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ZTE IP RAN Introduction

Name:
E-mail:
UMTS Product Planning & System Dept.
ZTE Product R&D System

 Requirement Analysis

 ZTE IP RAN Solution

 Case Study

1
Service and Technology Trends

ARPU trend of European operators

Non-voice service explosion

Radio technology acceleration

LTE
LTE
HSPA+ R8/R9
R8/R9
HSPA+
R7/R8
R7/R8
HSPA
HSPA
R5/R6 3.9G
3.9G
UMTS R5/R6
UMTS 3.75G
GSM R99/R4
R99/R4 3.75G
GSM
3.5G
3.5G
3G
3G
2G
2G
Year
2001-2 2003-5 2006-8 2009-10 After 2010
64-144kbps 384kbps 14Mbps 40Mbps 100Mbps & higher
DL throughput

Development of Bearing Network

Performance
Broader
Bandwidth
Stronger
Data ability
Transmission efficiency Higher

TCO
More flexible
Networking
Lower
Investment
Deployment Faster

Evolution Easier
Expansion & relocation
Up to date technology Smoother

Convenience
Simpler
Operation and maintenance
Customized service Richer

TDM
ATM IP

2
All-IP Era is coming

HSS
GGSN MGCF All IP is striding into
RAN from CN
IP Core
IMS
IMS
MSCS MRF
MGW CSCF
SGSN

IP UTRAN IP GERAN

IP Iub interface IP A interface


IP Iu interface IP Gb interface
IP Iur interface IP Abis interface

3GPP Iub Specification


Radio Network Transport User Plane
Control Plane Network
Control Plane
TDD DSCH FP
HS-DSCH FP

E-DCH FP
RACH FP
FACH FP

USCH FP
TFCI2 FP
DCH FP

PCH FP

Node B
Radio Application Part
Network (NBAP)
Layer

ALCAP
Q.2630.2

Q.2150.2
Transport
SSCF-UNI SSCF-UNI
Layer
SSCOP SCTP SSCOP UDP

AAL5 IP AAL 5 AAL2 IP

ATM Data Link Layer ATM ATM Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

For ATM For IP

3
3GPP IuCS Specification
R a d io C o n tro l P la n e U s e r P la n e
N e tw o rk
L ayer
RAN AP Iu U P P ro to c o l
Layer

T ran sp o rt T ran sp o rt N e tw o rk T ra n s p o rt N e tw o rk T ra n sp o rt N e tw o rk
N e tw o r k U ser P la n e C o n tro l P la n e U ser P la n e
L ayer
Q .2 6 3 0 .2

SCCP Q .2 1 5 0 .1

M 3U A M TP3b M TP3b

SSC F- SSC F-
NN I NN I RTP/
A A L2 R TC P*)
SCTP SSCO P SSCOP

IP A AL5 A AL5 U D P / IP

D a ta L in k ATM ATM ATM D a ta L in k

P h y s ic a l L a y e r

* ) R T C P is o p tio n a l.
For IP

3GPP IuPS Specification


Radio Network

C o n tr o l P l a n e U s er P l an e
Layer

Iu U P P r o t o c o l L a y e r
R AN AP

T ra n s p o rt N e tw or k T ra n s p o r t T r a n s p o rt N et w o rk
Transport Network Layer

