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1. Choose the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

(30 )
- They finally managed …1…(hand) in their project on time.
- I don’t think that we …2… (finish) this test by two o’clock.
- How long …3… (you/know) Ben? Since we …4…(be) three!
- Be quiet and just give her a minute and let her …5…(explain) herself.
- The child got ill because he …6… (play) outside in cold weather.
- Would you mind …7… (bring) me a glass of water, please?
- I regret …8…(tell) you that our party has been put off until next month.
- She’s really tired now because she…9…(work) for the last six hours non-stop.
- I’m sure doctors …10…(find) a cure for AIDS soon.
- Manny was really angry because Olivia …11… (spill) coffee all over his papers.
- It …12… (take) them more than 150 years to build that cathedral. It …13… (finish) in 1728.
- What …14…(you/think) when you did such a silly thing?
- They are really good at …15…(work) in teams.
- My brother is looking forward to…16… (visit) our cousins in London.
- Don’t move, or that bee …17…(sting) you.
- My boyfriend and I …18…(never/have) an argument, yet.
- At this time tomorrow, we …19… (study) for another exam.
- By the time we got home last night, we …20… (fly) over 2,000 miles, so we were exhausted.
- When I saw the kids, they …21…(lie) on the floor, playing dead.
- Wait a second. Jim …22…(not/drink) his coffee yet.
- I got used …23…(study) really hard when I started Bachillerato.
- What time…24…(Moira’s train/arrive) tonight?
- You …25…(write) in English for some minutes now. How many words …26…
(you/write) so far?
- Can you please tell me where Brenda is? Sure. She’s over there, …27…(sit) at the back of the
classroom, by the window.
- Susan …28…(work) for three hours when she noticed that she was alone at the office.
- Yesterday, the sun …29…(rise) at 8.15.
- I remember …30… (talk) to them about the incident. We were in the park, by the lake.

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2. Text:
Reading to Reduce Crime
Empathy refers to a person’s ability to understand what other people are thinking and feeling.
Some experts suggest that many people who commit crimes are unable to empathise with their
victims and do not take into account the negative effects of their actions on others.
Is it possible to improve a person’s ability to empathise? In a recent study, researchers have
found evidence that reading may be a useful tool in achieving this aim. Participants in the study
were randomly divided into four groups. One group was assigned to read non-fiction material
while another wasn’t required to read anything at all. The remaining two groups were assigned
fictional excerpts; one taken from popular fiction and the other taken from literary fiction.
After they had finished their assignments, the participants took a test that measured their ability
to infer and appreciate other people’s thoughts and emotions.
The researchers found that those participants who had read nothing at all, as well as those who
had read non-fiction or excerpts of popular fiction, didn’t have impressive scores in the test.
However, participants who had read literary fiction performed significantly better in the tests.
The researchers concluded that popular fiction doesn’t improve a person’s capacity to
empathise because its characters are usually consistent and predictable. This, they say, just
reinforces people’s stereotypes and prejudices of others. What’s more, writers of popular
fiction often explicitly tell readers what the characters are thinking. As a result, the readers
aren’t required to work out the characters’ emotions. In contrast, the characters in literary
fiction are more complicated and their emotions and intentions are more subtly depicted. This
results in readers becoming more emotionally involved with the characters. In addition, readers
develop an awareness that people are complex beings that often defy expectations. It is this
awareness which readers carry over to the real world.
The researchers hope that their findings will result in the integration of more literary fiction in
educational institutions and in the implementation of reading programmes in prisons. Yet, even
if this happens, it remains to be seen if literary fiction indeed turns out to be a valuable weapon
in the fight against crime.

a. Find words or phrases in the text which mean the same as the following. (8 )
- indication, proof: ……………….. - deduced: …………………..

- instrument: …………………… - strengthens: ……………………….

- extracts, passages: ……………….. - challenge: ………………………..

- remarkable: ……………………. - ends up being: …………………

b. Answer the following questions according to the text. Use your own words. (12 )

1 Why is it important to develop feelings of empathy in criminals? ………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

2 What kind of fiction helps to develop feelings of empathy? Why? …………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3 What can be done in prisons to help inmates be more empathetic? ……………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

c. Write a summary of the text in no more than 50 words. Do not copy from the text. (10 )

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. Vocabulary: (20 ) 20 words

(Words from the texts read and the exercises done in the classroom)

4. Define in English: (10 ) 5 words

(Words from the texts read and the exercises done in the classroom)
5. Rewrite the following sentences as suggested and keeping the original meaning. (30 )

His parents are angry because he does not tidy up his room regularly.

If he…..…………………………………………………………………………………………
You were rude to her, and that’s why she was so upset.

If you……………………………………………………………………………………………
You won’t be allowed to go out this evening if you do not tidy up your room.

