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Fluid Power Systems & Control

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Introduction
Fluid Power Systems & Control
• Fluid Power
– Fluid Properties
– Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals
• Systems
– Dynamic System Modeling & Analysis Fundamentals
– Hydraulic Components: Valves, Pumps, Actuators
– Hydraulic Systems: Valve-Controlled & Pump-
Controlled Integration, Modeling, & Analysis
• Control
– System Control: Feedback, Feedforward, & Observers
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Design News
June 2012

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References
• Academic: Fluid Power
– Fundamentals of Fluid Power and Control, J.
Watton, Cambridge, 2009.
– Hydraulic Control Systems, H. Merritt, Wiley, 1967.
– Hydraulic Control Systems, N. Manring, Wiley, 2005.
– Modeling, Monitoring, and Diagnostic Techniques for
Fluid Power Systems, J. Watton, Springer, 2007.
– Control of Fluid Power: Analysis and Design, D.
McCloy and H.R. Martin, 2nd Edition, Ellis Horwood,
1980.

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Introduction
• Industry: Fluid Power
– Industrial Hydraulics Manual, Eaton Corp., 2010.
– Electrohydraulic Proportional and Control
Systems, Bosch Automation, 1999.
– Electrohydraulic Proportional Valves and Closed
Loop Control Valves, Bosch Automation, 1989.
– Closed Loop Electrohydraulic Systems Manual,
Vickers, Inc., 1998.
– Basic Electronics for Hydraulic Engineers, Eaton
Corp., 1988.
– Hydraulics, Festo Didactic, https://festo.my-e-
campus.com
– Electrohydraulics, Festo Didactic, https://festo.my-
e-campus.com
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• Academic: System Dynamics and Control
– Introduction to System Dynamics, J. Shearer, A.
Murphy, and H. Richardson, Addison-Wesley, 1967.
– Dynamic Modeling and Control of Engineering
Systems, J. Shearer, B, Kulakowski, and J. Gardner,
2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1997.
– Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Dynamic Systems,
W.J. Palm, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 1999.
– Mechatronics, S. Cetinkunt, Wiley, 2007.
– Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, R. Fox and A.
McDonald, 3rd Edition, Wiley, 1985.
– Sensors and Actuators, Clarence de Silva, CRC
Press, 2007.

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Introduction
Advantages / Disadvantages / Challenges
• Fluid Power is the transmission of forces and motions
using a confined, pressurized fluid.
– In hydraulic fluid power systems the fluid is oil, or,
less commonly, water.
– In pneumatic fluid power systems the fluid is air.
• Fluid Power System Advantages
– High Power Density
• Fluid power is ideal for high speed, high force, high
power applications. Compared to all other
actuation technologies, including electric motors
which are limited by magnetic saturation, fluid
power is unsurpassed for force and power density.
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Introduction
– Responsiveness and Bandwidth of Operation
• Fluid power systems have a higher bandwidth than
electric motors and can be used in applications
that require fast starts, stops, and reversals, or that
require high-frequency oscillations.
– High Accuracy and Precision
• Oil has a high bulk modulus; hydraulic systems
can be accurately and precisely controlled.
• Advances in pneumatic components and control
theory have opened up new opportunities for
pneumatic control applications.
– Heat Dissipation and Lubrication Ensures Reliability
• Fluid circulating to and from an actuator removes
heat generated by the actuator doing work, and
also lubricates moving parts of the components.
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• Heat is the predominant damaging mechanism
in electric and electronic systems and
electromechanical actuators and motors have
limited ability to dissipate heat generated.
– Compactness, Light Weight, and Flexibility
• Fluid power cylinders and motors are relatively
small and light weight. Flexible hoses allow
compact packaging.
– Stiffness
• Hydraulic drives are stiff with respect to load
disturbances; stiffness is the slope of the speed
– torque (force) curve. Control gains required
in a high-power hydraulic control system would
be significantly less than the gains required in a
comparable electromagnetic control system.
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• Fluid Power System Disadvantages
– Electric power is more readily available, cleaner and
quieter, and easier to transmit. Hydraulic systems
require pumps.
– Oil leakage, flammability, and fluid contamination
– Fluid cavitation and entrained air
– Challenging physics leads to more difficult modeling and
control
• Fluid Power System Challenges
– Increase Efficiency
– Compact Energy Storage and Compact Power Sources
– Noise, Vibration, Leakage, Safety, and Ease of Use
– Create Portable, Untethered, Human-Scale Applications

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