy Steels, P-Nos. 1 and 3 ........................................... 74
331.1.3 Exemptions to Mandatory Postweld Heat Treatment ...................... 75
341.3.2 Acceptance Criteria for Welds — Visual and Radiographic
Examination ........................................................... 82
A323.2.2 Requirements for Low Temperature Toughness Tests for Nonmetals ....... 103
A323.4.2C Recommended Temperature Limits for Reinforced Thermosetting Resin
Pipe ................................................................... 103
A323.4.3 Recommended Temperature Limits for Thermoplastics Used as
Linings ................................................................ 104
A326.1 Component Standards ................................................... 105
A341.3.2 Acceptance Criteria for Bonds ............................................ 112
K302.3.3D Acceptable Severity Levels for Steel Castings ............................. 125
K305.1.2 Required Ultrasonic or Eddy Current Examination of Pipe and Tubing for
Longitudinal Defects .................................................. 129
K323.3.1 Impact Testing Requirements ............................................. 134
K323.3.5 Minimum Required Charpy V-Notch Impact Values ....................... 136
K326.1 Component Standards ................................................... 138
K341.3.2 Acceptance Criteria for Welds ............................................ 143
Appendices
A Allowable Stresses and Quality Factors for Metallic Piping and Bolting
Materials .............................................................. 155
Specification Index for Appendix A ...................................... 156
Notes for Tables A-1, A-1M, A-1A, A-1B, A-2, and A-2M .................. 159
Table A-1 Basic Allowable Stresses in Tension for Metals ................... 163
Iron
Castings ............................................................... 163
Carbon Steel
Pipes and Tubes ....................................................... 164
Pipes (Structural Grade) ............................................... 168
Plates, Bars, Shapes, and Sheets ........................................ 168
Plates, Bars, Shapes, and Sheets (Structural) ............................ 170
Forgings and Fittings .................................................. 170
Castings ............................................................... 170
Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel
Pipes .................................................................. 172
Plates ................................................................. 174
Forgings and Fittings .................................................. 176
Castings ............................................................... 178
Stainless Steel
Pipes and Tubes ....................................................... 180
Plates and Sheets ...................................................... 186
Forgings and Fittings .................................................. 188
Bar .................................................................... 192
Castings ............................................................... 192
Copper and Copper Alloy
Pipes and Tubes ....................................................... 194
Plates and Sheets ...................................................... 194
Forgings ............................................................... 196
Castings ............................................................... 196
Rod ................................................................... 196
Nickel and Nickel Alloy
Pipes and Tubes ....................................................... 198
Plates and Sheets ...................................................... 202
Forgings and Fittings .................................................. 202
RodandBar ........................................................... 206
Castings ............................................................... 206
Titanium and Titanium Alloy
Pipes and Tubes ....................................................... 208
Plates and Sheets ...................................................... 208
Forgings ............................................................... 208
Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy
Pipes and Tubes ....................................................... 208
Plates and Sheets ...................................................... 208
Forgings and Bar ...................................................... 208
Aluminum Alloy
Seamless Pipes and Tubes .............................................. 210
Welded Pipes and Tubes ............................................... 212
Structural Tubes ....................................................... 212
Plates and Sheets ...................................................... 213
Forgings and Fittings .................................................. 214
Castings ............................................................... 215
Table A-1M Basic Allowable Stresses in Tension for Metals (Metric) .......... 216
Fe ....................................................................... 216
Carbon Steel ............................................................. 218
Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel ........................................ 228
Stainless Steel ........................................................... 238
Copper and Copper Alloy ............................................... 274
Nickel and Nickel Alloy ................................................. 280
Titanium and Titanium Alloy ............................................ 312
Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy .......................................... 314
Aluminum Alloy ........................................................ 316
Table A-1A Basic Casting Quality Factors, E
................................ 334
Table A-1B Basic Quality Factors for Longitudinal Weld Joints in Pipes and
Tubes, E
j
c
............................................................... 335
Table A-2 Design Stress Values for Bolting Materials ....................... 338
Table A-2M Design Stress Values for Bolting Materials (Metric) .............. 346
B Stress Tables and Allowable Pressure Tables for Nonmetals ................ 362
C Physical Properties of Piping Materials ................................... 370
D Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors ............................... 384
E Reference Standards ..................................................... 388
F Guidance and Precautionary Considerations .............................. 394
G Safeguarding ............................................................ 400
H Sample Calculations for Branch Reinforcement ............................ 401
J Nomenclature ............................................................ 410
K Allowable Stresses for High Pressure Piping .............................. 424
L Aluminum Alloy Pipe Flanges ........................................... 436
M Guide to Classifying Fluid Services ....................................... 439
N Application of ASME B31.3 Internationally ............................... 441
Q Quality System Program ................................................. 442
R Use of Alternative Ultrasonic Acceptance Criteria ......................... 443
S Piping System Stress Analysis Examples .................................. 446
V Allowable Variations in Elevated Temperature Service ..................... 459
X Metallic Bellows Expansion Joints ........................................ 462
Z Preparation of Technical Inquiries ........................................ 466
Index ................................................................................. 467