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REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES and accused Rodel T. Maderal in said Criminal Cases Nos.

36-3523 and 36-


Supreme Court 3524. 2
Manila
The factual and procedural antecedents of the case are as follows:
FIRST DIVISION
On 8 March 1996, two burnt cadavers were discovered in Purok Nibulan, Ramon,
G.R. No. 158763 March 31, 2006 Isabela, which were later identified as the dead bodies of Vicente Bauzon and Elizer
Tuliao, son of private respondent Virgilio Tuliao who is now under the witness
JOSE C. MIRANDA, ALBERTO P. DALMACIO, and ROMEO B. protection program.
OCON, Petitioners,
vs. Two informations for murder were filed against SPO1 Wilfredo Leaño, SPO1
VIRGILIO M. TULIAO, Respondent. Ferdinand Marzan, SPO1 Ruben B. Agustin, SPO2 Alexander Micu, SPO2 Rodel
Maderal, and SPO4 Emilio Ramirez in the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Santiago
DECISION City.

CHICO-NAZARIO, J.: The venue was later transferred to Manila. On 22 April 1999, the RTC of Manila
convicted all of the accused and sentenced them to two counts of reclusion perpetua
This is a petition for review on certiorari under Rule 45 of the Rules of Court, except SPO2 Maderal who was yet to be arraigned at that time, being at large. The
assailing the 18 December 2002 Decision 1 of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. SP case was appealed to this Court on automatic review where we, on 9 October 2001,
No. 67770 and its 12 June 2003 Resolution denying petitioners’ Motion for acquitted the accused therein on the ground of reasonable doubt.
Reconsideration. The dispositive portion of the assailed decision reads as follows:
Sometime in September 1999, SPO2 Maderal was arrested. On 27 April 2001, he
WHEREFORE, finding public respondent Judge Anastacio D. Anghad to have acted executed a sworn confession and identified petitioners Jose C. Miranda, PO3 Romeo
with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction in issuing B. Ocon, and SPO3 Alberto P. Dalmacio, a certain Boyet dela Cruz and Amado Doe,
the assailed Orders, the instant petition for certiorari, mandamus and prohibition is as the persons responsible for the deaths of Vicente Bauzon and Elizer Tuliao.
hereby GRANTED and GIVEN DUE COURSE, and it is hereby ordered:
Respondent Tuliao filed a criminal complaint for murder against petitioners, Boyet
1. The assailed Joint Order dated August 17, 2001, Order dated September dela Cruz, and Amado Doe, and submitted the sworn confession of SPO2 Maderal.
21, 2001, Joint Order dated October 16, 2001 and Joint Order dated On 25 June 2001, Acting Presiding Judge Wilfredo Tumaliuan issued warrants of
November 14, 2001 dismissing the two (2) Informations for Murder, all arrest against petitioners and SPO2 Maderal.
issued by public respondent Judge Anastacio D. Anghad in Criminal Cases
Nos. 36-3523 and 36-3524 are hereby REVERSED and SET ASIDE for On 29 June 2001, petitioners filed an urgent motion to complete preliminary
having been issued with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or investigation, to reinvestigate, and to recall and/or quash the warrants of arrest.
excess of jurisdiction, and another entered UPHOLDING, AFFIRMING[,]
and REINSTATING the Order dated June 25, 2001 and Joint Order dated In the hearing of the urgent motion on 6 July 2001, Judge Tumaliuan noted the
July 6, 2001 issued by the then acting Presiding Judge Wilfredo Tumaliuan; absence of petitioners and issued a Joint Order denying said urgent motion on the
ground that, since the court did not acquire jurisdiction over their persons, the motion
2. Criminal Cases Nos. 36-3523 and 36-3524 are hereby ordered cannot be properly heard by the court. In the meantime, petitioners appealed the
REINSTATED in the docket of active criminal cases of Branch 36 of the resolution of State Prosecutor Leo T. Reyes to the Department of Justice.
Regional Trial Court of Santiago City, Isabela; and
On 17 August 2001, the new Presiding Judge Anastacio D. Anghad took over the
3. Public respondent Judge Anastacio D. Anghad is DIRECTED to ISSUE case and issued a Joint Order reversing the Joint Order of Judge Tumaliuan.
forthwith Warrants of Arrest for the apprehension of private respondents Consequently, he ordered the cancellation of the warrant of arrest issued against
Jose "Pempe" Miranda, SPO3 Alberto P. Dalmacio, PO3 Romeo B. Ocon petitioner Miranda. He likewise applied this Order to petitioners Ocon and Dalmacio
in an Order dated 21 September 2001. State Prosecutor Leo S. Reyes and respondent
Tuliao moved for the reconsideration of the said Joint Order and prayed for the Wilfredo Tumaliuan, on the alleged rule that an accused cannot seek any judicial
inhibition of Judge Anghad, but the motion for reconsideration was denied in a Joint relief if he does not submit his person to the jurisdiction of the court.
Order dated 16 October 2001 and the prayer for inhibition was denied in a Joint
Order dated 22 October 2001. SECOND ASSIGNMENT OF ERROR

On 25 October 2001, respondent Tuliao filed a petition for certiorari, mandamus and With all due respect, the Honorable Court of Appeals gravely erred in directing the
prohibition with this Court, with prayer for a Temporary Restraining Order, seeking reinstatement of Criminal Cases No. 36-3523 and 36-3524 in the docket of Active
to enjoin Judge Anghad from further proceeding with the case, and seeking to nullify Criminal Cases of Branch 36 of the Regional Trial Court of Santiago City,
the Orders and Joint Orders of Judge Anghad dated 17 August 2001, 21 September Philippines, and in ordering the public respondent to re-issue the warrants of arrest
2001, 16 October 2001, and 22 October 2001. against herein petitioners.

On 12 November 2001, this Court issued a Resolution resolving to grant the prayer THIRD ASSIGNMENT OF ERROR
for a temporary restraining order against Judge Anghad from further proceeding with
the criminal cases. Shortly after the aforesaid resolution, Judge Anghad issued a Joint
Wit all due respect, the Honorable Court of Appeals committed a reversible error in
Order dated 14 November 2001 dismissing the two Informations for murder against
ordering the reinstatement of Criminal Cases No. 36-3523 and No. 36-3524 in the
petitioners. On 19 November 2001, this Court took note of respondent’s cash bond
docket of active criminal cases of Branch 36 of the regional trial court of Santiago
evidenced by O.R. No. 15924532 dated 15 November 2001, and issued the
City, Philippines, and in ordering the public respondent to issue warrants of arrest
temporary restraining order while referring the petition to the Court of Appeals for against herein petitioners, the order of dismissal issued therein having become final
adjudication on the merits. and executory.

