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CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY, DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

3.1 METHODOLOGY

When there is no supply from the mains, the contactor is disengaged

(lines from utility are open) and the voltage relay closes the contact to the

timer (few minutes to warm) and to the starter circuit of the engine for the

starting of the generator after few minutes. The timer contact will close,

thus energizing the main magnetic coil of the generator contactor to the

load. Upon sensing supply again from mains, the normally open contact

(which closes when there is voltage) de-energizes the generator contactor

and time in the timer (few minutes); normally open contact latches and

energizes the mains contactor coil for the closure. The neutral and life wire

of the main supply is connected to the normally open of the contactor, the

neutral and life wire of the generator is connected to the normally close of

the contacted while the load is connected to the common of both.


GEN GEN
STOPPER SHUTDOWN
RELAY COIL

12V FROM CONTROL


GEN CIRCUIT
BATTERY

STARTER SOLENOID
RELAY STARTER
MOTOR

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE STARTER & STOPPER SYSTEM


The approach used in this work is the modular approach where the

overall design is first broken into functional blocks as shown in the above

block diagram.

CALCULATION OF POWER FOR THE CHANGE OVER SWITCH

If the changeover is to be applied on a 220V/415V, 12KVA generator

operating at 50Hz and a power factor of about 0.8. To determine rating of

contactor to be used as well as cable size Recall

Apparent powers = 12 x 103 VA (12KVA)


Line voltage = VL = 415V

Phase voltage = VsP = 240V

Active power “P” = Apparent power x power factor

= 12 x 103 x 0.8

= 9.6KW

Assuming a balanced load is being used,

P = 3 IP VP cos Æ

9600 = 3 x IP x 240 x 0.8

IP = 9600 = 18.19A

3 x 220 x 0.8

IP ≈ 18.3A

The contactor required will have a minimum current rating of 18.3A

For increased efficiency a tolerance of about +25% will be given

Thus contactor rating will be

18.3A + (25 x 18.3)

100

= 18.3 + 4.6

= 22.9Amps or nearest allowable.


Ip = 18.3 deduced is current per phase. Thus any cable used should be

capable of carrying about 1½ times the current. The operating

environment will also play a role.

:. Required cable should carry a current of at least

18.3 + (50% x 18.3)

= 18.3 + 9.15

= 37.45Amps

However, if the operating environment is very hot, a larger cable size will

be required.

THE POWER SUPPLY UNIT

In power supply sections, 240V/12V transformers and 1A fuses rating were

chosen because it’s met the requirement of the circuit.

a. Current Limiting Resistors

(Maximum allowable

current across the LED)


Therefore, current drawn by Red LED;

To determining (supply voltage) and

(maximum allowable current across the LED)

Therefore, current drawn by Yellow LED;


To determining (supply voltage) and

(maximum allowable current across the LED)

Since 234Ω resistor is not standard, 250Ω resistor was used as the closest

value in the design.

Therefore, current drawn by Blue LED;

b. Peak Inverse Voltage


Peak Inverse voltage is twice the maximum voltage across the half wave [

That is

Therefore, PIV = 2 X 12 = 24V

The value of diode used in full wave bridge rectifier circuit was 1N4001

because it has voltage rating of 50V as required by the circuit. The rating is

also chosen to avoid any damage to the diode in case of reverse operation

occurs.

c. Average DC Current ( 1c)

The average DC current was calculated using the expression

A 200Ω load resistance was considered across the outputs.

Root mean square (R.m.s) of the secondary = 12V

Maximum voltage across the secondary

Dc current flowing through the load

Average dc voltage across the load


However, the values of dc voltages and currents

across the three phases were equally 10.8Volts and

54mA respectively.

d. Filter capacitors

The filter capacitors were calculated using the expression

But for full wave rectifier circuit [8];

f = frequency of ripple voltage = 50Hz

y = Ripple factor = 5% = 0.05

R = Diode resistance =?
Since 288μF capacitor is not standard, 330μF capacitors were used as

in the standard value in the design.

VOLTAGE SENSING UNIT

Since voltage is considered in this unit, the values of and

were taken to be 2.5KΩ, 6V and 12V respectively. Thus the value of

was calculated using the expression;


The value of with respect to is also calculated using the

expression

= 2.5KΩ since resistor is common to resistor

and each having 2.5KΩ resistances, 5KΩ variable resistor

was adopted in the design so as to produce 2.5KΩ resistance to resistors

when tuned to it midpoint.

