Sie sind auf Seite 1von 31

# CHAPTER THREE

3.1 METHODOLOGY

## When there is no supply from the mains, the contactor is disengaged

(lines from utility are open) and the voltage relay closes the contact to the

timer (few minutes to warm) and to the starter circuit of the engine for the

starting of the generator after few minutes. The timer contact will close,

thus energizing the main magnetic coil of the generator contactor to the

load. Upon sensing supply again from mains, the normally open contact

## (which closes when there is voltage) de-energizes the generator contactor

and time in the timer (few minutes); normally open contact latches and

energizes the mains contactor coil for the closure. The neutral and life wire

of the main supply is connected to the normally open of the contactor, the

neutral and life wire of the generator is connected to the normally close of

GEN GEN
STOPPER SHUTDOWN
RELAY COIL

GEN CIRCUIT
BATTERY

STARTER SOLENOID
RELAY STARTER
MOTOR

## BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE STARTER & STOPPER SYSTEM

The approach used in this work is the modular approach where the

overall design is first broken into functional blocks as shown in the above

block diagram.

## Apparent powers = 12 x 103 VA (12KVA)

Line voltage = VL = 415V

= 12 x 103 x 0.8

= 9.6KW

## Assuming a balanced load is being used,

P = 3 IP VP cos Æ

## 9600 = 3 x IP x 240 x 0.8

IP = 9600 = 18.19A

3 x 220 x 0.8

IP ≈ 18.3A

100

= 18.3 + 4.6

## = 22.9Amps or nearest allowable.

Ip = 18.3 deduced is current per phase. Thus any cable used should be

## 18.3 + (50% x 18.3)

= 18.3 + 9.15

= 37.45Amps

However, if the operating environment is very hot, a larger cable size will

be required.

## a. Current Limiting Resistors

(Maximum allowable

## current across the LED)

Therefore, current drawn by Red LED;

## Therefore, current drawn by Yellow LED;

To determining (supply voltage) and

## (maximum allowable current across the LED)

Since 234Ω resistor is not standard, 250Ω resistor was used as the closest

## b. Peak Inverse Voltage

Peak Inverse voltage is twice the maximum voltage across the half wave [

That is

## Therefore, PIV = 2 X 12 = 24V

The value of diode used in full wave bridge rectifier circuit was 1N4001

because it has voltage rating of 50V as required by the circuit. The rating is

also chosen to avoid any damage to the diode in case of reverse operation

occurs.

## Average dc voltage across the load

However, the values of dc voltages and currents

## across the three phases were equally 10.8Volts and

54mA respectively.

d. Filter capacitors

## y = Ripple factor = 5% = 0.05

R = Diode resistance =?
Since 288μF capacitor is not standard, 330μF capacitors were used as

## was calculated using the expression;

The value of with respect to is also calculated using the

expression

## when tuned to it midpoint.

However, the same calculation is also done in second voltage divider stage

SWITCHING UNIT

## From the expression;

But to ensure sufficient base current to drive the transistor into saturation,

## the quantity of the base current is doubled.

b. Base Resistance
In this case, since the resistor is also for the same purpose, the

Where:

(4.2)

## Calculating current using a power factor of 0.8,

Circuit Breaker Design

Two circuit breakers of different ratings are used here. The first will be for

the power (Generator) circuit and the second for the control circuit. The

breaker to be used for the power circuit must have a rating of more than

15A. For this design, a 30 Amps 4 pole (3-phase) circuit breaker will be

used. For the control circuit, the breaker to be used will be a 6Amps single

pole breaker. This is because the current in the control circuit is measured

in mA

Contactor Design

## selected for the Mains and Generator contactors.

Relay Design

Relays with the following parameters were used for the design:

## D.C rating 10A/12V

A.C rating 5A/220V

Conductor Design

(4.3)