Respondent Tuliao filed with this Court a Motion to Cite Public Respondent in
Adjudication of a motion to quash a warrant of arrest requires neither jurisdiction
Contempt, alleging that Judge Anghad "deliberately and willfully committed
over the person of the accused, nor custody of law over the body of the accused.
contempt of court when he issued on 15 November 2001 the Order dated 14
November 2001 dismissing the informations for murder." On 21 November 2001, we
referred said motion to the Court of Appeals in view of the previous referral to it of The first assignment of error brought forth by the petitioner deals with the Court of
respondent’s petition for certiorari, prohibition and mandamus. Appeals’ ruling that:

On 18 December 2002, the Court of Appeals rendered the assailed decision granting [A]n accused cannot seek any judicial relief if he does not submit his person to the
the petition and ordering the reinstatement of the criminal cases in the RTC of jurisdiction of the court. Jurisdiction over the person of the accused may be acquired
Santiago City, as well as the issuance of warrants of arrest against petitioners and either through compulsory process, such as warrant of arrest, or through his
SPO2 Maderal. Petitioners moved for a reconsideration of this Decision, but the voluntary appearance, such as when he surrenders to the police or to the court. It is
same was denied in a Resolution dated 12 June 2003. only when the court has already acquired jurisdiction over his person that an accused
may invoke the processes of the court (Pete M. Pico vs. Alfonso V. Combing, Jr.,
A.M. No. RTJ-91-764, November 6, 1992). Thus, an accused must first be placed in
Hence, this petition.
the custody of the law before the court may validly act on his petition for judicial
reliefs.3
The facts of the case being undisputed, petitioners bring forth to this Court the
following assignments of error: Proceeding from this premise, the Court of Appeals ruled that petitioners Miranda,
Ocon and Dalmacio cannot seek any judicial relief since they were not yet arrested or
FIRST ASSIGNMENT OF ERROR otherwise deprived of their liberty at the time they filed their "Urgent Motion to
complete preliminary investigation; to reinvestigate; to recall and/or quash warrants
With all due respect, the Honorable Court of Appeals gravely erred in reversing and of arrest."4
setting aside the Joint Order of Judge Anastacio D. Anghad dated August 17, 2001,
September 21, 2001, October 16, 2001 and November 14, 2001 issued in criminal Petitioners counter the finding of the Court of Appeals by arguing that jurisdiction
cases numbered 36-3523 and 36-3524; and, erred in upholding, affirming and over the person of the accused is required only in applications for bail. Furthermore,
reinstating the Order dated July 6, 2001 issued by then Acting Presiding Judge petitioners argue, assuming that such jurisdiction over their person is required before
the court can act on their motion to quash the warrant for their arrest, such the custody of the law signifies restraint on the person, who is thereby deprived of
jurisdiction over their person was already acquired by the court by their filing of the his own will and liberty, binding him to become obedient to the will of the
above Urgent Motion. law. 12 Custody of the law is literally custody over the body of the accused. It
includes, but is not limited to, detention.
In arguing that jurisdiction over the person is required only in the adjudication of
applications for bail, petitioners quote Retired Court of Appeals Justice Oscar The statement in Pico v. Judge Combong, Jr., 13 cited by the Court of Appeals should
Herrera: not have been separated from the issue in that case, which is the application for
admission to bail of someone not yet in the custody of the law. The entire paragraph
Except in applications for bail, it is not necessary for the court to first acquire of our pronouncement in Pico reads:
jurisdiction over the person of the accused to dismiss the case or grant other relief.
The outright dismissal of the case even before the court acquires jurisdiction over the A person applying for admission to bail must be in the custody of the law or
person of the accused is authorized under Section 6(a), Rule 112 of the Revised otherwise deprived of his liberty. A person who has not submitted himself to the
Rules of Criminal Procedure and the Revised Rules on Summary Procedure (Sec. jurisdiction of the court has no right to invoke the processes of that court.
12a). In Allado vs. Diokno (232 SCRA 192), the case was dismissed on motion of Respondent Judge should have diligently ascertained the whereabouts of the
the accused for lack of probable cause without the accused having been arrested. In applicant and that he indeed had jurisdiction over the body of the accused before
Paul Roberts vs. Court of Appeals (254 SCRA 307), the Court was ordered to hold considering the application for bail. 13
the issuance of a warrant of arrest in abeyance pending review by the Secretary of
Justice. And in Lacson vs. Executive Secretary (301 SCRA 102 5), the Court ordered While we stand by our above pronouncement in Pico insofar as it concerns bail, we
the case transferred from the Sandiganbayan to the RTC which eventually ordered clarify that, as a general rule, one who seeks an affirmative relief is deemed to have
the dismissal of the case for lack of probable cause.6 submitted to the jurisdiction of the court. 15 As we held in the aforecited case of
Santiago, seeking an affirmative relief in court, whether in civil or criminal
In arguing, on the other hand, that jurisdiction over their person was already acquired proceedings, constitutes voluntary appearance.
by their filing of the above Urgent Motion, petitioners invoke our pronouncement,
through Justice Florenz D. Regalado, in Santiago v. Vasquez 7: Pico deals with an application for bail, where there is the special requirement of the
applicant being in the custody of the law. In Feliciano v. Pasicolan, 16 we held that
The voluntary appearance of the accused, whereby the court acquires jurisdiction "[t]he purpose of bail is to secure one’s release and it would be incongruous to grant
over his person, is accomplished either by his pleading to the merits (such as by bail to one who is free. Thus, ‘bail is the security required and given for the release
filing a motion to quash or other pleadings requiring the exercise of the court’s of a person who is in the custody of law.’" The rationale behind this special rule on
jurisdiction thereover, appearing for arraignment, entering trial) or by filing bail. On bail is that it discourages and prevents resort to the former pernicious practice
the matter of bail, since the same is intended to obtain the provisional liberty of the wherein the accused could just send another in his stead to post his bail, without
accused, as a rule the same cannot be posted before custody of the accused has been recognizing the jurisdiction of the court by his personal appearance therein and
acquired by the judicial authorities either by his arrest or voluntary surrender. compliance with the requirements therefor. 17