However, the same calculation is also done in second voltage divider stage

and the value of

SWITCHING UNIT

a. Collector Current (1c)

From the expression;


But to ensure sufficient base current to drive the transistor into saturation,

the quantity of the base current is doubled.

b. Base Resistance
In this case, since the resistor is also for the same purpose, the

value of used in the design was 4.7KΩ.

This design is intended to power a load of 3.5kVA

Using the formula (4.1)

Where:

V is line voltage = 415V

I is Full load current

cosߠ is power factor = 0.8

P is induction motor rating = 3.5 KVA

(4.2)

Calculating current using a power factor of 0.8,


Circuit Breaker Design

Two circuit breakers of different ratings are used here. The first will be for

the power (Generator) circuit and the second for the control circuit. The

breaker to be used for the power circuit must have a rating of more than

15A. For this design, a 30 Amps 4 pole (3-phase) circuit breaker will be

used. For the control circuit, the breaker to be used will be a 6Amps single

pole breaker. This is because the current in the control circuit is measured

in mA

Contactor Design

In choosing the contactors to be used, the running currents would be

considered. The full load current is 43.48A. At starting, current is passed

through the Mains or Generator contactor to the load. The contactor to be

used has a rating higher than 44Amps.Acontactor of 50Amps is to be

selected for the Mains and Generator contactors.

Relay Design

Relays with the following parameters were used for the design:

D.C rating 10A/12V


A.C rating 5A/220V

Electronic Timer and Indication Lamp

These components work with single phase voltages. Their operating

voltage should be:

Conductor Design

An approximation sometimes used for design of copper conductor is:25mm

× 25mm of the conductor will carry 1000A of current.

Since Full Load Current is approximately 43.48A,Conductor dimension is

(4.3)

Cable diameter is; d = 8.65 × 2 = 17.3mm


OBSERVATION

The control circuit of the automatic change-over switch was tested

on a three-phase supply by connecting wires from the mains to both the

mains and generator contactors. It was observed that with the selector

Switch on the mains side in the ON position, the mains contactor was

energized immediately. When the selector switch was turned to the OFF

position representing mains failure, the Generator contactor was energized

with the selector switch on the generator side in the auto position. When

Mains was restored by switching, the mains selector switch back ON, and

the mains contactor was immediately energized again. During normal

operation, automatic change-over switch supplies load from Mains. The

generator fuel solenoid relay is energized. A generator start signal is given

(automatically or manually). If after five seconds no indication is received

that the generator has started, the cranking signal is terminated and a fail

to start indication is given. Under these conditions, the fuel solenoid signal

is maintained to permit subsequent manual starting. Should the generator

fail during operation, this indicator provides a warning.


CHAPTER FOUR

CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING ANALYSIS

4.1. CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE

The tools used to carry out the construction are: veroboard,

soldering iron, lead sucker, long noise pliers, cutting pliers, screw driver,

drilling machine, digital multi meter, frequency meter, spanner

tweezers. The appropriate tools were used to carry out the construction

differently in order to avoid the damage of the tools or any materials used

in the construction process.

The construction of the circuit was carried out taking into considera

tion all components that are very sensitive to heat or that can be damaged

when they are over-heated. Also, those components that consume very low

current, in order of milli-ampere were mounted on the veroboard.

CASING

The casing is made of metal sheets of about 2mm in thickness. It

consists of different parts which were fitted into each other to form an

enclosure for the regulating circuit board and the supporting components.

The casing has three dimensions: the length (1ft), the breadth (1ft) and
the height (5inch). The casing is ventilated because the power drawing in

the circuit is high. A stand of about 4cm is mounted on the edge of the

casing where the heater (coil) is mounted.

ASSEMBLING OF CONSTRUCTED WORK

Having constructed the circuit board and the casing satisfactorily,

the project was assembled. Assembling was done by fixing the circuit

board into the casing and screwing properly to prevent vibration. It was

ensured that the enclosure was not too small for the board so as to

prevent compression or breakage of the veroboard or any other

components. The two transformers were properly tithing to avoid

shaking. Finally, proper and tight connections were made between

components.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

You must have a standby fire extinguisher in case of fire outbreak.

Protective gadgets like goggle should be worn while performing these

tests, more especially on power test. Any wrong connection made on

circuit might cause an explosion. Work on ventilated environment and do


not conduct any form of play while working. Apply the necessary rules, to

abstain endangering your life and others as well.

The following safety precautions were adhered to in the course of the

implementation of the project during soldering.

1. Excessive heat was avoided on the components to prevent them from

getting damaged.