OBSERVATION

## on a three-phase supply by connecting wires from the mains to both the

mains and generator contactors. It was observed that with the selector

Switch on the mains side in the ON position, the mains contactor was

energized immediately. When the selector switch was turned to the OFF

## position representing mains failure, the Generator contactor was energized

with the selector switch on the generator side in the auto position. When

Mains was restored by switching, the mains selector switch back ON, and

## (automatically or manually). If after five seconds no indication is received

that the generator has started, the cranking signal is terminated and a fail

to start indication is given. Under these conditions, the fuel solenoid signal

CHAPTER FOUR

## The tools used to carry out the construction are: veroboard,

soldering iron, lead sucker, long noise pliers, cutting pliers, screw driver,

## drilling machine, digital multi meter, frequency meter, spanner

tweezers. The appropriate tools were used to carry out the construction

differently in order to avoid the damage of the tools or any materials used

## in the construction process.

The construction of the circuit was carried out taking into considera

tion all components that are very sensitive to heat or that can be damaged

when they are over-heated. Also, those components that consume very low

CASING

## The casing is made of metal sheets of about 2mm in thickness. It

consists of different parts which were fitted into each other to form an

enclosure for the regulating circuit board and the supporting components.

The casing has three dimensions: the length (1ft), the breadth (1ft) and
the height (5inch). The casing is ventilated because the power drawing in

the circuit is high. A stand of about 4cm is mounted on the edge of the

## Having constructed the circuit board and the casing satisfactorily,

the project was assembled. Assembling was done by fixing the circuit

board into the casing and screwing properly to prevent vibration. It was

ensured that the enclosure was not too small for the board so as to

## shaking. Finally, proper and tight connections were made between

components.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

## circuit might cause an explosion. Work on ventilated environment and do

not conduct any form of play while working. Apply the necessary rules, to

getting damaged.

TESTING:

## In every engineering outfit projected work must undergo series o

test before the project will be satisfied okay. In production chain it will be

## 1. Testing of the individual components.

2. Unit by unit testing.

3. System testing.

## Components should be tested individually before fiddling with it, so

as to remove the bad ones. This test will be satisfied test measures for

## the project, testing it and confirming that is functional before soldering.

SYSTEM TESTING

This involves the testing of the entire circuitry and cross examines it

insertion of IC pin layout and also checking if ICs of these pin number are
slotted in their proper base. After the first check you should cross check

RESULT

generator.

Table 4.1

EEDC 22OV

GENERATOR 230V

## DISCUSSION OF RESULTS OBTAINED

The testing and result obtained above show that; output voltage from the

generator is greater than the output voltage from the mains. The above

observation shows that there is always a drop in voltage from the nominal

value. This voltage drop is as a result of the number of relays that comes

## THE OPERATION OF THREE PHASE TRANSFER SWITCH

The transfer switch comprised of two different sections; the control circuit

and power circuit. The power circuit has two main contactors controlling

both the Mains and the generator power. The control section of the

transfer switch is the main brain of the whole circuit. When there is no

supply from the Mains, the main contractor is disengaged (lines from utility

are open) and the voltage relay closes the auxiliary contact to the timer

(few minutes to warm) and to the switching circuit of the engine for the

starting of the generator after few minutes. The timer auxiliary contact

closes, thus energizing the main magnetic coil of the generator contactor

to the load. Upon sensing supply again from Mains, the auxiliary normally

## open contact (which closes when there is voltage) de-energizes the

generator contactor and time in the timer (few minutes). The normally

open contact latches and energizes the Mains contactor coil for the closure.

Interlock is provided to ensure that the Mains contactor and the generator

contactor under no condition will the two come on at the same time. The

generator contactor only comes on when the Mains fails, but with the

## selector or rotary switch one can select any power source.

The project was constructed successfully taking into consideration the

entire safety requirement for its safe operation. After the construction of

the control system the following important test was carried out:

Testing

opened contact.

## 3. Continuity of protective devices: all the protective devices where

tested by closing the contacts and using continuity tester to test for

continuity. When the protective devices such as the three phase line

## good working condition.

5. Polarity checks: this was done to ensure that live and neutral polarity

hazards.