Our pronouncement in Santiago shows a distinction between custody of the law and There is, however, an exception to the rule that filing pleadings seeking affirmative
jurisdiction over the person. Custody of the law is required before the court can act relief constitutes voluntary appearance, and the consequent submission of one’s
upon the application for bail, but is not required for the adjudication of other reliefs person to the jurisdiction of the court. This is in the case of pleadings whose prayer is
sought by the defendant where the mere application therefor constitutes a waiver of precisely for the avoidance of the jurisdiction of the court, which only leads to a
the defense of lack of jurisdiction over the person of the accused. 8 Custody of the law special appearance. These pleadings are: (1) in civil cases, motions to dismiss on the
is accomplished either by arrest or voluntary surrender, 9 while jurisdiction over the ground of lack of jurisdiction over the person of the defendant, whether or not other
person of the accused is acquired upon his arrest or voluntary appearance. 10 One can grounds for dismissal are included; 18 (2) in criminal cases, motions to quash a
be under the custody of the law but not yet subject to the jurisdiction of the court complaint on the ground of lack of jurisdiction over the person of the accused; and
over his person, such as when a person arrested by virtue of a warrant files a motion (3) motions to quash a warrant of arrest. The first two are consequences of the fact
before arraignment to quash the warrant. On the other hand, one can be subject to the that failure to file them would constitute a waiver of the defense of lack of
jurisdiction of the court over his person, and yet not be in the custody of the law, jurisdiction over the person. The third is a consequence of the fact that it is the very
such as when an accused escapes custody after his trial has commenced. 11 Being in
legality of the court process forcing the submission of the person of the accused that of the law, it would be very rare that a person not genuinely entitled to liberty would
is the very issue in a motion to quash a warrant of arrest. remain scot-free. This is because it is the same judge who issued the warrant of arrest
who will decide whether or not he followed the Constitution in his determination of
To recapitulate what we have discussed so far, in criminal cases, jurisdiction over the probable cause, and he can easily deny the motion to quash if he really did find
person of the accused is deemed waived by the accused when he files any pleading probable cause after personally examining the records of the case.
seeking an affirmative relief, except in cases when he invokes the special jurisdiction
of the court by impugning such jurisdiction over his person. Therefore, in narrow Moreover, pursuant to the presumption of regularity of official functions, the warrant
cases involving special appearances, an accused can invoke the processes of the continues in force and effect until it is quashed and therefore can still be enforced on
court even though there is neither jurisdiction over the person nor custody of the law. any day and at any time of the day and night.22Furthermore, the continued absence of
However, if a person invoking the special jurisdiction of the court applies for bail, he the accused can be taken against him in the determination of probable cause, since
must first submit himself to the custody of the law. flight is indicative of guilt.

In cases not involving the so-called special appearance, the general rule applies, i.e., In fine, as much as it is incongruous to grant bail to one who is free, it is likewise
the accused is deemed to have submitted himself to the jurisdiction of the court upon incongruous to require one to surrender his freedom before asserting it. Human rights
seeking affirmative relief. Notwithstanding this, there is no requirement for him to be enjoy a higher preference in the hierarchy of rights than property rights, 23 demanding
in the custody of the law. The following cases best illustrate this point, where we that due process in the deprivation of liberty must come before its taking and not
granted various reliefs to accused who were not in the custody of the law, but were after.
deemed to have placed their persons under the jurisdiction of the court. Note that
none of these cases involve the application for bail, nor a motion to quash an Quashing a warrant of arrest based on a subsequently filed petition for review with
information due to lack of jurisdiction over the person, nor a motion to quash a the Secretary of Justice and based on doubts engendered by the political climate
warrant of arrest: constitutes grave abuse of discretion.

1. In Allado v. Diokno, 19 on the prayer of the accused in a petition for certiorari on We nevertheless find grave abuse of discretion in the assailed actions of Judge
the ground of lack of probable cause, we issued a temporary restraining order Anghad. Judge Anghad seemed a little too eager of dismissing the criminal cases
enjoining PACC from enforcing the warrant of arrest and the respondent judge against the petitioners. First, he quashed the standing warrant of arrest issued by his
therein from further proceeding with the case and, instead, to elevate the records to predecessor because of a subsequently filed appeal to the Secretary of Justice, and
us. because of his doubts on the existence of probable cause due to the political climate
in the city. Second, after the Secretary of Justice affirmed the prosecutor’s resolution,
2. In Roberts, Jr. v. Court of Appeals,20 upon the accused’s Motion to Suspend he dismissed the criminal cases on the basis of a decision of this Court in another
Proceedings and to Hold in Abeyance Issuance of Warrants of Arrest on the ground case with different accused, doing so two days after this Court resolved to issue a
that they filed a Petition for Review with the Department of Justice, we directed temporary restraining order against further proceeding with the case.
respondent judge therein to cease and desist from further proceeding with the
criminal case and to defer the issuance of warrants of arrests against the accused. After Judge Tumaliuan issued warrants for the arrest of petitioners, petitioner
Miranda appealed the assistant prosecutor’s resolution before the Secretary of
3. In Lacson v. Executive Secretary,21 on the prayer of the accused in a petition for Justice. Judge Anghad, shortly after assuming office, quashed the warrant of arrest
certiorari on the ground of lack of jurisdiction on the part of the Sandiganbayan, we on the basis of said appeal. According to Judge Anghad, "x x x prudence dictates
directed the Sandiganbayan to transfer the criminal cases to the Regional Trial Court (that) and because of comity, a deferment of the proceedings is but proper." 24
even before the issuance of the warrants of arrest.
Quashal on this basis is grave abuse of discretion. It is inconceivable to charge Judge
We hold that the circumstances forcing us to require custody of the law in Tumaliuan as lacking in prudence and oblivious to comity when he issued the
applications for bail are not present in motions to quash the warrant of arrest. If we warrants of arrest against petitioners just because the petitioners might, in the future,
allow the granting of bail to persons not in the custody of the law, it is foreseeable appeal the assistant prosecutor’s resolution to the Secretary of Justice. But even if the
that many persons who can afford the bail will remain at large, and could elude being petition for review was filed before the issuance of the warrants of arrest, the fact
held to answer for the commission of the offense if ever he is proven guilty. On the remains that the pendency of a petition for the review of the prosecutor’s resolution
other hand, if we allow the quashal of warrants of arrest to persons not in the custody is not a ground to quash the warrants of arrest.
In Webb v. de Leon,25 we held that the petitioners therein cannot assail as premature Upon receipt of the information and resolution of the prosecutor, the Court
the filing of the information in court against them on the ground that they still have proceeded to determine the existence of a probable cause by personally evaluating
the right to appeal the adverse resolution of the DOJ Panel to the Secretary of Justice. the records x x x.[29]
Similarly, the issuance of warrants of arrest against petitioners herein should not
have been quashed as premature on the same ground. The records of the case show that the prosecutor’s certification was accompanied by
supporting documents, following the requirement under Lim, Sr. v. Felix 30 and
The other ground invoked by Judge Anghad for the quashal of the warrant of arrest is People v. Inting.31 The supporting documents are the following:
in order if true: violation of the Constitution. Hence, Judge Anghad asked and
resolved the question: 1. Resolution dated 21 June 2001 of State Prosecutor Leo S. Reyes;

In these double murder cases, did this Court comply or adhere to the above-quoted 2. Affidavit dated 22 May 2001 of Modesto Gutierrez;
constitutional proscription, which is Sec. 2, Article III Bill of Rights; to Sec. 6(a),
Rule 112, Rules of Criminal Procedure and to the above-cited decisional cases? To 3. Affidavit dated 19 May 2001 of Romeo B. Ocon;
this query or issue, after a deep perusal of the arguments raised, this Court, through
[its] regular Presiding Judge, finds merit in the contention of herein accused-movant,
Jose "Pempe" Miranda.26 4. Joint Counter Affidavit dated 23 May 2001 of Mayor Jose C. Miranda
and Reynaldo de la Cruz;
Judge Anghad is referring to the following provision of the Constitution as having
been violated by Judge Tumaliuan: 5. Affidavit dated 19 May 2001 of Alberto Dalmacio;

Sec. 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and 6. Decision dated 22 April 1999 of the Regional Trial Court of Manila,
effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any Branch 41 in Criminal Case No. 97-160355;
purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue
except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after 7. Sworn statement dated 27 April 2001 of Rodel Maderal;
examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may
produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or 8. Information dated 22 June 2001;
things to be seized.27
9. Affidavit-complaint of Virgilio Tuliao; and
However, after a careful scrutiny of the records of the case, including the supporting
evidence to the resolution of the prosecutor in his determination of probable cause, 10. Medico-legal Reports of the cadavers of Elezer Tuliao and Vicente
we find that Judge Anghad gravely abused his discretion. Buazon.

According to petitioners: Hence, procedurally, we can conclude that there was no violation on the part of
Judge Tumaliuan of Article III, Section 2, of the Constitution. Judge Anghad,
In this case, the nullity of the order of Judge Tumaliuan, for the arrest of the however, focused on the substantive part of said section, i.e., the existence of
petitioners is apparent from the face of the order itself, which clearly stated that the probable cause. In failing to find probable cause, Judge Anghad ruled that the
determination of probable cause was based on the certification, under oath, of the confession of SPO2 Maderal is incredible for the following reasons: (1) it was given
fiscal and not on a separate determination personally made by the Judge. No after almost two years in the custody of the National Bureau of Investigation; (2) it
presumption of regularity could be drawn from the order since it expressly and was given by someone who rendered himself untrustworthy for being a fugitive for
clearly showed that it was based only on the fiscal’s certification. 28 five years; (3) it was given in exchange for an obvious reward of discharge from the
information; and (4) it was given during the election period amidst a "politically
Petitioners’ claim is untrue. Judge Tumaliuan’s Joint Order contains no such charged scenario where "Santiago City voters were pitted against each other along
indication that he relied solely on the prosecutor’s certification. The Joint Order even the lines of the Miranda camp on one side and former City Mayor Amelita S.
indicated the contrary: Navarro, and allegedly that of DENR Secretary Heherson Alvarez on the other." 32
We painstakingly went through the records of the case and found no reason to disturb This Court finds merit to the manifestation of the accused Miranda dated October 18,
the findings of probable cause of Judge Tumaliuan. 2001, praying for the summary dismissal of the two (2) murder charges in view of
the latest decision of the Supreme Court in People of the Philippines vs. Wilfredo
It is important to note that an exhaustive debate on the credibility of a witness is not Leaño, et al., G.R. No. 13886, acquitting the accused therein and in effect
within the province of the determination of probable cause. As we held in Webb 33: disregarding all the evidence presented by the prosecution in that case. Accordingly,
the two (2) informations [for] murder filed against Jose Miranda are ordered
dismissed.34
A finding of probable cause needs only to rest on evidence showing that more likely
than not a crime has been committed and was committed by the suspects. Probable
cause need not be based on clear and convincing evidence of guilt, neither on This is a clear case of abuse of discretion. Judge Anghad had no right to twist our
evidence establishing guilt beyond reasonable doubt and definitely, not on evidence decision and interpret it to the discredit of SPO2 Maderal, who was still at large
establishing absolute certainty of guilt. As well put in Brinegar v. United States, when the evidence of the prosecution in the Leaño case was presented. A decision,
while probable cause demands more than "bare suspicion," it requires "less than even of this Court, acquitting the accused therein of a crime cannot be the basis of
evidence which would justify x x x conviction." A finding of probable cause merely the dismissal of criminal case against different accused for the same crime. The
binds over the suspect to stand trial. It is not a pronouncement of guilt. blunder of Judge Anghad is even more pronounced by the fact that our decision in
Leaño was based on reasonable doubt. We never ruled in Leaño that the crime did
not happen; we just found that there was reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the
x x x Probable cause merely implies probability of guilt and should be determined in
accused therein, since the prosecution in that case relied on circumstantial evidence,
a summary manner. Preliminary investigation is not a part of trial x x x.
which interestingly is not even the situation in the criminal cases of the petitioners in
the case at bar as there is here an eyewitness: Rodel Maderal. The accused in Leaño
Dismissing a criminal case on the basis of a decision of this Court in another case furthermore had no motive to kill respondent Tuliao’s son, whereas petitioners herein
with different accused constitutes grave abuse of discretion. had been implicated in the testimony of respondent Tuliao before the Senate Blue
Ribbon Committee.
Judge Anghad had quashed the warrant of arrest on the ground, among other things,
that there was a petition for review of the assistant prosecutor’s resolution before the It is preposterous to conclude that because of our finding of reasonable doubt in
Secretary of Justice. However, after the Secretary of Justice affirmed the Leaño, "it is now beyond doubt that Rodel Maderal made untruthful, fabricated and
prosecutor’s resolution, Judge Anghad summarily dismissed the two criminal cases perjured statements and therefore the same is without probable value."35 On the
against the petitioners on the basis of the following explanation: contrary, if we are to permit the use of our decision in Leaño, an acquittal on the
ground of reasonable doubt actually points to the probability of the prosecution’s
Rodel Maderal was one of the accused in People vs. Wilfredo Leano, et al., RTC, version of the facts therein. Such probability of guilt certainly meets the criteria of
Branch 41, Manila, and based from his sworn statements, he pinpointed to Mr. probable cause.
Miranda – the mastermind and with him and the other police officers as the direct
perpetrators, the October 9, 2001 Decision of the Supreme Court absolving the five We cannot let unnoticed, too, Judge Anghad’s dismissal of the informations two days
cops of murder, certainly makes his sworn Statements a "narration of falsehood and after we resolved to issue, upon the filing of a bond, a temporary restraining order
lies" and that because of the decision acquitting said officers "who were likewise prohibiting him from further proceeding with the case. The bond was filed the day
falsely linked by said Rodel Maderal in his April 27, 2001 statements, it is now after the informations were dismissed. While the dismissal of the case was able to
beyond doubt that Rodel Maderal made untruthful, fabricated and perjured beat the effectivity date of the temporary restraining order, such abrupt dismissal of
statements and therefore the same is without probable value." This Court agrees with the informations (days after this Court’s resolve to issue a TRO against Judge
the defense’s views. Indeed, of what use is Maderal’s statements when the Supreme Anghad) creates wild suspicions about the motives of Judge Anghad.
Court rejected the prosecution’s evidence presented and adduced in Criminal Case
No. 97-160355. Rodel Maderal is supposed to turn state witness in these two (2)
cases but with the Supreme Court decision adverted to, the probative value of his Nullification of a proceeding necessarily carries with it the reinstatement of the
orders set aside by the nullified proceeding.
statements is practically nil.

