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Design of Highway Bridges

(An LRFD Approach)


Third Edition-Richard M. Barker and Jay A. Puckett

CHAPTER 1 (Introduction to Bridge Engineering)

1.1 Explain why the people factor is important in bridge engineering.


People factor is considered important in such a way that:
 People have different perspective.
 These perspectives can be used in designing a bridge.

1.2 In what way does a bridge control the capacity of a transportation system?
Bridge is considered extended road to connect further lands. Transportation system is similar
to pipe lines. If a part of the systems cause problems (say it is the bridge) the system will
performed badly and might cause problems. These problems can be the following:
 The safety of the traveller might be compromise due to lack of planning in the design.
 The efficiency of the system will decrease if the designed bridge cannot sustain the
needed requirement such as the capacity in volume, strength and vertical length.
 If the said requirement cannot be provided it will cause detours which leads to long
hours of travel, far destination, congestion in other part of the system, accident may
occur, compromise in other part of the system and delays.

1.3 Discuss the necessity of considering life-cycle costs in the design of bridges.

Life cycle cost is a process of determining the return of investment in a designed bridge
considering all cost and other factors in developing bridge. Considering life –cycle cost in
designing bridge is necessary to visualize the projection of cost in a period of time. It will
provide a basis for the owner of the structure.

1.8 Both cast-iron and wrought-iron components were used in early metal truss and arch
bridges. How do they differ in manufacture? What makes the manufacture of steel
different from both of them?

Cast iron is a brittle alloy of iron and carbon. Before manufacturing material made of
iron, it is starts as a pig iron. It is melted with other scrap iron and then pour in a mold to form
the needed material. This pouring of melted iron into a mold is called casting.
Wrought iron is a malleable type of iron that can be forged and rolled while molten while steel is
a strong alloy of iron and carbon and other elements to increase strength. In comparison of these
material, steel is different in manufacturing in terms of it use other elements and maintaining the
needed 6 step in the process, the raw materials needed to be dig from the ground as an ore. In the
process of manufacturing, impurities in iron is removed and replaced by different material to
form grades of steel.

1.9 Explain why the development of large-capacity testing machines was important to the
progress of steel bridges.

One other development that was critical to the bridge design profession was the ability to verify
the theoretical predictions with experimental testing. The tensile and compressive strengths of
cast iron, wrought iron, and steel had to be determined and evaluated. Column load curves had to
be developed by testing cross sections of various length. This experimental work requires large-
capacity testing machines which is essential to verify the strength of the materials and the
resistance of components in bridges of ever increasing proportions.

1.15 Explain why girder bridges are not as efficient as trusses in resisting loads (with
respect to material quantities).

With respect to the overall material usage, girders are not as efficient as trusses in resisting loads
over long spans. However, for short and medium spans the difference in material weight is
small and girder bridges are competitive. In addition, the girder bridges have greater stiffness
and are less subject to vibrations. This characteristic was important to the railroads and resulted
in the early application of plate girders in their bridges