2. The indicator light was powered through a resistor to avoid damage.

3. The entire system was properly grounded

4. The correct polarities of the components were properly connected.

TESTING:

In every engineering outfit projected work must undergo series o

test before the project will be satisfied okay. In production chain it will be

tagged with a label, Q.C passed.

In small system designs, testing process is also applicable. There

are sequences of test needed to undergo for any successful project.

1. Testing of the individual components.


2. Unit by unit testing.

3. System testing.

TESTING OF THE INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS

Components should be tested individually before fiddling with it, so

as to remove the bad ones. This test will be satisfied test measures for

individual components which are basically used of the multimeter. Testing

of transformer, transistor, diodes, LED, MOSFFET and every other

component that will be used in the project.

UNIT BY UNIT TESTING

These involve wiring up circuitry and testing to confirm its functions

before soldering. Examples are bread boarding of power supply stage of

the project, testing it and confirming that is functional before soldering.

SYSTEM TESTING

This involves the testing of the entire circuitry and cross examines it

for errors like short circuits, lead flux, joining unwanted links. Proper

insertion of IC pin layout and also checking if ICs of these pin number are
slotted in their proper base. After the first check you should cross check

again before powering the system.

RESULT

All tests were carried out at a voltage of 230/415Va.c and 225/400Va.c on

generator.

Table 4.1

SOURCE DETAIL OF SOURCES OUTPUT (V)

EEDC 22OV

GENERATOR 230V

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS OBTAINED

The testing and result obtained above show that; output voltage from the

generator is greater than the output voltage from the mains. The above

observation shows that there is always a drop in voltage from the nominal

value. This voltage drop is as a result of the number of relays that comes

into operation during this mode when the unit is powered.

THE OPERATION OF THREE PHASE TRANSFER SWITCH


The transfer switch comprised of two different sections; the control circuit

and power circuit. The power circuit has two main contactors controlling

both the Mains and the generator power. The control section of the

transfer switch is the main brain of the whole circuit. When there is no

supply from the Mains, the main contractor is disengaged (lines from utility

are open) and the voltage relay closes the auxiliary contact to the timer

(few minutes to warm) and to the switching circuit of the engine for the

starting of the generator after few minutes. The timer auxiliary contact

closes, thus energizing the main magnetic coil of the generator contactor

to the load. Upon sensing supply again from Mains, the auxiliary normally

open contact (which closes when there is voltage) de-energizes the

generator contactor and time in the timer (few minutes). The normally

open contact latches and energizes the Mains contactor coil for the closure.

Interlock is provided to ensure that the Mains contactor and the generator

contactor under no condition will the two come on at the same time. The

generator contactor only comes on when the Mains fails, but with the

selector or rotary switch one can select any power source.


The project was constructed successfully taking into consideration the

entire safety requirement for its safe operation. After the construction of

the control system the following important test was carried out:

Testing

1. Continuity of conductors: this test was conducted to ensure that the

control conductors used for the wiring has no break in it.

2. Continuity of normally closed contacts: the normally closed

contacts gave continuous reading when tested to indicate a closed contact.

When manually operated a discontinuous reading was attained to indicate

opened contact.

3. Continuity of protective devices: all the protective devices where

tested by closing the contacts and using continuity tester to test for

continuity. When the protective devices such as the three phase line

controller were closed, the instrument gave a continuous signal indicating

closed contacts, meaning the electrical device is in good working condition.

4. Operation of contactors, relays, timers, protective devices and

interlocks: the contactors, relays and the timers were energized to

observe their opening and breaking operation. They were found to be in

good working condition.


5. Polarity checks: this was done to ensure that live and neutral polarity

was connected to the respective terminal block to prevent electrical

hazards.

6. Protection by electrical separation: this test was carried out by

isolating the breakers/switches and then tested to observe if there were

leakages. All the components were found to be in good working condition

and the control system performed satisfactorily.

3.8.3. INTEGRATION

The integration of the units that made up the circuit and testing

them now as unified system. Here if the project is not working as assumed,

necessary changes can now be made until a desirable outcome is attained.

3.9. PACKAGING

Every quality and good product is often determined by packaging.

Credit is awarded to properly packaged project. After the integrating and

final testing of the project, we now made choice of package considering

cost as well as durability elegance. I then choose to embark on metallic

casing where the said project was housed.


Before construction of this package I considered the size of the

project and maintenance factor which need may arise. There are some

other ways the project can be packaged namely,

1. Metal packaging

2. plastic packaging.

RESULT

All tests were carried out at a voltage of 230/415Va.c and 225/400Va.c on

generator.