In their second assignment of error, petitioners claim that the Court of Appeals did
xxxx
not recall or reinstate the warrants of arrest issued by Judge Tumaliuan, but instead
directed Judge Anghad to issue apparently new warrants of arrest.36 According to the
petitioners, it was an error for the Court of Appeals to have done so, without a 2.) Order dated September 21, 2001;
personal determination of probable cause.
3.) Joint Order dated October 16, 2001; and
We disagree. Whether the Court of Appeals ordered the issuance of new warrants of
arrest or merely ordered the reinstatement of the warrants of arrest issued by Judge 4.) Joint Order dated October 22, 2001.
Tumaliuan is merely a matter of scrupulous semantics, the slight inaccuracy whereof
should not be allowed to affect the dispositions on the merits, especially in this case Obviously, the Joint Order dated November 14, 2001 of Judge Anghad, which
where the other dispositions of the Court of Appeals point to the other direction. ultimately dismissed Criminal Cases Nos. 36-3523 AND 36-3524 is NOT included
Firstly, the Court of Appeals had reinstated the 25 June 2001 Order of Judge
in the list of the assailed Order/Joint Orders. Hence, the Court of Appeals should not
Tumaliuan,37 which issued the warrants of arrest. Secondly, the Court of Appeals
have passed upon the validity or nullity of the Joint Order of November 14, 2001. 38
likewise declared the proceedings conducted by Judge Anghad void. Certainly, the
declaration of nullity of proceedings should be deemed to carry with it the
reinstatement of the orders set aside by the nullified proceedings. Judge Anghad’s Petitioners must have forgotten that respondent Tuliao’s Petition for Certiorari,
order quashing the warrants of arrest had been nullified; therefore those warrants of Prohibition and Mandamus was filed not with the Court of Appeals, but with this
arrest are henceforth deemed unquashed. Court. The Court of Appeals decided the case because we referred the same to them
in our 19 November 2001 Resolution. Such petition was filed on 25 October 2001,
around three weeks before the 14 November 2001 Order. Upon receipt of the 14
Even if, however, the Court of Appeals had directed the issuance of new warrants of
November 2001 Order, however, respondent Tuliao lost no time in filing with this
arrest based on a determination of probable cause, it would have been legally Court a Motion to Cite Public Respondent in Contempt, alleging that Judge Anghad
permissible for them to do so. The records of the preliminary investigation had been "deliberately and willfully committed contempt of court when he issued on 15
available to the Court of Appeals, and are also available to this Court, allowing both
November 2001 the Order dated 14 November 2001 dismissing the informations for
the Court of Appeals and this Court to personally examine the records of the case
murder." On 21 November 2001, we referred said motion to the Court of Appeals, in
and not merely rely on the certification of the prosecutor. As we have ruled in Allado
view of the previous referral of respondent Tuliao’s petition for certiorari,
v. Diokno and Roberts v. Court of Appeals, the determination of probable cause does
prohibition and mandamus.
not rest on a subjective criteria. As we had resolved in those cases to overrule the
finding of probable cause of the judges therein on the ground of grave abuse of
discretion, in the same vein, we can also overrule the decision of a judge reversing a Our referral to the Court of Appeals of the Motion to Cite Public Repondent in
finding of probable cause, also on the ground of grave abuse of discretion. Contempt places the 14 November 2001 Order within the issues of the case decided
by the Court of Appeals. In claiming that Judge Anghad committed contempt of this
Court in issuing the 14 November 2001 Order, respondent Tuliao had ascribed to
There is no double jeopardy in the reinstatement of a criminal case dismissed before Judge Anghad an act much more serious than grave abuse of discretion.
arraignment
Respondent Tuliao claims that Judge Anghad issued the 14 November 2001 Order on
In their third assignment of error, petitioners claim that the Court of Appeals
15 November 2001, antedating it so as to avoid the effects of our 12 November 2001
committed a reversible error in ordering the reinstatement of Criminal Cases No. 36- Resolution. In said 12 November 2001 Resolution, we resolved to issue a temporary
3523 and No. 36-3524, alleging that the order of dismissal issued therein had become restraining order enjoining Judge Anghad from further proceeding with the criminal
final and executory. According to petitioners:
cases upon the respondent Tuliao’s filing of a bond in the amount of P20,000.00.
Respondent Tuliao had filed the bond on 15 November 2005.
It is also worthy to point out at this juncture that the Joint Order of Judge Anghad
dated November 14, 2001 is NOT ONE of those Orders which were assailed in the While we cannot immediately pronounce Judge Anghad in contempt, seeing as
private respondent Tuliao’s Petition for Certiorari, Mandamus and Prohibition filed disobedience to lawful orders of a court and abuse of court processes are cases of
by the private respondent before the Court of Appeals. As carefully enumerated in
indirect contempt which require the granting of opportunity to be heard on the part of
the first page of the assailed Decision, only the following Orders issued by Judge
respondent,39 the prayer to cite public respondent in contempt and for other reliefs
Anghad were questioned by private respondent, to wit:
just and equitable under the premises should be construed to include a prayer for the
nullification of said 14 November 2001 Order.
1.) Joint Order dated August 17, 2001;
In any case, the reinstatement of a criminal case dismissed before arraignment does SO ORDERED.
not constitute double jeopardy. Double jeopardy cannot be invoked where the
accused has not been arraigned and it was upon his express motion that the case was
dismissed.40

As to respondent Tuliao’s prayer (in both the original petition for certiorari as well as
in his motion to cite for contempt) to disqualify Judge Anghad from further
proceeding with the case, we hold that the number of instances of abuse of discretion
in this case are enough to convince us of an apparent bias on the part of Judge
Anghad. We further resolve to follow the case of People v. SPO1 Leaño, 41 by
transferring the venue of Criminal Cases No. 36-3523 and No. 36-3524 to the City of
Manila, pursuant to Article VIII, Section 4, of the Constitution.

WHEREFORE, the petition is DENIED. The Decision dated 18 December 2002 and
the Resolution dated 12 June 2003 of the Court of Appeals are hereby AFFIRMED,
with the modification that Criminal Cases No. 36-3523 and No. 36-3524 be
transferred to and raffled in the Regional Trial Court of the City of Manila. In this
connection,

1) Let a copy of this decision be furnished the Executive Judge of the RTC
of the City of Santiago, Isabela, who is directed to effect the transfer of the
cases within ten (10) days after receipt hereof;

2) The Executive Judge of the RTC of the City of Santiago, Isabela, is


likewise directed to report to this Court compliance hereto within ten (10)
days from transfer of these cases;

3) The Executive Judge of the City of Manila shall proceed to raffle the
criminal cases within ten (10) days from the transfer;

4) The Executive Judge of the City of Manila is likewise directed to report


to this Court compliance with the order to raffle within ten (10) days from
said compliance; and

5) The RTC Judge to whom the criminal cases are raffled is directed to act
on said cases with reasonable dispatch.

6) Finally, Judge Anastacio D. Anghad is directed to issue forthwith


warrants of arrest for the apprehension of petitioners Jose C. Miranda,
Alberto P. Dalmacio, Romeo B. Ocon, and accused Rodel T. Maderal,
conformably with the decision of the Court of Appeals dated 18 December
2002.

The Temporary Restraining Order issued by this Court dated 4 August 2003 is
hereby LIFTED. Costs against Petitioners.
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Petitioners were arrested on January 28, 1985 by elements of the Northern Police
Supreme Court District following the forcible and violent dispersal of a demonstration held in
Manila sympathy with the jeepney strike called by the Alliance of Concerned Transport
Organization (ACTO). Thereafter, they were charged with Illegal Assembly in
Criminal Cases Nos. 37783, 37787 and 37788 with Branch 108, Regional Trial Court,
EN BANC
NCJR, Quezon City. 2
[G.R. No. 69863-65 : December 10, 1990.]
Except for Brocka, et al. who were charged as leaders of the offense of Illegal
192 SCRA 183 Assembly and for whom no bail was recommended, the other petitioners were released
on bail of P3,000.00 each. Brocka, et al.'s provisional release was ordered only upon
LINO BROCKA, BENJAMIN CERVANTES, COSME GARCIA, RODOLFO an urgent petition for bail for which daily hearings from February 1-7, 1985 were held.
SANTOS, VALENTINO SALIPSIP, RICARDO VEGA, ERIC MARIANO,
JOSE EMMANUEL OYALES, RONNIE MATTA, ALFREDO VIAJE, RUBEN However, despite service of the order of release on February 9, 1985, Brocka, et al.
EUGENIO, REYNALDO ORTIZ, ORLANDO ORTIZ, NOEL REYES, remained in detention, respondents having invoked a Preventive Detention Action
EDUARDO IMPERIAL, NESTOR SARMIENTO, FRANCO PALISOC, (PDA) allegedly issued against them on January 28, 1985 (p. 6, Rollo). Neither the
VIRGILIO DE GUZMAN, ALBERTO REYES, JESSIE PINILI, ROMULO original, duplicate original nor certified true copy of the PDA was ever shown to them
AUGUIS, DOMINADOR RESURRECION III, RONNIE LAYGO, ROSAURO (p. 367, Rollo).
ROQUE, CLARENCE SORIANO, OCTAVO DEPAWA, CARLITO LA
Brocka, et al. were subsequently charged on February 11, 1985 with Inciting to
TORRE, SEVERNO ILANO, JR., DOMINGO CAJIPE, ALAN ALEGRE,
Sedition, docketed as Criminal Cases Nos. Q-38023, Q-38024 and Q-38025 (p. 349,
RAMON MARTINEZ, MA. GILDA HERNANDEZ, EDNA P. VILLANUEVA,
Rollo), without prior notice to their counsel (p. 7, Rollo). The original informations
DOLLY S. CANU, MELQUIADES C. ATIENZA, ELIGIO P. VERA CRUZ,
filed recommended no bail (p. 349, Rollo). The circumstances surrounding the hasty
ROGER C. BAGAN, ABUNDIO M. CALISTE, Petitioners,
filing of this second offense are cited by Brocka, et al. (quoting from a separate petition
vs. filed on their behalf in G.R. Nos. 69848-50 entitled "Sedfrey A. Ordoñez vs. Col.
Julian Arzaga, et al."), as follows:
JUAN PONCE ENRILE, MAJ. GENERAL FIDEL V. RAMOS, BRIG.
GENERAL PEDRO BALBANERO, COL. ABAD, COL. DAWIS, SERGIO "x x x
APOSTOL, P/LT, RODOLFO M. GARCIA and JUDGE RICARDO TENSUAN,
"6. The sham' character of the inquest examination concocted by all respondents is
Respondents.
starkly bizarre when we consider that as early as 10:30 A.M. today, February 11, 1985,
DECISION Benjamin Cervantes was able to contact undersigned petitioner by phone informing
counsel that said Benjamin Cervantes and the 4 other persons who are the subjects of
MEDIALDEA, J.: this petition will be brought before the Quezon City Fiscal at 2:30 for undisclosed
reasons: subsequently, another phone call was received by petitioning counsel
informing him that the appearance of Benjamin Cervantes et al. was to be at 2:00 P.M.
This petition was originally filed on February 13, 1985 to secure the release of When petitioning counsel arrived in the office of Assistant City Fiscal Arturo
petitioners on habeas corpus and to permanently enjoin the City Fiscal of Quezon City Tugonon, the complainants' affidavits had not yet been received by any of the panel of
from investigating charges of "Inciting to Sedition" against petitioners Lino Brocka, three assistant city fiscals, although the five persons under detention were already in
Benjamin Cervantes, Cosme Garcia and Rodolfo Santos, (hereafter Brocka, et al.). On the office of said assistant fiscal as early as 2:00 P.M. It was only at 3:00 when a
learning that the corresponding informations for this offense has been filed by the City representative of the military arrived bringing with him alleged statements of
Fiscal against them on February 11, 1985, a supplemental petition was filed on complainants against Lino Broka (sic) et al. for alleged inciting to sedition, whereupon
February 19, 1985 (p. 51, Rollo) to implead the Presiding Judge, 1 and to enjoin the undersigned counsel asked respondent Colonel Agapito Abad 'who ordered the
prosecution of Criminal Cases Nos. Q-38023, Q-38024 and Q-38025 (p. 349, Rollo) detained persons to be brought to the office of Assistant Fiscal Arturo Tugonon since
and the issuance of warrants for their arrests, including their arraignment. Since then there were no charges on file;' and said Colonel Agapito Abad said aloud: 'I only
President Ferdinand E. Marcos had ordered the provisional release of Brocka, et al., received a telephone call from Colonel Arzaga about 11:00 A.M. to bring the detained
the issue on habeas corpus has become moot and academic (p. 396, Rollo). We shall persons today — I am only the custodian.' At 3:15, petitioning counsel inquired from
thus focus on the question of whether or not the prosecution of the criminal cases for the Records Custodian when the charges against Lino Broka (sic) had been officially
Inciting to Sedition may lawfully be enjoined.:-cralaw received and he was informed that the said charges were never coursed through the
Records Office.
"7. Under the facts narrated above, respondents have conspired to use the strong arm Hence, this petition.
of the law and hatched the nefarious scheme to deprive Lino Broka (sic) et al. the right
Brocka, et al. contend that respondents' manifest bad faith and/or harassment are
to bail because the utterances allegedly constituting inciting to sedition under Article
sufficient bases for enjoining their criminal prosecution, aside from the fact that the
142 of the Revised Penal Code are, except for varying nuances, almost verbatim the
second offense of inciting to sedition is illegal, since it is premised on one and the
same utterances which are the subject of Criminal Cases No. 37783, 37787 and 37788
same act of attending and participating in the ACTO jeepney strike. They maintain
and for which said detained persons are entitled to be released on bail as a matter of
that while there may be a complex crime from a single act (Art. 48, RTC), the law does
constitutional right. Among the utterances allegedly made by the accused and which
not allow the splitting of a single act into two offenses and filing two informations
the respondents claimed to be violative of Article 142 of the Revised Penal Code are:
therefor, further, that they will be placed in double jeopardy.
'Makiisa sa mga drivers, "Makiisa sa aming layunin, "Digmaang bayan ang sagot sa
kahirapan,' Itigil ang pakikialam ng imperyalismo sa Pilipinas,' 'Rollback ng presyo ng The primary issue here is the legality of enjoining the criminal prosecution of a case,
langis sa 95 Centavos.' (See Annex B) since the two other issues raised by Brocka, et al. are matters of defense against the
sedition charge.
"8. That when petitioning counsel and other members of the defense panel requested
that they be given 7 days within which said counsel may confer with their clients — We rule in favor of Brocka, et al. and enjoin their criminal prosecution for the second
the detained persons named above, the panel of assistant fiscals demanded that said offense of inciting to sedition.
detained persons should sign a 'waiver' of their rights under Article 125 of the Revised
Penal Code as a condition for the grant of said request, which is a harassing Indeed, the general rule is that criminal prosecution may not be restrained or stayed by
requirement considering that Lino Broka (sic) et al. were already under the detention, injunction, preliminary or final. There are however exceptions, among which are:
albeit illegally, and they could not have waived the right under Rule 125 which they "a. To afford adequate protection to the constitutional rights of the accused (Hernandez
did not enjoy at the time the ruling was made by the panel of assistant city fiscals." vs. Albano, et al., L-19272, January 25, 1967, 19 SCRA 95);
(pp. 4-6, Rollo in G.R. 69848-50).
"b. When necessary for the orderly administration of justice or to avoid oppression or
They were released provisionally on February 14, 1985, on orders of then President F. multiplicity of actions (Dimayuga, et al. vs. Fernandez, 43 Phil. 304; Hernandez
E. Marcos. The circumstances of their release are narrated in Our resolution dated vs. Albano, supra; Fortun vs. Labang, et al., L-38383, May 27, 1981, 104 SCRA 607);
January 26, 1985, as quoted in the Solicitor General's Manifestation as follows:
"c. When there is a pre-judicial question which is sub judice (De Leon vs. Mabanag,
"G.R. Nos. 69848-50 (Sedfrey A. Ordoñez, Petitioner, vs. Col. Julian Arzaga, et al., 70 Phil. 202);
Respondents). — Petitioner Sedfrey A. Ordoñez filed this petition for habeas corpus
in behalf of Lino Brocka, Benjamin Cervantes, Cosme Garcia, Alexander Luzano, and "d. When the acts of the officer are without or in excess of authority (Planas vs. Gil,
Rodolfo Santos, who were all detained under a Preventive Detention Action (PDA) 67 Phil. 62);
issued by then President Ferdinand E. Marcos on January 28, 1985. They were charged "e. Where the prosecution is under an invalid law, ordinance or regulation (Young
in three separate informations of the crime of illegal assembly under Art. 146, vs. Rafferty, 33 Phil. 556; Yu Cong Eng vs. Trinidad, 47 Phil. 385, 389);
paragraph 3 of the Revised Penal Code, as amended by PD 1834. On February 7, 1985,
the Honorable Miriam Defensor Santiago, Regional Trial Judge of Quezon City, issued "f. When double jeopardy is clearly apparent (Sangalang vs. People and Avendia, 109
a resolution in the above criminal cases, directing the release of the five accused on Phil. 1140);
bail of P6,000.00 for each of them, and from which resolution the respondent fiscals "g. Where the court has no jurisdiction over the offense (Lopez vs. City Judge, L-
took no appeal. Immediately thereafter, the accused filed their respective bail bonds. 25795, October 29, 1966, 18 SCRA 616);
This notwithstanding, they continued to be held in detention by order of the respondent
colonels; and on February 11, 1985, these same accused were 'reinvestigated,' this time "h. Where it is a case of persecution rather than prosecution (Rustia vs. Ocampo, CA-
on charges of 'inciting to sedition' ** under Art. 142 of the Revised Penal Code, G.R. No. 4760, March 25, 1960);
following which corresponding cases were filed. The respondents complied with Our "i. Where the charges are manifestly false and motivated by the lust for vengeance
resolution requiring them, inter alia, to make a RETURN of the writ of habeas corpus. (Recto vs. Castelo, 18 L.J. [1953], cited in Rañoa vs. Alvendia, CA-G.R. No. 30720-
In their RETURN, it appeared that all the accused had already been released, four of R, October 8, 1962; Cf, Guingona, et al vs. City Fiscal, L-60033, April 4, 1984, 128
them on February 15, 1985 and one February 8, 1985. The petitioner, nevertheless, SCRA 577); and
argued that the petition has not become moot and academic because the accused
continue to be in the custody of the law under an invalid charge of inciting to sedition." "j. When there is clearly no prima facie case against the accused and a motion to quash
(p. 395, Rollo). on that ground has been denied (Salonga vs. Paño, et al., L-59524, February 18, 1985,
134 SCRA 438).
"7. Preliminary injunction has been issued by the Supreme Court to prevent the Constitutional rights must be upheld at all costs, for this gesture is the true sign of
threatened unlawful arrest of petitioners (Rodriguez vs. Castelo, L-6374, August 1, democracy. These may not be set aside to satisfy perceived illusory visions of national
1958)." (cited in Regalado, Remedial Law Compendium, p. 188, 1988 Ed.) grandeur.: nad
In the petition before Us, Brocka, et al. have cited the circumstances to show that the In the case of J. Salonga v. Cruz Paño, We point out:
criminal proceedings had become a case of persecution, having been undertaken by
"Infinitely more important than conventional adherence to general rules of criminal
state officials in bad faith.: nad
procedure is respect for the citizen's right to be free not only from arbitrary arrest and
Respondents, on the other hand, had invoked a PDA in refusing Brocka, et al.'s release punishment but also from unwarranted and vexatious prosecution . . ." (G.R. No. L-
from detention (before their release on orders of then Pres. Marcos). This PDA was, 59524, February 18, 1985, 134 SCRA 438-at p. 448).
however, issued on January 28, 1985, but was invoked only on February 9, 1985 (upon
We, therefore, rule that where there is manifest bad faith that accompanies the filing
receipt of the trial court's order of release). Under the guidelines issued, PDAs shall be
of criminal charges, as in the instant case where Brocka, et al. were barred from
invoked within 24 hours (in Metro Manila) or 48 hours (outside Metro Manila). (Ilagan
enjoying provisional release until such time that charges were filed, and where a sham
v. Enrile, G.R. No. 70748, October 28, 1985, 139 SCRA 349). Noteworthy also is
preliminary investigation was hastily conducted, charges that are filed as a result
Brocka, et al.'s claim that, despite subpoenas for its production, the prosecution merely
should lawfully be enjoined.
presented a purported xerox copy of the invoked PDA (par. 4, Counter-Rejoinder, p.
367, Rollo). ACCORDINGLY, the petition is hereby GRANTED. The trial court is
PERMANENTLY ENJOINED from proceeding in any manner with the cases subject
The foregoing circumstances were not disputed by the Solicitor General's office. In
of the petition. No costs.
fact they found petitioner's plight "deplorable" (par. 51, Manifestation, p. 396, Rollo).
SO ORDERED.
The hasty filing of the second offense, premised on a spurious and inoperational PDA,
certainly betrays respondent's bad faith and malicious intent to pursue criminal charges Fernan C.J., Narvasa, Melencio-Herrera, Gutierrez, Jr., Cruz, Paras, Gancayco,
against Brocka, et al. Padilla, Bidin, Sarmiento, Griño-Aquino and Regalado, JJ., concur.
We have expressed Our view in the Ilagan case that "individuals against whom PDAs Feliciano, J., is on leave.
have been issued should be furnished with the original, and the duplicate original, and
a certified true copy issued by the official having official custody of the PDA, at the
time of the apprehension" (supra, p. 369).
We do not begrudge the zeal that may characterize a public official's prosecution of
criminal offenders. We, however, believe that this should not be a license to run
roughshod over a citizen's basic constitutional lights, such as due process, or
manipulate the law to suit dictatorial tendencies.
We are impelled to point out a citizen's helplessness against the awesome powers of a
dictatorship. Thus, while We agree with the Solicitor General's observation and/or
manifestation that Brocka, et al. should have filed a motion to quash the information,
We, however, believe that such a course of action would have been a futile move,
considering the circumstances then prevailing. Thus, the tenacious invocation of a
spurious and inoperational PDA and the sham and hasty preliminary investigation
were clear signals that the prosecutors intended to keep Brocka, et al. in detention until
the second offense of "Inciting to Sedition" could be facilitated and justified without
need of issuing a warrant of arrest anew. As a matter of fact the corresponding
informations for this second offense were hastily filed on February 11, 1985, or two
days after Brocka, et al.'s release from detention was ordered by the trial judge on
February 9, 1985.