## and the control system performed satisfactorily.

3.8.3. INTEGRATION

The integration of the units that made up the circuit and testing

them now as unified system. Here if the project is not working as assumed,

3.9. PACKAGING

## casing where the said project was housed.

Before construction of this package I considered the size of the

project and maintenance factor which need may arise. There are some

## other ways the project can be packaged namely,

1. Metal packaging

2. plastic packaging.

RESULT

generator.

Table 4.1

EEDC 22OV

GENERATOR 230V

## Discussion of Results Obtained

The testing and result obtained above show that; output voltage from the

generator is greater than the output voltage from the mains. The above

observation shows that there is always a drop in voltage from the nominal
value. This voltage drop is as a result of the number of relays that comes

## The operation of three phase transfer switch

The transfer switch comprised of two different sections; the control circuit

and power circuit. The power circuit has two main contactors controlling

both the Mains and the generator power. The control section of the

transfer switch is the main brain of the whole circuit. When there is no

supply from the Mains, the main contractor is disengaged (lines from utility

are open) and the voltage relay closes the auxiliary contact to the timer

(few minutes to warm) and to the switching circuit of the engine for the

starting of the generator after few minutes. The timer auxiliary contact

closes, thus energizing the main magnetic coil of the generator contactor

to the load. Upon sensing supply again from Mains, the auxiliary normally

## open contact (which closes when there is voltage) de-energizes the

generator contactor and time in the timer (few minutes). The normally

open contact latches and energizes the Mains contactor coil for the closure.

Interlock is provided to ensure that the Mains contactor and the generator

contactor under no condition will the two come on at the same time. The
generator contactor only comes on when the Mains fails, but with the

Results

## The project was constructed successfully taking into consideration the

entire safety requirement for its safe operation. After the construction of

the control system the following important test was carried out:

Observation

## on a three-phase supply by connecting wires from the mains to both the

mains and generator contactors. It was observed that with the selector

switch on the mains side is in the ON position, the mains contactor was

energized immediately. When the selector switch was turned to the OFF

## position representing mains failure, the generator contactor was energized

with the selector switch on the generator side in the auto position. When

mains was restored by switching the mains selector switch back ON, the

## mains contactor was immediately energized again. A situation was created

for phase lost where a phase is removed, causing a failure to occur, hence

## de-energized the main contractor and energizes the generator contactor.

During normal operation, automatic change-over switch supplies load from

## (automatically or manually), which energizes the generator fuel solenoid

relay. If after five seconds no indication is received that the generator has

Cost analysis

## S/N Components or Quantity Price per Total cost

materials unit
1. Contactor 1 3000,00 9000,00
2. Relay 4 300,00 1200,00
3. Timer 2 1500,00 3000,00
4. 3 phase line controller 1 40,00 40,00
5. Selector switch 4 10,00 40,00
6. Four pole circuit 1 1000,00 1000,00
breaker
7. Two pole circuit 1 800,00 800,00
breaker
8. Rail connectors 10 pieces 100,00 1000,00
9. Rail 1 1000,00 1000,00
10. Indicator light 9 100,00 900,00
11. Connector cable 10yards 150,00 1500,00
12. metal box 1 4000 4000
13. Soldering iron 2 800,00 1600,00
14. Lamp holder 1 80,00 80,00
15. Bulb 1 60,00 60,00
16 Lead sucker 1 350,00 350,00
17. Screw nail 20 pieces 20,00 400,00
18. Internet browsing ---- 3000,00 3000,00
19. Miscellaneous ……… ……… 10,000
20. TOTAL ---- …….. 35,000
Labour Cost

The labor cost = total man-hours utilized * number of days * rate per

hour.

= N5280.00

## Total cost = material cost + labour cost

= 508.00 + 528.00

= 1,036.00

## = 5000.00 + 5028.00 + 10/100 * 103.60

=1,036.00 + 103.60

=N 1,139.60

The current cost of three phase 40 amps automatic change over switch

with over voltage andunder voltage check device in the local market is

N35000.00

## As shown in Table 5.2, the cost involved in constructing three phase

transfer switch ischeaper and the materials needed for replacement are

## with electronic component that are no replaceable.

THE SYSTEM COMPLETE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM