You are on page 1of 35



Exploring Different
Pedagogical Approaches to
Transform Education
For Humanity
• Educating students for their future, not our past

• Bringing learning back into education –

a foreword by the Former Minister of Education, Mali

• An interview with Nobel Laureate, Tawakkol Karman

on Prevention of Violent Extremism and education

• Why Games can be Effective Pedagogy



developed to meet the requirements of the

industrial revolution. In other words, we’ve
developed an assembly style of producing
ISSUE 7 . 2018 educated individuals capable of producing
efficiently for the economy. The question we
have to ask ourselves is if this system can provide
the mindsets we need for building peaceful and
sustainable societies across the world. I venture
to say no.
In fact, what we have right now is orthogonal
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural to the outcomes we want – we live in a predatory
Organization | Mahatama Gandhi Institute of system that focuses on pitting individuals against
Education for Peace and Sustainable Development
each other in the name of competition and
35 Ferozshah Road, ICSSR, Building, 1st Floor rewards only success in areas that make financial
New Delhi 110001, INDIA gains, not social or ecological. The weakest are
left to perish and it is the survival of the fittest.
THE BLUE DOT features articles showcasing
We need to reinvert our education such that the
UNESCO MGIEP’s activities and areas of interest.

Rethinking Education
The magazine’s overarching theme is the relationship well-being of the individual and the collective is
between education, peace, sustainable development the primary goal.

and global citizenship. THE BLUE DOT’s role is to In the seventh issue of the Blue Dot, we focus
engage with readers on these issues in a fun and ur world today is facing on Rethinking Learning. The Issue includes a
interactive manner. The magazine is designed to an increasing number of foreword by the Former Minister of Education of
address audiences across generations and walks of Mali, H.E. Adama Samassékou on how education
“wicked” problems– rising
life, thereby taking the discourse on education for systems need to be re-looked at to incorporate
inequality, violent extremism,
peace, sustainable development and global citizenship personalised learning and technology as an
beyond academia, civil society organisations and “Look again at that dot. global warming and others
enabler and our Cover Story, which focuses on
governments, to the actual stakeholders.
to name a few. The challenge we have before
That’s here. That’s home. That’s us. us is that trying to solve our problems with the the importance of socio-emotional learning.
THE BLUE DOT is published biannually. mindset that created the problems will just not Additionally, we feature opinions by specialists
On it, everyone you love, from academia, research, policymaking and
work . We need innovative and out of the box
Subscription everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, the industry on the need to relook at education
thinking– and this can only come from our
The Blue Dot is available free of charge. systems for the future. Amongst various experts,
every human being who ever was, education systems. However, here is where
To receive all future issues of the THE BLUE DOT, we hear from Andreas Schleicher, Director of
subscribe to lived out their lives. we have a problem. The education systems
we have now have not changed much over the Education and Skills and Special Advisor on
The aggregate of our joy and suffering, Education Policy to the Secretary-General at the
Managing Editor past 300 years. In order to change and foster
thousands of confident religions, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Akriti Mehra, UNESCO MGIEP more peaceful and sustainable societies, there
ideologies, and economic doctrines, is definitely a strong need to re-think the future Development (OECD); Anneli Rautiainen from
Publication Assistant every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, of education and re-think learning. the Finnish National Agency for Education as
Dana Cotnareanu, UNESCO MGIEP well as Pratik Mehta, Head of Education & Skills,
every creator and destroyer of civilization, In 2015, 193 countries came together and
agreed on 17 global goals. The uniqueness about Microsoft India.
Design every king and peasant, every young couple in love,
these goals was that development was no longer Further, we present short blogs from the
Firefly Communications every mother and father, hopeful child, youth about what future education systems
an agenda for developing countries; instead the
inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) became mean to them and we hear from Nobel Laureate,

every corrupt politician, every superstar, a key goal for all countries. Amongst others, Ms Tawakkol Karman on the importance of
every supreme leader, every saint inclusive, quality and accessible education for education for peace.
Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this
and sinner in the history of our species lived there- ENSURE INCLUSIVE all became a key goal for all countries. There I hope you enjoy reading this issue of
magazine do not necessarily reflect the official policy
AND QUALITY was also a recognition by the community that The Blue Dot.
or position of UNESCO MGIEP. on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam.”
EDUCATION FOR education will be key to achieving all other
The image used on the cover of this issue of
ALL AND PROMOTE SDGs. Despite this recognition, there is a
The Blue Dot is purely representational and CARL SAGAN
The education system we have now was Director, UNESCO MGIEP

ISSUE 7 . 2018 1


back into
“There is immense
potential for
technology to
be used to make
learning fun and
accessible through
games, interactive
e-publications and

digital books
umanity today faces all factories to contribute towards the growth
sorts of challenges – an of wealth measured in monetary terms.
increasing gap between This means we measure the outcome of
the rich and poor, global education not by ‘happiness’ or ‘well- by various stakeholders including
warming, rising violent being’, or ‘know-how’, instead by the educators, policymakers, curriculum
extremism, growing nationalism and amount of wealth that has been generated. need to develop everywhere a mother- designers, learners themselves as well
intensifying lack of understanding for This is in turn measured as the human tongue-based multilingual education. as technology experts.
diversity and culture. The divide between capital of a country. Technology can play an imperative Many say that this is a rich country’s
countries all over the world has never been In order for future generations to be role as a facilitator of this change and agenda. I would say otherwise. In fact, the
greater. living in more peaceful and sustainable transform the traditional method of equity gap between the haves and have-
The task of tackling these challenges societies, the focus of education must classroom training . Today, knowledge is nots will increase even further if we do
appears rather daunting. However, we go beyond facilitating development of accessible at the click of a button. There not embrace this technological revolution.
must together find a solution that can help human capital and instead focus on is immense potential for technology to be The cost of technology is dropping
these issues from mounting into a larger human flourishing. This will require an used to make learning fun and accessible exponentially. The penetration rate of
global crisis. overall development of young people who through games, interactive textbooks, mobile technology in Africa is a case in
The future lies in the hands of are intellectually stimulated and are also e-publications and digital books. Through point. And what’s amazing is at which the
Former Minister of Education and Former
the young, who offer a tremendous ‘good’ human beings; individuals who are assessments, analytics and artificial speed the young absorb this new technology.
Spokesperson for the Government of Mali
opportunity for solving the issues that face empathetic and compassionate, in a true intelligence, learning can be customised The Transforming Education
us. It is critical however that the young be spirit of solidarity. to suit the learner’s pace and style and Conference for Humanity (TECH),
provided with the right platform and be Further, the focus needs to be optimise learning pathways for a student. organised by the UNESCO MGIEP and the
equipped with the right skills in order to brought back on ‘the learner’, wherein The interactive content, immersive State Government of Andhra Pradesh, India
collectively work towards achieving this the learner’s individual strengths are experiences and collaborative tools the held in December, 2017 provided one such

“ “
and therefore bridging the increasing recognised and pedagogies are designed to young are consuming are also being used platform, in which experts, policymakers
divide. In this, education will play a key cater to individual learner needs. We need by them to build content. The possibilities and the youth congregated to discuss the
role. to shift the focus from creating factories are limitless and technology will empower future of learning. More such platforms
the focus of Over the years, a large difference of workers to empowering human beings, The possibilities are the learner in ways such that no child is need to be developed and lead to concrete
education must go beyond has developed in what education who work towards human flourishing. limitless and technology left behind. actions that result in creating education
facilitating development of traditionally set out to achieve and what Learning should be personalised and will empower the learner in These changes are not simple to systems that are more ‘learner centric’.
it now provides. The goal of our present self-paced instead of merely focus on implement and involve re-looking at It is indeed the right time for us to
human capital and instead ways such that no child is
education systems has been driven by the drilling in the same type of information or existing education systems in entirety. work towards bringing back ‘learning’ to
focus on human flourishing need identified at the start of the industrial ‘knowledge’ to everyone at an exogenously
left behind. Since systemic change is required, a education. I hope UNESCO will take the
revolution- the need for skilled workers in defined pace. Moreover, there is a crucial collaborative effort needs to be undertaken lead on this in the near future.

2 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 3



ISSUE 7 . 2018

• Higher Education as a Lever of Development
20 in India
Bhaswati Mukherjee discusses the critical
need for policymakers to focus on higher • Rethinking Learning
education in the country. Yoko Mochizuki and Nandini Chatterjee discuss
OPINIONS a renewed focus on learning, the emergence of
• Reimagining Globalisation and Education
24 Fazal Rizvi describes the requirement to
rethink the ideas of global learning and global
social and emotional learning as a focus area
and UNESCO MGIEP’s approach to rethinking
citizenship education.
• Educating students for their future,
7 not our past • The Future of Education Interview
Andreas Schleicher on the need to provide
people with a reliable compass to find their
28 Anneli Rautiainen discusses the requirement
to transform the education system in Finland.
50 Tawakkol Karman (Nobel Laureate, 2011) talks
about how education is important for preventing
Director’s Message way through an increasingly complex world.
1 Rethinking Education • Building a Technology-Driven Environment
violent extremism.
By Anantha Kumar Duraiappah, • Educational TV of violence: Efficiently 31 for Collaborative Learning at Schools
Director, UNESCO MGIEP 11 training the youth in aggressive behaviours Pratik Mehta on the role of technology for Youth Voices
Helen Abadzi discusses how certain informal
methodologies of education promote violent
learning in education systems. 52 Young people speak their mind as they respond
to the question “What does the future of
2 Bringing learning back into education
behaviours amongst the young.
36 FEATURE education mean to you.”
By H.E. Mr. Adama Samassékou, • Why Games can be Effective Pedagogy
Former Minister of Education and Former 16 Chris Crowell explains how games can Crossword
Spokesperson for the Government of Mali facilitate learning. 57 Follow the clues to find answers to the
crossword on ‘Rethinking Learning.’

11 The Learning Labs

Aditi Pathak describes the importance of
58 Activity Bulletin
What we’ve been up to at unesco mgiep.

intercultural dialogue and the role of technology.

39 2017
Highlights of the

3 61
Conference for
Humanity held
from December 16 -18, 2017 in Visakhapatnam.

4 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 5


expert perspectives

Rethinking Learning
Read about what academics, policymakers,
researchers and practitioners have to say on
‘Rethinking Learning’. From focusing on teaching
skills such as empathy, compassion, mindfulness,
collaboration to employing artificial intelligence
and gaming in future learning systems, enjoy
reading diverse and contradictory views on what
future education systems should look like and how
learning needs to be re-thought.

Andreas Schleicher is Director for

Education and Skills, and Special
Advisor on Education Policy to the
Educating students for
Secretary-General at the Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and their future, not our past
Development (OECD). As a key member
of the OECD’s Senior Management team,
he supports the Secretary-General’s
strategy to produce analysis and policy
Andreas Schleicher
advice that advances economic growth
and social progress. In addition to policy

and country reviews, he oversees the
Programme for International Student ow should countries equip a sense of dislocation, political forces
Assessment (PISA), the OECD Survey people to understand, emerge that are offering closed borders,
of Adult Skills (PIAAC), the OECD engage with and shape the protection of traditional jobs and a
Skills Strategy, the OECD Teaching and
a changing world? This is promise to put the interests of today’s
Learning International Survey (TALIS),
the age of accelerations, generation over those of the future.
and the development and analysis of
benchmarks on the performance of a speeding-up of human experience In these times, we can no longer teach
education systems (INES). through the compound impact of people for a lifetime. In these times,
Mr. Schleicher is the recipient disruptive forces on every aspect of education needs to provide people with a
of numerous honours and awards, our lives. It is also a time of political reliable compass and the navigation tools to
including the “Theodor Heuss” prize, contestation. The priority of the wider find their own way through an increasingly
awarded in the name of the first international community is to reconcile complex and volatile world. As future
President of the Federal Republic of
the needs and interests of individuals, jobs will pair computer intelligence with
Germany for “exemplary democratic
communities and nations within an the human knowledge, skills, character
engagement”. He holds an honorary
Professorship at the University of equitable framework based on open qualities and values, it will be our capacity
Heidelberg. borders, free markets and a sustainable for innovation, our awareness, our ethical
future. But where disruption has brought judgement and our sense of responsibility

6 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 7



to accept accountability for the products profession and who work with a high level
of one’s work. This suggests a sense of of professional autonomy and within a
responsibility, and moral and intellectual collaborative culture.
maturity, with which a person can reflect But such people will not work as
. . . schools increasingly upon and evaluate their actions in the exchangeable widgets in schools organised
The perception and
recognise the need assessment of what is
light of their experiences and personal as Tayloristic workplaces that rely mainly
and societal goals; what they have been on administrative forms of accountability
for fostering ethics, right or wrong, good taught and told; and what is right or and bureaucratic command and control
character and citizenship and bad in a specific wrong. The perception and assessment systems to direct their work. To attract
and aim to develop . . . situation is about ethics. of what is right or wrong, good and bad the people they need, modern school
empathy, compassion, It implies asking questions in a specific situation is about ethics. It systems need to transform the form of
implies asking questions related to norms, work organisation in their schools to a
mindfulness, purpose- related to norms, values,
values, meanings, and limits. Central to professional form of work organisation
fulness, responsibility, meanings, and limits. this competency is the concept of self- in which professional norms of control
collaboration and regulation, in the spheres of personal, replace bureaucratic and administrative
self-regulation. interpersonal and social responsibility, forms of control. The past was about
drawing on constructs of self-control, received wisdom, the future is about
self-efficacy, responsibility, problem- user-generated wisdom.
solving and adaptability. The past was also divided – with
The challenge is that developing teachers and content divided by subjects
these qualities requires a very different and students separated by expectations of
approach to learning and teaching and their future career prospects. And the past
that will equip us to harness machines to to shape the future will partly hinge a different calibre of teachers. Where could be isolated – with schools designed
shape the world for the better. This is the on their capacity to create new value. The past was about received
teaching is about imparting prefabricated to keep students inside, and the rest of
main conclusion OECD countries working In a structurally imbalanced world, wisdom, the future is about knowledge, countries can afford low the world out, with a lack of engagement
on a new framework for curriculum design, the imperative of reconciling diverse user-generated wisdom. The teacher quality. And when teacher quality with families and a reluctance to partner
referred to as ‘Education 2030’, have drawn. perspectives and interests, in local settings future needs to be integrated is low, governments tend to tell their with other schools. The future needs to
Not surprisingly then, schools increasingly with sometimes global implications, will be integrated – with an emphasis on the
– with an emphasis on the teachers exactly what to do and exactly
recognise the need for fostering ethics, require young people to become adept in how they want it done, using an industrial integration of subjects and the integration
character and citizenship and aim to develop handling tensions, dilemmas and trade-
integration of subjects and
organisation of work to get the results of students. It also needs to be connected
a range of social and emotional skills, such offs. Striking the balance, in specific the integration of students. they want. Today the challenge is to – so that learning is closely related to
as empathy, compassion, mindfulness, circumstances, between competing make teaching a profession of advanced real-world contexts and contemporary
purposefulness, responsibility, collaboration demands - of equity and freedom, knowledge workers who own their issues and open to the rich resources
and self-regulation. autonomy and community, innovation and in the community. Powerful learning
In their Education 2030 framework continuity and efficiency and democratic environments are constantly creating
for curriculum design, OECD countries process - will rarely lead to an either/or synergies and finding new ways to enhance
have put creating new value, dealing with choice or even a single solution. Individuals professional, social and cultural capital
tensions and dilemmas and developing will need to think in a more integrated way with others. They do that with families
responsibility at the center. Creating new that avoids premature conclusions and and communities, with higher education,
value, as a transformative competency, attends to interconnections. The constructs with businesses, and especially with other
connotes processes of creating, making, that underpin the competence include schools and learning environments. This
bringing into being and formulating; empathy, adaptability and trust. is about creating innovative partnerships.
and outcomes that are innovative, fresh The third transformative competency Isolation in a world of complex learning
Dealing with novelty, and original, contributing something is a prerequisite of the other two. systems will seriously limit potential.
change, diversity and of intrinsic positive worth. It suggests Dealing with novelty, change, diversity Instruction in the past was subject-
ambiguity assumes that entrepreneurialism in the broader sense and ambiguity assumes that individuals based, instruction in the future needs to be
individuals can ‘think for of being ready to venture, to try, without can ‘think for themselves’ with a robust more project based, building experiences
anxiety about failure. The constructs that moral compass. Equally, creativity and that help students think across the
themselves’ with a robust
underpin the competence are imagination, problem-solving require the capacity to boundaries of subject-matter disciplines.
moral compass. inquisitiveness, persistence, collaboration consider the future consequences of one’s The past was hierarchical, the future is
and self-discipline. Young people’s agency actions, to evaluate risk and reward and collaborative, recognising both teachers

8 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 9



to liberate learning from past conventions

and connect learners in new and powerful Educational TV
of violence
ways, with sources of knowledge, with
innovative applications and with one
In the past, the policy focus was on
the provision of education, now it needs
to be on outcomes, shifting from looking
upwards in the bureaucracy towards
looking outwards to the next teacher, the
next school and the next education system.
In the past, administrations emphasised
school management, now the focus
needs to be on instructional leadership,
with leaders supporting, evaluating and
developing teacher quality and the design
of innovative learning environments. The
past was about quality control, the future is
and students as resources and co-creators. about quality assurance.
Now schools need to In the past, different students were The challenge is that such system
use the potential of taught in similar ways. Now school transformation cannot be mandated
systems need to embrace diversity with by government, which leads to surface
technologies to liberate
differentiated approaches to learning. The compliance, nor can it be built solely from
learning from past goals of the past were standardisation and the ground. Governments can’t do the
conventions and connect compliance, with students educated in innovations in the classroom, but they
learners in new and age cohorts, following the same standard can help in building and communicating E f f i c ient l y trainin g the y o uth
powerful ways . . . curriculum, all assessed at the same time. the case for change and articulating a
in a g g re s s i v e b eha v i o ur s
The future is about building instruction guiding vision for 21st century learning.
from student passions and capacities, Government has a key role as platform
helping students to personalise their Helen Abadzi is a Greek psychologist
or broker, as stimulator, incentiviser
and polyglot of 19 languages. She retired Helen Abadzi
learning and assessment in ways that foster and enabler, and it can focus resources,
after 27 years as a senior education

engagement and talents, and its about set a facilitative policy climate and use specialist at the World Bank and is

encouraging students to be ingenious. accountability and reporting modifications currently a researcher at the University
School systems need to better recognise to encourage new practice. of Texas at Arlington. To improve the n a recent flight, I sat next
Boys always engaged
that individuals learn differently, and But education needs to better identify outcomes of education investments, she to a 3-year old Korean boy,
differently at different stages of their key agents of change and champion them regularly monitors research in cognitive who was watching a cartoon in mischief; but organised
lives. They need to foster new forms of and to find more effective approaches for psychology and neuroscience. The video on a tablet. Two bullying and attacks have
implications are often counterintuitive,
educational provision that take learning scaling and disseminating innovations. characters were hitting each multiplied in recent years
suggesting that education can greatly
to the learner in ways that allow people to That is also about finding better ways other. Every time one struck the other, the
improve by using the often little-known
learn in the ways that are most conducive to recognise, reward and give exposure boy cried out with pleasure and slapped the
neurocognitive research. Dr. Abadzi
to their progress. We need to take to to success, to do whatever is possible to writes articles, books, and blogs that seat with his hand. Clearly he was learning stepped aside and started kicking each
heart that learning is not a place but an make it easier for innovators to take risks integrate the research findings and offer something that engaged the emotional areas other with the skill of a Kung Fu master,
activity. As well as countering educational and encourage the emergence of new solutions. She also lectures in various of his brain. What was he learning, and how while the teacher was trying to impose
disadvantage, this will capitalise on the ideas. The past was about public versus universities and is a frequent speaker will he use it later? some discipline with a voice hoarse from
strengths of the most talented students. private, the future is about public with in international conferences. Topics It was in a primary school a few months constant shouting. These were just two
In the past, schools were technological include learning methods, reading later where the learning outcome came. events in the course of 5 minutes. Just up
in multiple languages, numeracy,
islands, with technology often limited to These challenges look daunting, but It was at a boys’ middle-class school in the stairs, a group of third graders were
adult literacy and skills development,
supporting existing practices, and students many education systems are now well on the Middle East. First graders lined up pulling the hair of a short first grader who
creativity, accountability, and others. Her
outpacing schools in their adoption and their way to find innovative responses publications are at http://uta.academia. to go to lunch. Suddenly one boy pushed ran into the library crying. The boys waited
consumption of technology. Now schools to ensuring that the next generation is edu/HelenAbadzi another onto a line of students who all fell outside for him, until a cousin came by and
need to use the potential of technologies learning for their future, not our past. down. They started screaming. Two boys rescued him.

10 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 11



Was the school climate like this ten evolved to facilitate learning of movements. with a gun aimed at the viewer. The various
years ago? The older teachers emphatically The imitation is not exact but adapts to media have thus brought this content
Watch-and-imitate said no. Boys always engaged in mischief; circumstances. This constitutes informal perhaps to almost every child on the planet.
sequences form the but organised bullying and attacks have education; unlike formal education, it takes So, millions of boys such as the three-
rudiments of education... multiplied in recent years. Teachers would place at all hours. We watch and perform the year old Korean receive individualised and
Aggressive acts seem easy stop one fight, and another one would start. movements of the majority and of the role efficient training on how to hit others, pick
Windows rattled, desks overturned. Some we expect to have in the future. up guns, shout, threaten, take hostages,
to imitate.
would jump on tables, scream, and ignore Aggressive acts seem easy to imitate. punish those who disobey. They watch
the teacher. When alone, individual boys This was demonstrated in the United characters who competently and instantly
would behave peacefully, but in a group, States in the 1960s . Children watched a pull out weapons, often defending women
they paralysed the class. Those who wanted TV character hit a big doll, and later they who helplessly cry to be rescued. Children
to study were deprived of opportunity. were put in a room with that same doll. may watch 2-3 murders per minute, with
Evolutionary psychology research They were more likely to hit the doll than fake blood flowing. And these training
shows that through play children practice children who had not watched the video. programmes run multiple times per day.
the skills they will use later in life and also Many studies since then have had similar A better training strategy to raise aggression
establish hierarchies of ability. Children are results (see references on page 15). A 2017 would have been impossible to build.
experts at imitating sequences, such as the study demonstrated that children who Compared with males who have not
steps of a dance, and compiling them into were shown guns being used in movies played violent video games, males who do
fluent sequences. The acts are not random. found guns in a toy room and used them. play them are 67 per cent more likely to
Millions of years ago some animals survived Those who had not been shown guns in Violence was engage in non-violent deviant behavior,
because they could learn from their peers. movies, used them at a much lower rate2.
The emotional connections facilitate
produced since the and 63 per cent more likely to commit
Watch-and-imitate sequences form the
rudiments of education and are common consolidation. Once a child learns to hit a movie industry a violent crime or a crime related to
violence . And like a canary in the mines,
among mammals, including ants. The doll or joyfully imitate aggressive cartoons, started the effects of aggression training appear in
animals that learned most efficiently it is unclear what forces will mitigate it.
the first grade.
left more descendants, and they passed The predilection for copying aggressive
Girls are affected in perverse ways.
acts may be due to evolutionary forces on groups and expropriate their wealth. Attack
learning abilities to their next generation. They may also become violent and kill girls
male roles. Humans have survived the harsh behaviours have been a key skill, and may be
Specialised neurons in the brain, they dislike, as some news stories show.
Paleolithic circumstances through labour why boys practice it with each other. They
sometimes called mirror neurons, have But evolution has prepared women to look
division. Women bore and raised children, also tend to find pleasure in explosions,
racing police cars, blood, and weaponry. for strong defenders and providers. Thus
while men coalesced in groups to defend
The evolutionary adaptation to learn many are attracted to violent men, even
the community territory or to attack other
such skills creates interest, which the under risk of abuse. Men to some extent act
movie and video industry have exploited. violently because of female approval. And
mating with aggressive males helps pass
Evolutionary Violence was produced since the movie
industry started, but it was limited by aggression-related traits to pass to the next
psychology technology and actions feasible by male generation. This tendency has gone on for
thousands of years, but the many cases of
research shows adults. In the mid-20th century, violent
movies featured cowboys and Indians, girls who followed ISIS fighters to Syria
that through The feats of aggression and Kung Fu, or cartoons such as Roadrunner. bring this phenomenon into a sharp focus.
So what do researchers say today?
play children risk are now superhuman But now technology has created digital
Admittedly it is hard to attribute aggressive
characters and scenes that are only limited
practice the and not merely available acts to movies watched long-ago, but links
by the producers’ imagination. The feats of
for watching. They can be
skills they will practiced in videogames.
aggression and risk are now superhuman are clearly there. Violent content raises the
probability of violent verbal encounters. It is
and not merely available for watching. They
use later in life Children now practice car can be practiced in videogames. Children not a coincidence perhaps that humans have

thefts, shooting aliens or now practice car thefts, shoot aliens or been affected at the population level. There
ancient warriors or defend medieval is an explosion of violence in the world. Men
ancient warriors or defend
castles. Violent content gets viewership and may not necessarily kill others, but they tend
medieval castles. sells ads. It is almost impossible to turn on to become more verbally aggressive. They
the television without finding a channel engage in bullying in schools, trolling on the

12 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 13



and violence may rise further. Bands of Sample of studies attesting to the JAMA pediatrics, 171(11), 1040-1041, doi:10.1001/ Markey, P. M., & Markey, C. N. (2010). Vulnerability
effects of media violence jamapediatrics.2017.2383 to violent video games: A review and integration of
aggressive men may drive women into personality research. Review of General Psychology, 14
AAlia-Klein, N., Wang, G. J., Preston-Campbell, R. N., Cikara, M., Jenkins, A. C., Dufour, N., & Saxe, R.
retreat from the free movement and (2), 82-91, doi: 10.1037/a0019000
Moeller, S. J., Parvaz, M. A., Zhu, W. & Fowler, J. S. (2014). Reduced self-referential neural response
labour force participation that they have (2014). Reactions to media violence: it’s in the brain during intergroup competition predicts competitor Przybylski, A. K., Deci, E. L., Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M.
harm. NeuroImage, 96, 36-43, doi: 10.1016/j. (2014). Competence-impeding electronic games and
enjoyed since the 20 century. Wars
th of the beholder. PloS one, 9(9), e107260, doi:10.1371/
neuroimage.2014.03.080 players’ aggressive feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.
may multiply and create larger areas of Journal of personality and social psychology, 106(3),
Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L., Coyne, S. M., Stockdale, L., Linder, J. R., Nelson, D.
forced migration and environmental 441.
Bushman, B. J., Sakamoto, A. & Saleem, M. (2010). A., Collier, K. M., & Essig, L. W. (2017). Pow! Boom!
contamination. Devolution is Kablam! Effects of viewing superhero programs Riva, P., Gabbiadini, A., Lauro, L. J. R., Andrighetto, L.,
Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and
on aggressive, prosocial, and defending behaviors Volpato, C., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). Neuromodulation
conceivable in many areas, with humans prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: a
in preschool children. Journal of abnormal child can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent
meta-analytic review, doi: 10.1037/a0018251
driven back to the Paleolithic era that psychology, 1-13, doi: 10.1007/s10802-016-0253-6 video games. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral
Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of Neuroscience, 17(2), 452-459, doi:10.3758/s13415-016-
required aggressive adaptations. And violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive Dillon, K. P., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). Effects of 0490-8
cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, exposure to gun violence in movies on children’s
with the changing climate and depleting Robertson, L. A., McAnally, H. M., & Hancox, R. J.
and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the interest in real guns. JAMA pediatrics, 171(11), 1057-
natural resources, humans may be 1062, doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.2229 (2013). Childhood and adolescent television viewing
scientific literature. Psychological science, 12(5), 353-
and antisocial behavior in early adulthood. Pediatrics,
unable to climb out of that. 359, doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00366 Engelhardt, C. R., Bartholow, B. D., Kerr, G. T., & 131(3), 439-446, doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1582
Justifiably, UNESCO is searching for Anderson, C. A., Carnagey, N. L., Flanagan, M., Bushman, B. J. (2011). This is your brain on violent
Rusch, H., Leunissen, J. M., & van Vugt, M.
Benjamin, A. J., Eubanks, J., & Valentine, J. C. (2004). video games: Neural desensitization to violence
counter-measures. UNESCO MGIEP is predicts increased aggression following violent
(2015). Historical and experimental evidence of
Violent video games: Specific effects of violent content
sexual selection for war heroism. Evolution and
developing an online course on empathy, on aggressive thoughts and behavior. Advances in video game exposure. Journal of Experimental
Human Behavior, 36(5), 367-373, doi: 10.1016/j.
experimental social psychology, 36, 199-249. Social Psychology, 47(5), 1033-1036, doi: 10.1016/j.
compassion, mindfulness and critical evolhumbehav.2015.02.005
inquiry. But the effects of violent media Andersen, K. (2017). Fantasyland: How America went
Swann Jr, W. B., & Buhrmester, M. D. (2015). Identity
internet, raping, harassing, and disparaging haywire: A 500-year history. Random House. Ewoldsen, D. R., Eno, C. A., Okdie, B. M., Velez, J. A.,
fusion. Current Directions in Psychological Science,
are so instructional to the implicit Guadagno, R. E., & DeCoster, J. (2012). Effect of playing
women. Desensitisation to suffering and Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1963). Imitation 24(1), 52-57, doi: 10.1177/0963721414551363 cdps.
memory system, that educational violent video games cooperatively or competitively on
of film-mediated aggressive models. The Journal of
There is a explosion of death creates bizarre phenomena, such as subsequent cooperative behavior. Cyberpsychology,
curricula are like a bandaid to a gunshot Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66(1), 3, doi:10.1037/
a 17-year old girl coaching her boyfriend by Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(5), 277-280, doi: Towers, S., Gomez-Lievano, A., Khan, M., Mubayi, A., &
violence in the world. wound. 10.1089/cyber.2011.0308 Castillo-Chavez, C. (2015). Contagion in mass killings
phone to commit suicide. Barash, D. P. (2014). Buddhist biology: Ancient Eastern and school shootings. PLoS one, 10(7), e0117259,
Billions are invested Thus there is an explosion of violent
Somehow UNESCO must advocate for a wisdom meets modern Western science. Oxford
Ferguson, C. J., Garza, A., Jerabeck, J., Ramos, R.,
& Galindo, M. (2013). Not worth the fuss after all?
in violent media and ban of violent media. This certainly seems University Press.
Van den Bulck, J. Çetin, J., Terzi, Ö., & Bushman,B. J.
gangs, terrorism, mass murders, school Cross-sectional and prospective data on violent video
unrealistic and will not happen in the next Bartholow, B. D., & Anderson, C. A. (2002). Effects of game influences on aggression, visuospatial cognition (2016). Violence, Sex, and Dreams: Violent andSexual
videogames . . . shootings, multiple civil wars, cybercrime,
violent video games on aggressive behavior: Potential and mathematics ability in a sample of youth. Journal Media Content Infiltrate Our Dreams at Night.
decade. And even if new productions are
threats between the US and North Korea. sex differences. Journal of Experimental Social of youth and adolescence, 42(1), 109-122, doi:10.1007/ Dreaming, 2016, doi: 10.1037/drm0000036
banned, old movies and games will remain Psychology, 38(3), 283-290, doi:10.1006/jesp.2001.1502 s10964-012-9803-6
These suggest that aggressive actions start Willoughby, T., Adachi, P. J., & Good, M. (2012). A
more easily now than 10-20 years ago. And available in practically every corner of Bavelier, D., Green, C. S., & Dye, M. W. (2010). Children, Furuya-Kanamori, L., & Doi, S. A. (2016). Angry birds, longitudinal study of the association between violent
wired: For better and for worse. Neuron, 67(5), 692-701. angry children, and angry meta-analysts: a reanalysis. video game play and aggression among adolescents.
the perpetrators know what to do. They the world. Banning the content will only
Perspectives on psychological science, 11(3), 408-414, Developmental psychology, 48(4), 1044.
make it more desirable. And it may be Beck, V. S., Boys, S., Rose, C., & Beck, E. (2012).
use guns fluently and easily, and they teach Violence against women in video games: A doi: 10.1177/1745691616635599
their comrades the missing skills. insufficient to stop some children from prequel or sequel to rape myth acceptance?. Fischer, P., Kastenmüller, A., & Greitemeyer, T.
Journal of interpersonal violence, 27(15), Blogs and review articles on the effects
Many researchers have raised alarms and being trained. They may just be more (2010). Media violence and the self: The impact of
3016-3031, personalized gaming characters in aggressive video
of media violence
publicised study results. Even daily news vulnerable to the bullies who have. There abs/10.1177/0886260512441078 games on aggressive behavior. Journal of Experimental
featuring criminals generate additional is a perverse reason to continue aggression Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2009). Comfortably Social Psychology, 46(1), 192-195, doi: 10.1016/j. Affect_the_Brain%E2%80%94for_Better_and_Worse/
training among all males. numb: Desensitizing effects of violent media on helping jesp.2009.06.010
events. But the only outcome is scientific
others. Psychological science, 20(3), 273-277. Greitemeyer, T., & Mügge, D. O. (2014). Video games neuromyth-or-neurofact/violent-video-games-make-
publications and interesting editorials. So will our Paleolithic past control
Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media do affect social outcomes: A meta-analytic review of children-more-violent/
Policymakers at the national or international humanity’s future? UNESCO should the effects of violent and prosocial video game play.
violence and the American public: Scientific facts
levels are not giving much thought to this become a voice of reason and science on versus media misinformation. American Psychologist, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(5), 578- quarters/2015/apr/07/games-and-social-media-is-
56(6-7), 477. 589, doi: 10.1177/0146167213520459 there-any-scientific-evidence-for-digital-neglect
threat. It is easy to see why. Billions are human violence. It may initiate plans of
action and obtain the buy-in of donors Bushman, B. J., & Gibson, B. (2011). Violent video Greitemeyer, T., & Osswald, S. (2010). Effects of
Bandura, Albert; Ross, D.; Ross, S. (1963). invested in violent media and videogames, prosocial video games on prosocial behavior. Journal
“Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models”. games cause an increase in aggression long after train-the-brain-to-justify-killing
as well as in guns. Men are willing to pay for and influential governments. the game has been turned off. Social Psychological of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 211-221.
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology.
66: 3–11. doi:10.1037/h0048687 violent content, and companies are happy In the 1920s, the independence of and Personality Science, 2(1), 29-32, doi: Kelly, C. R., Grinband, J., & Hirsch, J. (2007). Repeated 2004/01ba.ap.pdf
to profit. Thus, it is currently impossible to India seemed equally improbable. But exposure to media violence is associated with
Christakis, D. A. & Rivara, F. P. (2017). Guns
Carnagey, N. L., Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. diminished response in an inhibitory frontolimbic
and Violent Media—A Toxic Mix With an Available stop the training of the young. Mahatma Gandhi, armed only with psych/201610/violence-in-games-does-not-cause-
Antidote. JAMA Pediatrics, September 25, 2017. J. (2007). The effect of video game violence on network. PLoS One, 2(12), e1268, https://doi.
doi:10.1001/ jamapediatrics.2017.2383 In another decade, most adult males moral fortitude practiced non-violence physiological desensitization to real-life violence. org/10.1371/journal. pone.0001268.
Journal of experimental social psychology, 43(3),
Beck, V. S., Boys, S., Rose, C., & Beck, E. of the earth will have gone through the and overcame impossible odds. Perhaps Li, L., Chen, R., & Chen, J. (2016). Playing action
489-496. pdf
(2012). Violence against women in video games: video games improves visuomotor control.
aggression training programmes. How UNESCO MGIEP, with its scientific
A prequel or sequel to rape myth acceptance? Christakis, D. A., & Rivara, F. P. (2017). Guns and Psychological science, 27(8), 1092-1108, doi:
Journal of interpersonal violence, 27(15),
will daily aggression levels change? No orientation to peace is the right institute Violent Media—A Toxic Mix With an Available Antidote. 10.1177/0956797616650300 anderson.aspx
3016-3031. mitigating forces are visible at this time, for this task.

14 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 15



Why Games Kids are Makers

The thing is, society is constantly
evolving. Looking through the lens of
technological progress, we’ve witnessed and Digital
can be Effective Natives
some massive changes from the norms
of the last century. In a few decades,

we’ve gone from assembly line factory In addition to the need to develop these
jobs and vacuum tube powered, room- modern skillsets, educators are faced with
sized computers, to the lightning fast the second generation of students who
interactivity of the digital world that is have grown up with the modalities of the
Chris Crowell transforming every sector, including digital era. They are used to being able to
schools. Dealing with the differences drive every choice, communicate instantly,
created by the march of progress is nothing and access any information with the tap of
Chris ‘Wombat’ Crowell is a Game new. 3000 years ago, Heraclitus quipped a finger. Modern education needs to meet
Designer and Creative Director with that ‘The only thing that is constant is the expectations of these students in order
20+ years experience creating a wide change’, which serves to illustrate the to engage and challenge their curiosity and
range of critically acclaimed games.
timeless nature of societal evolution, and intellects.
He has worked with globally known
the need to constantly re-evaluate and
brands such as NASCAR, Tiger Woods,
update the engines of society, including
Sim City, The Sims, Open Season,
Indiana Jones, and Kung Fu Panda.
He co-founded the online division at In response to this changing world, Games are Tools
Behavior Interactive, developing the pedagogy as a whole is undergoing a for 21st Century
fundamental evolution. While basic
kids MMO Monkey Quest in partnership
with Nickelodeon. At Tribal Nova, as comprehension and skills in language Competencies
Creative Director he helped launch literacy, mathematics, science, and art Games, Gamification of Learning, and
the Woozworld startup, a virtual world are still essential; the current digital era Game Based Learning are not intended
for tweens. At Ganz Studios (home of demands a new set of transferable skills to as replacements to any current effective
WebKinz), he directed the creation of meet the needs of a rapidly changing world. pedagogy. Rather, these approaches can be
the Tail Towns MMO and social game Globally, many educators are developing valuable additions to the teaching toolbox
for Facebook. new standards under the umbrella title that educators can leverage to engage
In recent years, Chris has shifted his
of 21st Century Competencies. Core to the modern learner. The 3rd principle of
focus towards working with educators
these competencies are the mental habits Adler’s ‘Paideia Proposal’ is ‘The primary
to create engaging and effective
of logic, tenacity, and creativity honed cause of learning is the activity of the
Game Based Learning and Gamified
by challenging gameplay. The opening
Digital Education experiences. He child’s mind, which is not created by, but
has worked with leaders in this field statement of 21st Century Competencies: only assisted by the teacher’. Game Based
such as Glass Labs, Pearson, and Foundation Document for Discussion reads
Learning puts the student in the driver’s
TVO to develop cutting edge projects in part “Researchers acknowledge that
seat, with the teacher’s role shifting from
such as Pearson’s Insight Learning the need to engage in problem solving
‘sage on the stage to guide on the side’.
System and TVO’s mPower suite of Physical and digital games are being increasingly used by and critical and creative thinking has
What follows is a review of a number of
classroom games. He is currently educators as engaging and effective learning experiences. While ‘always been at the core of learning and
core properties of games and Game Based
working at, a innovation’1. What’s new in the 21st
massively multiplayer game played by
many resist this as ‘frivolous fun’, there are valid reasons why Learning that support this premise, and
century is the call for education systems to
games work as a pedagogical tool. that also contribute to the development of

millions of elementary students that emphasise and develop these competencies
mixes gameplay with grade 1-8 math 21st Century Competencies.
in explicit and intentional ways through

deliberate changes in curriculum design
Chris has served on the Board
ondering the mandate of education is a The function of and pedagogical practice. The goal of these
of Directors for the International
Game Developers Association, and
popular sport, with pundits forwarding education, therefore, is changes is to prepare students to solve Agency and
is a founder of the Positive Impact
The Ongoing
diverse views, but most agree on the
basics: the role of education is to
to teach one to think messy, complex problems – including
problems we don’t yet know about –
Games SIG. In 2014, he was honoured intensively and to think
to participate in the White House
Educational Game Jam.
Evolution prepare the student for participation
in society by presenting essential information, and
associated with living in a competitive,
globally connected, and technologically
The player controlled interactivity of
games is a key differentiator from other
of Education guiding expertise in foundational skills. Dr. Martin Luther King intensive world.” forms of media, and especially different

16 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 17



Critical Thinking constrain the play in terms of the game and

setting of goals, and the student is free to
boomed, to the current ‘sixty-five percent of
American households are home to someone
social lessons and Problem The growing legion of use the tools available in that space to test who plays video games regularly’. If there
progressive educators
can be Solving prove that games ARE
the boundaries of the concepts, and assess
the efficacy of multiple solutions.
WAS a correlation, then we would surely be
swimming in mass murderers who were
packaged in an An engaging game experience entails effective pedagogy, and infected by their game experiences. Per the

entertainment overcoming a series of challenges in pursuit

we can expect them to
numbers, ‘Violence In Games Does Not

of a goal. The player is presented with some
kind of obstacle, and must use his/her
be a standard tool in the Assessment and Cause Real-Life Violence’ seems to be the
rational, if rather boring, conclusion. If
available game actions to create a solution 21st Century classroom. Differentiation anything, there is a case to be argued that the
that gets the player past the obstacle and emotional outlets and psychological role-
A digital game can be designed to constantly
further toward his/ her goal. Whether the play experimentation offered by videogame
and invisibly capture granular play metrics
One great power of from the didactic paradigm of classroom game is as simple as Tic Tac Toe or as complex
for each student. The play metrics can be
experiences have had a deflating effect on
games in the classroom lecture focused on rote memorisation as World of Warcraft, the act of playing a game
translated to reports on a teacher dashboard
and repetition. A core element of any is a constantly repeating loop of observation, There is even an argument to be made
is that students to allow differentiated instruction and
game experience is agency. Agency is the analysis, planning, execution, and feedback. for considering violent games as classroom
experience cause and assessment that is tailored to the individual
content. Consider that all media has a range
ability to take meaningful action, which While this analysis process is implicit in
student, such as when a student is having
effect firsthand, and conveys an associated responsibility for all game loops, some games, such as Body of content that includes violent content.
problems with particular concepts.
realise that actions the results of those actions. As Spider- Battle, offer a familiar explicit problem Consider the violent themes in classic
In real time, a digital game can also adjust
have repercussions. Man likes to say, “With great power solving paradigm in the form of ‘detective’ classroom literature such as The Diary of Anne
the gameplay in response to the metrics to
comes great responsibility”, which is not style gameplay where clues are given. The Frank or The Iliad. Raging Bull is presented
serve up the next set of problems at just the
only valuable advice, but good reminder player must explore and analyse the clues to in film studies as a cinematic masterpiece,
right level of challenge for each student.
that social lessons can be packaged in an find the solution. No matter whether explicit but it is also an unflinchingly violent movie.
These metrics can inform the scaffolding
entertainment envelope. The relevant or subtly implicit, engagement in a digital Grand Theft Auto is a massively popular game
provided by game help systems, to provide
point is that ANY power should have an game experience comes from the challenge series with an anti-social dystopian worldview
instant assistance aimed at the specific
associated responsibility. In a game, the of correctly using critical thinking skills where violence is a key mechanic. Yet, Toronto
difficulties the student is experiencing at
player must observe the game state and in each of those loop phases to solve the teacher Paul Darvasi was able to use this
precisely the moment of maximum relevance.
create a mental model that makes sense of problem and create a positive outcome. game experience, shared by the majority of
the game elements, the player’s own goals, his students, to lead a discussion about social
Examples of Games privilege in the real world. Treating games
available actions, and potential success at
Based Learning
But what about as a valid medium allows teachers to reach
each of those actions...and what is likely to
Mastery and
happen as a result of those actions. Every
the Violence? students in a familiar format, bringing forth
action (including taking no action) will Resilience Educators use the incredibly popular
game of exploration and creativity No conversation about the effects of video
discussions about their games in addition to
the movies and novels they also consume.
have an impact on the state of the game.
Games are elastic interactive spaces where Minecraft EDU to teach everything In regard to games in the classroom, one
The student is not only able to make his/her games can ignore the constant question of
curriculum concepts can be encountered in from mathematics (implicit in
own choices on an action by action basis but whether exposure to violent games increases must note that like any other teaching tool,
familiar scenarios. In an explicit example everything from quantities in
is responsible for the analysis and strategy violence in real life. While this question is the inclusion of a game in the curriculum is
recipes to time planning) to Spanish
of curriculum concepts used in a Game provocative, the assumption of a big problem entirely under the teacher’s control.
that eventually results in success or failure language. Games such as Prodigy
Based Learning framework, one game is unsubstantiated.
at achieving his/her goals. One great power are using gamification techniques
from mPower has students use math Like film and television, not all games are
of games in the classroom is that students to engage millions of students in
experience cause and effect firsthand, and
concepts such as protractors and geometric
angles to navigate a small boat on a river
a wizard filled game world that
has answering math questions as
‘violent’. There are untold numbers of games
of all sorts, and the discussion should be
realise that actions have repercussions.
as part of a trash collection job. Using the method for casting magic spells. centered on the particulars of each game. A Of course, there is no such thing as a silver
concepts over and over gives meaning to Classcraft has been used to gamify quick check on the best-selling games of all bullet that solves all problems, and games
the concepts, and creates a mental pattern the regular classroom work with in time shows only two ‘violent’ games, with the as part of learning is just another tool for
No matter whether explicit or subtly implicit, engagement library for use in the real world. school rewards and collaboration. puzzle game Tetris taking the top spot. educators to use. But it is a VERY strong tool,
As a virtual reality, games offer a safe Portals such as Edutopia and In reality, violent crime is in decline in and should be understood and used properly.
in a digital game experience comes from the challenge of Edtech can be gateways to many
space to experiment with the curriculum the USA. The FBI reports that violent crime The growing legion of progressive educators
correctly using critical thinking skills in each of those loop more games, and the communities
concepts, with the freedom to learn from per 100,000 in 1997 was 611. In 2016 the prove that games ARE effective pedagogy,
phases to solve the problem and create a positive outcome. failure, applying that new knowledge
of educators who use them.
rate was 386. This massive drop is over the and we can expect them to be a standard tool
towards eventual success. The teacher can same period where video game playing has in the 21st Century classroom.

Trilling & Fadel, 2009, p. 50


18 ISSUE 6 . 2017 ISSUE 7 . 2018 19



Both are powerful messages, which also One cannot over-emphasise

resonate in the Preamble of UNESCO’s
the role of higher education as
Constitution: “That the wide diffusion
the key catalyst for promoting
12 % of culture and the education of humanity
for justice and liberty and peace are socio-economic mobility and
indispensible to the dignity of man…that preparing our citizens in the
peace must therefore be founded, if it is knowledge society.
not to fail, upon the intellectual and moral
literacy rate in India solidarity of mankind.”
at the time of encapsulated now in the 2016 National
India’s Founding Fathers always
highlighted the importance of tertiary Policy on education, which recognises
education and despite the resource crunch, the criticality of education as the most
built Universities for social sciences as well important vehicle for social, economic and
as medical colleges and India’s now famous political transformation. One cannot over
Institute of Technology (IIT). It was not an -emphasise the role of higher education
easy task. In 1947, just after Independence, as the key catalyst for promoting socio-
India, forced to miss out on the Industrial economic mobility and preparing our
Revolution because of colonial rule, was a citizens in the knowledge society.
very poor country with a huge population Tertiary education is facilitating the
and alarming illiteracy rates particularly absorption of the positive effects of
globalisation and enabling India to develop
among its women. India’s literacy rate at
a trillion plus economy through a highly
the time of Independence was 12%. The
qualified and broad national talent base.
prevailing ‘mantra’ in the World Bank
India is no stranger to higher education.
and Breton Woods institutions, staffed
The importance of education was well
by former colonial bureaucrats, was to
recognised in India. ‘Swadeshe pujyate
force developing countries to invest their
raja, vidwan sarvatra pujyate’ in Sanskrit
resources only in primary and secondary
simply means: “A king is honoured
education, encouraging those who could
only in his own country, but one who
afford to benefit from university education
is learned is honoured throughout the
to do so in the country of their former
world.” The world’s first University was
colonialists. Dr. Mahmood Mamdani,
established in Takshila in 700 BC and
Professor, Columbia University, and
the University of Nalanda was built in
author of ‘Higher Education, the State
the 4th century BC, a great achievement
The prevailing ‘mantra’ and the Marketplace’ says: “The World
Bhaswati Mukherjee and contribution of ancient India in the
. . . was to force Bank made a frontal assault on African field of education. Nalanda is now being

Ms. Bhaswati Mukherjee is presently a developing countries Universities in 1986, advising the Vice
lecturer at the Foreign Service Institute
developed as a potential UNESCO World
ndia’s illustrious second people and thereby make it the powerful to invest their resources Chancellors that it would make economic Heritage site. Science and technology in
and in different Universities in India and
sense to close universities in independent
overseas - on disarmament and strategic President, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, instrument of social, economic and only in primary and ancient and medieval India covered all the
issues. She also works on the Spice as Chair of the University cultural transformation necessary for the Africa and have its human resource needs major branches of human knowledge and
secondary education.
Route Project for State Government of Education Commission (1948- realisation of the national goals. For this trained in Universities in the West.” This activities. Indian scholars such as Charaka
Kerala and the Indentured Labour Route . .The attempt was to was followed by what Mamdani defined
49) immediately after India’s purpose, education should be developed and Susruta, Aryabhata, Bhaskaracharya,
Project for UNESCO and the Government Independence underlined the importance so as to increase productivity, achieve encourage a ‘brain- as ‘conditional aid’. The attempt was to Chanakya, Patanjali and Vatsayayna
of Mauritius. She completed a book on drain’ with the outflow encourage a ‘brain-drain’ with the outflow
of higher education to lift India from social and national integration, accelerate and numerous others made seminal
‘Emerging Challenges and Dynamics in
its crushing twin burdens of poverty the process of modernisation and cultivate of national intellectuals of national intellectuals to the West since contribution to world knowledge in
the India-EU relationship’, commissioned
and underdevelopment in this seminal social, moral and spiritual values.” no opportunities were available in the many diverse fields such as mathematics,
by the Indian Council of World Affairs. to the West since no
Ms. Bhaswati was the Ambassador of introduction to the Commission report: Famous Nobel Laureate and Chilean home country. astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical
opportunities were
India to the Netherlands from 2010 to “The most important and urgent poet, Pablo Neruda, put it more simply: This World Bank injunction was rejected science and surgery.
2013, and the Permanent Representative reform needed in education is to “I want the huge majority, the only available in the home by both Nehru in India and Mao in China. Under colonial rule, with the
of India to UNESCO from 2004 to 2010. transform it, to endeavour to relate it majority, every one, to be able to speak, to country. Both countries have never looked back. glorification of English and Western
to the life, needs and aspirations of the read, to listen, to blossom.” There is a national consensus in India, values, India gradually lost self-esteem and

20 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 21



quality assurance agencies in the 1990s Permitting of foreign education

to assure external quality. The National providers in India for proper regulation
If India now does the Assessment and Accreditation Council and internationalisation of education by
things now required to be (NAAC) was set up by the University Grants enhanced collaborations.
done and transforms its Commission (UGC) in 1994 to accredit For higher education to be a lever of
higher education sector, Universities and institutions of general development in India, its Universities
higher education. The National Board of must be globally ranked. Today not a
it would be equivalent to
Accreditation (NBA) was established by the single Indian University finds a place
a major social revolution. All India Council of Technical Education in the top 200 positions in the global
The rest of the 21st century (AICTE) in 1994 to accredit programmes ranking of Universities. Even India’s top
could then belong to India. and institutions. NAAC accredits ranking institutions appear low in the
institutions and certifies for educational global rankings. The idea of establishing
quality of the institution based on several accreditation agencies in India was to
criteria. enhance standards and quality of higher
There is an urgent need to undertake education.
reforms in India’s tertiary sector. Some As a measure of quality assurance, India
reforms measures could include: established accreditation agencies in 1994.
Creation of independent quality The institutions of higher education were
assurance frameworks to address the supposed to approach the accreditation
quality deficit in the higher educational agencies to get their institution or
self-confidence. The dominant notion was and made them your life and character,
institutions. programme accredited. Accreditation
that the West needed to bring civilisation to you have more education than any man
Matching of autonomy with was voluntary and as a result only few
primitive people. Edward Said noted: “The who has got by heart a whole library. If
accountability: this would involve the institutions are accredited in India. This
culture of imperialism entailed venerating education is identical with information, the
realignment of the regulatory functioning issue must be addressed urgently.
Post-secondary education one’s own culture to the exclusion of other libraries are the greatest sages of the world
in such a way as to promote autonomy of India as a nation has travelled a
cultures”. This attitude is best symbolised and encyclopaedia are the greatest Rishis.”
needs to prepare graduates institutions. This approach envisages that long way from the India that Swami
in Macaulay’s Minute in 1835 when he This statement assumes much greater
with new skills, a broad said: “I have never found one among them significance with the advent of internet and
For higher education to be a paradigm shift to facilitation rather than Vivekananda described so many years ago
knowledge base and a wide (Indians) who could deny that a single shelf ever expanding digital connectivity. a lever of development in regulation. in ‘The Essence of India’. He said:
India, its Universities must “The longest night seems to be passing
range of competencies to of a good European library was worth the Quality assurance in higher education Revisiting of the issue of
multiplicity of entrance and eligibility away, the seeming corpse appears to be
enter a more complex and whole native literature of India and Arabia.’ is the top priority of India’s policy be globally ranked.
This colonial legacy still lingers agenda. Post-secondary education needs examinations with the exploration of the awaking and a voice is coming to us – away
interdependent world. back where history and even tradition fails
on since education is of relatively low to prepare graduates with new skills, a possibility of a single national test.
priority in India’s federal structure, both broad knowledge base and a wide range to peep into the gloom of the past, India,
in status and recognition. The right to of competencies to enter a more complex this motherland of ours is awakening!
education is a State subject in India’s and interdependent world. This will take None can resist her anymore; never is she
Constitution. There is now recognised in time since quality is a multi-dimensional going to sleep anymore; no outward powers
India’s Parliament, cutting across political concept. Systems of accountability and can hold her back any more. India that is to
barriers that education must be given accreditation with a robust regulatory be, the future India, must be much greater
the highest priority. Necessary resources mechanism are essential to the process of than ancient India.”
must be provided and conditions created sustaining and improving quality. Quality For two-thirds of mankind’s
that are favourable for the process of has to be the concern of all institutions. history, India as one of the oldest living
teaching and learning to flourish. Indian Excellence will flow from good quality civilizations in the world dominated
educationists often cite the famous Indian institutions and appropriate governance the world scene, be it in philosophy,
philosopher Swami Vivekananda who structures. Higher education in India has economics, trade, culture as well as in
underlined: “Education is not the amount experienced an unprecedented expansion education. If India now does the things
of information that we put into your brain accompanied by diversification of the now required to be done and transforms
and runs riot there, undigested, all your sector. The unplanned expansion of the its higher education sector, it would be
life. We must have life-building, man- sector poses challenges for enhancing and equivalent to a major social revolution.
making, character-making assimilation maintaining quality. The rest of the 21st century could then
of ideas. If you have assimilated five ideas The country has established external belong to India.

22 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 23



and the influence of intergovernmental increasingly objected to them on ideological

organisations have squeezed out the grounds. They have argued that state

democratic voices of citizens within subsidies and programmes encourage
their own communities. It has led to a inefficiencies, making people dependent on
democratic deficit. handouts. A relentless ideological campaign

Globalisation And, culturally, a growing number of

people believe that cross-border migration,
has celebrated the logic of the markets,
suggesting that each individual should be,

and encouraged by global economic processes,

has unsettled the deeply held values and
responsible for his or her own future.
It is these sentiments – some justified

traditions that had given them and their others exaggerated or false – that have
communities a sense of meaning and arguably given rise to a class of people
purpose. Distrust of migrants and refugees whom the sociologist Guy Standing aptly
has increased markedly. calls the ‘precariat’, an agglomerate of
These voices of discontent are clearly several different social groups that include
linked to the uneven distribution of young educated but underemployed
opportunities resulting from globalisation. people, those who fear losing their cultural
While in some countries, such as China privileges, and those who have fallen out of
and Korea, it has created new opportunities the old-style industrial working class.
in others it has exasperated social This new class of people is not only
inequalities. Even in those countries that worried about job insecurity but is also
have benefitted from it, gaps in people’s concerned about loss of cultural identity,
life chances have widened.
and especially its long-established cultural
In Europe and the United States, both
privileges. Not surprisingly therefore it is
the industrial cities and rural areas have
susceptible to the siren calls of political
carried much of the burden of global
There is a growing extremism, including those enunciated by
economic transformations. Job security has
realisation that the issues of expedient politicians who are not reluctant
vanished, forcing people to move to places
to stoke the fear of immigrants, refugees,
Fazal Rizvi is a Professor of Global
environmental sustainability where the new jobs might be, away from
Fazal Rizvi indigenous peoples and other vulnerable
Studies in Education at the University and global peace cannot their communities. They have had to retrain
of Melbourne, as well as an Emeritus be adequately addressed for new jobs, but lifelong learning is often

In the context of these developments,
Professor at the University of Illinois privatised and requires an investment that
at Urbana-Champaign. Fazal has he past few years have internationalisation agenda to which without acknowledging the ethno-nationalism’s appeal is perfectly
many are not able to afford.
written extensively on issues of witnessed the rise of a many systems of education are now ontological realities of At the same time, welfare provisions
understandable. But is it justified? To what
identity and culture in transnational strident form of nationalism committed? In what ways do they now need ‘one world’ extent is globalisation responsible for the
have been cut. Governments have
contexts, globalisation and education around the world. This has to re-imagine the relationship between economic, political and cultural conditions
policy and Australia-Asia relations. that have exasperated social inequalities?
clearly been evident in the globalisation and education? How might
A collection of his essays is published And is it possible to abandon globalisation
unexpected electoral victory of Donald we now need to rethink the ideas of global
in: Encountering Education in the
Trump and the Brexit vote; but also in the learning and global citizenship education? in favour of a nationalism that can bring
Global: Selected Writings of Fazal Rizvi
nationalist political tides in countries as It is of course no longer possible to back prosperity and cultural certainties?
(Routledge 2014). Fazal is a Fellow of
the Australian Academy of the Social diverse as Philippines, Turkey and India. deny the contention that recent global These are profound questions, of
Sciences, a past Editor of the journal, To explain the global rise of this transformations have resulted in much deep relevance to educational policy and
Discourse: Studies in Cultural Politics nationalism, many commentators have economic anxiety, social unrest and practice. This is so because education is
of Education, and past President of the pointed to the idea of globalisation itself. political angst. Recent economic shifts simultaneously about the present and the
Australian Association of Research in future: about how things are and should
They have argued that this historical shift are at least in part responsible for
Education. He is a co-author of Class
represents a major backlash against the unsustainable and unacceptable levels of be. In a world characterised increasingly
Choreographies: Elite Schools and
various forms and effects of globalisation, inequality, both within and across national by cynicism, distrust and pessimism,
Globalization (Palgrave 2017), and of a
major report, Australia’s Asian Diaspora and that ordinary people no longer believe borders. educators face the challenging task of
Advantage, produced for the Australian in what they now regard as its false Politically, globalisation has spawned helping young people to understand
Council of Learned Academies (ACOLA promises. a new world order in which power is the sources of their confusions and
2016). What implications does this anti- in the hands of a transnational elite. discontents, and imagine the possibilities
globalisation sentiment have for the The rise of transnational corporations of a better future.

24 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 25



What they fail to consider however opportunities. There are some aspects should not only refer to economic exchange
is that it is the automation of work and of global interconnectivity that now but should also view interdependency as
the privatisation and corporatisation of appear ontologically fixed. Developments an opportunity to build a more just global
institutions that might have arguably in information and communications community. This should be seen as a moral
contributed more to the economic technologies have, for example, rendered and political issue. It is also an educational
distress of the precariat than the facts of inevitable the global flows of ideas, images issue, for it involves young people imagining
global mobility and exchange. If social and ideologies. They have intensified their future, beyond the neoliberal terms
inequalities are not inherently an outcome transnational connectedness. in which economic, political and cultural
of the global flows of people then it is Most communities have already been exchange is currently defined.
perfectly possible that their causes lie in the transformed by the global flows of people. Globalisation is not only about the
excesses of the global corporations and the Cultural diversity, exchange and hybridity material structures of power, but it
transnational elite. have become a fact of life in both America also constitutes, and is constituted by,
In recent decades, the neoliberal and Europe, and cannot simply be wished a particular way of interpreting and
reading of globalisation has involved the away. Economies have increasingly representing the world, a ‘common sense’.
contention that globalisation is a force to become service-oriented, with a growing One of the unexpected benefits inherent
which there are no alternatives. Accepting recognition that such industries as tourism, in the rise of nationalism might yet be
the neoliberal logic, nations around the education and retail rely invariably on its unmasking of the ‘common sense’
This pedagogic task clearly demands an world have accordingly reconstituted their global mobility and cultural exchange. generated by neoliberal social imaginary,
appreciation of how global interconnectivity major institutions, including education. At the same time, there is now a deep in which education clearly has a role to play.
may not in fact be the main source of the In the process however they have failed awareness, especially among the young, This unmasking should show students
contemporary problems, but the ways in to manage the contradictions of the that many of the most serious problems how the benefits of neoliberal globalisation
Most communities have which it is interpreted and articulated; how neoliberal logic of the markets, and also are unevenly distributed and how it
. . . the challenge facing humanity are global, requiring
already been transformed a particular way of thinking about it has redistribute the benefits of global trade in a collective action. Indeed there is a growing has disempowered many communities.
by the global flows of been grounded into our popular imaginary; more inclusive manner.
facing education is not to Students need to recognise that in
realisation that the issues of environmental
people. Cultural diversity, and how many of our major institutions Yet what is intriguing now is that while reject the facts of global sustainability and global peace cannot order to empower themselves and their
exchange and hybridity
have been re-shaped in line with its recent anti-globalisation rhetoric has been interconnectivity and be adequately addressed without communities, they need to develop a
ideological assumptions. strong among the new nationalists around exchange, but to redefine acknowledging the ontological realities of new common sense of globalisation that
have become a fact of life Collectively these assumptions are the world, they have not abandoned a ‘one world’. In these and other ways, many does not ignore the ontological realities
. . . and cannot simply be globalisation, beyond its
widely referred to as ‘neoliberalism’. commitment to neoliberalism. Indeed, aspects of globalisation are thus here to stay. of globalisation but interrogates further
wished away. Neoliberalism assumes that a society is
neoliberal imaginary; to re-
under the Trump Presidency, neoliberal If this is so then the challenge facing the neoliberal assumptions upon which
best imagined as a sum of individuals, each policies have been promoted with even articulate the meaning of education is not to reject the facts of global its hegemonic understanding has been
pursuing their own self-interest. It rests on greater vigour. In India, its neoliberal global interdependence interconnectivity and exchange, but to framed, as a way of better understanding
a belief that the public sector is necessarily assumptions have driven the Modi redefine globalisation, beyond its neoliberal the effects and discontents it has produced.
inefficient and presents a barrier to Government to further open the Indian imaginary; to re-articulate the meaning They need to explore ways of rescuing
individual freedom, economic productivity economy to global competition, even as its of global interdependence. This meaning globalisation from the clutches of
and national development. It suggests nationalist rhetoric has become stronger. neoliberalism, and imagining a conception
therefore transferring the control of public In the United States, private and charter that is not wedded to its deeply ideological
institutions to the private sector, opening schools have never been supported with structures. At the same time, they need
them up to global competition. greater conviction. The notion of public to be alerted to the risks associated with
In this way, the ideas of globalisation higher education has been undermined nativism, the dangerous form of ethno-
and neoliberalism are viewed as by the withdrawal of a great deal of state nationalism that has in recent years been
inextricably linked. However, recent funding, especially for programmes promoted widely by the popular media and
there is now a deep
nationalist movements do not view that promote the equality of educational is often exploited by expedient politicians.
awareness, especially globalisation in economic terms only, opportunity. The idea of individual The task of education is to show students
among the young, that but more seriously as a major source of self-reliance has become the key driver how economic and cultural nationalisms
many of the most serious cultural concerns. They thus present a most underpinning policy shifts. are unlikely to deliver the economic and
problems facing humanity diffused and often contradictory account of These contradictions will of course social benefits they promise. Instead they
globalisation. Perhaps their success lies in play themselves out over the next decade will intensify a cultural politics based on a
are global, requiring
their ability to bring under one ideological or so. But it is hard to imagine national permanent state of fear, resentment and
collective action umbrella a range of conflicting ideas, systems anywhere once again separating conflict. The future of young people cannot
political interests and cultural prejudices. themselves totally from global forces and be well served by such a politics.

26 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 27



react quickly to changes in the surrounding their own ways of learning as well as

The Future of
We need to trust our students,
world. discovering how to influence and improve
so that they themselves are
We are responsible for the students’ the phenomena that surrounds them. Skills
capable of discovering and

skills and readiness for future working life. must be present in all learning, not only in
even creating new knowledge, Traditionally, transformation has been knowledge.
moving from being passive guided through collaborative curriculum Teachers are no longer at the center
recipients of memorising work, development projects and new of learning as being only experts. They
inputs to finding their own legislation and government policies. Those facilitate, activate and coach learning. We
ways of learning . . . processes are sometimes too slow. need to give them the time to discover their
We also have a concern that while some new role themselves by collaboration and
cities, municipalities and schools develop co-creation. Learning communities must
their working culture and pedagogy, others be built in every school. The relationship
don’t for some unknown reason. This between students and teachers should
might cause inequity in student learning become co-creative and dialogic. This
outcomes as well as in well-being. pedagogical change requires quality
We have also heard the voice of teachers professional learning opportunities for
and principals as their work is becoming those in the working field. In addition,
increasingly more difficult and we see new we must promote excellent initial teacher
problems arising in faculty well-being. education for student teachers. We hope
The Finnish system has been built on the that education as a field will continuously
pedagogical trust towards teachers but in attract young people to become teachers.
addition to merely putting trust towards We must change the role of the learner,
their work, teachers have needs in being the educator, their relationship and most
supported when needed. Teachers feel that of all schools as an organisation as well
they need to change, but don’t understand as governance. The middle leadership
how. Presently student assessment seems plays a key role in the transformation.
to be an obstacle for them. This also requires collaboration. A key
Students are not objects of learning, but characteristic leaders must practice
Education promotes participation,
Anneli Rautiainen, Master of Education, active in their own learning. They explore includes coaching. Principals must be
a sustainable way of living strong pedagogical leaders, those who lead
has graduated from the Helsinki University Anneli Rautiainen new questions, have a co-sense and shape
in Finland. She has had a long career in and growth as a member of a the future. We need to trust our students, learning. They need to be well-trained and
education at school, district and government democratic society. Learning also so that they themselves are capable future-oriented. No longer must they work
levels as a teacher, vice principal, principal alone;instead they should involve new
educates pupils to recognise, of discovering and even creating new
and head of unit. She has worked at the stakeholders to co-create in developing
respect and defend human rights. knowledge, moving from being passive
Finnish National Agency for Education
recipients of memorising inputs to finding schools. Those stakeholders can be youth
(FNAE) for the past seven years. Her
workers, professionals from the health and
responsibilities have included developing
pre-primary and basic education, in addition
social sectors and members from different
to Early Childhood Education and Care. organisations or working life.
Presently, she is working as the head of The relationship New players must be invited in schools
Innovation Center at the FNAE. to solve together existing problems and to
between students

Anneli has been a key note speaker in share ideas on the future steps. No longer
more than 25 countries across the world. s there are more signs of So why is there a need for transfor- and teachers should will education professionals manage to
Anneli’s approach to education: “I am distraction than cohesion mation in the Finnish education system? become co-creative solve those wicked problems alone. To
passionate to develop education. My dream
is to help teachers change their teaching
in the world, we share We have been very fortunate to succeed and dialogic. succeed in this difficult task, principals
the urgency for change. in education outcomes throughout should turn the focus first on building
and students to take ownership of their own
learning. Teachers can make a difference Schools cannot remain the years in our country, however, one learning communities in schools.
in students´ life. Students need to realise isolated from this fast moving world. We should keep improving and learning The whole system change requires
that they learn for their own lives and future. need to shift the paradigm of education. constantly. The world is going through the administration at municipal and
In the changing world, it is necessary to Education reinforces the students’ positive a massive change in technology and in government levels to transform their
develop the ecosystem of education.” identity as human beings, learners and society. The education system is strong working culture as well. Governance should
community members. in Finland, but it does not necessarily have a shared awareness of education.

28 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 29



Education systems
must no longer focus
only on achieving
excellence. Education
builds well-being in
this world. Our world
needs empathy.

We have worked traditionally in silos Education builds well-being in

so to speak. It is time to discover a this world. Our world needs empathy.
new perspective of working with other How can we build a sustainable future
stakeholders. Governance should no longer through empathy? Can we work through
be a top down approach anywhere. innovations? Can we do experiments to
We need to seek new ways in practice to discover, what works and what doesn´t
work with parents and families on learning work? Can we work more with narratives?
and well-being as families play a key role in We have realised that good systems and
their child’s well-being. Student learning, ideas don´t scale. We need to look for new
development and well-being must be ways of collaborating with each other also Building a Technology-Driven
Environment for Collaborative
supported in cooperation with parents. globally to reach well-being and equity
I am not sure, if the voice of parents is for all children and young people, who are
heard enough yet.
Education systems must no longer
the future makers of tomorrow´s fast-
moving and unexpected world. We should Learning at Schools
focus only on achieving excellence. The have a common vision in the world for
change in the mind-set might be difficult education and navigate towards the vision
to make. We need to think about, how by choosing different paths. Pratik Mehta
we can approach this; by collaborating, We all stand at different points in our Pratik Mehta is the Head of Education &

co-creating, involving new players in the countries on education due to the past Skills in Microsoft. He works extensively
development process, experimenting and with Policy decision makers, Government
and present. After all, innovations and ducation is a key priority important. Access to technology can
institutions, schools and colleges in
innovating, even by using analytics. I hope experiments can be created everywhere. for governments across facilitate and empower the educators
the field of Digital Transformation in
we can reach an ecosystem of education, But we should not leave anyone alone; nations. Education has to build 21st century skills, which are
Education. He also mentors Ed-Tech
a system that reacts to the surrounding instead be ready to share and develop and Start-Up Companies and provides the most profound impact around critical thinking, problem
world by breathing in and out. together with those who are less them the right platform to scale up on the growth of a nation solving, attention to detail, collaboration
experienced in their education systems. their business. He has recently been and also how the society evolves and the and teamwork among several others.
Our common task is to help students conferred with an award from the values it upholds. It is an era of digital UNESCO’s framework for 21st century
Hon’ble Ex-President of India- Shri
Our common task is to help students to identify their identify their strengths and to build their transformation with rapid changes skills strongly postulates a competency
Pranab Mukherjee for his contribution
strengths and to build their future by learning. Education future by learning. Education offers happening at a great pace. As a part of based approach to learning and teaching.
for driving digital initiatives in education.
students possibilities for the versatile education, along with leadership and Learning and teaching should not only
offers students possibilities for the versatile development of He is also a member of Confederation of
development of their competence. By Indian Industry (CII) National Committee vision as well as building the capacity of focus on exposure to knowledge but
their competence. succeeding in our work, education will help teachers and the Millennials, creating the also build competencies that matter for
on Skill Development.
build up human and social capital. right learning infrastructure is equally employability and entrepreneurship.

30 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 31



place for driving digital transformation classroom. This could mean working on
A FRAMEWORK FOR INNOVATION in education. Digital technologies enable collaborative projects, bringing in experts
ubiquitous access to information. Learning to the classroom, talking to people and
Systems framework for guiding innovative school reform is about making connections. This range of learning from projects and doing activities
that highlights essential dimensions that are critical success teaching-learning connections permeates outside the classroom. In the classroom,
21st Century Learner
factors to help guide your innovation journey. the teaching and learning environment, the teacher could play a very important role
Microsoft’s One Notebook a learning space that can be physical or in bringing the world to the classroom.
enables powerful learning virtual. The connections are created in The role of the teacher transcends to being
Where / When Students Learn? What / How Students Learn? experiences as the teacher several ways. Technology can be a big a facilitator. He/She deploys technology
• Physical & Virtual Environments • 21st Century Standards can create Digital Notebooks enabler in all of this. We connect meaningfully to create some distinct
• Formal & Informal Environments • Curriculum & Learning Paradigm • New knowledge to existing knowledge learning experiences, which could enable
• Innovative Uses of Information & • Assessment
for all students and can
• The digital world with the real world deep learning. This would also perhaps
Communications Technology (ICT) • Innovative Uses of ICT monitor their work. • Students to information and content involve some live projects and an inter-
• Students to students disciplinary approach.
• Students to teachers For instance, there are students across
How Teachers Learn / Teach? Develop, Sustain & Scale We connect the learning space to the the globe working on Climate Change
School Improvements world, competencies to skills, individuals projects, which involves documentation
• Professional Practice & Standards
to groups, and groups to communities. of their experiences. These students are
• Peer Coaching & Mentoring • Innovation Culture
• Professional Development And, most importantly, we connect led by a few Microsoft Expert Educators.
• Leadership Development
• Innovative Uses of ICT • Learning Community technology to information – information Skype as a technology tool can enable such
• Innovative Uses of ICT to knowledge and knowledge to application collaborations across the globe. In a year,
in the real world. there are thousands of Skype calls, which
are conducted across classrooms during
which students learn about geography,
Source: Adapted from UNESCO’s framework for
21st Century Learning at Microsoft
Artificial intelligence, Learning at the science and are virtually present on visits
<Microsoft in Education> A Framework Creating an machine analytics, classroom level and to museums, national parks and so on.
cloud technologies, data
for Innovation environment of role of technology There could be an impact on how 1:1 (one to
analytics and education one) learning could be facilitated in digital
in context of excellence and role tools can be deployed There are several aspects that contribute classrooms. This could be very powerful
Education of technology in meaningful ways to to excellence in education at an individual, as students could work collaboratively on

The Innovation framework on Education

provide better insights institution, state and policy level. As an projects during and outside the classroom.
The role of the leadership and teachers is
draws from UNESCO’s work in this area,
into student’s work and individual, it would be helpful to not only It could involve the use of Digital Class
extremely important for excellence at an
where the focus is on the learner. In order institutional level. A culture of innovation
performance. build academic foundations, but also build Notebook and also be an important way
experiential learning. This would involve of getting feedback. A digital classroom
to drive excellence at an institutional level, needs to be created at the Institution.
collaboration within and outside the can be created through the use of One
there are four key areas to be addressed. However, this needs to be coupled with
The student has to be at the center of creating the right learning environment
Assessments and feedback also
the learning experience. The role of the and infrastructure at an institution. This constitute an important element of the
teacher needs to be that of the facilitator. is not only at the classroom level but at the learning. Microsoft’s One Notebook
An educator helps deploy technology institution, district and state level. enables powerful learning experiences as
meaningfully to drive engaging learning The focus of this article is to share the teacher can create Digital Notebooks
experiences in the classroom. insights on how technology and ICT for all students and can monitor their
1 Leadership and culture of innovation at infrastructure can greatly influence the work. The students can work on the same
The role of the teacher needs the Institute learning, management and governance document and also record feedback. One
to be that of a facilitator. at an individual, school, district, state Notebook is a powerful tool for having
2 Building the capacity of teachers
An educator helps deploy and national level. Artificial intelligence, multiple formats, documents, videos,
 reating learning environment for machine analytics, cloud technologies, Excel, Powerpoint and word files all at the
technology meaningfully students data analytics and education tools can be same location. It is a great tool for fostering
to drive engaging learning
 elooking at Teaching and Assessments deployed in meaningful ways to provide collaborative learning.
experiences in the classroom. to drive collaborative and innovative better insights into students’ work and The use of Office 365 enables a rich,
experiences for students performance. The vision has to be in collaborative and a dynamic environment

32 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 33



can help students build projects to solve

Governance at a credits between Universities. There have
problems that matter to India. Several been steps undertaken around creating
industry players have come forward in
The possibilities of District/State Level new courses and a quality process has
support of this initiative and are working transforming the digital For governance at an institutional or a been institutionalised to set this up. This
with schools. Microsoft has also adopted landscape are massive. state level, cloud could be meaningfully is a great initiative, which has potential to
25 schools to build exposure to emerging The ability to . . . tracking utilised to drive insights into student impact 30 million students across India.
technology areas for students and teachers journeys of students and performance and impact the dropout The system of credit for courses taken up is
in these schools. ratio from schools. High school dropout a great strength and also helps build multi-
teachers as well as taking
rates pose challenges to the demand disciplinary exposure for the student.
steps to empower them The possibilities of transforming the
for a skilled manpower. Approximately
Technology at every step by building 250 million students are enrolled in our digital landscape are massive. The ability to
solutions in unique identities can be schools, however a huge number drop out have entire student data, teacher data and

Education leveraged in so many ways. every year, leading to lost opportunities. tracking journeys of students and teachers
The Government of Andhra Pradesh as well as taking steps to empower them at
There are several innovative solutions every step by building unique identities can
leverages Machine Intelligence and
available, which are around technology be leveraged in so many ways.
Cloud to understand the risk of post
infrastructure management, content,
10 class dropouts with an objective

student management, creating identities

to enable ground officers to develop
for learning. Bing as a search engine
for students and employees, managing
targeted intervention in order prevent Summing up
the examination and admission systems,
provides a safe search environment for potential dropouts. These initiatives may There is an urgent need to build exposure
alumni network, creating research
students. Intune enables management of include subsidies, programmes and other to technology in the domain of education.
infrastructure and storing data and backups
devices in educational context. So there interventions to help schools improve UNESCO’s framework of education focuses
for the Institution.
are several Apps and tools that can take graduation rate. This has enabled 600,000 on building student competencies. To
From a learning perspective, there could
classroom learning to a very different level. predictions each in 2015 & 2016 . achieve this, it is important to build the
be digital repositories, resource materials
The use case scenarios and an The development of a MOOC platform capacity of teachers and also look at the
across grades, assessment frameworks,
understanding of the benefits of at a state level has a great ramification for technology and ICT infrastructure. There
platforms for learning such as MOOC, LMS,
this engagement would have policy learning opportunities for students and is a need to look beyond text books and
Flipped Classroom. Microsoft has piloted
implications as well. Merely deploying teachers not only in India but anywhere collaboration needs to be fostered with the
several Digital Classrooms in several states
technology is not sufficient. Investing in the world. The Ministry of Human external world. Exposure to newer areas
in India where the infrastructure- Digital
in capacity building of teachers and also Resource Development, Government of such as coding, entrepreneurship, cloud,
class notebooks with inking capability,
providing a robust infrastructure, which India has undertaken a great step in setting app development, sustainable development
internet, power back up and projection
facilitates power backups, internet, use up Swayam, which allows transfer of needs to be encouraged. Technology can
system were facilitated. This was also

of devices that have inking capability can supported with content and exposure to play such a phenomenal role in driving
take learning to a very different level. technology led teaching for the teachers. individual and organisational excellence.
Understanding the entire framework for Both these interventions and support Cloud and machine intelligence can help
implementing such solutions is important from the government brought in very
Education is a key pillar of development for the better governance at the state and district
and must be considered when planning for distinctive experiences for students and Government of Andhra Pradesh. Our work with Microsoft on level. At the school level, innovative
ICT implementation at schools. teachers. There are some wonderful tech predictive analytics is to see if we can better predict student solutions can create a more connected
The Government of India is also start ups in education who have done some dropouts before they actually dropout and use the data to do ecosystem of teachers, parents and
building up exposure to newer technologies amazing work in the domain of education students. More personalisation is possible
customised interventions to stop the dropouts. We now have a
and promoting the spirit of innovation solutions. Whether it is about designing through innovative use of technology.
Merely deploying technology in schools. Niti Aayog’s (Government of
360-degree view of students, mapped to close to 100 variables. The barriers of geography, language,
assessments, which link to Bloom’s
is not sufficient. Investing in India’s policy think tank) initiative- Atal taxonomy for learning; writing report cards Through this solution, the AP Government is confident of socio-economic background can all be
capacity building of teachers Tinkering Labs is an amazing program, which give deeper insights into the progress acquiring a ‘more nuanced understanding’ of the situation. overcome with great learning and teaching
and also providing a robust which has been developed to support of a student through various grades and Machine Learning will contribute towards better governance. experiences if right investments in

infrastructure . . . can take innovation and out of the box thinking by demonstrating dashboards at a school level, technology infrastructure can be coupled
school students. Niti Aayog has invited Mr. R P Sisodia, Principal Secretary, School Education Department, Government with capacity building of educators. The
the possibilities are many. These solutions
learning to a very different of Andhra Pradesh, is convinced of the ability of Machine Learning and analytics.
the industry to also step in and extend could alter the way decisions are made for new policies must take into account the
He firmly believes it is important to get cutting-edge technologies into Governments.
level. support to schools and expose them to capacity building and monitoring progress various learning opportunities through
innovation and new technologies that at the school level. technology solutions.

34 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 35



pedagogies where students are co-creators and intercultural communication but also
of knowledge are required. provides innovative tools for assessing
It is important that educational these highly complex skills. Thus, the
institutions especially schools equip programme provides teachers with
students with necessary social and tools to teach and promote such critical
emotional skills for the 21st century. skills and assess the young learners. The
Research suggests that social-emotional programme is conducted online and allows
skills can be taught. This was highlighted young learners to connect with peers from
in a large review on social-emotional digitally remote parts of the world.
skills in 270,034 students in kindergarten
through the 12th grade2. The review found
social-emotional learning programmes How do we do it?
in schools not only improved social-
The pilot phase of the transformative
emotional skills, but also increased positive
learning labs programme was launched
attitudes towards school, positive social
in June 2015. The programme reached out
behaviour and academic performance.
to grade 7 students (12-14 years) across
These programmes also decreased the
6 schools from diverse socio economic
likelihood of kids getting in trouble or and cultural contexts in New Delhi,
It is time that we move experiencing emotional problems. India. Students connected through an
beyond the traditional There is a need to arm schools with online platform and held discussions
‘banking model’ of teaching, strategies and skills that can enable on issues related to migration. The team
where students are treated them to produce future citizens who are conducted pre and post assessments of the
as empty vessels to be filled. equipped for collaborative living as well as programme, collating and analysing large
the right attitudes and values necessary for sets of qualitative and quantitative data.
such an existence. The programme was further refined and
UNESCO MGIEP’s DICE The Learning redesigned and phase II of the programme
Labs project is one such initiative; it

The Learning Labs

was launched with select schools from India,
is designed to connect middle school USA, Norway, South Africa and Malaysia.
students from varied social, economic To enable the teachers to facilitate the
and cultural contexts and help them programme, a Toolkit was developed on
engage in digital dialogue from across the the theme of migration. The toolkit is
globe, allowing them to share ideas and essentially a collation of lesson plans on the
drive their own learning on issues related issue of migration embedded in core topics
to peace and sustainable development. such as ratios and percentages, human and
The programme not only helps in animal migration, social movements and
Aditi Pathak
promoting skills such as critical thinking, gender issues, taught in the regular teaching
collaboration, empathy, perspective taking learning practice in middle schools globally.

he world around us is they face individually and collectively.
changing rapidly. There has This can be achieved only if we bring
been a debate globally about about a change in teaching and learning The programme is
the kind of knowledge and processes. Thus, the need of the hour is to conducted online
skills that are important for foster innovative, dynamic, and interactive and connects
Aditi Pathak is currently working as
the increasingly diverse, interconnected, pedagogies. It is time that we move students digitally,
Associate Project Officer at UNESCO and innovation-oriented societies of the beyond the traditional ‘banking model’ of
providing young learners
MGIEP and has been leading 21st century. Thus, learning in 21st century teaching 1, in which students are treated as
to connect with peers
the implementation of DICE The cannot be limited to literacy and numeracy empty vessels to be filled. For learners pose
Learning Labs programme since but should be broadened to enable questions, analyse, take action on social, from digitally remote
the last 3 years. students to think, deliberate and address political and cultural issues that influence parts of the world.
contemporary socio-emotional problems and shape their lives, emancipatory

36 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 37



alternative to traditional measures. Apart

from the games, picture based assessments
were also used to measure the change in
attitudes and perspectives of the students
over a period of 6 weeks. Traditional
methods of assessments such as surveys
and questionnaires were also used.
Phase II of the Transformative Learning
Labs programme concluded in a three
day long workshop organised from 12-
14 July, 2017 at India Habitat Centre,
New Delhi. Students and teachers from
United States, Malaysia, India, Norway
and South Africa participated in the
Online teacher trainings were conducted workshop and came together to share
on the programme to help familiarise the their experiences and learnings from the
teachers with the programme and introduce programme. The workshop started with
Top: Hall of Heroes, a game developed an inaugural address by Dr. Anantha
them to the assessment tools.
and designed to assess SE skills for the Kumar Duraiappah, Director UNESCO
Research indicates that project based
middle school students. MGIEP, during which he highlighted the
Below: Transformative Learning Labs learning and engaging in intercultural
importance of ‘dialogue’ and ‘constructive
worshop organised in New Delhi, India saw dialogue helps in promoting skills such as
engagement’ amongst young people for
participants from United States, Malaysia, critical thinking, self awareness, respect for
India, Norway and South Africa. mutual understanding and collaboration.
others, perspective taking and appreciating
The address was followed by ice breaking
diversity. A set of innovative tools were exercises and experience sharing by
used to assess student growth on above the students and teachers, in which the
mentioned skills. According to research, participants spoke about how ‘sharing
social emotional (SE) skills are key to doing different perspective enhanced their
well in school and are not only important for understanding of multiple identities and
doing well socially but academically as well. their ability to accommodate differing
There are very few fun and engaging ways
to assess these skills. In order to effectively
It was for the first time that students
assess the SE skills of participating and teachers, who had been interacting
students, the project team used Hall of with each other online met in person.
Heroes, a game developed and designed
to assess SE skills for the middle school
students. The game provided an effective
Excursion trips to the National Crafts
Museum and an ethnic dinner were also
organised to help participants understand
the local cultures and interact with each
other informally. As part of the exercise
on collaboration and cross cultural

communication, a two day workshop
on participatory film making was also
organised. The workshop was facilitated

by the renowned film maker, Krishnendu
Bose, during which students from different
countries came together, brainstormed
and collaboratively developed the idea of
a film entitled, ‘Candy Chaos’. The film
highlights the oneness of humankind and
similarities in spite of differences and is
available online:

Freire, P.1968
| Durlak et al., 2011
38 ISSUE 7 . 2018



Shri Chandrababu Naidu Shri Satya Pal Singh

Hon’ble Chief Minister, Minister of State for HRD,
Andhra Pradesh Govt. of India (Higher Education)

he three-day Transforming 1,700 registered participants (including 100+ presenter sessions and a dedicated
Education Conference for teachers, educators, learners, technology Learning and Startup Zone. TECH 2017
Humanity (TECH) 2017 and gaming experts, amongst others) from was supported by the State Government of
organised by UNESCO more than 75 countries and witnessed Andhra Pradesh and the Ministry of Human
MGIEP was held at Novotel highly engaging deliberations on the Resource Development, Government of
Varun Beach, Visakhapatnam from future of education, particularly on the India and will be held annually.
December 16 – 18, 2017, focused on digital innovative methods of teaching using For further details, please follow
pedagogies for building peaceful and technology. Over the 3 days, TECH UNESCO MGIEP’s social media channels.
sustainable societies – through 21st century comprised of 2 Headline Sessions, A detailed coverage of the TECH 2017 will be
skills, schools and policies.  including that of award-winning Prof. covered in Blue Dot 8 (due for release in July,
The conference was attended by over Sugata Mitra, over 50 catalytic speakers, 2018).
Dr. Mila Thomas Fuller Shri Ganta Srinivasa Rao Dr. Ali Abdul Khaliq Al-karni Shri Y S Chowdary
President, Board of Directors, Hon’ble Minister of HRD Director General of the Arab Bureau Minister of State for Science &
ISTE Andhra Pradesh of Education for the Gulf States Technology & Earth Sciences


Education Technology Partner Immersive Technology Partner Learning Science Partner

Knowledge Partners

Ms. Roza Otunbayeva

Former President, Kyrgyzstan

Dr. Sugata Mitra Dr. Heather Knight

Transformational Ed -Tech Entrepreneurs
Newcastle University, UK Oregon State University

40 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 41



Dr. Yoko Mochizuki and
Dr. Nandini Chatterjee Singh

Why ‘re-think’
learning ?

n the last two decades, our Education is a complex system
knowledge about the neuro- because it is composed of multi-scale
biological basis of human cognition hierarchical organisations. Each
and learning has dramatically subsystem also operates on a distinct
increased. Today there is much time scale. Hence, changes to the
excitement around the idea that recent complex system of education emerge
advances in neuroscience unlock the only through incremental processes,
potential of ‘science-based’ education often with unintended consequences.
and lead new visions of learning for the Whatever pedagogical innovations
21st century. At the same time, over the or recommendations for curriculum
past quarter of a century, new approaches development might emerge—whether
to the study of complex systems have inspired by the UN Sustainable
been developed by mathematicians Development Goals (SDGs), driven
and scientists (including biophysical, by major technological, geopolitical,
computer, social and organisational environmental or other social changes,
scientists), offering tools for qualitative or derived from latest insights from the
reasoning about complex systems as well neurosciences, we must keep in mind that
as for quantitative modelling and they are unlikely to have significant impact
simulation. It is critical to recognise that unless the entire system is reconfigured to
education systems are complex systems support learning.
that do not change overnight. Insights from the complex systems’
theory could inform the processes of
. . . whatever pedagogical innovations or curriculum revisions and, more broadly, of
recommendations for curriculum development systemic reform in education. Researchers
might emerge . . . we must keep in mind that they from the United States developed a
schematic representation of four critical
are unlikely to have significant impact unless the
components of school education and
entire system is reconfigured to support learning. their illustration at different levels, from
classroom to policy (Figure 1).

42 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 43



It has shifted attention away from critical disagree with the importance of context
HOW IS LEARNING Organised? factors beyond completion of primary in learning for peace and sustainability,
education in fulfilling the promise of sweeping calls for mainstreaming holistic
education. With a focus on access, neither and transformative learning in formal,
Transition across levels
Demographic trends Standards Conceptual level the content of education nor pedagogy non-formal and informal learning
Instructional workforce have taken a centre stage in international settings mean that a necessary focus on
Coherence & accountability
Sustainable Development
Teacher recruitment and policies education debates. the particular challenge of re-designing
Teacher certification
POLICY level Goal (SDG) 4, Target 7 . . . Admittedly there have been rich and curricula to meet the 21st century challenges
Standardised testing
has been interpreted as diverse efforts to make the content of has largely been lost. What is lacking are
System options Incentives signalling an international education more relevant for the 21 century
concrete examples of exactly how we can

Local education needs Instructional leadership level consensus on the and articulate competencies necessary to reorient the mainstream curriculum to
engage creatively and responsibly with foster desirable competencies, as well
importance of ‘soft skills’
Distribution of internal the world. UNESCO’s work on Education as strategies and tools to foster such
and external resources and a renewed attention
SCHOOL level for Sustainable Development (ESD) and competencies that are informed by new
to ‘life skills’.

Alignment Teacher professional development Global Citizenship Education (GCED) has insights into learning.
benefited from and contributed to these
Available resources Teacher expectations
efforts. Indeed, SDG 4, Target 7, focusing
Assessment data available
Pedagogical content knowledge
By 2030 ensure all
learners acquire knowledge
on ESD, GCED and other related value- The Emergence
and skills needed to promote
based education has been interpreted as of SEL as a Policy
4 sustainable development, including signalling an international consensus
3 How people learn
Which people learn 1 (cognition)
among others through education on the importance of ‘soft skills’ and a
Where people learn (equity) for sustainable development and renewed attention to ‘life skills’. But the At the onset of the implementation of
(context) 2 sustainable lifestyles, human rights, reality is that ESD and GCED have been the SDGs, we are witnessing a growing
What people learn gender equality, promotion of a commonly implemented as ‘add-ons’, popularity of efforts to support children
(content) culture of peace and non-violence,
Figure 1 without really impacting the education and youth become more socially and
global citizenship, and appreciation
system or the mainstream education policy. emotionally competent. Between 2015
of cultural diversity and of culture’s
contribution to sustainable In the long traditions of value-based and 2017, UNESCO, the OECD, the World
This model uses as variables the following: learning needs for all. This commitment
Source: Adapted from Lemke, J.L. & Sabello,
development. and action-oriented education now Bank, the World Economic Forum (WEF),
N. (2008), Complex Systems and Educational Change:
1 Cognition (how people learn) was affirmed in the 2000 Dakar Framework
Towards a New Research Agenda. Educational captured in SDG 4.7, ‘whole-school and the Brookings Institution all developed
Philosophy and Theory 40(1), 118 – 129. Available for Action’s Goal 6, which focused on
2 Content (what people learn) approaches’ have been widely viewed as their own individual publications, which
ea252e7234e198d530015e8036a0.pdf ‘improving every aspect of the quality of
the ultimate desirable form of learning highlighted the importance of social and
education, and ensuring their excellence so
3 Context (where people learn or intervention, exemplifying the spirit of emotional dimension(s) of learning.1
that recognised and measurable learning
learning environment) ‘learning by doing’ and creating an ethos There is a broad consensus that students
outcomes are achieved by all, especially
of peace and sustainability at the school should develop not only cognitive skills
4 Equity (which people learn and why) in literacy, numeracy and essential life
and the community level. While few would (both ‘foundational skills’ of literacy and

skills’. As the 2015 target year of the EFA
With these four critical components goals and Millennium Development Goals
of learning—cognition, content, context, (MDGs) approached, there was mounting
. . . improving every and learner—in mind, this article concern that millions of children and youth
contexualises UNESCO MGIEP’s activities do not have the basic knowledge and skills
aspect of the quality of TO AN INCLUSIVE AND
to rethink learning and reorient education necessary to succeed in school and life—let
education, and ensuring QUALITY EDUCATION
systems towards peace and sustainable alone possess knowledge and skills required
their excellence so that development. to navigate the changing world and shape a
recognised and measurable
See UNESCO (2015), Global Citizenship Education:
more sustainable and peaceful society. Topics and Learning Objectives; OECD (2015),
learning outcomes are While EFA has always been not only Skills for Social Progress: The Power of Social
and Emotional Skills; World Bank (2017), World
achieved by all, especially A renewed focus about guaranteeing access but also about Development Report 2018:Learning to Realize
Education’s Promise; World Economic Forum (2016),
in literacy, numeracy and on learning achieving quality learning for all, the strong
focus on education-related MDGs (MDG 2
Industry Agenda: New Vision for Education: Fostering
Social and Emotional Learning through Technology;
essential life skills The 1990 adoption of the Education on universal primary education and MDG 3
and The American Enterprise Institute for Public
Policy Research (AEI) and the Brookings Working
2000 Dakar Framework for Action’s Goal 6
for All (EFA) goals demonstrated an on gender equality) has somehow distorted
Group on Poverty and Opportunity (2015), Opportunity, COGNITIVE SKILLS SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL SKILLS
Responsibility, and Security: A Consensus Plan for
international commitment to meeting basic progress with the original intent of EFA. Reducing Poverty and Restoring the American Dream.

44 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 45



and Washington developed SEL standards In the face of rising incidences of violent and (iii) measurable. In the U.S., where
for pre-school through early elementary extremist attacks in recent years, the SEL is becoming a policy priority, many
NEOCORTEX The SEL movement
grades2. In the U.S., SEL and the associated potential role of education in preventing, school-based SEL programmes focus on
THINKING BRAIN concepts such as ‘character development’, is making a valuable mitigating or ameliorating such risks fostering Emotional Intelligence (EI), or
Angela Duckworth’s ‘grit’, and Carol contribution to SDG 4 has begun to catalyse the SEL movement skill sets related to cognitive processing of
Dweck’s ‘growth mindset’ have emerged as on education, sensitising internationally. Before getting on the awareness and emotion and the integration
a key policy priority. bandwagon of SEL and contributing to its of emotional information with social-
educators and policy
This phenomenon needs to be worldwide dissemination, however, we interactional skills.
understood against the backdrop that the
makers to the importance
must critically look at the contemporary The model of SEL focusing on cognitive
U.S. has tried to fix the problem of low of the emotional domain SEL advocacy largely originating from the information processing and self-
academic performance (mainly of socio- in learning U.S. and its main assumptions. management (emotion monitoring and
economically disadvantaged students) regulation) resonates with an emerging
over the last two decades through an trend of personalised education enabled

emphasis on standards and accountability,
PARALIMBIC by educational technologies. Here, the 21st
introducing federal programmes such as
EMOTIONAL / century SEL movement meets the ed-tech

FEELING BRAIN ‘No Child Left Behind’ (under President
industry. A source of immense optimism
Figure 2
George W. Bush) and ‘Every Student
expressed by SEL advocates and the ed-tech

Succeeds’ (under President Obama)3.
industry is the presumed ‘measurability’ of
SEL is essentially being promoted as a
It is worthwhile to point out two individual competencies, whether in SEL,

numeracy and ‘higher-order’ cognitive cure for poor academic performance and
important pieces of human brain Mathematics or English language learning.
skills such as critical thinking skills) but also behaviourial problems. The Hamilton
design that are relevant here. The first The bottom line for SEL advocates and the
social and emotional skills—also referred to Project—launched in 2006 as an
is that, the human brain is broadly ed-tech industry is that individual strengths
demarcated into the neocortex and
as ‘soft skills’ or ‘non-cognitive skills’. economic policy initiative at the Brookings SEL and SDG 4.7
At a glance, this seems like nothing and weaknesses can be assessed and
the paralimbic cortex. Social and Institution by academics, business people,
What is driving the contemporary SEL ameliorated through learning interventions
emotional attributes such as self- new. It resonates with a familiar call for the and policymakers to address the challenges
advocacy is the simple and alluring idea that based on cognitive sciences and customised
control, compassion and empathy development of a ‘whole person’. However, faced by the U.S. economy—makes this
- which are necessary for forming social and emotional skills are (i) necessary for individual needs, and that eventually all
what is new at the beginning of the 21st point in no uncertain terms: ‘Noncognitive
human connections are functions of (to address long-standing educational
century is the fascination with the idea that skill development interventions improve . . . changing the ethos of learners can become more academically,
the paralimbic cortex. The neocortex problems of low academic performance socially and emotionally competent.
on the other hand, houses functions
social and emotional skills can be taught— student achievement and reduce classrooms and schools
and behaviour problems of disadvantaged But the focus on individual SEL abilities
an insight reflecting the advancement behaviour-related problems4’. to cultivate experiences of
such as language, numeracy, literacy students), (ii) teachable or, as OECD’s Skills
of neuroscience research on emotions The SEL advocacy seems to be finding and deficiencies runs a risk of ‘remedial’
and decision making. The second is the caring and collaboration is for Social Progress puts it, ‘malleable and
in cognition and its dissemination and a niche in the global education agenda or ‘deficit’ model of education. When we
notion that like reading and numeracy,
empathy, self-control and compassion popularisation in recent years. (see Figure today. First of all, it provides high hopes
urgently needed. improvable’ (as opposed to the conventional focus on what is ‘wrong’ with the individual
idea that these are character or personality learner and ‘what works’ to change
can also be trained. This is possible 2). There seems to be a great appeal to the for fulfilling the broken promise of EFA
because of a phenomenon referred to traits than cannot be explicitly taught), individual behaviour, we tend to shift our
idea that we can train our brains like we and addressing the ‘learning crisis’ the
as ‘neuroplasticity’ in which the brain train our muscles. world is facing. Many developing countries attention away from the equally, if not more,
rewires its connections during the
Since the early 1990s, social and have achieved or are nearing the goal of critical aspects of what can and should be
process of learning.
emotional learning (SEL) has been universal primary education, yet millions done to transform education for humanity.
gaining traction in the United States. The of children are leaving school without even
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and the most basic skills. Furthermore, another 2
See CASEL (2017), Identifying K-12 Standards for SEL
Emotional Learning (CASEL), the most key factor driving the SEL movement in in all 50 States, available at
powerful SEL campaigning organisation American education finds a perfect parallel Feb2017.pdf. The development of SEL standards in the
in the U.S., aspires to integrate ‘evidence- in the context of global implementation U.S. followed a 2001 resolution on the school teaching of
socioemotional skills passed by the National Conference of
based’ SEL into state education and ‘to of SDG 4.7: heightened concerns over State Legislators (an NGO established in 1975 to serve the
members and staff of state legislatures of the U.S.).
turn momentum for SEL into a national the (perceived and real) vulnerability of 3
The RAND Corporation reviewed recent evidence on U.S.-
movement.’ In 2004, Illinois became the children and youth to a range of social and based SEL interventions for K–12 students under the Every
Student Succeeds Act and published in 2017 a report to help
first state to develop comprehensive, free- psychological problems such as substance federal, state and district education policymakers identify
standing K-12 standards for SEL. By 2017, abuse, violence, bullying and suicide. relevant, evidence-based SEL interventions that meet their
local needs.
Kansas and West Virginia followed Illinois What has recently been added to the list of 4
See Seven Facts on Noncognitive Skills from Education to
in developing K-12 SEL standards, and behavioural and psychological problems the Labor Market, available at http://www.hamiltonproject.
Connecticut, Idaho, Ohio, Massachusetts is radicalisation to violent extremism. education_to_the_labor_market.

46 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 47



SEL does not contribute to changing the fostering intelligence that integrates good practices (including, but not limited
competitive ethos of schooling and society— reason and emotion. UNESCO MGIEP will to, those aimed at building ‘emotional
1 Inquiry driven 1 Altruism
2 Open mindedness LIBRE 2 Cognitive
and the mindless pursuit of narrow and
short-term interests on a massive scale and
undertake projects to provide concrete
guidance on fostering such intelligence
intelligence’). It will cover a wide range
of academic literature on alternative and
3 Diffusing flexibility
unsustainable patterns of development. in a holistic and transformational way. holistic education approaches, including
certainty 3 Action As UNESCO MGIEP derives its mandate the notion of cooperative learning space
for change from SDG 4.7 on ‘knowledge and skills 1 Libre and the development of self-regulated and
Critical Compassion for sustainable development’, promoting self-motivated learners.
Inquiry To inspire and harness SEL that is more
SEL simply for the sake of making students
consistent with the aspirations of SDG
more competitive falls short of—or is even 3 Digital Pedagogies
4.7, UNESCO MGIEP has developed a
1 Multi- Empathy 1 Emotional
counterproductive to—our aspiration of
model entitled Libre. Libre is UNESCO Despite high hopes and hypes surrounding
sensory resonance transforming education for humanity. the power of technology in transforming
Mindfulness MGIEP’s flagship initiative to design
So what would be next steps for UNESCO education, educational systems are still
2 Attention 2 Perspective an SEL curriculum. Libre will focus on
MGIEP? largely untouched by technology as a
regulation taking building the 3R’s of SEL, namely Attention
Regulation (AR), Emotion Regulation ‘game changer’ in learning. Viewing ICT
3 Emotion 3 Fostering
regulation New Integrative social (ER) and Cognitive Regulation (CR). as an enabler for immersive, self-directed
Next steps for
Curriculum connection Through piloting of Libre in ten countries, learning, UNESCO MGIEP is exploring
UNESCO MGIEP UNESCO MGIEP will engage deeply with
what digital pedagogies for peace and
sustainability can and should look like.
questions of respect for cultural diversity.
At a glance, the contemporary SEL UNESCO MGIEP will develop platforms
Establishing the empirical basis for and
movement appears to be in congruence where teachers and students can co-create
effectiveness of SEL needs to take place
with UNESCO’s humanistic agenda in and share a highly interactive digital
in the context of redefining the ultimate
education now encapsulated in SDG learning experience. These platforms will
purpose of education—a transformative
4.7. But a closer look at the rationale attempt to combine the best features of a
shift in the lens with which policymakers
While the remedial approach may be rather for promoting SEL put forward by textbook and a digital learning platform,
Libre is UNESCO MGIEP’s and educators examine the nature of
harmless in an individualised mathematics organisations such as OECD and WEF— while enabling teachers to attend to
flagship initiative to design which, by no coincidence, focus on
desirable competencies in the 21st century.
learning experience, the predominant SEL the interests and needs of individual
a curriculum for ‘Social- approaches shift our focus away from the economic development—makes it clear learners, make complex interdisciplinary
Emotional Leaning (SEL) that the purpose of education continues 2 The State of SEL Review connections, and relate to students as equal
critical importance of social and cultural
to be conceived in instrumentalist terms. SEL programmes, if decontextualised and partners in learning.
contexts within which the learner is
SEL is largely promulgated as a means modularised without sufficient respect
to produce human resources to ensure for cultural diversity and concerns for The response of the educational system
No doubt the SEL movement is making
national economic competitiveness the politics of schooling, can promote to the public demands for reform, planetary
a valuable contribution to SDG 4 on
whether the goal is conceptualised as to an alarmingly individualist and robotic imperatives of sustainable development,
education, sensitising educators and policy
‘promote social progress’ (OECD) or to view of children and youth—all while and the new threats and opportunities
makers to the importance of the emotional
‘equip students to succeed in the swiftly emphasising the importance of empathy created by technological advancements
domain in learning. In an era when
evolving digital economy’ (WEF). and compassion. Over the course of must be guided by the combined expertise
educational debate worldwide has come
We must ask the ‘what works’ question next two years, UNESCO MGIEP will and innovative ideas of the interdisciplinary
to be framed by a narrowly economistic
not only in terms of cognition (how people review rich and diverse traditions of research community, and by decision-
and instrumentalist agenda, changing the
learn) but also of other critical components approaching social and emotional skills making driven by quantitative and
ethos of classrooms and schools to cultivate in different parts of the world to propose
of learning, and in the broader context qualitative educational research. There
experiences of caring and collaboration of planetary imperatives of sustainable an approach to SEL that is consistent will be no shortage of organisations and
is urgently needed. In much of the work development. SDG 4.7 must go far beyond with the transformative aspirations of ed-tech companies promoting SEL for
by SEL advocates, however, social and teaching good behaviour; it needs to UNESCO MGIEP will SDG 4.7. In Japan, for example, abundant their instrumental purposes in the years to
emotional skills are valued not so much as promote the kind of learning that fosters develop platforms where academic literature exists on the place of come. UNESCO’s role should be not just
Meaningful implementation a foundation for building a more peaceful reflective and engaged citizenship—to teachers and students can emotion in schooling that provides insights catalysing the SEL movement but to reframe
and sustainable world, but as a key way of overcome rigidity and cynicism and into what SEL can look like in different and redirect the movement for fixing the
of SDG 4.7 rests on fostering co-create and share a highly
boosting academic attainment and personal respond to unforeseen challenges and cultural contexts. In 2018, an initial broken promise of ensuring quality learning
intelligence that integrates interactive digital learning
gains. So long as SEL is seen primarily as changes beyond our individual control desk review will synthesise the research for all. UNESCO MGIEP’s Operation
reason and emotion. something that gives an ‘edge’ to individual with hope and ingenuity. Meaningful
experience. evidence on approaches to fostering Rethink inevitably involves rethinking the
students to succeed in school and life, implementation of SDG 4.7 rests on social and emotional skills and identify predominant model of SEL itself.

48 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 49



Do you believe that current from shaping compassionate and
education systems are equipped to empathetic students?
provide students with the right skills to There are several factors that make it
develop more peaceful and sustainable difficult to shape compassionate students,
societies? most notably the absence of the political and
I have always believed If this question is about the Arab world, moral project at the state level, the inability
in a fact: that there I believe that the current education systems to deal with emotions and questions of
is no peace without are unable to provide the needed skills for students, in addition to extremist platforms,
development and there students, as there are obvious deficiencies including media outlets and social media,
regarding the curriculum and teacher which could reach them, deal with them
is no development
qualification in addition to the shortage the way they like, and provide answers to
without peace. . . their questions, even if these questions were
of equipment and laboratories that help
Development plans, increase students’ capacities to absorb not correct (unclear). Therefore, attention
where women and the educational content and develop their should be paid on methodologies to increase
young people are not mental and physical skills. There are good the level of rational thinking among
taken into account, are examples of successful schools, but they are students and encourage their questions
few. As for the current education systems, instead of oppressing them.
empty and useless.
they still suffer from several weaknesses
and they are not keeping up with the latest What is the connection between
developments related to techniques and education systems and women’s rights?
laws. Family and education contribute
significantly to women’s access to their
Ms Tawakkol Karman is a mother of INTERVIEW
In a peaceful and sustainable rights and helps prevent their margina-
three as well as a human rights activist,

Tawakkol Karman
journalist, politician and President of
society, what does the education system lisation and persecution. Societies with
Women Journalists without Chains. She look like? a high education rate are better able to
is the General Coordinator of Peaceful In my view, the education system will be understand women’s demands and are
Youth Revolution Council and a Member of more developed, and will be a catalyst for less likely to oppress them. Education is
the Advisory Board for the Transparency the acquisition of different skills, creativity essential in correcting wrong behaviors
In commemoration of the International Day of Non-Violence on October 2, 2017,
International Organisation and for several and innovation, as well as critical thinking. and misconceptions towards women.
Ms. Tawakkol Karman delivered the second Ahinsa Lecture at the UNESCO Headquarters,
international non-government organisations
Paris on the theme ‘Working Towards Peace Building and Sustainable Development’. Ahinsa Such skills would never be accepted by
focused on human rights. Ms. Karman is bold What do you think are the main
is derived from Sanskrit word ‘hims’, meaning injury and its opposite (a-himsā meaning any tyrannical regime that is based on
and outspoken and has been imprisoned on
without any injury) refers to non-violence. This ethical philosophy was popularised by Mahatma indoctrination instead of debate and free tools for fighting violent extremism?
numerous occasions for her pro-democracy
Gandhi, the greatest champion of nonviolence in the world. The Ahinsa Lecture brings forth thinking. There is no doubt that education is one
and pro-human rights protests. Amongst
public speakers of the highest calibre active in the field of peace and non-violence to the of the tools that can help eliminate the
Yemen’s Youth movement, she is known as
forum for the benefit of peace builders, policymakers, youth, UNESCO Member states and If the goal is to prevent violent ignorance that leads to violent extremism.
‘the mother of the revolution’, ‘iron woman’,
international community. The Ahinsa Lecture is organised to mark the International Day of extremism, what skills do students Besides education, however, other
and most recently as ‘the lady of the Arab
Non-Violence celebrated on 2 October to mark the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
spring’. Ms. Karman was awarded the Nobel need in order to not fall susceptible to fundamental factors are required to
Peace Prize in 2011 in recognition of her work Post the lecture, we spoke with Ms. Karman and gathered her views on the role of education extreme ideologies? overcome extremism and terrorism.
in non-violent struggle for the expression in preventing violent extremism. As mentioned earlier, in order for Freedom, democracy and justice help
rights, safety of women and for women’s
students to not be vulnerable to radical create cohesive and non-extremist

rights to full participation in peace-building
ideologies, they must be equipped with the societies. Tyranny dilutes education
work in Yemen. Upon being awarded the
prize, Ms. Karman became the first Yemeni, skill of critical thinking. Cognitive skills and creates extremism and terrorism.
the first Arab woman, and the second Muslim What role does the education in introducing them to students. I believe such as thinking, learning and the ability
system play in preventing violent that having a coherent, progressive and The Youth is a What social actors should be
woman at that time to win a Nobel Peace to discuss and criticise constructively away
Prize. She encompasses a great deal of extremism? contemporary education system is a crucial positive force that must from taboos are imperative for students involved in shaping education systems?
courage which she has shown, on countless Unquestionably, the educational factor in preventing the infiltration of be maintained and not to be more committed to logical reasoning They include states, researchers and
occasions, through her perseverance to extremist ideas. In the end, the educational
system plays a large role in both allowed to turn into a and not to be susceptible to any attempts institutions concerned with education
constantly confront injustice and build peace. preventing and spreading extremism. system plays a key role in whether the development, NGOs and students
negative force or a burden of polarisation.
In fact, this basically depends on the outcomes of the learning process are themselves. Students should be consulted
on society.
Interview by Akriti Mehra philosophy of education, and on the good or bad, and therefore the quality of What are the major current factors and allowed to assess what they are
Communications Specialist, UNESCO MGIEP school curriculums and the methods used education must be constantly monitored. that are inhibiting education systems studying.

50 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 51



What does the future of
education mean to you?
Sowing Peace:
One Mind at a time
International Youth Day, 2017
In order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, the role
of young people needs to change from being mere beneficiaries From Economy-worthy to Empathy-driven: Peace is the Bridge
to becoming active partners in implementing and monitoring

Education is the the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
hat comes to your mind Whole chapters in history are written by the
most powerful Education is To celebrate the International Youth Day, 2017, the Youth for when I say “education”? victor’s hand. Still more are written through a
weapon, which we about human Education, Sustainability and Peace (YESPeace) Network Reading? Writing? Or male lens, ignoring myriads of women who have
can use to change brought together voices of youth from around the world with
rights and dignity. is it Arithmetic? For made significant and meaningful contributions
a focus on SDG 4, Target 7.
the world. This is Irina Bokova the longest time, the through untiring efforts.
the time to change Kirthi JAYAKUMAR
world has suffered – yes, suffered – with the
We strive to create peaceful people, through
understanding of what education means. There
the world. is the founder of Red peaceful tools, peaceful language and peaceful
Elephant Foundation, is so much attention attached to the literacy
ways to solve conflict. Conflict is inevitable,
a partner organisation of component in education, to the extent that
Lesser the YESPeace Network- people think of education itself as all about
but, if we create a proclivity towards peace
competition … India Chapter. She is also making more and more people literate. While
in people around us, we naturally choose
more knowledge… an author, artist, actor that does serve a greater purpose and centres
peace, we naturally turn to peace, we naturally
more community and activist for peace and prioritise peace, and we don’t have place to
around building economy-worthy people who
gender. She is based in escalate conflict at any level. Be it a bully in
mobilisation Chennai, India.
have the ability to add to the world’s monetary
capacity, it stops short of adding to the empathy a classroom or two nations seeking ownership
that this world could gain a lot from having. over territory. In that understanding, there
is a very simple solution to finding peace
Education that Education is the By emphasising on the idea of economically
in peace education.
goes beyond the only thing that
empowering people to take on better jobs and
augment the productivity of the economy, we
confines of the will remain with Generations of students before me, along with
have not invested much in education for the me, and now, after me, have grown up without
classrooms and us forever through greater interests of peace. A social climate of learning the most important values of life: of
institutions, that everything we peace can thrive only if there is a communal empathy, of choosing peace and compassion
is ever evolving experience in life Education that builds approach to it through education, but not over hatred and violence, of choosing equality,
in terms of its on students’ strengths, just literacy-driven education – rather, peace tolerance and respect for one’s identity as
content and that instills self-confidence and education. they are instead of pushing constant agendas
which empowers encourages kids to be kinder, Everyone in today’s generation is fighting a war of ideals and non-conformism attracting
the individual to more compassionate, driving on borrowed hatred. Think about it. Samuel mistreatment. What if we taught non-violent
be better... people and leaders Huntington was incredibly correct that culture, communication while teaching rules of
ethnicity and such individual identity markers grammar, syntax and semantics? What if we
would come to sustain differences of opinion. taught history with the right telling, and with
War is deemed good for business and the the agenda to prevent repetition of history’s
coffers of a select few enablers, and that vested egregious failings? What if we taught geography
interest keeps an agenda of promoting hatred against the landscape of actual equality –
as the norm going. Terrorist outfits are feeding where we learned lessons from the earth’s
off the combined effect of marginalisation and diversity and imbibed it as positive lessons for
borrowed hatred. The world is burning with peace? What if we taught practical ways to use
Education is the hatred that is only kept alive through education numbers in a way that had practical solutions to
that is desperately in need of sensitisation. deter from conflict and choose peace instead?
path towards true
We have to make
it accessible.

52 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 53



Youth engagement in Europe

around the issues of education for peace, sustainable development
and global citizenship

ixty years ago, the European international portrait of how young people element of a weeklong summit with is no easy feat but remains paramount
Union was formed, mainly with feel: more like citizens of the world, rather discussions around education, citizenship when one tries to achieve the sustainable
the tenet of maintaining peace than citizens of Europe. Undeniably, our and sustainability. This highlighted just development goals.
on the continent. In 2017, the educational systems have failed to adapt how eager young people are to transform
Andreas Nath I do not stand solely on this matter. The
world has changed, and whilst such a sentiment to its fundamentals and both our educational and political sector to
Hirsch is the European global community through both SDG 4.7 and
peace remains of utmost importance, two have therefore not nurtured a concept achieve our idealistic vision. It stands as a
Director of the AYUDH, 12.8 have come a common census that we
the international youth other essential issues must be prioritised: embraced by many young Europeans. I call for more youth engagement in education
need to reform our educational systems.
movement of Mata sustainability and the challenges of believe if fully implemented through proper policies. Indeed, many of the senior panellists
This means: revolutionising how we see
Amritanandamayi Math globalisation. education for global citizenship, it will prove expected to deliver an exposé on the ingenuity
both the formal and informal domains,
(MAM). Andreas serves invaluable in creating future policy makers, of our education systems. However, they left
as the organisation’s As the world is becoming more reforming our curriculums and training
leaders and citizens who not only uphold the surprised at the level of insight, maturity and
Youth Representative to interconnected, the challenges we face as our teachers to help form students who
rule of law but act to fight global injustice sophistication that our nine youth panellists
the UN and is a member a global community grow in complexity. meet the needs of the future. Let us not be
and modify globalisation towards a system showed and came to appreciate that we
of the UN Inter-Agency Local actions in our respective regions have passive and expect others to implement the
Network on Youth of benefit to all, and not just a few. must act in coalition with the youth to alter
international ramifications, thus peace and SDGS, let us make them happen. Let us not
Development. He also these systems to foster: empathy, emotional
security on one continent cannot be seen Yet we, unfortunately, either underestimate wait for the world to change and the world
represents AYUDH in intelligence and a culture of the heart in
independently from that in other parts of the potential of our youth or neglect to give to wait on us.
the German National
the world. Social, economic and ecological them a platform to engage with many of young people. As Mata Amritanandamayi
Committee of the No- So, as a citizen of Europe, I call upon our
sustainability - on a global scale - are the issues facing our world. Whilst being (Amma), a great humanitarian and the
Hate-Speech Movement,
inspiration behind AYUDH, says: “There are policymakers, educators and learners alike
countering extremism crucial not only to ensure the prosperity of Director of the youth organisation ‘AYUDH
two kinds of education: education for living to transform our educational institutions
and racism online. our own and future generations, but also to Europe’, I have been fortunate enough to
and education for life.” While education for from mere places of theoretical learning
fight and prevent causes of displacement have become inspired by young people from
into hubs of action and platforms for
and conflict, caused by climate change diverse backgrounds. I have seen first- living is essential for success in the academic
dialogue, innovation and participation.
and social injustice. Against common hand, the intrinsic sense of determination, and economic sense, education for life equips
I call upon young Europeans to be
stereotypes, I think it would be ignorant ambition and dedication many young people young people with the knowledge, skills and
trustworthy, constructive and mature
to believe that the youth are unaware of share. Their uncanny insight into this world, values needed to lead an ethical, empowering
advocates and partners, initiating
the issues or indeed apathetic to their is second to none to their curiosity and and socially beneficial life.
conversations and driving change. In a
importance. ability to look optimistically towards their
I believe that once we have fostered an time when a majority of young Europeans
A testament to the youth’s engagement educational system that creates students recognise growing nationalism as a negative
with such matters can be seen through the At AYUDH’s recent youth summit ‘Educate. with the previous qualities and true evolution (Generation What survey), we
‘Generation What Survey’, which has been Cultivate. Participate’, we adopted UNESCO compassion, an unencumbered sense of need to ensure that education nurtures
conducted since 2013 by a partnership of MGIEP’s format of iTAGe (independently motivation to move towards a peaceful a mindset that reinforces the values and
two companies in France and the European organised ‘Talking Across Generations and sustainable world will be guaranteed. idea of Europe as a continent of peace,
Broadcasting Union. It stands as an on Education’ event), as the concluding Transforming our youth to have this mindset sustainability and global solidarity.

54 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 55



education o rd
a w earning
and empowering
as ethinking L
the young r ee e clues on R
F Follow th


o you buy the argument that education for peace has becoming increasingly 3

children and youth are inherently important.

peaceful, and that it is only the
One cannot afford to emphasise only the 2 11
adult world that rewires them to 1
knowledge of traditional school subjects or
Chintan Girish MODI be violent? I used to believe in
the soft skills currently in vogue. There is a
is a school teacher turned this line of thought, and imagined that education
peacebuilder who writes need to reorient education in a way that it
for peace should focus on transforming the
widely on arts, culture empowers young people to learn what it means 13
biased attitudes of adults instead of working with
and gender, apart from to be in someone else’s shoes, to connect with 10
school and college students. I can now see how
conducting student peers across the divisions created by caste, 12

workshops and teacher simplistic that approach was, especially with

gender identities, sexual preference, class,
trainings on education for the regular stream of news reports about young
ethnicity, language, and the other markers
peace. He is also the founder people engaging in acts of murder and rape.
that individuals use to define or describe 14
of Aao Dosti Karein. 16
The National Focus Group Position Paper on themselves. At the individual level, this is
Education For Peace, published by India’s possible only when we begin to look within,
National Council for Educational Research and and work with our own prejudices.
Training (NCERT) in 2006 mentions that 18 per
What can be done at the systemic level, in a 15
cent of the children interviewed for that paper
pragmatic way, beyond the niceties of lip service? 18
were “found to take pleasure in various acts of
Since the Indian education system revolves
violence...they enjoyed stoning little pups and
mainly around the textbook, which almost has 20
kittens, breaking flower buds off plants, holding
a scripture-like status in the classroom, that
butterflies between their fingers. Older children
might be the perfect place to begin. I had the 19
engaged in eve-teasing and ragging to the extent
opportunity to work on Textbooks for Sustainable er,
that it sometimes became fatal.”
Development: A Guide To Embedding published i n g u re , cha
ach nat dard
n in te lue, eone stan
This description is a clear departure from images by the UNESCO Mahatma Gandhi Institute 21 Dow s k illed f t h e va s o m e d
o r eci fi
of children as innocent, uncorrupted and angelic. of Education for Peace and Sustainable One ation ething o e sp
2.  e rmin o m som
D e t f s i t h
ill 4.  quality
o w
What is it that prompts young people to resort Development in 2017. It is a guidebook for or sk ance idea
e of or cord
to this kind of everyday violence? The NCERT writers and publishers of school textbooks, o w le d g
e o n i n a c
v i ce k o f new
s kn ien c Act i ty d e thi n tific
paper mentioned earlier states, “Faith in violence and the focus is on four subjects: Language, eive xper 5.  authori d, or s or cien
o s s h o rec ion, or e n a o r , m etho w thing f r om s
Ac r w t ith i e a en e pe d
as a quick-fix problem-solver is an emerging Mathematics, Science, and Geography. rson truc er w w id mak velo ing
A pe , ins r ord A ne ty to s de ulat
epidemic.” I think that is an appropriate 1.  by study u r i t y o
a r t o f a 6 . 
a b i l i
d e v i c e
i n form
As mentioned in the guidebook, “Embedding i n se c s p Th e an d lve d
articulation of the challenge that faces our te of ent a 7.  chinery invo
is not about inserting new thematic content  A sta nity e d elem M a e e f o r or
3 . mu i fi 8.  owled g sib l
society. With the power to communicate easily com spec kn spon y
into an already overcrowded curriculum, which ing a g n re olog
via social media, knee-jerk responses are even C o n ta i n
g i n g t e a c h i n
p e r s o
i n e d e r techn
10.  ole an f A sta put
would make it impractical – both time and
of ch on o 9.  licies g su com
more commonplace. wh ation essi bein d by wth
content wise – for the teacher and textbook p e r o r prof s i o n or po
l e o f r i s e t h y gro
e o c e , e r a b c t e a l nt
Th cien r di v Ca p ara dh e yme
People are easily offended by the content of author. Nor is it about removing or minimizing
e a rt, s e d in fo 11.  g or ch orous an o r enjo
Th gag Us i n vig en t
films, the food on someone else’s plate, the the importance of academic content. Instead, 15.  ty en se o
f 12.  rked by sem
A ctivi n t u t a ke u M a e s amu .
.  e p m i d
books that are being written, and much else. it is about reorienting subjects into serving a 16 sem out or 14.  rov
amu s u r e of o o b tain
 W hat p solution
Instead of expressing themselves in a civil more socially and globally relevant purpose: mea t e 17. the
The bility uenc /) for
18.  m or a o nseq u edot
manner, they seek refuge in hate speech. Words that of contributing to a sustainable, just and d o d c i t h / b l
Free inten
ols esco
are sometimes more powerful than weapons, peaceful world, with young people motivated, 19.  mething r un ls m scho p.un
so r y o d e a g i n g i e
a at nin (m
and are known to instigate violence against prepared and empowered to address persistent cond dy th lear
A se f stu ing and website
individuals and communities. This is why and emerging local and global challenges.” 20.  fie l d o
ach our
The of te * Check
21.  t hods
m e

56 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 57



WHAT WE’VE Youth and senior decision makers embrace UNESCO MGI
BEEN UP TO AT iTAGe modality to engage in honest dialogue on role of
UNESCO MGIEP education in sustainable development
22 July, 2017, Brombachtal, Germany

At the iTAGeAYUDH, on issues related to education, mindfulness, citizenship,

organised by sustainability and peace for the 250 youth activists who
AYUDH Europe at had come from across Europe to participate at the 13th
its annual summit European Youth Summit. In the four weeks leading up
in Germany, to #iTAGeAYUDH, the summit participants took part in
participants an intense online dialogue via AYUDH Europe’s social
Learning Labs workshop: Ten students, five countries, three days examined media platforms. These discussions were moderated and
the critical summarised by AYUDH team members. Equipped with the
12-14 July, 2017, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi contribution of education systems and their implications at outcomes from the online global dialogue, the participants
UNESCO MGIEP from United States, Malaysia, India, Norway and South the individual, societal and policy level. iTAGeAYUDH, was the further discussed these questions in working groups,
launched its Africa participated in the workshop and came together to culmination of what had been a week of intense reflection facilitated by international experts.
Transformative share their experiences and learnings from the programme.
Learning Labs The workshop started with an inaugural address by Dr.
programme that Anantha Kumar Duraiappah, Director UNESCO MGIEP,
connects students during which he highlighted the importance of ‘dialogue’
from varied and ‘constructive engagement’ amongst young people for
social, economic mutual understanding and collaboration. The address was YESPeace Pakistan
in dialogue followed by ice breaking exercises and experience sharing
and cultural contexts and helps them
across the
globe. Phase II of the by the students and teachers, during which the participants YESPeace Pakistan organises the Tamasha
with school children from
Transformative Learnin g Labs program me conclud ed in a discussed how ‘sharing different perspective enhanced organises a youth workshop in Lahore
2017 their understanding of multiple identities and their ability to
three-day long workshop organise d from 12-14
s and
teacher s accommodate differing opinions’. workshop (Islamabad) July 31 – 5 August, 2017, Lahore, Pakistan
at India Habitat Centre, New Delhi. Student
29 July – 1 August, 2017, Islamabad, Pakistan YESPeace Pakistan’s
YESPeace partner The Little
Pakistan’s Art organised the
partner, HIVE, Tamasha YESPeace
organised Workshop in
Lahore. More than
Capacity-Building Workshop for Educators on Preventing a three-
day youth 32 young adults,
Violent Extremism through Education | 29-31 August, 2017, New Delhi, workshop in
aged between 16 and 25, participated in the workshop
India including 5 participants from Quetta, 1 from Islamabad,
UNESCO MGIEP UNESCO Headquarters in New Delhi. This year’s workshop 1 from Sheikhupura, 1 from Taxila and 24 from Lahore.
A total of thirty-one students and young
organised a three–day was attended by 35 educators and policymakers from ten The workshop assisted in development of the participants’
professional (thirteen girls and eighteen boys) from
capacity building countries, namely; Australia, Bangladesh, Cameroon, skills to understand, analyse, facilitate and lead conflict
eleven different cities of Pakistan (Gujranwala,
workshop for Columbia, Finland, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and resolution activities, while engaging audiences in their
Okara, Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Islamabad,
educators on the Zambia. The workshop employed a transdisciplinary approach home communities for dialogue on key issues. The aim
Kasur, Swat, Quetta, Gilgit Baltistan and Peshawar)
theme of preventing to education for PVE by integrating neuroscience, contemplative was to discuss peace, conflict resolution, gender equality,
participated in this workshop. The workshop
violent extremism science and critical pedagogy to create a unique learning cross-cultural understanding and diversity using the power
was conducted in collaboration with the Dil Say
through education experience aimed specifically at building competencies for of theatre and performing arts, the core strength of the
from 29-31 August, 2017 in New Delhi. This was a follow-up Pakistan Campaign. The training included different
critical inquiry, mindfulness, empathy and compassion. The YESPeace Pakistan Partner, The Little Art. This workshop
activity to the International Conference on the Prevention of sessions on capacity building, leadership skills,
objective was to train and empower educators in applying these was the first of a series of six workshops being organised by
Violent Extremism (PVE) through Education: Taking Action team building, peace messaging, counter-violent
innovative and evidence-based pedagogies to address violent the YESPeace Pakistan partners (i.e The Little Art, College
organised jointly in September 2016 by UNESCO MGIEP and extremism, interfaith harmony, bashing stereotypes,
extremism through education in their classrooms. of Youth Activism and Development (CYAAD) and Pakistan
critical thinking, and interpersonal skills.
Youth Alliance (PYA)) in various cities and towns of Pakistan.

58 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 59



YESPeace Pakistan partners co-lead youth workshop Education is about human rights and dignity:
21 – 23 August, 2017, Lahore, Pakistan
The Director-General of UNESCO at MGIEP’S
YESPeace Pakistan’s partners, The Little Art (TLA), HIVE organised a three day Youth workshop in Lahore. YOUTH TOWNHALL | 31 August, 2017, UNESCO New Delhi office, New Delhi, India
College of Youth Activism and Development (CYAAD) and
Dividend: Vision to action for the 21 Century 2017 at the
The workshop was an advanced stage of the Tamasha
YESPeace workshops, wherein TLA invited other UNESCO corporate office in New Delhi, India. The Youth for
Harnessing the Indian Youth Demographic Bulge for a True
YESPeace partners for training. Education, Sustainability and Peace (YESPeace) Network, a
More than 25 young people from all parts of Pakistan collaborative effort led by UNESCO MGIEP spearheaded this
participated in this event. The workshop included Youth TownHall by providing a platform to the youth to discuss
individual sessions by YESPeace partners. Syed Ali key issues concerning their future with senior policy makers.
Abbas and Umair from the HIVE team facilitated The Youth TownHall was addressed by Ms. Irina Bokova,
sessions on civic imagination with young people, while Director General, UNESCO and Dr. Karan Singh, Chair, UNESCO
Inayat and Jan Muhammad from CYAAD led intensive MGIEP and moderated by Mr Abhishek Mazumdar, Founder,
sessions on conflict resolution and issues such as The Logical Indian. The main focus of this TownHall was on how
identity. education systems can play a key role in empowering young
people to address the challenges of the 21 century and how

the voices of the young can be mainstreamed into policymaking.

Training of Youth in “Global Citizenship and Interfaith Pea

Youth Round Table with UN Youth Envoy on Building: An exploration of Interfaith Harmony through films”
8 – 21 September, 2017, Delhi Metropolitan Education, Noida and
Youth and SDGs | 16 August, 2017, UNESCO MGIEP, New Delhi, India Amaltas Hall, India Habitat Centre

youth organisations on the SDGs in India. The purpose of Delhi Metropolitan Education Institute in Noida. In this
the interactive session was to provide a platform to youth programme, through the medium of filmmaking, thirty-
organisations and young people to share their perspectives, four youths from different backgrounds were encouraged
concerns and details of their work in India with the UN Youth to relook at the idea of religion through an exploration of
Envoy. The lively and thought-provoking discussion provided what faith means to each of us, and how it functions at
a bottoms up perspective on the real issues facing young each of the three levels – personal, cultural and social.
people in India and gave them an opportunity to share their Upon conclusion of the training, the participants made
expectations of the United Nations. Partners of the YESPeace films on the theme of interfaith harmony, which were
Network-India Chapter including STEPS, Pravah and CYC screened at the inaugural event of STEP’s annual peace
were also present as a part of discussion session. Along with festival to celebrate the International Day of Peace on the
them representatives from Breakthrough, YP Foundation and STEP Trust, in partnership with the YESPeace Network,
As part of the International Youth Day celebrations, the 21st of September 2017, at the India Habitat Centre in New
Tata Institute of Social Sciences as well as UN Women also organised a three-day training for youth on ‘Global
YESPeace Network hosted a round table with the UN Youth Delhi. The training sought to enable the young participants
joined the round table discussion. Citizenship Education and Interfaith Peace Building – An
Envoy, Ms. Jayathma Wickramanayake along with youth and to become critically aware citizens as they learn to cut
exploration of Interfaith Harmony Though faith’ at the
through stereotypes and prejudices.

60 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 61



UNESCO MGIEP organises its first Futures’ Workshop

“There is no peace without development and there is no 9-10 October, 2017, IIEP, Paris, France

development without peace” of education? To undertake such an inquiry, UNESCO

Ms. Tawakkol Karman’s Ahinsa lecture | 2 October, 2017, UNESCO Headqu
arters, France
MGIEP designed the Futures Workshop Series, entitled
second Ahinsa Lecture by Ms Tawakkol Karman, recipient ‘Transforming Education for Humanity: The Future of
of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2011. The theme of the lecture Learning’. The first Futures’ workshop to discuss and
was: ‘Working Towards Peace Building and Sustainable debate the design and structure of education for the future
Development.’ The second Ahinsa lecture commenced with was organised on 9-10th of October 2017 at the UNESCO
introductory remarks by the Director-General, UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) in
Ms Irina BOKOVA; the Deputy Chief of Mission, Embassy of Paris. The primary objective of this workshop was to identify
As countries march forward to achieve the SDG 4, which
India, Mr Manish PRABHAT and Dr Anantha DURAIAPPAH, some of the key challenges that the global contemporary
ensures inclusive and quality education for all, we must
Director, UNESCO MGIEP. Ms Bokova, in her introductory society will face in the 21st century and beyond and to
stand back and ask ourselves if the present system
remarks highlighted how ‘Mahatma Gandhi’s vision of peace provide some suggestions on what future education systems
is adequate. Is there a need for a critical rethinking
and development nowadays has never been so relevant’ and will look like to address these challenges.
how ‘his wisdom and vision deeply resonate with UNESCO’s
In order to commemorate the International Day of Non- mandate and Constitution’. In her talk, Ms. Karman,
Violence, 2017 on October 2, which coincides with Mahatma expressed that in order to achieve peace and sustainable
Gandhi’s birthday, the UNESCO MGIEP and the Permanent development, strong institutions would be required at the
Delegation of the Republic of India to UNESCO organised the local and international level, supported by the UN.

YESPeace Network leads Rethinking Schooling for

initiative to empower the 21st Century: The State
youth to build a peaceful of Education for Peace,
Developing Synergy for and interconnected South Sustainable Development
YESPeace Peer Educator African society
Change YESPeace Africa holds and Global Citizenship in Asia
Workshop 28 October, 2017, Cape Town, South Africa
9 and 11 October, 2017, Cape Town, South Africa a workshop in Kenya UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, France
On the 28th October
14 October, 2017, Nairobi, Kenya
2017, ACTIVATE! UNESCO MGIEP launched a report
On the 9th and Fifty-five youth from Change Drivers at the 39th session of the General
11th October, different counties in and Africa Unite Conference titled ‘Rethinking
ACTIVATE! Change Kenya convened on collaborated to schooling for the 21st century’.
Drivers and October 14 in Nairobi host the SDG 4.7 Building on the content analysis
Africa Unite; both to voice their educative Interconnectedness, of 172 official documents in 18
affiliates of the approaches to ethnic Gender and Human languages based on a common
YESPeace Network
polarisation that is majorly faced by 44 tribes in Kenya. The Rights: Youth Training Workshop in Cape Town, South coding scheme and extensive
collaborated to
participants, who were selected based on the relevance Africa. The workshop was coordinated with the generous literature review on Asian schooling,
host a peer educator workshop in Cape Town, South
of their work to Sustainable Development Goal 4, Target 7 support of the YESPeace Network. The facilitator of the this report seeks to assess how
Africa. The workshop essentially sought to equip peer far the aims and values encapsulated in SDG 4.7 have been
educators with knowledge and skills quintessential for were representatives of various youth groups, community workshop, Lezerine Mashaba, described the initiative
as “a platform for shared learning on how communities incorporated into the educational policies and officially-
the effective delivery of content aimed at promoting organisations and social organisations, whose primary focus
mandated curricula of 22 Asian countries. By analysing
quality education on gender and human rights to create is to better their communities. The outcomes of the event at can be empowered to contribute towards building peace
and creating interconnectedness”. 26 youth leaders from current policies, curricular frameworks, subject syllabi and
interconnected, peaceful and sustainable communities Nairobi were a result of the efforts by Change Mind Change
various organisations including ACTIVATE! Change Drivers, textbooks, it aims to create a baseline against which further
across South Africa. 9 peer educators (3 Male and 6 Future, a YESPeace Africa Partner and UNESCO MGIEP. The
progress towards SDG 4.7 can be monitored. At the same
Females) from various organisations working within the participants in these groups attended a follow up incubation Africa Unite, the International Peace Youth Group, Amy
Foundation, ARCOSA, Mjoli Connect and the Khayelitsha time, it sets out to change the way we talk about and act
gender justice sector participated in the workshop. programme from November 13 to November 17, 2017 at
upon SDG 4.7, and argues that a broader vision of education’s
Africa Youth for SDGs Innovation Lab in Nairobi and thereafter, Peace Building Team participated in the workshop.
nature and social role is essential to our chances of achieving
launched the projects, which are projected to benefit 300 people.
a peaceful and sustainable future for Asia and the world.

62 ISSUE 7 . 2018 ISSUE 7 . 2018 63



UNESCO MGIEP launches YESPeace Africa hosts

#YouthWagingPeace: National Youth Assembly
A Youth-led guide on Prevention 3-4 November, 2017, Institute for Accountancy
University, Arusha, Tanzania
of Violent Extremism through
In the month of
Education (PVE-E) at the 39
November 2017, the
UNESCO General Conference Vijana Assembly and
3 November 2017, Paris, France UNESCO MGIEP’s
YESPeace Network
UNESCO MGIEP successfully hosted
launched the the Tanzania National
#YouthWagingPeace: Youth Assembly
A Youth-led guide
in Arusha, Tanzania at the Institute for Accountancy
on Prevention of
University. A total of 652 delegates (52% female; 48% male),
Violent Extremism
aged between 15 and 30 attended the Youth Assembly
through Education
from different parts of Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa and
(PVE-E) during an
Burundi. The event was conceptualised with the aim of
toral event on Prevent ion of Violent Extremism
intersec creating a platform for youth practitioners to share best
(PVE) held under the auspices of the 39 UNESCO
practices on how peace and sustainability can be promoted
General Conference on the 3 November, 2017. The
through education within different spaces. The facilitation
#YouthWagingPeace: A Youth-led guide on PVE-E has been team from Kenya and Tanzania held a panel discussion
developed by young individuals who work within the area and hosted educational talks on the United Nations
of Violent Extremism (VE), have been affected by VE or Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and discussed
are former-extremists. The guide is a representation of the the impact of the SDGs in our society. Additionally, a highly
need to engage young individuals who are facing the on- engaging and interactive discussion was held around
ground, day-to-day struggles relating to VE and the various defining the objectives of a National Youth Council.
factors that lead towards extremism. A discussion and debate was also held on the possibility
of forming a National Youth Council within Tanzania.

Unbox: Breaking Stereotypes – YESPeace India Chapter Workshop

14 – 16 November, 2017, YWCA International Guest House Confere
nce Hall, New Delhi, India

UNESCO House in New Delhi. The capacity building workshop

MGIEP’s brought together 35 youths from diverse backgrounds
World Rescue is a mobile-based narrative, video game inspired by the Sustainable Where to find
YESPeace around India and trained young people to identify and
Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. Through fast-paced gameplay set in World Rescue?
Network in
Kenya, Norway, Brazil, India, and China, the player meets and helps five young heroes World Rescue is a free to download mobile-based
understand the extent of stereotypes they hold about
India organised others and themselves. The participants did this through an to solve global problems—such as displacement, disease, deforestation, drought, and game available both on the Android and iOS
a three-day exploration of identity, labels and prejudices, and how these pollution—at the community level to achieve a more sustainable world. Each of the five stores and has been rated 9/10 by the Children’s
training influence our ways of thinking and behaving in the particular issues that the players help to solve are mapped to one of the 17 distinct Sustainable Technology review for its educational value.
workshop for youth on Breaking Stereotypes from the 14th
forms they assume through the course of our intra- and Development Goals (SDGs) with the overarching theme of Quality Education (SDG 4).
to the 16th, November 2017 at the YWCA International Guest
inter-personal interactions. Since its launch in March, 2017, World Rescue has been download over 11,000 times.

64 ISSUE 7 . 2018


In the tug of war

between instant
satisfaction and
are there any real winners?
For more information, view

ABOUT THE GAME: Cantor’s World has been designed for students and policy makers to learn how the
Inclusive Wealth Index (IWI) complements other indices. In the game, players experiment with policy choices and
experience first hand the tug-of-war between short-term results and long-term sustainability.