Unless…………………………………………………………………………………………
You never do the shopping, and that’s why there’s nothing in the fridge.

If…………………………………………………………………………………………………
It wasn’t necessary for you to call me last night. (needn’t)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………
It is just not possible that she saw the robbery. (use a modal or modal perfect)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………
Did they award her the Nobel Prize for literature.

Was……………………………………………………………………………………………….
People believe that they had a romantic relationship some years ago.

They………………………………………………………………………………………………
A painter repainted our living room last week.

We………………………………………………………………………………………………..
I decided to go out although it was raining.

In spite…………………………………………………………………………………………
He was injured in the fall. Nevertheless, he struggled and finished the race.

Even ……………………………………………………………………………………………..
They ought to ask an expert about their computer’s malfunction. (better)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………
“Okay, Laura, I’ll do as you say” said Paul. (persuade)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………
“Ms Rodríguez, why were you carrying a gun in the park?” asked the detective.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………
“Will the judge send these teens to prison tomorrow?” Karen wondered.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. Listen to a radio conversation between Dave, a radio programme presenter, Anna, a
listener, and Mick, a doctor. Choose the correct option. (10 ) PAU SEPT 2008

a. 1. Giving up smoking is difficult because there is no nicotine in cigarettes.


2. Giving up smoking is not so difficult because of the nicotine.
3. Giving up smoking is hard because of the presence of nicotine.
b. 4. Anna started smoking because she was left outside her friend’s house.
5. Anna started smoking because her friends invited her to smoke.
6. Anna started smoking because she didn’t want to feel left out by her friends.
c. 7. Anna smoked because she didn’t feel shy.
8. Anna smoked because it made her feel more grown – up and confident.
9. Anna smoked two packets a day before she even knew it.
d. 10. Tobacco companies have made cigarettes the symbol of maturity.
11. Tobacco companies have made cigarettes the symbol of shyness.
12. Tobacco companies know that smoking means uncomfortable feelings.
e. 13. Governments say that smoking is something we have to learn to live with.
14. Mick says that governments should ban cigarette advertising.
15. Mick says that governments should allow cigarette advertising only in some sports.
f. 16. If you have smoked for a long time the risks of being ill will decrease.
17. If you give up smoking the risks of being ill will never decrease.
18. If you give up smoking the risks of being ill begin to decrease.
g. 19. If you give up smoking the risk of lung cancer disappears after five years.
20. If you give up smoking the risk of lung cancer is only half after five years.
21. If you give up smoking the risk of lung cancer is only half after fifteen years.
h. 22. Anna gave up smoking very slowly, little by little.
23. Anna told her family she was going to give up smoking.
24. Anna made up her mind and began to smoke again.
i. 25. Dave didn’t give up smoking because it is unpleasant for the first couple of weeks
26. Dave didn’t give up smoking because of the problem of addiction to nicotine.
27. Dave didn’t give up smoking because he saves his money
j. 28. People find that when they give up smoking they eat more.
29. People find that if they don’t give up smoking they eat more and more.
30. People find that if they don’t smoke they worry too much

7. Composition: Advantages and disadvantages of e-books. (120 words) (20 )


ANSWER KEY
1. Choose the correct form of the verbs in brackets. (30 )
- They finally managed …1…(hand) in their project on time.
- I don’t think that we …2… (finish) this test by two o’clock.
- How long …3… (you/know) Ben? Since we …4…(be) three!
- Be quiet and just give her a minute and let her …5…(explain) herself.
- The child got ill because he …6… (play) outside in cold weather.
- Would you mind …7… (bring) me a glass of water, please?
- I regret …8…(tell) you that our party has been put off until next month.
- She’s really tired now because she…9…(work) for the last six hours non-stop.
- I’m sure doctors …10…(find) a cure for AIDS soon.
- Manny was really angry because Olivia …11… (spill) coffee all over his papers.
- It …12… (take) them more than 150 years to build that cathedral. It …13… (finish) in 1728.
- What …14…(you/think) when you did such a silly thing?
- They are really good at …15…(work) in teams.
- My brother is looking forward to…16… (visit) our cousins in London.
- Don’t move, or that bee …17…(sting) you.
- My boyfriend and I …18…(never/have) an argument, yet.
- At this time tomorrow, we …19… (study) for another exam.
- By the time we got home last night, we …20… (fly) over 2,000 miles, so we were exhausted.
- When I saw the kids, they …21…(lie) on the floor, playing dead.
- Wait a second. Jim …22…(not/drink) his coffee yet.
- I got used …23…(study) really hard when I started Bachillerato.
- What time…24…(Moira’s train/arrive) tonight?
- You …25…(write) in English for some minutes now. How many words …26…
(you/write) so far?
- Can you please tell me where Brenda is? Sure. She’s over there, …27…(sit) at the back of the
classroom, by the window.
- Susan …28…(work) for three hours when she noticed that she was alone at the office.
- Yesterday, the sun …29…(rise) at 8.15.
- I remember …30… (talk) to them about the incident. We were in the park, by the lake.

1 TO HAND 16 VISITING
2 WILL HAVE FINISHED 17 WILL STING
3 HAVE YOU KNOWN 18 HAVE NEVER HAD
4 WERE 19 WILL BE STUDYING
5 EXPLAIN 20 HAD FLOWN
6 HAD BEEN PLAYING 21 WERE LYING
7 BRINGING 22 HASN’T DRUNK
8 TO TELL 23 TO STUDYING
9 HAS BEEN WORKING 24 DOES MOIRA’S TRAIN ARRIVE
10 WILL FIND 25 HAVE BEEN WRITING
11 HAD SPILT / HAD SPILLED 26 HAVE YOU WRITTEN
12 TOOK 27 SITTING
13 WAS FINISHED 28 HAD BEEN WORKING
14 WERE YOU THINKING 29 ROSE
15 WORKING 30 TALKING
2. Text:
Reading to Reduce Crime
Empathy refers to a person’s ability to understand what other people are thinking and feeling.
Some experts suggest that many people who commit crimes are unable to empathise with their
victims and do not take into account the negative effects of their actions on others.
Is it possible to improve a person’s ability to empathise? In a recent study, researchers have
found evidence that reading may be a useful tool in achieving this aim. Participants in the study
were randomly divided into four groups. One group was assigned to read non-fiction material
while another wasn’t required to read anything at all. The remaining two groups were assigned
fictional excerpts; one taken from popular fiction and the other taken from literary fiction.
After they had finished their assignments, the participants took a test that measured their ability
to infer and appreciate other people’s thoughts and emotions.
The researchers found that those participants who had read nothing at all, as well as those who
had read non-fiction or excerpts of popular fiction, didn’t have impressive scores in the test.
However, participants who had read literary fiction performed significantly better in the tests.
The researchers concluded that popular fiction doesn’t improve a person’s capacity to
empathise because its characters are usually consistent and predictable. This, they say, just
reinforces people’s stereotypes and prejudices of others. What’s more, writers of popular
fiction often explicitly tell readers what the characters are thinking. As a result, the readers
aren’t required to work out the characters’ emotions. In contrast, the characters in literary
fiction are more complicated and their emotions and intentions are more subtly depicted. This
results in readers becoming more emotionally involved with the characters. In addition, readers
develop an awareness that people are complex beings that often defy expectations. It is this
awareness which readers carry over to the real world.
The researchers hope that their findings will result in the integration of more literary fiction in
educational institutions and in the implementation of reading programmes in prisons. Yet, even
if this happens, it remains to be seen if literary fiction indeed turns out to be a valuable weapon
in the fight against crime.

a. Find words or phrases in the text which mean the same as the following. (8 )
- indication, proof: …EVIDENCE

- instrument: …TOOL

- extracts, passages: …EXCERPTS

- remarkable: …IMPRESSIVE

- deduced: …CONCLUDED

- strengthens: …REINFORCES

- challenge: …DEFY

- ends up being: …TURNS OUT TO BE


b. Answer the following questions according to the text. Use your own words. (12 )

1 Why is it important to develop feelings of empathy in criminals? …BECAUSE MANY OF


THEM CANNOT EMPATHISE WITH THEIR VICTIMS, SO THEY ARE NOT FULLY
AWARE OF THE PAIN THEY CAUSE. IF THEY IMPROVED THEIR CAPACITY TO
EMPATHISE, PERHAPS THEY WOULD NOT ACT THAT WAY AGAIN.

2 What kind of fiction helps to develop feelings of empathy? Why? …LITERARY FICTION,
BECAUSE THE CHARACTERS’ FEELINGS ARE NOT SO CLEARLY INDICATED, WHICH
MAKES READERS THINK HARD IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND THEIR EMOTIONS. THIS
HELPS READERS UNDERSTAND THAT PEOPLE ARE NOT SIMPLE, PREDICTABLE
BEINGS.

3 What can be done in prisons to help inmates be more empathetic? ……READING


PROGRAMMES INCLUDING LITERARY FICTION CAN BE DEVELOPED, SO THAT
PRISONERS INCREASE THEIR ABILITY TO EMPATHISE.

c. Write a summary of the text in no more than 50 words. Do not copy from the text. (10 )

MANY CRIMINALS ACT THE WAY THEY DO BECAUSE THEY ARE UNABLE TO
EMPATHISE WITH THEIR VICTIMS. TO IMPROVE THIS ABILITY, RESEARCHERS HAVE
FOUND THAT LITERARY FICTION CAN HELP, BECAUSE READERS HAVE TO THINK
HARD ABOUT THE CHARACTERS’ FEELINGS, WHICH AFFECTS THEM
EMOTIONALLY. SO READING PROGRAMMES IN PRISONS MIGHT HELP TO REDUCE
CRIME.

3. Vocabulary: (20 ) 20 words

(Words from the texts read and the exercises done in the classroom)

4. Define in English: (10 ) 5 words

(Words from the texts read and the exercises done in the classroom)
5. Rewrite the following sentences as suggested and keeping the original meaning. (30 )

His parents are angry because he does not tidy up his room regularly.

If he…..TIDIED HIS ROOM REGULARLY, HIS PARENTS WOULDN’T BE ANGRY.

You were rude to her, and that’s why she was so upset.

If you…HADN’T BEEN RUDE TO HER, SHE WOULDN’T HAVE BEEN SO UPSET.

You won’t be allowed to go out this evening if you do not tidy up your room.

Unless…YOU TIDY UP YOUR ROOM, YOU WON’T BE ALLOWED TO GO OUT…

You never do the shopping, and that’s why there’s nothing in the fridge.

If…YOU DID THE SHOPPING, THERE WOULD BE SOMETHING IN THE FRIDGE.

It wasn’t necessary for you to call me last night. (needn’t)

YOU NEEDN’T HAVE CALLED ME LAST NIGHT.

It is just not possible that she saw the robbery. (use a modal or modal perfect)

SHE CAN’T HAVE SEEN THE ROBBERY.

Did they award her the Nobel Prize for literature?

Was…SHE AWARDED THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR LITERATURE?

People believe that they had a romantic relationship some years ago.

They…ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE HAD A ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP SOME YEARS


AGO

A painter repainted our living room last week.

We…HAD OUR LIVING ROOM REPAINTED LAST WEEK.

I decided to go out although it was raining.

In spite…OF THE RAIN, I DECIDED TO GO OUT.

He was injured in the fall. Nevertheless, he struggled and finished the race.

Even …THOUGH HE WAS INJURED IN THE FALL, HE STRUGGLED AND…

They ought to ask an expert about their computer’s malfunction. (better)

THEY HAD BETTER ASK AN EXPERT ABOUT THEIR COMPUTER’S MALFUNCTION.

“Okay, Laura, I’ll do as you say” said Paul. (persuade)

LAURA PERSUADED PAUL TO DO AS SHE SAID.


“Ms Rodríguez, why were you carrying a gun in the park?” asked the detective.

THE DETECTIVE ASKED MS RODRÍGUEZ WHY SHE HAD BEEN CARRYING A GUN…

“Will the judge send these teens to prison tomorrow?” Karen wondered.

KAREN WONDERED WHETHER/IF THE JUDGE WOULD SEND THOSE TEENS TO


PRISON THE FOLLOWING DAY.

6. Listen to a radio conversation between Dave, a radio programme presenter, Anna, a


listener, and Mick, a doctor. Choose the correct option. (10 ) PAU SEPT 2008

a. 1. Giving up smoking is difficult because there is no nicotine in cigarettes.


2. Giving up smoking is not so difficult because of the nicotine.
3. Giving up smoking is hard because of the presence of nicotine.
b. 4. Anna started smoking because she was left outside her friend’s house.
5. Anna started smoking because her friends invited her to smoke.
6. Anna started smoking because she didn’t want to feel left out by her friends.
c. 7. Anna smoked because she didn’t feel shy.
8. Anna smoked because it made her feel more grown – up and confident.
9. Anna smoked two packets a day before she even knew it.
d. 10. Tobacco companies have made cigarettes the symbol of maturity.
11. Tobacco companies have made cigarettes the symbol of shyness.
12. Tobacco companies know that smoking means uncomfortable feelings.
e. 13. Governments say that smoking is something we have to learn to live with.
14. Mick says that governments should ban cigarette advertising.
15. Mick says that governments should allow cigarette advertising only in some sports.
f. 16. If you have smoked for a long time the risks of being ill will decrease.
17. If you give up smoking the risks of being ill will never decrease.
18. If you give up smoking the risks of being ill begin to decrease.
g. 19. If you give up smoking the risk of lung cancer disappears after five years.
20. If you give up smoking the risk of lung cancer is only half after five years.
21. If you give up smoking the risk of lung cancer is only half after fifteen years.
h. 22. Anna gave up smoking very slowly, little by little.
23. Anna told her family she was going to give up smoking.
24. Anna made up her mind and began to smoke again.
i. 25. Dave didn’t give up smoking because it is unpleasant for the first couple of weeks
26. Dave didn’t give up smoking because of the problem of addiction to nicotine.
27. Dave didn’t give up smoking because he saves his money
j. 28. People find that when they give up smoking they eat more.
29. People find that if they don’t give up smoking they eat more and more.
30. People find that if they don’t smoke they worry too much