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PLANNING Law Enforcement Administration (LEA)
The course deals with the study of principles underlying police organization and
management with particular focus on the Constitutional mandate, Republic Acts
6975 and 8551, and previous laws and issuances relating thereto.

It includes the organizational structure and organization of the Philippine National

Police, on the national and local levels.
Emphasis is given on direction, supervision, coordination and control of all local
police forces as a homogeneous body under a single command.

It also includes the basic management functions in so far as these are applied to the
police organization.
Police planning is integrated into this course, and it is designed to equip the students
with knowledge on the development of effective plans, particularly on strategies and
tactics for effective operations.

The emphasis is on the special techniques and procedure applicable to unusual

needs like unusual criminal activities, civil disturbances, special community events,
disaster plans, and civil defense.

Introduction: The organization with management and administration is directed

towards the achievement of goals and objectives.

Goals are broad statements of general and long term organizational purposes often
used to define the role of the police, for instance, to prevent crime, maintain order or
help solve community problems. Objectives are specific short term statements
consistent with an organizations goal.

The organization guides members in its operation of the assigned duties. It

enhances better administration of the department. Good organization and
administration would eventually mean effective and efficient police work.
Organization can also distinguished by their degree of formality and structure:

1. Formal Organization-is defined as those organizations that are formally

established for explicit purpose of achieving certain goals. (Stable social institutions.)

2. Informal Organization- are those sharing the basic characteristic of all

organizations arise through the social interactions of individuals or through family
What is Organization?
It is a form of human association for the attainment of goal or objective.

It is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and
delegating responsibility and authority establishing relationships for the propose of
enabling people work effectively.
What is Police Organization?

Police organization is a group of trained personnel in the field of public safety

administration engaged in the achievement of goals and objectives that promotes
the maintenance of crimes.

Administration of Police Organization - It is the systematic structure of

management of a police organization.

What is Police?

Police is a branch of the criminal justice system that has the specific responsibility of
maintaining law and order and combating crime within the society.

The term police are derived from the word POLITIA, meaning condition of a
state,government and administration, POLITIA organization is from the Greek
word POLITEIA which means government, citizenship, or the entire activity of a
POLIS, a city.

POLICE (broadest sense) means the internal organization or regulation of a state,

the control and regulation of a community or state through the exercise of the
constitutions power of the government.

POLICE (less broadest sense)it denotes the power of the government which
concerns the tranquility, public order, peace,security of persons and property and
the protection of the public health and moral.

In the very restricted sense, the word police refer exclusively to that body of armed
men which as an institution is capable of exercising its duties by armed physical
forces in the preservation and detection of crime and the execution of laws.

Police Activities:
The prevention of Criminality.
Repression of Crime.
Apprehending of offenders.
Recovery of Property.
Regulation of Non-Criminal Conduct.
Performance of Related Miscellaneous Service.

The organization of the police force commonly requires the following organizational
Functional Units:
Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within a large department. It comprises
of numbers of divisions:

2. Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau.

3. Section -functional unit within a division that is necessary for specialization.

4. Unit -functional group within a section; or the smallest functional group within an

Territorial Units:

1. Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty, such as a
designated desk or office or an intersection or cross walk from traffic duty.It is a spot
location for general guard duty.

2. Route -a length of streets designated for patrol purposes. It is also called LINE

3. Beat - an area assigned for patrol purposes, whether foot or motorized.

4. Sector - an area containing two or more beats, routes, or post.

5. District-a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes, usually with its
own station.

6. Area- a section or territorial division of a large city each comprised of designated

Other Items and Terminologies

1. Sworn Officers-all personnel of the police department who have oath and who
posses the power to arrest.

2. Superior Officer- one having supervisory responsibilities, either temporarily or

permanently, over officers of lower rank.

3. Commanding Officer- an officer who is in command of the department, a bureau,

a division, an area, or a district.

4. Ranking Officer- the officer who has the senior rank in a team or group.

5. Length of Service- the period of time that has elapsed since the oath of office
was administered.Previous active services may be included or added.

6. On Duty - the period when an officer is actively engaged in the performance of his

7. Off Duty - the nature of which the police officer is free from specific routine duty.

8. Special Duty -the police service, its nature, which requires that the officer be
excused from the performance of his active regular duty.

9. Leave of Absence- period, which an officer is excused from active duty by any
valid\acceptable reason, approved by higher authority.

10. Sick leave -period which an officer is excused from active duty by reason of
illness or injury.

11. Suspension - a consequence of an act which temporarily deprives an officer

from the privilege of performing his duties as result of violating directives or other
department regulations.

12. Department Rules- rules established by department directors\superiors to

control the conduct of the members of the police force.
13. Duty Manual -describes the procedures and defines the duties of officers
assigned to specified post or position.

14. Order – an instruction given by a ranking officer to a subordinate, either:

General Order,
Special, or

15. Report - usually a written communication unless otherwise specifies to be verbal

reports; verbalreports should be confirmed by written communication.

Nature of Police Organization

The police department is truly a complex bureaucracy. It is mostly a multi-level

organization,organized in the form of a pyramid with the top-level administrator being
the chief of police.

At the bottom level of the organization, one finds the patrolman or line officer.

The patrol officer is the backbone of the police department.

The lowest level worker found in many, if not most, complex organizations who
usually performs the routine, repetitive kind of work necessary to keep the
organization functioning.

The police department by its very nature places the line officer in a position where
he is a decision maker and manager of his area o responsibility from the first time he
is given a beat to patrol.

There are indeed few agencies in which the efficiency and parameter of the law
enforcement functions are vested in those individuals quite likely have the least
amount of experience and expertise in the organization.

Types of Police Organizational Structures

An organizational structure is a mechanical means of depicting, by an

arrangement of symbols,the relationships that exist between individuals, groups, and
functional relationships between groups and individuals clearly defined to ensure
accountability and compliance.
Line Organization
The straight line organization, often called the individual,military or departmental
types of organization, is the simplest and perhaps the oldest types; but it is seldom
encountered in its channels of authority and responsibility extends in a direct line
from top to bottom within the structures, authority is definite and absolute.

While the line type of organization has many advantages, it also has some inherent
weaknesses which,for many organizations, make its use impractical.

Perhaps its greatest advantages it that, it is utterlysimple. It involves a division of the

work into units of eight people with aperson in charge who has complete control and
who can be hold directlyresponsible or accountable for result, or lack of them.

Quick decisions can be made in the line organization because of the direct lines

Because of these direct lines, each member in the chain of command knows to
whom he is clearly fixed.

Discipline is administered in this type of the organization.

Responsibility for making decisions is well identified. Singleness of purpose is


Coordination of effort is relatively easy to achieve because functional overlapping in

between units, a prime cause of friction in any organization can be minimized.

Functional Organization

The functional organization in its pure form is rarely found in present day
organizations,except at or near the top of the very large organizations.

Unlike the type of structure, those establishment organized on a functional basis

violate the prime rule that men perform best when they have but one superior.

The functional responsibility of each functional manager is limited to the particular

activity over which he has control, regardless of who performs the function.

Coordination of effort in this type of organization becomes difficult since the

employees responsible for results may be subject to functional direction of several

Discipline is difficult to administer because of this multi-headed leadership.

There may be considerable conflict among the functional administrators, resulting in
much conclusion among line personnel.

Line of authority and responsibility are fragmented into many functional channels,
making each superior responsible to several superiors depending upon the function
he happens to be performing.

The functional organization in its purest form is rarely found in present-day

organization except at or near the top level.


1. divides responsibility and authority between several specialists;

2. Functional responsibility is limited to the particular activity over which he has

control regardless of who performs the functions.


1. Coordination of effort becomes difficult;

2. Discipline is difficult to administer;

3. Conflict among the functional administrators.

Line and Staff Organization

The line and staff organization is a combination of the line and functional types.

It combines staff specialist such as the criminalists, the training officers, the research
and development specialists, etc. channels of responsibility is to think and provide
expertise for the line units.

The line supervisor must remember that he obtains advice from the staff specialist.

In normal operations, the staff supervisor has line commands but with recognized
limitations such as coordination between line and staff personnel can be achieved
without undue friction.

Failure to recognize these line and staff relationship is the greatest and most
frequent source of friction and a barrier to effective coordination.
The advantage of this kind would be- it combines staff specialistor units with line
organization so that service of knowledge can be providedline personnel by


Fundamental Theories of Police Service

The Continental Theory - police are servant of higher authorities and the people
have little or no share at all in their duties, nor any direct connection with them.

The Home Rule Theory - policemen are considered as servants of the community
who defend for the effectiveness of their function upon the express wishes of the

Concepts of Police Service

1. Old Concepts -this old philosophy means throwing more people in jail rather than
keepingthese out jail. Punishment is the sole instrument of crime control.
Theyardstick of efficiency of the police is more on arrests.

2. Modern Concept -police service today has broadened its activities to include
certain aspect ofsocial service for the welfare of the people. Their yardstick of
efficiency is the absence of crime.

All police function and activities can be categorized as their line or non-line. Line
functions are those tasks that directly facilitate the accomplishment of organizational
goals, whereas non-line functions are those tasks that supplement the line its task

Line activities are further broken into the sub-categories: primary line and secondary
line functions, both of which are field service.

1. Line Function

1.1. Primary Line Function

The primary line function is police patrol; that is the patrol activities of a police
organization are considered basic and the first priority.

The patrol division has the initial responsibility for crime prevention and dictation of
the apprehension of offenders.

It also assists in the preparation in the facts for presentation in a court of law.

Theoretically,if the patrol force were 100 percent effective in the execution of its
assigned tasks, the need for specialized units (traffic and detective) would be

The patrol function is accurately called the backbone of the police service.

1.2. SecondaryFunction

Historically, police department were established only as police patrols, however as

municipalities increased in population, area, and technology (for example, the
invention of the automobile), the burden of this patrols was greatly increased.

The department, were unable to provide additional personnel because of budgetary

limitations, were unable to increase the number of the officers on the patrol beat in
proportion to the rising population and rate of crime and was force to enlarge each
officers beat.

2. Non-Line Function

Simply put, non-line functions are those services that support the line.
Whereas the line provides services directly to the citizens, non-line activities help the
line to accomplish its primary task.

Traditionally non-line or support activities consist of two major categories: staff and
auxiliary services.

2.1. Staff Services

These activities that have the responsibility and personal development and
department management are staff services.

Personal development includes recruitment, selection, training, and supervision.

Budget, planning and research, inspection, and similar activities fall under the
heading of managerial activities.

2.2. Auxiliary Services

All non-line not regarded as staff service are classified as auxiliary services.

Typically, they provide support service of both a technical and non-technical nature
to both line and non-line activities.

Polygraph examiner, photographer, fingerprint and crime scene technicians, and the
police laboratory are technical auxiliary services that support the line activities.

The jail and the communication system and non-line (staff) activities.

Some activities are extremely difficult to classify as either the staff or auxiliary.

In many instances they perform a dual service. Police communityrelation units,

although performing secondary line service, may be designatedas an auxiliary or
even a staff function.


Primary Secondary Staff Auxiliary

-Criminal Investigation
-Vice Investigation
-Planning and Research
-Police record System
-Identification service
-Traffic Regulation and control
-Crime Prevention
-Personnel Administration
-Budgeting Control
-Public Relation
-Property control
-Crime Laboratory


To understand the organization and operation of public departments certain general

basic principles of organization must be understood.

These principles of organization were generated by the experience of industry,

business, and the military services.

They have no absolute values,but they do provide a check list against which an
organization can be structurally and functionally evaluated.

This notion will become more defined as each principle is considered.

Division of Labor

For a police organization to be effective, work assignments must be designed so that

similar tasks, functions, and activities are given to an individual or group for

Police functions are sub-divided into units that are described as follows:

1. Branch -usually the largest unit within station

2. Division - partof the branch having a department-wide function

3. Section -basically one of the several functional elements of a division

Unity of Command

Unity of command requires that an individual be directly accountable to only one

superior. No person can effectively serve twosuperiors at a given time.

Chain of Command
Primarily this principle provides for the vertical movement of authority up and down
established channels in the organizational hierarchy.

To illustrate this concept, consider a directives originating in the office of the patrol
chief intended for the patrol force (downward movement).

Two levels of authority fall between the patrol chief and the patrol officer inspector.

Because both levels are held responsible for various aspects of patrol
supervision,both must be aware of such directives.

If either supervisor is by-passed, that one can not beheld accountable for the lack of

Further, performance of supervisory duties is greatly hindered, and potentially

serious problem is created.

Delegation of Responsibility and Authority

There must be a clear line of normal authority running from the top to bottom of
every organization.

Ultimate authority and responsibility for a police organization lies at the top of the
chain of command-with the chief.

However, if a subordinate is to be held responsible for the accomplishment of a

given task, he or she must be given the authority to carryout those responsibilities.

It is important, also the responsibility and the authority be clearly defined.

If the patrol officers are given the responsibility for evaluating police response time
on a given day or in a specific situation, the officer must be given the authority to
procure the communication logs from the communication center.
Without this authority, the entire task cannot be accomplished.

Delineation of Responsibility and Authority

A clear-out delineation of responsibility and authority is essential to prevent

confusion of lines of authority.

If responsibility and authority are not clearly defined, conflicts, duplication and
overlaps of function lead to confusion and inefficiency.
Each officer and each organization segment of authority delegated to accomplish the

Span of Control
The number of officers or units reporting directly to the supervisor should not exceed
the number that can be feasibly and effectively coordinate and directed.

There are an innumerable factor that limits the span control including distance, time,
knowledge, personality, and the complexity of the work to be performed.

It is not unusual to fine fifty or sixty workers to perform identification function

reporting to one supervisor.

On the other hand,as we ascend the chain of command and the diversity of
functions increases, the number of individuals that a police executive supervises
decreases rapidly.


All organizational elements must contribute, directly or indirectly, to the

accomplishment of the objectives of the enterprise.

Each organizational element should be formed for a definite purpose, and this
purposes must be accomplish the major objective.

Any police function and organizational elements that is not required in the
accomplishment of the overall objectives should be eliminated.


The organizational structure must facilitate the development of close, friendly, and
co-operative relations, especially between line and staff activities.

Effective coordination is dependent almost entirely upon adequate communication

among all element of a police organization.


The police service is among the few public services that maintain a twenty-four hour
It is necessary to the department to assigned officers in sufficient number to meet
the demands at any given time.

Watch or Shift

A time division of the day to ensure proper allocation of personnel.

Shifts are normally eight consecutive hours, five days, giving an officer a forty-hour a

However, longer working hours and work weeks are common.

Further, shifts frequently overlaps to provide additional personnel during peak

Territorial distribution is necessary to ensure theavailability and general suitability of
the patrol service throughout ajurisdiction. Geographical or territorial divisions of the
department can beerdescribed as follows:

1. Post - a fixedor stationary point location (e.g., a specified street

intersection,surveillance site, or an assigned desk or office).

2. Route or Lined Beat- a length of street normally assigned to the traffic and patrol
officerswhether foot or mobile. The rout has the characteristics of being
continuous,in a straight line, or the line sight.

3. Beat - ageographical area, once again assigned to either foot or mobile patrol
andtraffic officer.

4. Section - twoor more beats, routes, posts, or any combination thereof.


The distribution of patrol services with respect to thecharacteristics of the population

served must be recognized and dealt with incontemporary law enforcement. The
development of specialized functional unitsexpresses the principle of the
organization by clientele.

Nature of the Office ofa Policeman

A police man must have a mind of a lawyer the soul of aclergyman, the heart of the
social worker, discipline of an army sergeant, theintegrity of a saint. He must believe
in a community of law, while seeinglittle but lawlessness; believe in the goodness of
man, while seeing the manmost often at his worst, depend on his faithfulness, know
his jurisdictionslike a sociologist, and he must understand people like a psychologist.
He musttake long view of life like a philosopher and yet never losing his

Police Operation
Another word in the large collection of police serviceterminology is operations. For
the most part, operation is synonymous with line function. In accordance with
previousdefinitions, operations are inclusive of both primary and secondary line

Subdivision of the Operation


1. District - is asubdivision of a province and shall consist of a metropolitan city or

ametropolitan city and adjacent municipalities\ small cities, or several
adjacentmunicipalities and small cities.

2. Station -is asubdivision of a district and shall consist of a large municipality or a

smallcity or municipalities\small city and some adjacent smaller municipalities or
severaladjacent municipalities.

3. Sub-station -is a subdivision of a station and shall consist of a large municipality

or smallcity or a municipality itself.

Operating Unit of aPolice Station

1. PatrolDivision\Section - shall be responsible for crime prevention;

generalpreservation of peace and order; crime suppression, and other public

2. InvestigationDivision\section - shall be charged with the duty of carrying on

theobjectives of criminal investigation, that is, to identify and locate theguilty party
and provide evidence of his guilt through criminal proceedings.

3. Vice ControlDivision\Section - shall be responsible for the neutralization

orsuppression of vices such as gambling, prostitution and drug abuse.
4. JuvenileDivision\Section - shall be primarily concerned with children and youth,
thecorrection and rehabilitation of youth offenders.

5. IntelligenceDivision\Section - shall work for the detection of syndicated crimes

andsubtle criminal activities, including subversion and threats to the security ofthe

6. TrafficDivision\section - shall be responsible from the enforcement of trafficlaws

and regulation of traffic. This section is primarily concerned with themotorist and

7. HomicideDivision\Section - shall be charged with the duty to investigate

homicideand murder cases.

8. Municipal PoliceSub-station - shall be concerned with the general maintenance

of peace,order and public safety within their respective jurisdictions. The
MunicipalPolice Sub-station shall consist of two principal sections with
correspondingfunctions as indicated below:

a. Patrol Section

1. Preservation of peace and order

2. Suppression of criminal activities

3. Crime prevention

4. Inspection activities

5. Enforcement of traffic laws and regulations

6. Fire prevention and control

b. Investigation section

1. Crime investigation
2. vice control

3. Control of juvenile delinquency

4. Custody of prisoners

Peace Officer of SmallPolice Station

Peace officers of small Police stations are considered asgeneralist. Most small
police station within the limits of their capabilities,are responsible for all activities in
the fields of law enforcement and publicsafety. They provide routine patrol, conduct
premise inspection, make criminaland traffic investigations, make arrest, and in other
ways, provide for thecommunity security. In such stations, its members and officers
are by and largegeneralist.

Historical Backgroundon Policing

Primitive Policing Law enforcement can be traced back to thecave dwellers, who
were expected to follow certain rules or face banishment ordeath. The customs
depicted in early cave dwelling may represent the beginningof law and law
enforcement. The prehistoric social order consisted of smallfamily groups living
together as tribes or clans. Group living gave rise tocustoms everyone was expected
to observe. The tribe’s chief had executive,legislative and judicial powers and often
appointed tribe members to performspecial task to include guarding the community
against depredation of lawless elements.

Ancient Law Enforcement

The Sumerians

The earliest record of ancient peoples need to standardizerules and methods of

enforcement to control human behavior dates toapproximately 2300 B.C., when the
Sumerian rulers Lipithstar and Eshumma setstandards on what constituted an
offense against society.

The Babylonians

The Code of King Hammurabi (2100 B.C.) –during the time ofBabylonian King
Hammurabi, he established rules for his kingdom that designatednot only offenses
but punishment as well. The principle of the code was thatthe strong shall not injure
the week. Hammurabi originated the legal principleof LEX Talionis- the eye for an
eye, tooth for a tooth doctrine.

Ancient Egypt

The early Egyptians established laws and court and arudimentary rule of law. The
first account of a developing court system originatedin Egypt in approximately 1500
B.C. the court system was presided by judges whowere appointed by the pharaoh.
They later organized marine patrols andcustomhouses to protect commerce.

Ancient Greece

The Greeks had an impressive of law enforcement called theEphori. Each year at
Sparta, a body of Ephors was elected and given almostunlimited powers as
investigator, judge, jury and executioner. These five menalso presided over the
senate and assembly, assuring that their rules anddecrees were followed. From the
Greek philosopher PLATO, who lived from 427 to347 B.C., was the idea that
punishment should serve the purpose rather thansimple retaliation.

Ancient Rome

The Romans had a high development system of administering justice.The

12Tabulae (12 tables) were the first written laws of the Roman Empire. Itdeals with
legal procedures, property ownership, building codes, marriagecustoms and
punishment for crimes. At the reign of Emperor Augustus, he created
the Praetorian Guard, which consisted of about 7000 men\soldiers toprotect the
palace and the City of Rome, together with the Urban Cohorts to patrol the city. He
created the so called Vigiles who were assigned asfirefighters and eventually given
law enforcement responsibilities. As the firstcivilian police force the Vigiles
sometimes kept the peace very ruthlessly,hence the word vigilantes.
Anotherimportant event was the time of JustinianI, ruler of the Eastern Roman
Empire (527 to 265 A.D.) who collected allRoman laws and put it into his Justinian
Code-they became known the Corpus Juris Civilis which means Body of Law.

The Early PolicingSystem

The policing system is divided into different systems namely:

The Anglo-Saxon Period

The Anglo-Saxons were influential in developing the earlypolice forces. The
following are the features of this period:

1. Tun Policing System- Tun is the forerunner of the word town. Under this system
all maleresidents are required to guard the town and to preserve the peace and
control,to protect life and property from harm or disturbance.

2. Hue and Cry - asystem of apprehending a criminal whereby a complaint goes to

the middle of thestreet and shouts to call all males to assemble. The victim reports
his complaintto the assembly and gives the whereabouts of the perpetrator. All male
residentswould then proceed to locate and apprehend the culprit. When
apprehended, trialis conducted giving the culprit a chance to depend himself.

3. The Royal Jude -a person who conducts criminal investigation and gives
punishment. Punishmentusually fits the crime committed.

4. Trial by Ordeal- a system of determining guilt and innocence in the ancient times
which wasbased on painful test of skills. It is usually accompanied by harsh
punishment.For instance, suspects were required to place their hands in boiling oil
orwater. When not hurt, it indicated guilt and the suspect placed under punishment.

The Normal Period ofPolicing (1066-1285)

1. Shire-Rieve System- England at the time of William Norman,divided England

into 55military districts known as the Shire-Rieve. Shire was the district, Rieve was
the ruler who makes laws,pass judgment and impose punishment. He was assisted
by a constable (forerunnerof the word constabulary).

2. The Traveling Judge- one responsible in passing judgment which was taken
from the Shire-Rieve inview of some abuses by the Rieves.

3. Leges Henri -the law of King Henrie I. Duringthis period:

offenses were classified as against the king andindividual
police men were considered public officials
police and the citizens have the broad power to arrest
a grand jury was created to inquire on the facts of thelaw.

4. The Magna-Carta- laws were enacted upon the demand of the Knights of the
Round Table andforced the king to sign the same. Examples of the principles of law
include thefollowing:
no free men shall be taken or imprisoned, disposed oroutlawed except by
legal judgment of his peers
no person should be tried from murder unless there isproof the body of the
Beginning of the national and local government as well as legislation.

The Westminster Periodof Policing (1285-1500)

1. The Statute of 1295- this law prescribed the closing of the gates of London at
sundown. Start ofcurfew systems.

2. Justice of thePeace - this was position which gives a person the power to arrest,
pursueand impose imprisonment.

3. The Star Chambercourt - a special court which try offenses against the state.

Modern policing System

This period came to the limelight when a bill creating the Scotland Yard was passed
by theparliament of England. It was sponsored and expanded by Sir Robert
Pell who was made to be the first head of the policeorganization. He was referred as
the Fatherof Modern Policing system due to his contributions in the modernization
ofthe police force. The following are the principles were considered inorganizing and
administering the Scotland Yard known as the Peels Principles:

1. Stable and effective police force should be undergovernment control.

2. Absence of crime is the best proof of efficiency.

3. Fast distribution of new to the people is essential.

4. Proper distribution of personnel according to shift and byhour.

5. The best qualification of peace officers is control oftemper.

6. Proper selection and training is the basis of efficiency.

7. Police cannot function properly without wholeheartedsupport of the people.

8. Every police must sell himself to the people.

9. Police officers must go out to their way to help or assistthe people.

Philippine NationalPolice

The Philippine National Police or PNP is the national policeforce of the Republic of
the Philippines with a manpower strength of 113,928 asof end-July 2007. It provides
law enforcement services through its regional,provincial, municipal, district and local
police units all over the islands.Created by virtue of Republic Act 6975, otherwise
known as the “Department ofthe Interior and Local Government Act of 1990", the
PNP came into being onJanuary 29, 1991, at Camp Crame, Quezon City, when the
Philippine Constabularyand the Integrated National Police were retired as mandated
by law.

History Early Policing

Organized policing started in 1500s when nightmen or bantayans patrolled the

streets of Manila. The nightmenwere under the direction of the alguacilmayor who
provided them with muskets as weapons and alarm bells as theirmeans of
communication. In 1836, the Spanish colonial authorities formed the Cuadrillo, a
rural police force, toenforce peace in the countryside. Six years later, its general
function wasassumed by the Cuerpo de Carabineros deSeguridad Publica.

The Carabineros deSeguridad Publica was organized in 1712 for the purpose of
carrying outlawsof the
Spanish government. Native Filipinos served up to the rank of sergeantunder the
command of Spanish officers. It was the earlier version of mounted riflemenin the
history of the Philippine police system.
In 1852, the notoriously dreaded Guardia Civil took over peacekeeping duties in the
islands under aRoyal Decree. Guardia Civil in the provinces was composed mainly
of Filipinoswho worked under the jurisdiction of the alcaldes or mayors. They
followed amilitary structure and received semi-military training yet lacked
otherdimensions of today’s police service.

The capture of General Emilio Aguinaldo, president of theFirst Philippine Republic,

signaled the start of the American occupation of thePhilippines. Maintaining peace
and order, particularly in the countryside,remained the biggest problem of the
The Americans failed to subdue the followers of Aguinaldolike Gen. Macario Sakay.
Hostilities continued in Batangas, Mindoro, Cebu, Boholand Samar. A military
solution to the peace and order problem was ruled, hence,the birth of the Philippine

Pacification Campaigns

To fight rampant lawlessness, the Philippine Constabularydivided the entire country

into constabulary districts. Banditry was rampant inSouthern Luzon. Records
referred to the bandits as tulisanes. The style offighting of the early American
Constables and the bandits was “man-to-man, onfoot, and generally by arms and
The American foot soldiers had a hard time repelling the tulisanesin their fight in the
mountains as their enemies were familiar with theterrain. Malaria and cholera were
the diseases that the afflicted the Americantroops whenever they conducted foot
patrol in the hinterlands.

The Insular Force

The Americans are credited for creating the Philippine Constabulary, the
principalinstrument of the civil authorities for the maintenance of peace and order.
ThePC began as a small unit—the InsularForce in 1901.

It was set up by virtue of Organic Act No. 175, enacted by the Second Philippine
Commission on July 18, 1901.The Constabulary thenwas composed of six
thousand men led by American officers and former members ofthe Spanish Guardia
Civil. Under close American direction and control, itfunctioned as a military
Since its formation, the Constabulary had been primarilydischarging police law
enforcement and public safety functions. Its officersand men had served with
distinction both in the field of law enforcement and incombating violence and
lawlessness, and in various aspects of public service.

There was even a time in history when they performed theduties of teachers,
sanitary inspectors, midwives, doctors and foresters.

The Philippine Constabulary was mandated as a civilianorganization on March 15,

1945 whenit was placed under the general supervision of the Interior then
latertransferred to the Secretary of NationalDefense on March 30, 1950.
The Secretary ofInterior had supervision over the Constabulary as early
as January 13, 1939 until the outbreak ofWorld War II.As an insular police force, the
officers of the Constabularycarried the civilian title of “inspector.” Its peacekeeping
duty was limited toareas where military rule had been lifted.

The Constabulary At War

The participation of the Constabulary in the dark years ofthe Second World War
began upon President Roosevelt’s declaration of a state ofemergency in the United
States. Manila prepared for war.

The word had been sent: Japan, the Axis power’s ally in Asia,would soon attack the
Far East. Filipinos woke up on the morning of December 8, 1941 to the news that
theJapanese had attacked Pearl Harbor.

The first war casualties of the Constabulary came from thebombing of Pan-American
Airways installation at San Pedro, Makati in theafternoon of December 8. Six
Constables from the Headquarters Company werewounded.

The next days and months saw relentless Japanese bombings on thecountry’s
landmarks, airfields and naval bases.

The Death March

The Japanese had taken Manila but were surprised that nodefense forces were
waiting to be captured. The Japanese forces then began thesiege of Bataan,
ordering four infantry regiments with artillery and tanksupport to crush the American
and Filipino soldiers.

The Japanese then prepared to transfer the prisoners andsurrendered troops to

Camp o’ Donnel inCapas, Tarlac in what has been known as the “Death March.”
Because oftorture and starvation, 4,326 prisonersof war died in the infamous

The Postwar Constabulary

The county was left in shambles after the Second World War.Manila was in ruins.
Loose firearms and dead bodies littered the streets. Thiswas also the period when
communist ideology had been propagated in thecountryside and hard-line
supporters had been won.
The Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan or Hukbalahap became a forceto reckon with
in Central Luzon.

The Hukbalahapwas born in Pampanga and was spawned by a feudal land

system in theprovince dominated bylandlords. Pampanga was an “ideal ground” for
the agrarianunrest. It achieved legal status during the Japanese occupation when it
mergedwith the guerilla forces in fighting the Japanese.

The communist movement, meanwhile, capitalized on theagrarian problems of the

country to cement its presence. Agrarian unrest wasprevalent in agricultural lands in
Luzon as well as the sprawling haciendas in thesouth.

Luis Taruc became a leader of the HMBs and foundedhis own government in
Central Luzon. It was during this turbulent period thatthe Philippine Constabulary
was reactivated into the Military Police Command.

Faced with peace and order problems, the Military Police Commandwas suffering
from its own internal crises.

The last war had killed manyConstables. There was a dearth for trained personnel
who would be utilized toaddress the problems.

Constabulary records showed that there were about 20,000Hukbalahaps in Luzon in

1946. The Military Police Command, on the other hand,had 23,000 informal


On January 1, 1944, the Military Police Command was dissolvedby virtue

of Executive Order No. 94 issuedby President Manuel A. Roxas. TheCommand’s
12,000 officers and men were absorbed by the newly reorganizedPhilippine
Constabulary. The revitalized PC was in charge of the country’speace and order
“except those which were purely military in nature.”

Brig. Gen. Mariano Castañeda became chief of the PC and institutedreforms.

On June 21, 1948, PresidentElpidio Quirino offered general amnesty to the
Huks. Taruc, who had beenelected a member of Congress representing Pampanga,
returned to Manila. ButTaruc had no plans to surrender. He only went to Manila to
collect his backsalaries and used the money for his comrades’ operations in Central
President Ramon Magsaysay was credited for crippling the Huk movementby
mobilizing the Philippine Constabulary. Magsaysay used the “friendly touch”for
winning over the Huks, building roads for them and giving them lands.

The Rise of theCommunist Party of the Philippines

The Philippine Constabulary’s attempt to maintain peace andorder did not end with
the decimation of the Huks.

On December 26, 1968, Jose Maria Sison, a Political Science student atthe
University of the Philippines, founded the Communist Party of thePhilippines.

The communist ideology spread through a small discussiongroup called Kabataan

Makabayan organized by Sison and his colleagues in themiddle sixties. Sison then
rose to become the leader of the CPP and organized themilitary wing of the CPP,
the New People’s Army.

But the communists suffered a crushing blow on January 9,1969 in the hands of the
Constabulary who killed the most number of communistleaders in one encounter in
Orani, Bataan.

The PC MetropolitanCommand

The upsurge of mass demonstrations and violence during thelatter part of the 60s
and the expansion efforts of the communist movementtriggered the creation of the
PC Metropolitan Command.

To quell the unrest, President Ferdinand Marcos issued Executive Order Number
76 on July 14, 1967establishing the PC Metrocom whichbecame the PC’s striking
force as it was authorized to conduct 24/7 patrol inthe entire Metro Manila and was
tasked to “supplement or complement localpolice action in the repression and
prevention of crimes…”

Martial Law and the PC

The Philippine Constabulary took on a pivotal role whenPresident Marcos declared

Martial Law on September21, 1972.

Marcos mobilized the Constabulary and other major services ofthe military to
dismantle the “unconstitutional opposition” and to preventwidespread hooliganism
and gangsterism. Convinced that there was a need torestructure the social base that
bred lawlessness, Marcos reorganized thegovernment machinery to effect his
desired changes in the social, economic andpolitical structures.

On March 21, 1974,President Ferdinand E. Marcos signed PresidentialDecree

421 unifying all the police, fire and jail services in Metro Manila.The move was
significant as it created an elite force, the Metropolitan Police Force that was
placed under the aegis of the PCMetrocom. The decree was also the first step in
fulfilling the constitutionalmandate for an integrated national police force.

The Metropolitan Police Force was tasked to carry out theintegration of all police
units nationwide. Brigadier General Prospero A. Olivas, commanding general of
theMetrocom, was assigned the task of launching the pilot project under
thesupervision of Fidel V. Ramos and BrigadierGeneral Cicero C. Campos, deputy
Chief for police matters.

General Olivas would have the power and direction over the Metrocom,including
tactical, strategic movements, deployments, placements and utilization of the entire
force and the training thereof.

On August 8, 1975,Marcos issued Presidential Decree No.765 establishing the

Integrated National Police with the Philippine Constabulary as the nucleus and all
police officers as components.

They wereall placed under the supervision of the Ministry of National Defense.

The Creation of the Philippine National Police

The People’s Revolution of 1986 saw the birth of the 1987 Constitution that included
a provision on the PNP which was to be “national in scope and civilian in character.”

In 1991, the Philippine National Police was created with the passage of Republic Act
No. 6975, otherwise known as the“Department of the Interior and Local Government
Act of 1990.”

The principal authors of the Republic Act 6975 were Senators Ernesto N. Maceda
and Aquilino Pimentel, Congressmen Jose S. Cojuangco Jr. and Rodrigo

Upon its signing into law on December 13, 1990, the PNP underwent a transitory
period;and on 31 March 1991, President Corazon Aquino named General Cesar
Nazareno as the first Director General of the Philippine National Police.
On January 29, 1991,at Camp Crame, Quezon City, thePhilippine Constabulary
and the Integrated National Police were retired officially and the Philippine
NationalPolice was born.

Like any new evolving organization, the PNP suffered from birth pains. To address
these concerns, RepublicAct 8551 or the PNP Reform and Reorganization Act of
1998 was enacted on February 17, 1998 to amend certainprovisions of Republic Act
No. 6975.

This move was in response to the growing clamor to transform the PNP “into a more
responsive, effective and relevant police organization.”

Under this Act, the PNP shall be strengthened and evolved into a highly efficient
police force that is community and service-oriented and fully accountable in the
performance of its action.

Training Officers for the Philippine National Police are sourced from the Philippine
National Academy as well as through lateral entry,for specialized disciplines and
requirements such as doctors, engineers and other technical positions.

The Philippine National Police Academy is located in Silang, Cavite and is the
primary training school for the PNP.

Recruitment and Training

The PNP conducts regular recruitment programs, depending on annual budget

The entry level for non-commissioned officers is the rank of Police Officer 1 or PO1,
with a starting salary of P14, 265.00 inclusive of allowances.

The new recruits undergo Police Basic Recruit Course for six months and a Field
Training Program for another six months prior to deployment to various units.

Republic Act No. 6975 Approved: December 13, 1990

-An Act Establishing the Philippine National Police under a Reorganized Department
of the Interior and Local Government, and for other purposes. PHILIPPINE
NATIONAL POLICE (PNP) The Philippine National Police (PNP) has been
established initially consisting of the following:
a. Members of the police force who were integrated into theIntegrated National
Police (INP)pursuant to PD 765;

b. Officers and enlisted personnel of the PhilippineConstabulary (PC) which include:

•Those assigned with the Narcotics Command (NARCOM);

•Those assigned with the Criminal Investigation Service (CIS);

•Those of the technical services of the AFP assigned with thePC.

•Civilian operatives of the CIS.

c. Regular operatives of the abolished NAPOLCOM Inspection,Investigation and

Intelligence Branch may also be absorbed by the PNP. Inaddition, the PNP shall
absorb the Office of the National Action Committee onAnti-Hijacking (NACAH) of the
DND, all the functions of the Philippine AirForce Security Command (PAFSECOM),
as well as the police functions of the CoastGuard.