U ser P la n e N e tw o rk U s e r P l an e
C o n t ro l P la n e
SC C P

M T P 3 -B M3 UA M 3 UA
SC T P SCTP G T P-U
G T P-U
SS C F-N N I
UD P UD P
SS C O P IP
IP
AA L5 IP A A L5 IP

A TM D a ta Li nk A TM D a t a L in k

P h y s ic a l L a y e r P h y s ic a l L ay e r

For IP

4
 Requirement Analysis

 ZTE IP RAN Solution

 Case Study

ZTE IP RAN Solution

 RAN Product

 Networking

 Synchronization

 QoS

 Reliability

 Security

 OAM

10

5
ZTE Unified All-IP Hardware Platform

Since 2004
TD-SCDMA
GSM SAE
One Switching
UMTS
Platform
CDMA WiMAX

GSM All-IP Platform


Since 2007
UMTS
TD-SCDMA
CDMA One Radio
Platform
WiMAX
LTE

 Switching platform: MSCS/MGW/SGSN/GGSN/HLR/BSC/RNC


 Radio platform: GSM/UMTS/G+U/G+U+L

11

RNC Physical Interface for IP Support

 FE/GE
 STM-1/STM-4
 E1/T1/CSTM-1

 IP over E1/T1  IP over STM-1/  IPv6 Support


 IP over Fractional STM-4  10GE port
E1/T1
 IP over CSTM-1

High capacity High throughput High integration

12

6
Node B Physical Interface for IP Support

ZTE
ZTE SDR
SDR Series,
Series, All-
All-IP Supported
All-IP Supported

BS8900
BS8800
BS8906
B8200

STM-1 FE GE E1/T1

G900/U900 UMTS2100

 Native IP
 IPoE1
 2G/3G co-transmission
1*FE/GE

13

ZTE GSM/UMTS IP RAN Feature Development

 Enhanced IP Abis  VLAN  L3 dual homing


 IEEE1588v2
 Flex A  BFD  IEEE 802.3ad • E-LMI (BSC)
(Frequency)
 Flex Gb  CAC based on  RTP Mux on AoIP
 ML-PPP transmission (Abis)  A over IP
 MC-PPP  IP SLA  BSS Local Switch
 Diffserv  IP Shaping  DHCP
 IP Abis via Satellite  ARP checking  PPP
 L2 dual homing authentication
 MPLS
 E-LMI (BTS)
 Flex Abis

GSM 09Q4 10Q2 10Q4 11


09Q1
UMTS
 IP Header  DHCP (Node B)  UDP-MUX on Iub  IEEE 802.1ag  MPLS
 DHCP (RNC)
Compression  SLA Monitor  RTP-MUX on IuCS  CAC on IuPS  IPv6 Support
 IEEE 802.3ah
 DiffServ  BFD  Path Protection P2  Dynamic IP Route  E-LMI
 SLA-PM based CAC
 VLAN  Multi Path  IP Security
 LACP (RNC)
 QoS based Route  Sync. Ethernet
 Path Protection P1
 IEEE 1588v2 (RNC)
 Dual Path
(Frequency)
 ACL  IEEE 1588v2 (Time)
 Sync. Ethernet
(Node B)

14

7
ZTE IP RAN Solution

 RAN Product

 Networking

 Synchronization

 QoS

 Reliability

 Security

 OAM

15

General IP RAN Topology

All IP

FE/GE FE/GE
FE/GE

FE IP/MSTP
RNC/BSC MSCS/MGW
IP/MSTP Backbone
Hybrid Transmission FE/GE FE/GE
FE/GE
FE

E1/T1/STM-1
E1/T1/STM-1
RNC/BSC SGSN/GGSN

E1/T1/STM-1 PDH/SDH Backbone

 All IP & hybrid available for all interfaces


 2G/3G transmission sharing & differentiation
 CS/PS differentiation

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8
L3 Switch/Router for BSC/RNC

 Broadcast separation of the BSC/RNC from the transmission network


 Independent port number of the transmission network and the
BSC/RNC enabling independent capacity expansion
 Reuse of existing GE link between the switch and the transmission
network in case of IP Abis after IP Iub
 Easy re-parenting of the BTS/Node B from one BSC/RNC to another
 Adaptable for flat architecture

L2 switch

GE
GE BSC
IP Transmission
L3 switch GE
RNC
L2 switch

BTS/Node B

17

Flex A/Gb/Iu with IP Transmission

More transmission required Less transmission required


High implementation cost Low implementation cost
TDM Complex networking IP Simple networking

CN CN CN CN CN CN

BSC/RNC BSC/RNC BSC/RNC BSC/RNC BSC/RNC BSC/RNC

IP makes it more feasible.

18

9
IP over E1 Efficiency at Iub
Traffic RLC/MAC/FP Overall Overhead Transmission
type Payload overhead Transport layer overhead overhead ratio efficiency
AAL2 4 ATM 5 16 33.3% 66.7%
cUDP 5 MLPPP 8 20 38.5% 61.5%
UDP/IP 28 MLPPP 8 43 57.3% 42.7%
CS 12.2k 32 7 UDP/IP 28 Ethernet 38 73 69.5% 30.5%
AAL2 16 ATM 20 41 20.4% 79.6%
cUDP 5 MLPPP 8 18 10.1% 89.9%
UDP/IP 28 MLPPP 8 41 20.4% 79.6%
CS 64k 160 5 UDP/IP 28 Ethernet 38 71 30.7% 69.3%
AAL2 16 ATM 20 50 23.8% 76.2%
cUDP 5 MLPPP 8 27 14.4% 85.6%
UDP/IP 28 MLPPP 8 50 23.8% 76.2%
PS 64k 160 14 UDP/IP 28 Ethernet 38 80 33.3% 66.7%
AAL2 120 ATM 155 333 20.6% 79.4%
cUDP 5 MLPPP 8 71 5.3% 94.7%
UDP/IP 28 MLPPP 8 94 6.8% 93.2%
HSDPA 1280 58 UDP/IP 28 Ethernet 38 124 8.8% 91.2%
AAL2 124 ATM 155 353 21.6% 78.4%
cUDP 5 MLPPP 8 87 6.4% 93.6%
UDP/IP 28 MLPPP 8 110 7.9% 92.1%
HSUPA 1280 74 UDP/IP 28 Ethernet 38 140 9.9% 90.1%

19

IP over E1 vs. ATM over E1

IP over E1 ATM over E1

QoS guarantee MC-PPP ATM QoS mechanism

Reliability ML-PPP IMA

O&M Simple PPP configuration Complex ATM configuration

Clock Link clock available


Investment
protection Yes

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10
ZTE IP RAN Solution

 RAN Product

 Networking

 Synchronization

 QoS

 Reliability

 Security

 OAM

21

Clock Accuracy
 Accuracy requirement

Mode Frequency Accuracy Time Synchronization


Requirement Requirement

GSM +/-0.05ppm N/A

WCDMA +/-0.05ppm N/A

(Source: 3GPP TS 25.104, 25.402, GSM 05.02)

 Self-oscillation accuracy of ZTE RAN equipment

Period Frequency Accuracy

First 24 hours +/-0.01ppm

First 7 days +/-0.015ppm

First 1 month +/-0.02ppm

22

11
ZTE Synchronization Implementation
Access Aggregation
BITS
External Clock:
2M bits & 2M Hz
Receiver

GPS Receiver

PSN Deliver frequency and time


PSN
Not always viable and not
RNC secure
Expensive oscillator
Time tree required
NodeB
PSN

IEEE 1588V2
Sync Ethernet
Clock is transmitted via dedicated timing packets
Excellent SDH/PDH replacement solution Can deliver frequency and phase (FDD/TDD)
Independent from network load Works over any transport technology
Only deliver frequency but not phase Expensive oscillator required
Use PHY clock from bit stream (similar to SDH/PDH)

2323

Master Clock Selection

 OMC configurable

 Manual switch of master clock

 Automatic switch of master clock

 Manual reset of master clock

 Automatic reset of master clock

24

12
ZTE IP RAN Solution

 RAN Product

 Networking

 Synchronization

 QoS

 Reliability

 Security

 OAM

25

QoS Management in IP RAN


QoS parameters Traffic data QoS configuration
from CN from/to CN at OMC

RNL QoS Differentiation

DiffServ

IP

802.1Q/P MLPPP/MCPPP

TNL FE/GE E1

BSS/RNS
Traffic data
from/to MS
26

13
Flow Classification & Mapping to TNL

Traffic
class

User Traffic From CN Basic priority Bearer Type


Plane priority C (1~15) (R99/HSPA/MBMS)
(THP)
Configurable
User at OMC
priority
(ARP) C
Control
Plane C
DSCP
Management (COS)
Plane C

 Configurable mapping according to respective parameters for 2G and 3G

27

DSCP & COS Application


Traffic Type DSCP COS PHB
Iub NBAP Signaling 101110 5 EF (Expedited Forwarding)
Iub Common Transport Channel 101110 5 EF (Expedited Forwarding)
RRC Connection 100100 4 AF42(Class4, Med Drop)
R99 Conversational 100100 4 AF42(Class4, Med Drop)
R99 Streaming 100100 4 AF42(Class4, Med Drop)
R99 Interactive 010100 2 AF22(Class2, Med Drop)
R99 Background 000000 0 Best effort
HSPA Conversational 100110 4 AF43(Class4, High Drop)
HSPA Streaming 100110 4 AF43(Class4, High Drop)
HSPA Interactive 010110 2 AF23(Class2, High Drop)
HSPA Background 000000 0 Best effort
2G Signaling 101110 5 EF (Expedited Forwarding)
2G CS 100100 4 AF42(Class4, Med Drop)
2G PS 010100 2 AF22(Class2, Med Drop)
O&M 000000 0 Best effort
Clock over IP (PTP) 101110 5 EF (Expedited Forwarding)

 Configurable mapping between DSCP and COS

28

14
QoS Requirement to IP Bearer Network (SLA)

Packet Delay
Interface Packet Delay Jitter Packet Loss Rate
(One-way)

IP Abis <20 ms <10ms <1%

IP A <10 ms <6 ms <0.05 %

IP Gb <10 ms <6 ms <0.05 %

IP Iub/Iur <20 ms <7 ms <0.05 %

IP Iu-CS <10 ms <6 ms <0.05 %

IP Iu-PS <10 ms <6 ms <0.05 %

29

CAC Rule

Traffic Reserved Bandwidth Fixed/


Adjustable

Calculated bandwidth according to number of


Common channel Fixed
PCH and FACH

Signaling radio bearer Bit rate of SRB + transport layer overhead Fixed

[Maximum bit rate] of RAB + transport layer Adjustable


Conversational
overhead (activity factor )

[Guaranteed bit rate] of RAB + transport layer


Streaming Fixed
overhead

Interactive/ Pseudo-GBR (configurable) + transport layer Adjustable


background overhead (priority based)

30

15
QoS Based Routing

Mixed IPoE1 & Ethernet  Real time service over E1 (IPoE1)


Without VPN  Non real time service over Ethernet

All Ethernet  Routing based on DSCP


 Call balancing between routes
With VPN

IP RAN

E1

RNC/BSC
Ethernet
Node B/BTS

31

Overbooking

PS

PS

Overbooking PS
Allowable
PS allocation
Total CS
bandwidth
CS

Higher traffic capacity, higher bandwidth efficiency

32

16
Dynamic Bandwidth Adjustment

Dynamic
Link broken adjustment
PS PS

PS PS
Poor
CS performance CS

CS CS

Real time monitoring, real time adaptation

33

ZTE IP RAN Solution

 RAN Product

 Networking

 Synchronization

 QoS

 Reliability

 Security

 OAM

34

17
Reliability of IP RAN

 Networking redundancy  Board redundancy


 2G/3G backup  Processing board redundancy
 Iu/A/Gb flex  Interface board redundancy

 Path protection
 L2 dual homing
 L3 dual homing
 Link aggregation (IEEE 802.3ad)

35

L2 Dual Homing

IP: 10.1.1.254/24
IP: 10.1.1.1/24 MAC: 00:15:EB:00:95:DD
MAC: 00:15:EB:A1:66:0A

GIPI(M)
L2 switch

GIPI(S)
BTS/Node B L2 switch

BSC/RNC

Master-standby: Two FE/GE ports, one IP/MAC address

36

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L3 Dual Homing

IP: 10.1.2.1/30
IP: 10.1.1.1/24 MAC: 00:15:EB:00:95:DD
MAC: 00:15:EB:A1:66:0A

GIPI
L3 switch BSC/RNC

BTS/Node B GIPI
L3 switch

IP: 10.1.1.2/24
MAC: 00:15:EB:A1:66:1A IP: 10.1.2.5/30
MAC: 00:15:EB:00:95:D0

Load sharing: Two FE/GE ports, two IP addresses

37

ZTE IP RAN Solution

 RAN Product

 Networking

 Synchronization

 QoS

 Reliability

 Security

 OAM

38

19
Security for IP RAN

 Security threat
 Unauthorized access
 Loss or corruption of information
 Broadcast storm
 Security operation
 Access control list (ACL) for protection of network elements
 IPSec in case public transmission network is used for Iub/Abis
 VLAN tagging for network separation and broadcast suppression

39

VLAN Configuration Recommendation

 BTS/Node B side: Lower number of BS sites in one VLAN means


higher security.
 BSC/RNC side: L3 switch, instead of BSC/RNC, used for VLAN tagging
 Redundancy: Multiple VLAN with different routes

RNC

VLAN RNC VLAN1 …… VLANn

Node B
Node B

40

20
ZTE IP RAN Solution

 RAN Product

 Networking

 Synchronization

 QoS

 Reliability

 Security

 OAM

41

OAM for IP RAN

 Link monitoring
 IEEE 802.3ah: Ethernet link check (P2P)
 IEEE 802.1ag: Ethernet link check (E2E)
 BFD: IP connectivity check
 SLA monitoring
 Performance management
 Ethernet performance management
 IP performance management

BSC

IP Transmission
CN

BTS/Node B RNC

42

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Bidirectional Forwarding Detection

Explicit BFD

BTS/Node B BSC/RNC

Static route based BFD

43

SLA Monitoring

 IP SLA monitoring functionality


 Network availability monitoring CN
 IP SLA based CAC
 Troubleshooting
 IP SLA monitoring method
 Continuous UDP echo BTS/Node B RNC
 Continuous ICMP echo
 IP SLA monitoring initiation
 Instant test BSC UDP echo
 Performance test ICMP echo

Test Item Test Procedure Expected result


Delay 1.RNC sends UDP packets with sequence number and timestamp to Node B. Less than 20ms
2.Node B loops back the UDP packets.
3.RNC receives the looped UDP packets and calculates the round trip delay.

Delay jitter Repeat the above procedure periodically, and then get the delay jitter. Less than 7ms
Packet loss ratio Repeat the above procedure periodically, count the number of sent packets Less than 0.05%
and received packets, then get the packet loss ratio.
Available bandwidth Execute the above procedure with configured frequency and packet size, Depends on the
calculate the data rate of received packets. Then change the frequency and subscribed bandwidth
packet size to get the maximum bandwidth. e.g. 100Mbps

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 Requirement Analysis

 ZTE IP RAN Solution

 Case Study

Revolution of CSL Mobile Network

3G OSS
2G OSS UMTS
Existing VAS Platform UMTS 2.1G
2.1G/900M
HLR TDM Network
CSL SGSN
CN
Network
CSL New MSCS
Network Iub
HLR
BSC/ GSM 900/1800M
RNC
CoreVAS
Network 2G OSS IP
Network
ZTE MSCS/
MGW
Abis

2G/3G OSS
ZTE VASHLR
PlatformSGSN GSMGSM
1800M
NWM CN TDM Network 900/1800M
MSCS
Network

Difficult Expensive High Power


Evolution 46 Consumption
Transmission

46

23
RAN Synchronization Solution

Primary clock reference: GPS

Secondary clock reference for RNC: via fiber from MGW

Secondary clock reference for iBSC: via E1 from MSCs

iBSC/RNC

FE Primary clock reference: IP Clock


Indoor
E1/T1 Primary clock reference: E1 / T1

Primary clock reference: GPS


Outdoor
BTS/Node B Secondary clock reference: IP Clock

47

Primary Clock Reference for RNC/iBSC

GPS
Antenna
On rooftop

GPS
GPSController
Controller

Power Input GPS transmit


Antenna  GPS is set as the primary
clock resource for
RNC/iBSC in CSL Network.

RNC RNC BSC BSC  GPS receiver sub card is


#1 #2 #1 #2 integrated into clock sync
board: ICM.

48

24
Network Architecture

IP network architecture with L2 service providers of CSL


L3 switch (CISCO 6513) is provided to aggregation and route.
Every road leads to Rome: reliable transmission mechanism
49

Iub/Abis Link Redundancy

iBSC/RNC
Redundancy
Scheme

L3 Dual-homing
6513 6513
Hot Standby Router
Protocol (HSRP)

Automatic
Automatic
re-routing
re-routing
Downlink
uplink
BTS/Node B

50

25
Iub/Abis L2 Network Security

Node B/BTS
FE
site

40~60 RAN 6513


sites GE
L2 Domain
Node B/BTS FE Core room BMI
site
GE RAN 6513

GE

Node B/BTS GE
site FE GE
RAN 6513
40~60
L2 Domain GE
sites Core room BPO
Node B/BTS FE
site RAN 6513
GE

 L2 Domain completely isolated from each other


 Each site connects one L2 Domain
 Each L2 domain connects all 4 aggregation switches

51

VLAN Tagging Ensuring Network Security

VLAN ID: 11 + 111 RAN 6513

VLAN ID: 12 + 112


Core room BMI
Node B/BTS VLAN ID: 11 + 111
site VLAN ID: 11 + 111 RAN 6513

L2 Domain VLAN ID: 12 + 112

Node B/BTS
VLAN ID: 12 + 112 VLAN ID: 11 + 111
site +12+112
RAN 6513

VLAN ID: 11 + 111


Core room BPO
+12+112

RAN 6513

 VLAN tagging is applied in Iub Ethernet transport; all Iub packets contain
VLAN tagging.
 Due to VLAN applied, not only L2 loop is avoided, but also traffic can be
distributed to multiple GE links to achieve load balancing.
52

26
IP QoS Implementation

DSCP RNC BSC

GE GE

DSCP -> COS RAN 6513 COS

GE

Ethernet SP

FE

COS ZTE 2818S COS

FE FE

SDR 1 SDR 2 DSCP & COS

53

Site Networking
Site A Site B

Traffic: 10.9.11.2/24
SDR
Traffic: 10.9.11.1/24 O&M: 10.9.111.42/24
O&M 1: 10.9.11.201/24 (3G 2100M)
O&M: 10.9.111.41/24 O&M 2: 10.9.11.202/24
SDR ZXMW IDU
(3G 2100M)
ZXMW IDU ZXR10 2818S

O&M 1: 10.9.210.1/29 O&M: 10.9.111.82/24


Service O&M 2: 10.9.210.2/29
Provider ZXR10 2818S
SDR (2G
Network 900M/1800M,
O&M: 10.9.111.81/24
3G 900M)
SDR (2G 3G Traffic: 10.9.11.102/24
900M/1800M, 2G Traffic: 10.10.111.22/24
3G 900M) O&M: 10.9.111.142/24

3G Traffic: 10.9.11.101/24
2G Traffic: 10.10.111.21/24 O&M 1: 10.9.11.203/24 Site C
O&M: 10.9.111.141/24 O&M 2: 10.9.11.204/24

ZXMW IDU
Traffic: 10.9.11.3/24
SDR O&M: 10.9.111.43/24
(3G 2100M)
ZXMW IDU

O&M 1: 10.9.210.9/29
O&M 2: 10.9.210.10/29 ZXR10 2818SO&M: 10.9.111.83/24
Site D

SDR (2G
SDR 900M/1800M,
ZXMW IDU
(3G 2100M/900M) 3G 900M)
ZXMW IDU
O&M 1: 10.9.210.17/29 3G Traffic: 10.9.11.103/24
Traffic: 10.9.11.4/24 O&M 2: 10.9.210.18/29 O&M 1: 10.9.210.11/29 2G Traffic: 10.10.111.23/24
O&M: 10.9.111.44/24 O&M 2: 10.9.210.12/29 O&M: 10.9.111.143/24

54

27
Summary

Universal platform

Rich interface

Flexible networking
High performance

55

28