Table 4.1

SOURCE DETAIL OF SOURCES OUTPUT (V)

EEDC 22OV

GENERATOR 230V

Discussion of Results Obtained

The testing and result obtained above show that; output voltage from the

generator is greater than the output voltage from the mains. The above

observation shows that there is always a drop in voltage from the nominal
value. This voltage drop is as a result of the number of relays that comes

into operation during this mode when the unit is powered.

The operation of three phase transfer switch

The transfer switch comprised of two different sections; the control circuit

and power circuit. The power circuit has two main contactors controlling

both the Mains and the generator power. The control section of the

transfer switch is the main brain of the whole circuit. When there is no

supply from the Mains, the main contractor is disengaged (lines from utility

are open) and the voltage relay closes the auxiliary contact to the timer

(few minutes to warm) and to the switching circuit of the engine for the

starting of the generator after few minutes. The timer auxiliary contact

closes, thus energizing the main magnetic coil of the generator contactor

to the load. Upon sensing supply again from Mains, the auxiliary normally

open contact (which closes when there is voltage) de-energizes the

generator contactor and time in the timer (few minutes). The normally

open contact latches and energizes the Mains contactor coil for the closure.

Interlock is provided to ensure that the Mains contactor and the generator

contactor under no condition will the two come on at the same time. The
generator contactor only comes on when the Mains fails, but with the

selector or rotary switch one can select any power source.

Results and discussion

Results

The project was constructed successfully taking into consideration the

entire safety requirement for its safe operation. After the construction of

the control system the following important test was carried out:

Observation

The control circuit of the Automatic change-over switch was tested

on a three-phase supply by connecting wires from the mains to both the

mains and generator contactors. It was observed that with the selector

switch on the mains side is in the ON position, the mains contactor was

energized immediately. When the selector switch was turned to the OFF

position representing mains failure, the generator contactor was energized

with the selector switch on the generator side in the auto position. When

mains was restored by switching the mains selector switch back ON, the

mains contactor was immediately energized again. A situation was created

for phase lost where a phase is removed, causing a failure to occur, hence

de-energized the main contractor and energizes the generator contactor.


During normal operation, automatic change-over switch supplies load from

mains. When the mains fails, a generator start signal is given

(automatically or manually), which energizes the generator fuel solenoid

relay. If after five seconds no indication is received that the generator has

started, the cranking signal is terminated and a fail to start indication is

given. Under these conditions, the fuel solenoid signal is maintained to

permit subsequent manual starting. Should the generator fail during

operation, this indicator provides a warning.

Output readings

All tests were carried out at a voltage of 240V AC

Table 4.2 Output readings.

Cost analysis

Table 4.3 Material Cost

S/N Components or Quantity Price per Total cost


materials unit
1. Contactor 1 3000,00 9000,00
2. Relay 4 300,00 1200,00
3. Timer 2 1500,00 3000,00
4. 3 phase line controller 1 40,00 40,00
5. Selector switch 4 10,00 40,00
6. Four pole circuit 1 1000,00 1000,00
breaker
7. Two pole circuit 1 800,00 800,00
breaker
8. Rail connectors 10 pieces 100,00 1000,00
9. Rail 1 1000,00 1000,00
10. Indicator light 9 100,00 900,00
11. Connector cable 10yards 150,00 1500,00
12. metal box 1 4000 4000
13. Soldering iron 2 800,00 1600,00
14. Lamp holder 1 80,00 80,00
15. Bulb 1 60,00 60,00
16 Lead sucker 1 350,00 350,00
17. Screw nail 20 pieces 20,00 400,00
18. Internet browsing ---- 3000,00 3000,00
19. Miscellaneous ……… ……… 10,000
20. TOTAL ---- …….. 35,000
Labour Cost

The labor cost = total man-hours utilized * number of days * rate per

hour.

The labor cost = 8 * 3 * N22

= N5280.00

Total cost = material cost + labour cost

= 508.00 + 528.00

= 1,036.00

Overall cost = material cost + labour cost+10%*(total cost)

= 5000.00 + 5028.00 + 10/100 * 103.60

=1,036.00 + 103.60

=N 1,139.60

The current cost of three phase 40 amps automatic change over switch

with over voltage andunder voltage check device in the local market is

N35000.00

As shown in Table 5.2, the cost involved in constructing three phase

transfer switch ischeaper and the materials needed for replacement are

also available in the local marketas compare to automatic transfer switch

with electronic component that are no replaceable.


THE SYSTEM COMPLETE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM