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# Get started with formulas

In just a few steps, you'll be up and running with building formulas and functions in Excel, the

Let's go >

=A1+B1,
constants
aren't a good
practice. Why?
Because you
can't easily see
the constant
without
selecting the
cell
You Basics: doing math with Excel
anddoing math with Excel
Basics:
can for
looking Add,it. Subtract, Multiply, and Divide in Excel without using any built-in functions. You just need to use some basic opera
That canselect
To Add, makecell F3, type =C3+C4, then press Enter.
it hard to
change
To later.
You can cell
Add,F4,Subtract, Multiply, and Divide in Excel without using any built-in
To Subtract,
It'sMultiply, select
select
much functions. cell F5, type =C3*C4,
type =C3-C4, then
then press
press Enter.
Enter.
You just need to use some basic operators: +, -, *, /. All formulas start
easier to put
To Divide, select cell F6, type =C3/C4, then press Enter.
with an equals (=) sign.
in cells, where
Check
they canthisbeout: change the numbers in cells C3 and C4, and watch the formula results automatically change.
EXTRA CREDIT:
easily 1 You can raise a value to a power by using the carat (^) symbol, like =A1^A2. Enter it with Shift+6. In cell F7, ente
Dive downand for more detail
referenced in
Next step
More
cells that are grouped into rows and columns. Rows are numbered, and columns are lettered. Th
For example:
Select the
You'll
yellownotice
cell that in our third example above, we used the SUM function. A function is a pre-built command that takes a value o
with 12 below.
Formulas with3 functions start with an equals sign, then the function name follows with its arguments (the values a function use
You'll see we
used the SUM
function with a
Some
range formula
of cells.4 explanations
We didn't
=10*20 is atype
formula, where 10 and 20 are constants, and the * sign is the operator.
in "4" or "8" is a formula, where SUM is the function name, the opening and closing parentheses contain the formula argum
=SUM(A1:A10)
directly into
=SUM(A1:A10,C1:C10)
the formula. is a formula, where SUM is the function name, the opening and closing parentheses contain the formul
Dive down for more detail
Previous
Next
More about formulas, cells, and ranges
Use Excel as a calculator
Overview of formulas in Excel
Excel is made up of individual cells that are grouped into rows and columns. Rows
Excel functions (by category)
are numbered, and columns are lettered. There are over 1 million rows and 16,000
columns,
Excel functions and you can put formulas in any of them.
(alphabetical)
Free ExcelFormulas
training online
can contain cell references, ranges of cell references, operators, and
constants. The following are all examples of formulas:

=A1+B1
=10*20
=SUM(A1:A10)
You'll notice that in our third example above, we used the SUM function. A function is
a pre-built command that takes a value or values, calculates them in a certain way,
and returns a result. For instance, the SUM function takes the cell references or
ranges you specify, and totals them. In this example it takes the cells A1 through A10,
and totals them. Excel has over 400 functions, which you can explore on the
Formulas tab.
Formulas with functions start with an equals sign, then the function name follows
with its arguments (the values a function uses to calculate) wrapped in parentheses.
Formulas with functions start with an equals sign, then the function name follows
with its arguments (the values a function uses to calculate) wrapped in parentheses.

You confirm a formula by pressing Enter. Once you do that the formula will calculate,
and the result will be displayed in the cell. To see the formula itself, you can look at
the formula bar beneath the Ribbon, or press F2 to enter Edit mode, where you'll see
the formula in the cell. Press Enter again to finalize the formula and calculate the
result.

Previous

cs:
Basics: doing math with Excel
candoing math withMultiply,
Add, Subtract, Excel and Divide in Excel without using any built-in functions. You just need to use some basic operators: +, -, *, /. A
Add, select cell F3, type =C3+C4, then press Enter.

You
ubtract, can cell
type =C3*C4,
=C3-C4, then and Divide in Excel without using any built-in
Multiply, select cell F5, type then press
press Enter.
Enter.
functions. You just need to use some basic operators: +, -, *, /. All formulas start
Divide, select cell F6, type =C3/C4, then press Enter.
with an equals (=) sign.
ck this out: change the numbers in cells C3 and C4, and watch the formula results automatically change.
raiseselect
a valuecell
to aF3, typeby
power =C3+C4,
using thethen
caratpress Enter.like =A1^A2. Enter it with Shift+6. In cell F7, enter =C3^C4.
(^) symbol,
e down for more detail CHECK THIS OU
Change the numbers
el 2up ofTo
cells, and
individual select
ranges
cells cellgrouped
that are F4, typeinto
=C3-C4 , then
rows and press Enter.
columns.
watch the formula re
Rows are numbered, and columns are lettered. There are over
automatically 1m
change

'll notice that in our third example above, we used the SUM function. A function is a pre-built command that takes a value or values, calcul
mulas with3 functions
To Multiply,
an equals type
sign, =C3*C4,
then thenname
the function pressfollows
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me formula 4 explanations
To Divide, select cell F6, type =C3/C4, then press Enter.
*20 is a formula, where 10 and 20 are constants, and the * sign is the operator.
M(A1:A10) is a formula, where SUM is the function name, the opening and closing parentheses contain the formula arguments, and A1:A1
M(A1:A10,C1:C10) is a formula, where SUM is the function name, the opening and closing parentheses contain the formula arguments, an
Dive down for more detail Next step

## re information on the web

More about formulas, cells, and ranges
Excel as a calculator
rview of formulas in Excel
Excel is made up of individual cells that are grouped into rows and columns. Rows
el functions (by category)
are numbered, and columns are lettered. There are over 1 million rows and 16,000
columns,
el functions and you can put formulas in any of them.
(alphabetical)
e ExcelFormulas
training online
can contain cell references, ranges of cell references, operators, and
constants. The following are all examples of formulas: =A1+B1
=A1+B1 Cell
reference
=10*20
=SUM(A1:A10)
You'll notice that in our third example above, we used the SUM function. A function is
a pre-built command that takes a value or values, calculates them in a certain way, Function
and returns a result. For instance, the SUM function takes the cell references or
ranges you specify, and totals them. In this example it takes the cells A1 through A10,
and totals them. Excel has over 400 functions, which you can explore on the =SUM(A1
Formulas tab.
A range of cells has a
Formulas with functions start with an equals sign, then the function name follows ending cell. When you
with its arguments (the values a function uses to calculate) wrapped in parentheses. formula, Excel will au
A range of cells has a
Formulas with functions start with an equals sign, then the function name follows ending cell. When you
with its arguments (the values a function uses to calculate) wrapped in parentheses. formula, Excel will au

You confirm a formula by pressing Enter. Once you do that the formula will calculate,
and the result will be displayed in the cell. To see the formula itself, you can look at
the formula bar beneath the Ribbon, or press F2 to enter Edit mode, where you'll see
the formula in the cell. Press Enter again to finalize the formula and calculate the Function
result.

Previous Next
=SUM(A1

## Free Excel training online

Numbers to use: Operation: Formulas: Answers:
2 Subtraction (-) -1
Multiplication (*) 2
Division (/) 0.5
Power (^) 1
ift+6. In cell F7, enter =C3^C4.
CHECK THIS OUT EXTRA CREDIT
You can raise a value to a
Change the numbers here, and power by using the carat
watch the formula results
mns are lettered. There are over
automatically 1 million rows and 16,000 columns, and you(^)
change. cansymbol, like =C3^C4.
put formulas in any of them.
Enter it with Shift+6.

d that takes a value or values, calculates them in a certain way, and returns a result. For instance, the SUM function takes the cell reference
values a function uses to calculate) wrapped in parentheses.

n the formula arguments, and A1:A10 is the cell range for the function.
s contain the formula arguments, and A1:A10,C1:C10 are the cell ranges for the function separated by a comma.

GOOD TO KNOW
Operator Operator Constants are values that you enter in cells or f
While =10+20 might calculate the same as =A1

## =A1+B1 =10*20 constants aren't a good practice. Why? Becaus

easily see the constant without selecting the ce
looking for it. That can make it hard to change
much easier to put your constants in cells, whe
Constant Constant
reference reference
For example: Select the yellow cell with 12 belo
see we used the SUM function with a range of
didn't type in "4" or "8" directly into the formu

Function Argument

=SUM(A1:A10) Values
4
A range of cells has a starting cell, colon, and an
ending cell. When you select a range of cells for a
formula, Excel will automatically add the colon.
A range of cells has a starting cell, colon, and an
ending cell. When you select a range of cells for a 8
formula, Excel will automatically add the colon. 12

## Function Argument Argument

=SUM(A1:A10,C1:C10)
A range of cells Another range of cells

## Opening parenthesis Closing parenthesis. Excel will usually add this

for you when you press Enter.
n takes the cell references or ranges you specify, and totals them. In this example it takes the cells A1 through A10, and totals them. Excel h

W
hat you enter in cells or formulas.
alculate the same as =A1+B1,
d practice. Why? Because you can't
t without selecting the cell and
make it hard to change later. It's
ur constants in cells, where they can

## e yellow cell with 12 below. You'll

function with a range of cells. We
" directly into the formula.
nter.
0, and totals them. Excel has over 400 functions, which you can explore on the Formulas tab.
or type =SUM(,
then select
that range
with the
mouse, and
press Enter.
This will sum
the values in
cells D3, D4,
D5,
Introduction to functions
and D6. to functions
Introduction
Functions
should be give
170. you the ability to do a variety of things, like perform mathematical operations, look up values, or even
Now let's try AutoSum. Select the cell under the column for Meat (cell G7), then go to Formulas > AutoSum > select SUM. You'
Go to theFunctions
Formulasgive you browse
tab and the ability to do the
through a variety of things,
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where mathematical
functions are listed by category, like Text, D
operations,
Here's a neat keyboardlook up values,
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thentimes.
Enter. Let's try a few ways
This automatically to SUM for you.
enters
When
youfor
down up
start values
typing
more with the SUM function.
detaila function name after you press =, Excel will launch Intellisense, which will list all of the functio
EXTRA CREDIT
Try the COUNT function using any of the methods you've already tried. The COUNT function counts the number of cells in a ran
Next step 1
Now
If the let's
SUMlook at the
function anatomy
could of a few
talk, it would say,functions.
return theThe
sumSUM
of allfunction is in
the values structured like
cells D38 to this:
D41, and all of column H. SUM is the
2
The
CHECKTODAY
THISfunction
OUT returns today's date. It will automatically update when Excel recalculates.
Select these cells.
IMPORTANT DETAIL Then in the lower-right corner of the Excel window, look for SUM: 170 in the bottom bar. That's called the St
Double-click this cell. You'll notice the 100 toward the end. Although it's possible to put numbers in a formula like this, we don
Use AutoSum to sum numbers
Free Excel training online
Next step

Go to the Formulas tab and browse through the Function Library, where functions are
listed by category, like Text, Date & Time, etc. Insert Function will let you search for

When you start typing a function name after you press =, Excel will launch Intellisense,
which will list all of the functions starting with the letters you type. When you find the
one you want, press Tab, and Excel will automatically finish the function name and enter
the opening parenthesis for you. It will also display the optional and required
arguments.

Now let's look at the anatomy of a few functions. The SUM function is structured like
this:
If the SUM function could talk, it would say, "Return the sum of all the values in cells
D38 to D41, and all of column H".

## Free Excel training online

Introduction to functions
oduction to functions
ctions give you the ability to do a variety of things, like perform mathematical operations, look up values, or even
w let's try AutoSum. Select the cell under the column for Meat (cell G7), then go to Formulas > AutoSum > select SUM. You'll see Excel auto
to theFunctions
Formulasgive you browse
tab and the ability to do the
through a variety of things,
Function Library,like perform
where mathematical
functions are listed by category, like Text, Date & Time, etc
operations,
e's a neat keyboardlook up values,
shortcut. Select or
celleven
D15,calculate
then pressdates
Alt =,and
thentimes.
Enter. Let's try a few ways
This automatically to SUM for you.
enters
en
youfor
down up
start values
typing
more with the SUM function.
detaila function name after you press =, Excel will launch Intellisense, which will list all of the functions starting wi
CREDIT
the COUNT function using any of the methods you've already tried. The COUNT function counts the number of cells in a range that contain
1 Under the Amount column for Fruit (cell D7), enter =SUM(D3:D6), or type
re about functions =SUM(, then select that range with the mouse, and press Enter. This will sum
we let's
SUMlook at the
function the values
anatomy
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D3, D4,
of a few D5, and D6.SUM
say,functions.
return theThe
sum of allfunction
should
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be 170.
structured like
cells D38 to this:
D41, and all of column H. SUM is the function name
2 Now let's try AutoSum. Select the yellow cell under the column for Meat
TODAY
CK THISfunction
OUT (cell returns
G7), today's
then godate. It will automatically
to Formulas > AutoSum update when SUM.
> select Excel recalculates.
You'll see Excel
ect these cells. Then in the lower-right corner of the Excel window,
ORTANT DETAILautomatically enter the formula for you. Press Enter to confirm look for SUM: 170it.inThe
the bottom bar. That's called the Status Bar, and it's
uble-click this cell. You'll notice
AutoSum the 100
feature has toward themost
all of the end. Although
commonit's possible to put numbers in a formula like this, we don't recommend it
functions.
re information on the web
about the3SUM Here'sfunctiona neat keyboard shortcut. Select cell D15, then press A lthen,
t =
AutoSum to sum Enter. This automatically enters SUM for you.
numbers
e Excel training online
Dive down for more detail Next step

Go to the Formulas tab and browse through the Function Library, where functions are
listed by category, like Text, Date & Time, etc. Insert Function will let you search for

When you start typing a function name after you press =, Excel will launch Intellisense,
which will list all of the functions starting with the letters you type. When you find the
one you want, press Tab, and Excel will automatically finish the function name and enter
the opening parenthesis for you. It will also display the optional and required
arguments.

Now let's look at the anatomy of a few functions. The SUM function is structured like
this:

## The function The first Additional

name. argument. It's arguments,
almost always separated by
required. commas (,).
name. argument. It's arguments,
almost always separated by
required. commas (,).

=SUM(D38:D41,H:H)
If the SUM function could talk, it would say, "Return the sum of all the values in cells
D38 to D41, and all of column H".

## The TODAY function returns today's date. It will

automatically update when Excel recalculates.

=TODAY()

## e Excel training online

Fruit Amount Meat Amount
Apples 50 Beef 50
Oranges 20 Chicken 30
Bananas 60 Pork 10
Lemons 40 Fish 50
SUM > 170 SUM >

## Item Amount Item Amount

Donuts 100 Donuts 100
Cakes 50 Cakes 50
Pies 20 Pies 20
SUM > 260 COUNT > 5

EXTRA CREDIT
Try the COUNT function using any
tried. The COUNT function counts
the number of cells in a range that
contain numbers.

Fruit Amount
Apples 50 CHECK THIS OUT
Select these cells. Then in the lower-right
Oranges 20 corner of the Excel window, look for this:
Bananas 60
Lemons 40
That's called the Status Bar, and it's just
SUM > 170 another way to quickly find a total and
other details about a selected cell or range.
Item Amount
Cars 20
Trucks 10
Bikes 10
Skates 40

## Total: Additional Value New Total

180 100 180

IMPORTANT DETAIL
Double-click this cell. You'll notice the 100 toward the
end. Although it's possible to put numbers in a formula
like this, we don't recommend it unless it's absolutely
necessary. This is known as a constant, and it's easy to
forget that it's there. We recommend referring to
another cell instead, like cell F51. That way it's easily
seen and not hidden inside a formula.
EXTRA CREDIT
Try using
CHECK THIS
MEDIAN or
OUT
MODE here.
AVERAGE function
AVERAGE
Select any
function
range
MEDIAN of gives
Use the AVERAGE
numbers, then function to get the average of numbers in a range of cells.
you the value
Select
look
in Use
cell the AVERAGE function
the D7, then use AutoSum
theinmiddle to to
anthe average function.
AVERAGE of numbers in a range of cells.
Status
of
Now Bar for
theselect
data set,
cell G7, and enter an AVERAGE function by typing =AVERAGE(G3:G6).
an instant
while
In
Average.
MODE D15,1
cell gives you can use either AutoSum, or type to enter another AVERAGE function.
the one that
occurs
Activatethe
the previous sheet
most
Go to the
frequently. 2sheet
next

3
Select to learn all about the AVERAGE function on the web
Select to learn all about the MEDIAN function on the web
Select to learn all about the MODE function on the web
Select to learn about free Excel training on the web
Previous
Previous

AVERAGE function
the AVERAGE function to get the average of numbers in a range of cells.
ect cellUse
D7,the AVERAGE
then function
use AutoSum to to
anthe average function.
AVERAGE of numbers in a range of cells.
w select cell G7, and enter an AVERAGE function by typing =AVERAGE(G3:G6).
ell D15,1 Select
you can use cell D7,AutoSum,
either then use AutoSum
enter an AVERAGE
AVERAGE function.
function.

## vate the previous sheet

2
o the next sheet
Now select cell G7, and enter an AVERAGE function by typing
=AVERAGE(G3:G6).
3 In cell
ct to learn all about D15, youfunction
the AVERAGE can use oneither AutoSum, or type to enter another
the web
AVERAGE function.
ct to learn all about the MEDIAN function on the web
ct to learn all about the MODE function on the web
ct to learn about free Excel training on the web
Previous
Previous Next

## Free Excel training online

Fruit Amount Meat Amount
Apples 50 Beef 50 CHECK THIS OUT
Select any range of numbers,
Oranges 20 Chicken 30 then look in the Status Bar for
Bananas 60 Pork 10 an instant Average.
Lemons 40 Fish 50
AVERAGE > 170 AVERAGE > 35

## Item Amount Item Amount

Donuts 100 Donuts 100
Cakes 50 Cakes 50
Pies 20 Pies 20
AVERAGE > 50

EXTRA CREDIT
Try using MEDIAN or MODE here.

## MEDIAN gives you the value in

the middle of the data set, while
MODE gives the one that occurs
the most frequently.

## More about the SUM function

In some of the above tips, we taught you how to use the SUM function. Here are more details about it.
Cells C37 through D41 contain data with two columns: Fruit and Amount.
The formula in cell D42: =SUM(D38:D41).
If the SUM function in cell D42 could talk, it would say this: Sum up the values in cells D38, D39, D40, and D41.
Here's another way it can be used:
Cells C47 through D48 contain data with two columns: Item and Amount.

Free Excel training online
OUT
f numbers,
atus Bar for
.
GOOD TO
KNOW
You can use
either MIN or
MAX with
multiple ranges,
or values to

## MIN and MAX functions

show the
Select cell D7,
greater
MIN and orMAX
lesser
In cell
then D15,
use the youfunctions
Now
of those
select
values,
cell
can
Use use
the either
AutoSum MIN function to get the minumum number in a range of cells.
like
G7, and enter aa
the
WizardAutoSum
Use the MIN function to getnumber
the smallest number
=MIN(A1:A10,B
Use
MAX the
Wizard, function
MAX
or typefunction to get the maximum in a range of cells. in a range of cells.
MIN
1:B10),function.
or
by typing Use the MAX function to get the largest number in a range of cells.
to enter a MIN
=MAX(A1:A10,B
=MAX(D3:D6).
or
More
1), MAX
where B1
function.
contains a on
information
threshold
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like 10, in which
case the
All aobutwould
formula the MIN function
never
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result less than
Free
10. Excel training online
3

Previous

You can use either MIN or MAX with multiple ranges, or values to show the greater or lesser of those values, like =MIN(A1:A10,B1:B10), or

Free Excel training online
MIN and MAX functions
and MAX functions
the MIN function to get the minumum number in a range of cells.
Use
the MAX the MIN
function function
to get to getnumber
the maximum the smallest number
in a range of cells. in a range of cells.
Use the MAX function to get the largest number in a range of cells.

1 Select cell D7, then use the AutoSum Wizard to add a MIN function.

## obut the MIN function

2 Now select cell G7, and enter a MAX function by typing =MAX(D3:D6).
bout the MAX function
Excel training online

3 In cell D15, you can use either the AutoSum Wizard, or type to enter a MIN
or MAX function.

Previous Next

can use either MIN or MAX with multiple ranges, or values to show the greater or lesser of those values, like =MIN(A1:A10,B1:B10), or =MAX(A1:A10,10

## e information on the web

bout the MIN function
bout the MAX function
Excel training online
Free Excel training online
Fruit Amount Meat Amount
Apples 50 Beef 50
Oranges 20 Chicken 30
Bananas 60 Pork 10
Lemons 40 Fish 50
MIN > MAX >

## Item Amount Item Amount

Donuts 100 Donuts 100
Cakes 50 Cakes 50
Pies 20 Pies 20
MIN or MAX > 10

GOOD TO KNOW
You can use either MIN or MAX with multiple
IN(A1:A10,B1:B10), or =MAX(A1:A10,10).
ranges, or values to show the greater or lesser of
those values, like =MIN(A1:A10,B1:B10), or
=MAX(A1:A10,B1), where B1 contains a threshold
value, like 10, in which case the formula would
never return a result less than 10.
display a
negative
number
because you
haven't
entered your
birthday yet,
you can use an
IF function like
this:
Date functions
Date functions
=IF(D7="","",D
Excel can give you the current date, based on your computer's regional settings. You can also add and subtract Dates.
7-D6), which
says,
Check"IF D7the TODAY function, which gives you Today's date. These are live, or volatile functions, so when you open your work
out
equals Excel can give you the current date, based on your computer's regional settings. You
Subtract then
nothing, Dates - Enter
andnext birthday
subtract in MM/DD/YY format in cell D7, and watch Excel tell you how many days away it is by
Dates.
show nothing,
- Let's say you want to know what date a bill is due, or when you need to return a library book. You can add days to a
otherwise
GOOD
show
Excel
TO KNOW
D7 1
minus D6". dates and times based on the number of days starting from January 1, 1900. Times are kept in fractional portions o
keeps

Time
Excel functions
can give you the current time, based on your computer's regional settings. You can also add and subtract times. For instan
2
In cell D25, enter =NOW(), which will give the current time, and will update each time Excel calculates. If you need to change th

If this formula could talk, it would say, "Take the Time Out and subtract it from the Time In, then subtract the Lunch Out/In Tim
Previous 3
Next
Free Excel training online
Time functions
Excel can give you the current time, based on your computer's regional settings. You
can also add and subtract times. For instance, you might need to keep track of how
many hours an employee worked each week, and calculate their pay and overtime.

3
Previous

Date functions
el can give you the current date, based on your computer's regional settings. You can also add and subtract Dates.
ck outExcel
the TODAY function,
can give which
you the gives date,
current you Today's
baseddate. These
on your are live, or regional
computer's volatile functions,
settings. so when you open your workbook tomorrow,
You
tract Dates - Enter
andnext birthday
subtract in MM/DD/YY format in cell D7, and watch Excel tell you how many days away it is by using =D7-D6 in
Dates.
Dates - Let's say you want to know what date a bill is due, or when you need to return a library book. You can add days to a date to find ou
OD TO KNOW1 Check out the TODAY function, which gives you Today's date. These are live, or
el keeps dates and times based on the number of days starting from January 1, 1900. Times are kept in fractional portions of a day based o
volatile functions, so when you open your workbook tomorrow, it will have
tomorrow's date. Enter =TODAY() in cell D6.
el can give you the current time, based on your computer's regional settings. You can also add and subtract times. For instance, you might n
2
ell D25, enter =NOW(),
Subtractwhich will-give
Dates theyour
Enter current
nexttime, and will
birthday in update
MM/DD/YY each time
formatExcel
in calculates.
cell D7, andIf you need to change the Time format,
watch Excel tell you how many days away it is by using =D7-D6 in cell D8.

is formula could talk, it would say, "Take the Time Out and subtract it from the Time In, then subtract the Lunch Out/In Times, then multip
3 Add Dates - Let's say you want to know what date a bill is due, or when you
need to return a library book. You can add days to a date to find out. In cell
D10,
re information on theenter
web a random number of days. In cell D11, we added =D6+D10 to
functionthe due date from today.
e Excel training online
Time functions
Excel can give you the current time, based on your computer's regional settings. You
can also add and subtract times. For instance, you might need to keep track of how
many hours an employee worked each week, and calculate their pay and overtime.

1 In cell D28, enter =NOW(), which will give the current time, and will
update each time Excel calculates. If you need to change the Time format,
you can go to Ctrl+1 > Number > Time > Select the format you want.

## 2 Add up hours between times - In cell D36 we've entered =((D35-D32)-

(D34-D33))*24, which calculates someone's start and end times, then
subracts the time they took for lunch. The *24 at the end of the formula
converts the fractional portion of the day that Excel sees into hours. You'll
need to format the cell as a Number though. To do that, go to Home >
Format > Cells (Ctrl+1) > Number > Number > 2 decimals.

3 If this formula could talk, it would say, "Take the Time Out and subtract it
from the Time In, then subtract the Lunch Out/In Times, then multiply
those by 24 to convert Excel's fractional time to hours", or =((Time In -
Time Out)-(Lunch In - Lunch Out))*24.
*24 to convert Excel's
fraction of a day to
hours
*24 to convert Excel's
fraction of a day to
Time Out Lunch Out hours

=((D35-D32)-(D34-D33))*24

Time In Lunch In

GOOD TO KNOW
The inner parentheses () make sure Excel calculates those You can use keyboard sh
parts of the formula by themselves. The outer and Times that won't co
parentheses make sure Excel multiplies the final inner result by
24. Date -
Time - Ct

Previous Next

## Free Excel training online

you open your workbook tomorrow, it will have tomorrow's date. Enter =TODAY() in cell D6.
ny days away it is by using =D7-D6 in cell D8.

Date functions
Today's date:
ract times. For instance, youbirthday: 0 many hours
might need to keep track of how If an
youemployee worked
don't want each
Excel to week,
display and calculate
a negative their pay and ove
number,
because you haven't entered your birthday yet, you
Grace period days: can use an IF function like this: =IF(D7="","",D7-D6),
Bill due on: 12/30/99 which says, "IF D7 equals nothing, then show nothing,
otherwise show D7 minus D6".
he Lunch Out/In Times, then multiply those by 24 to convert Excel's fractional time to hours", or =((Time In - Time Out)-(Lunch In - Lunch O

GOOD TO KNOW
Excel keeps dates and times based on the number of
days starting from January 1, 1900. Times are kept in
fractional portions of a day based on minutes. So
01/01/2017 12:30 PM is actually stored as 42736.5208.
If the Time or Date show up as numbers like that, then
you can press Ctrl+1 > Number > select a Date or Time
format.

Time functions
Current Time:

## Daily Hours Worked

Time In: 8:00 AM
Lunch Out: 12:00 PM
Lunch In: 1:00 PM
Time Out: 5:00 PM
Total Hours: 8
Static Date & Time
Date: 09/27/17
Time: 8:52 AM

GOOD TO KNOW
You can use keyboard shortcuts to enter Dates
and Times that won't continuously change:

Date - Ctl+;
Time - Ctrl+Shift+:
d calculate
gative their pay and overtime.
number,
hday yet, you
="","",D7-D6),
n show nothing,
me Out)-(Lunch In - Lunch Out))*24.
Joining
There are Joining text from different cells
text fromtimes
many different cellswhen you want to join text that's in different cells. This example is very common, where you hav
in Excel
In cell E3, enter =D3&C3 to join the last and first names.
SmithNancy doesn't look quite right though. We need to add a comma and a space. To do that we'll use quotes to create a new
There are many times in Excel when you want to join text that's in different cells. This
To create the full name, we'll join first and last name, but use a space without a comma. In F3, enter =C3&" "&D3.
example is very common, where you have first and last names, and want to combine
Dive downthem as first
for more name, last name, or full name. Fortunately, Excel lets us do that with the
detail
Next Ampersand (&) sign, which you can enter with Shift+7.
Using text and numbers together
Look
In cellatC36, 1C28:D29.
cellsenter See"&TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY").
=C28&" how the date and times are inMM/DD/YYYY
separate cells?isYou
thecan join them
US format together
code with the & symbol
for Month/Day/Year, like you
like 09/25/2

=C28
WORTH " &2
& "EXPLORING
TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY")
If you don't don't know what format code to use, you can use Ctrl+1 > Number to format any cell the way you want. Then sele
Combine text and numbers
3 online
Free Excel training

## Using text and numbers together

Now we'll use the & to join text and numbers, not just text and text

Look at cells C28:D29. See how the date and times are in separate cells? You can join
them together with the & symbol like you'll see in cells C32:C33, but that doesn't look
right, does it? Unfortunately, Excel doesn't know how you want to format the
numbers, so it breaks them down to their basest format, which is the the Serial date
in this case. We need to explicity tell Excel how to format the number portion of the
formula, so it displays the way you want in the resulting text string. You can do that
with the TEXT function and a format code.

2
Previous

ingare
re Joining text from different cells
text fromtimes
many different cellswhen you want to join text that's in different cells. This example is very common, where you have first and last n
in Excel
ell E3, enter =D3&C3 to join the last and first names.
thNancy doesn't look quite right though. We need to add a comma and a space. To do that we'll use quotes to create a new text string. Thi
There are many times in Excel when you want to join text that's in different cells. This
reate the full name, we'll join first and last name, but use a space without a comma. In F3, enter =C3&" "&D3.
example is very common, where you have first and last names, and want to combine
e downthem as first
for more name, last name, or full name. Fortunately, Excel lets us do that with the
detail
Ampersand (&) sign, which you can enter with Shift+7.
ng text and numbers together
k atC36,
ell 1C28:D29.
cellsenter In cell
=C28&" E3, enter =D3&C3
the date to join
See"&TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY").
how and times are the last andcells?
inMM/DD/YYYY
separate firstisYou
names.
thecan join them
US format together
code with the & symbol
for Month/Day/Year, like you'll see in cells C3
like 09/25/2017.

" &2
SmithNancy doesn't look quite right though. We need to add a comma and
8 & "EXPLORING
RTH TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY")
a space. To do that we'll use quotes to create a new text string. This time,
ou don't don't know what format code to use, you can use Ctrl+1 > Number to format any cell the way you want. Then select the Custom o
re information onenter
the =D3&",
web "&C3. The &", "& portion lets us join a comma and space
with
about the TEXT functionthe text in the cells.
mbine text and numbers
3 To
e Excel training create the full name, we'll join first and last name, but use a space
online
without a comma. In F3, enter =C3&" "&D3.

## Using text and numbers together

Now we'll use the & to join text and numbers, not just text and text

Look at cells C28:D29. See how the date and times are in separate cells? You can join
them together with the & symbol like you'll see in cells C32:C33, but that doesn't look
right, does it? Unfortunately, Excel doesn't know how you want to format the
numbers, so it breaks them down to their basest format, which is the the Serial date
in this case. We need to explicity tell Excel how to format the number portion of the
formula, so it displays the way you want in the resulting text string. You can do that
with the TEXT function and a format code.

## 1 In cell C36, enter =C28&" "&TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY"). MM/DD/YYYY

is the US format code for Month/Day/Year, like 09/25/2017.

## 2 In cell C37, enter =C29&" "&TEXT(D29,"HH:MM AM/PM"). HH:MM

AM/PM is the US format code for Hours:Minutes AM or PM, like 1:30 PM.
Previous Next

## Free Excel training online

First Name Last Name Last Name, First Name Full Name
Nancy Smith Smith, Nancy Nancy Smith
Andy North
Jan Kotas
Mariya Jones
Steven Thorpe
Michael Neipper
Robert Zare
Yvonne McKay

you want. Then select the Custom option. You can copy the format code that's displayed back to your formula.

## Using text & numbers

Today's date: 07/05/18
Current time: 11:16 AM

## Joining text & numbers

Today's date: 43286
Current time: 43286.4698054678

## Formatting text & numbers CHECK THIS OUT

Formulas, especially big ones, can
Today's date: 07/05/2018 sometimes be hard to read, but you can
Current time: 11:16 AM break up their parts with spaces like this:

## =C28 & " " & TEXT(D28,"MM/DD/YYYY")

WORTH EXPLORING
If you don't don't know what format code to use, you
can use Ctrl+1 > Number to format any cell the way you
want. Then select the Custom option. You can copy the
format code that's displayed back to your formula.
WORTH EXPLORING
If you don't don't know what format code to use, you
can use Ctrl+1 > Number to format any cell the way you
want. Then select the Custom option. You can copy the
format code that's displayed back to your formula.
"Shipping".
In cell F33,
example by As
you
we've
looking start
entered
at the
typing,
=IF(E33="Yes",
formula Excel's
in cell
Next we've
auto-correct,
F31*SalesTax,0
D12.
IF
should
),
you where find
started wetoit
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set
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calculate
Copy
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as does,
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In
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=IF(C9="Applewith In a
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",TRUE,FALSE).
cell
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should
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Range,
0.0825.
than 100").Our
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see
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and
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What
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correct
statements
=IF(E35="Yes",
allow
because
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cell
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statements
youE33
Ranges
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isit If
antoa allow you to make logical comparisons between conditions. An IF statement generally says that if one condition i
equals
enter
TRUE.
SUM(D28:D29)
define
orange
from terms
Formulas
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Yes,
number
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*1.25,0).
values This
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apple.
multiply
greater cell
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place,
Now, IFC6?
statements
if allow you to make logical comparisons between conditions. An IF
F31
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E35
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is
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Yes,
you ever need
SalesTax,
then
TRUE
them
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take the
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your are unlike other words in Excel formulas in that they don't need to be in quotes, and Excel will automatically c
otherwise
sum of the something
=IF(C3="Apple","Yes","No")
throughout a else. The formulas can return text, values, or even more calculations.
shipping
return a 0. cost,
Quantity
workbook.
Diveonly
you down have You
for more detail
column
can
to dosee it in the
allone
in of
Try
Next
table
the changing
above,
named
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IF
andstatement
ranges
IF multiply
inthe
statements with
it another function
can
cell
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use
E33
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workbook to by seecan also force additional calculations to be performed if a certain condition is met. Here we're going to evaluate
Shipping
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going
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change.
return
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the workbook.
Name 2
Manager. Click
GOOD
here toTO learn KNOW
When
more. you create a formula, Excel will automatically place colored borders around any ranges referenced in the formula, and th
3
Previous
Next
Dive down for more detail
Free Excel training online

## IF statement with another function

IF statements can also force additional calculations to be performed if a certain
condition is met. Here we're going to evaluate a cell to see if Sales Tax should be
charged, and calculate it if the condition is true.

3
3

Previous

IF statements
atements allow you to make logical comparisons between conditions. An IF statement generally says that if one condition is true do somet

## IF statements allow you to make logical comparisons between conditions. An IF

UE andstatement generally
FALSE are unlike othersays that
words if oneformulas
in Excel condition is true
in that dodon't
they something, otherwise
need to be doand Excel will automatically capitalize them. N
in quotes,
something else.
C3="Apple","Yes","No") The formulas can return text, values, or even more calculations.
e down for more detail

atements1
atement with In cell D9 enter =IF(C9="Apple",TRUE,FALSE). The correct answer is TRUE.
can another
also forcefunction
additional calculations to be performed if a certain condition is met. Here we're going to evaluate a cell to see if Sa

## 2 Copy D9 to D10. The answer here should be FALSE, because an orange is

not an apple.
OD TO KNOW
en you create a formula, Excel will automatically place colored borders around any ranges referenced in the formula, and the correspondin
3 Try another example by looking at the formula in cell D12. We got you
started with =IF(C12<100,"Less than 100","Greater than or equal to
100"). What happens if you enter a number greater than or equal to
re information on100 inweb
the cell C12?
Dive down for more detail
anced IF statements Next
e Excel training online

## IF statement with another function

IF statements can also force additional calculations to be performed if a certain
condition is met. Here we're going to evaluate a cell to see if Sales Tax should be
charged, and calculate it if the condition is true.

## 1 In cell F33, we've entered =IF(E33="Yes",F31*SalesTax,0), where we set up

SalesTax as a Named Range with a value of 0.0825. Our formula says If cell
E33 equals Yes, then multiply cell F31 times SalesTax, otherwise return a 0.

## 2 Next we've added an IF statement to calculate shipping if it's required. In

cell F35 you'll see =IF(E35="Yes",SUM(D28:D29)*1.25,0). This says "If cell
E35 is Yes, then take the sum of the Quantity column in the table above,
and multiply it by 1.25, otherwise return a 0".

3 Next, change the 1.25 in the formula in cell F35 to "Shipping". As you start
typing, Excel's auto-correct, should find it for you. When it does, press Tab
to enter it. This is a Named Range, and we entered it from Formulas >
Define Name. Now, if you ever need to change your shipping cost, you
only have to do it in one place, and you can use the Shipping name
3 Next, change the 1.25 in the formula in cell F35 to "Shipping". As you start
typing, Excel's auto-correct, should find it for you. When it does, press Tab
to enter it. This is a Named Range, and we entered it from Formulas >
Define Name. Now, if you ever need to change your shipping cost, you
only have to do it in one place, and you can use the Shipping name
anywhere in the workbook.

Previous Next

## Free Excel training online

hat if one condition is true do something, otherwise do something else. The formulas can return text, values, or even more calculations.

will automatically capitalize them. Numbers don't need to be in quotes either. Regular text, like Yes or No does need to be in quotes like th

IF statements
Apple
Orange

## 50 Less than 100

n the formula, and the corresponding ranges in the formula will be the same color. You can see this if you select cell F33 and press F2 to ed
IMPORTANT DETAIL
TRUE and FALSE are unlike other words in Excel formulas
in that they don't need to be in quotes, and Excel will
automatically capitalize them. Numbers don't need to be
in quotes either. Regular text, like Yes or No does need to
be in quotes like this:
=IF(C3="Apple","Yes","No")

## Item Quantity Cost Total

Widget 2 \$9.76 \$19.52
Doohickey 3 \$3.42 \$10.26

## Sales Tax? Yes \$2.46 GOOD TO KNOW

When you create a formula, Excel will autom
place colored borders around any ranges refe
Shipping? Yes \$6.25 in the formula, and the corresponding range
formula will be the same color. You can see t
Total \$38.48 you select cell F33 and press F2 to edit the fo

EXPERT TIP
Named Ranges allow you to define terms or values in a
single place, and then reuse them throughout a
workbook. You can see all of the named ranges in this
workbook by going to Formulas > Name Manager. Click
EXPERT TIP
Named Ranges allow you to define terms or values in a
single place, and then reuse them throughout a
workbook. You can see all of the named ranges in this
workbook by going to Formulas > Name Manager. Click
es, or even more calculations.

## elect cell F33 and press F2 to edit the formula.

O KNOW
eate a formula, Excel will automatically
d borders around any ranges referenced
la, and the corresponding ranges in the
be the same color. You can see this if
ell F33 and press F2 to edit the formula.
In this case,
exists, but you
we'll wraptoour
still want
existing
suppress
In cell D22, the
VLOOKUP
#N/A
enter error,
formula
you can use
=VLOOKUP(C2 like an
this
error in cell
handling
2,C17:D20,2,F
D43:
function
ALSE). The called
IFERROR
=IF(C43="","",V
G43:
for Apples is
LOOKUP(C43,C
VLOOKUP
=IFERROR(VLO
50. VLOOKUP
VLOOKUP
37:D41,2,FALS
VLOOKUP
OKUP(F43,F37: is one of the most widely used functions in Excel (and one of our favorites too!). VLOOKUP lets you look up a value in
looked
Now tryfor for
E))
G41,2,FALSE),"
Apples, found
yourself in the
").
it,
Meat IFERROR
then went
=VLOOKUP(A1,B:C,2,FALSE)
section,
This
says
over says
if
onethe if cell
in
What
C43 cell G22.
equals
do VLOOKUP is one of the most widely used functions in Excel (and one of our favorites
VLOOKUP
column
You should to thewant to look for?
you
nothing
returns
If youupand
right, too!).
(""),
a valid
find it, howVLOOKUP lets you
many columns look
to the updo
right a value in atocolumn
you want on the left, then returns
get a value?
end
then with
return
result,
returned
Where
=VLOOKUP(F2 then
dotheinformation in another
you want to look for it? column to the right if it finds a match. VLOOKUP says:
nothing,
display
amount. that,
2,F17:G20,2,FA
otherwise
Do you want an exact, or approximate match?
otherwise,
LSE). the
return
display
VLOOKUP's
nothing ("").
results.
EXPERIMENT
We displayed Note
the second
Try selecting
nothing here different items from the drop down lists. You'll see the result cells instantly update themselves with new values.
closing
(""), but youfor more detail
Dive down
parenthesis
can also useat
Next
the end of(0,1,
numbers the
formula.
VLOOKUP
2, etc.), orThis
and #N/A
Invariably,
closes the as you'll
IF run into a situation where VLOOKUP can't find what you asked it to, and it returns an error (#N/A). Sometimes
text, such
statement.
"Formula isn't
IMPORTANT DETAIL
correct".
IFERROR is what's known as a blanket error handler, meaning it will suppress any error your formula might throw. This can caus

A rule of thumb is to not add error handlers to your formulas until you're absolutely certain they work properly.
Previous
Next
1
Use PivotTables to analyze worksheet data
2 online
Free Excel training

## VLOOKUP and #N/A

Invariably, you'll run into a situation where VLOOKUP can't find what you asked it to,
and it returns an error (#N/A). Sometimes, it's because the lookup value simply
doesn't exist, or it can because the reference cell doesn't have a value yet.

1
2

Previous

VLOOKUP
OKUP is one of the most widely used functions in Excel (and one of our favorites too!). VLOOKUP lets you look up a value in a column on th

OOKUP(A1,B:C,2,FALSE)
VLOOKUP
at do you want to is
lookone of the most widely used functions in Excel (and one of our favorites
for?
ou find it, how many columnsyou
too!). VLOOKUP lets look
to the updo
right a value in atocolumn
you want on the left, then returns
get a value?
ere doinformation in another
you want to look for it? column to the right if it finds a match. VLOOKUP says:
you want an exact, or approximate match?
What do you If you find it, how many
want to look columns to the right do
ERIMENT for? you want to get a value?
selecting different items from the drop down lists. You'll see the result cells instantly update themselves with new values.
e down for more detail

OKUP and
ariably, =VLOOKUP(A1,B:C,2,FALSE)
#N/A
you'll run into a situation where VLOOKUP can't find what you asked it to, and it returns an error (#N/A). Sometimes, it's because th

ORTANT DETAIL
RROR is what's known as a blanket error handler, meaning it will suppress any error your formula might throw. This can cause problems if E
Where do Do you want
you want to an exact,
ule of thumb is to not add error handlers to your formulas until you're or
absolutely certain they work properly.
look for it? approximate
match?

## re information on the web

1 In cell D22,
functions
for Apples is 50. VLOOKUP looked for Apples, found it, then went over one
column to the right, and returned the amount.
PivotTables to analyze worksheet data
2 online
e Excel training Now try for yourself in the Meat section, in cell G22. You should end up EXPERIMENT
Try selecting different i
with =VLOOKUP(F22,F17:G20,2,FALSE). see the result cells inst
values.

## VLOOKUP and #N/A

Invariably, you'll run into a situation where VLOOKUP can't find what you asked it to,
and it returns an error (#N/A). Sometimes, it's because the lookup value simply
doesn't exist, or it can because the reference cell doesn't have a value yet.

1 If you know your lookup value exists, but want to hide the error if the lookup
cell is blank, you can use an IF statement. In this case, we'll wrap our existing
VLOOKUP formula like this in cell D43:

=IF(C43="","",VLOOKUP(C43,C37:D41,2,FALSE))
If you know your lookup value exists, but want to hide the error if the lookup
cell is blank, you can use an IF statement. In this case, we'll wrap our existing
VLOOKUP formula like this in cell D43:

=IF(C43="","",VLOOKUP(C43,C37:D41,2,FALSE))

This says, "If cell C43 equals nothing (""), then return nothing, otherwise
return the VLOOKUP's results". Note the second closing parenthesis at the
end of the formula. This closes the IF statement.

2 If you're not sure your lookup value exists, but you still want to suppress
the #N/A error, you can use an error handling function called IFERROR in
cell G43: =IFERROR(VLOOKUP(F43,F37:G41,2,FALSE),""). IFERROR says,
"If the VLOOKUP returns a valid result, then display that, otherwise, display
nothing ("")". We displayed nothing here (""), but you can also use numbers
(0,1, 2, etc.), or text, such as "Formula isn't correct".

Previous Next

## Free Excel training online

ou look up a value in a column on the left, then returns information in another column to the right if it finds a match. VLOOKUP says:

## s with new values.

r (#N/A). Sometimes, it's because the lookup value simply doesn't exist, or it can because the reference cell doesn't have a value yet.

## Fruit Amount Meat Amount

Apples 50 Beef 50
Oranges 20 Chicken 30
Bananas 60 Pork 10
Lemons 40 Fish 50

Apples Pork

EXPERIMENT
Try selecting different items from the drop down lists. You'll
see the result cells instantly update themselves with new
values.

M function in cell D42 could talk, it would say this: Sum up the values in cells D38, D39, D40, and D41.
Item Amount Item Amount
Donuts 100 Donuts 100
Cakes 50 Cakes 50
Pies 20 Pies 20
#N/A Pastry

IMPORTANT DETAIL
IFERROR is what's known as a blanket error handler, meaning
it will suppress any error your formula might throw. This can
cause problems if Excel is giving you a notification that your
formula has a legitimate error that needs to be fixed.

## A rule of thumb is to not add error handlers to your formulas

until you're absolutely certain they work properly.
match. VLOOKUP says:

## sn't have a value yet.

Conditional functions - SUMIF
Conditional functions - SUMIF
Conditional functions let you sum, average, count or get the min or max of a range based on a given condition, or criter
SUMIF lets you sum in one range based on a specifc criteria you look for in another range, like how many Apples you h
Conditional functions let you sum, average, count or get the min or max of a range
=SUMIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D4)
based on a given condition, or criteria you specify. Such as, out of all the fruits in the
What range do you want to look at?
list, how many are apples? Or, how many oranges are the Florida type?
What
EXPERT value
TIP (text or number) do you want to look for?
Each
For
SUMIFS oneismatch
each of found,
the same what range
as SUMIF, but itdolets
youyou
wantusetomultiple
sum in?criteria. So in this example, you can look for Fruit and Type, instead o
the Fruit and
Type cells has
1
=SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17)
a drop-down
list
What where
range you
do you want to sum?
can
This select
is the
This is thefruits.
different first range to look in for matches
second range
This
Trylook
to is the
it, and criteria for the first match
in for
watch
matches the
formulas
This is the criteria for the second match
automatically
update.
Dive down for more detail
Next step
Conditional functions - COUNTIF
COUNTIF and COUNTIFS let you count values in a range based on a criteria you specify. They're a bit different from the other IF
Select cell D17 and type =COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64). COUNTIF is structured like this:
=COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64)
What range do you want to look at?
What
COUNTIFS valueis2(text or number)
the same do you
as SUMIF, but want
it letstoyou
look
usefor?
multiple criteria. So in this example, you can look for Fruit and Type, instead

=COUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64)
This is the first seen
rangeSUMIF,
to countSUMIFS, COUNTIF, and COUNTIFS. Now you can try on your own with the other functions, such as A
This is the=SUMIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)
SUMIF criteria for the first match
SUMIFS
This is the=SUMIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)
second range to count
AVERAGEIF =AVERAGEIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)
This is criteria=AVERAGEIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D92,D106)
AVERAGEIFS for the second match
Dive down for=COUNTIF(C92:C103,C106)
COUNTIF more detail
COUNTIFS
Next =COUNTIFS(C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)
MAXIFS =MAXIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C10,D92:D103,D106)
More
MINIFSconditional functions
=MINIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)
=SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17)
Dive down for more detail
Next
SUMIF with a value argument
Here's an example of the SUMIF function using greater than (>) to find all values greater than a given amount:
=SUMIF(D118:D122,">50")

Sum up through
....Look some values
thesebased
cells...on this criterion:
...and if the value is greater than 50, sum it up.

NOTE: If you find you are making a lot of conditional formulas, you might find that a PivotTable is a better solution. See this Piv
Dive down for more detail
Dive web for more detail
Conditional functions - COUNTIF
COUNTIF and COUNTIFS let you count values in a range based on a criteria you
specify. They're a bit different from the other IF and IFS functions, in that they only
Create a drop-down list
have a criteria range, and criteria. They don't evalute one range, then look in another
Free Excel training online
to summarize.
Next
1

=COUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64)

## More conditional functions

More conditional functions
You've already seen SUMIF, SUMIFS, COUNTIF, and COUNTIFS. Now you can try on
your own with the other functions, such as AVERAGEIF/S, MAXIFS, MINIFS. They're
all structured the same way, so once you get one formula written, you can just replace
the function name with the one you want. We've written all the functions you'll need
for cell E106, so you can copy/paste these, or try to type them yourself for practice.

SUMIF =SUMIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)
SUMIFS =SUMIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)
AVERAGEIF =AVERAGEIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)
AVERAGEIFS =AVERAGEIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D92,D106)
COUNTIF =COUNTIF(C92:C103,C106)
COUNTIFS =COUNTIFS(C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)
MAXIFS =MAXIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C10,D92:D103,D106)
MINIFS =MINIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

## SUMIF with a value argument

Here's an example of the SUMIF function using greater than (>) to find all values
greater than a given amount:

Sum up some
values based
on this
criterion:

=SUMIF(D118:D122,">50")

NOTE: If you find you are making a lot of conditional formulas, you might find that a
PivotTable is a better solution. See this PivotTable article for more information.

Conditional functions - SUMIF
ditional functions - SUMIF
ditional functions let you sum, average, count or get the min or max of a range based on a given condition, or criter
MIF lets you sum in one range based on a specifc criteria you look for in another range, like how many Apples you h
Conditional functions let you sum, average, count or get the min or max of a range
MIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D4)
based on a given condition, or criteria you specify. Such as, out of all the fruits in the
at range do you want to look at?
list, how many are apples? Or, how many oranges are the Florida type?
at value (text or number) do you want to look for?
eachismatch
MIFS found,
the same what range
as SUMIF, but itdolets
youyou
want
usetomultiple
sum in?criteria. So in this example, you can look for Fruit and Type, instead of just by Fruit. S
1 SUMIF lets you sum in one range based on a specifc criteria you look for in
another range, like how many Apples you have. Select cell D17 and type
MIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17)
at range do you=SUMIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D14).
want to sum? SUMIF is structured like this:
is the first range to look in for matches
is the criteria for the first matchWhat range do you For each match found, what
want to look at? range do you want to sum
in?
is the criteria for the second match

=SUMIF(C3:C14,C17,D3:D4)
e down for more detail

## ditional functions - COUNTIF

UNTIF and COUNTIFS let you count values inWhat a range based
value (textonor anumber)
criteria you specify. They're a bit different from the other IF and IFS functio
ect cell D17 and type =COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64). do you want tois look
COUNTIF for? like this:
structured
OUNTIF(C50:C61,C64)
at range do you want to look at?
at valueis2
UNTIFS (text orSUMIFS
the
as SUMIF,
same astoSUMIF,
you
but want look
it lets you
but it lets you use multiple criteria. So in this
usefor?
multiple criteria. So in this example, you can look for Fruit and Type, instead of just by Fruit
example, you can look for Fruit and Type, instead of just by Fruit. Select cell
H17 and type =SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17). SUMIFS is
OUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64)
is the first seen
rangeSUMIF, SUMIFS,
to count COUNTIF, and COUNTIFS. Now you can try on your own with the other functions, such as AVERAGEIF/S, M
is the=SUMIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)
MIF criteria for the firstWhat
match
range This is the This is the
MIFS
is the=SUMIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)
second range to countdo you want criteria for criteria for
RAGEIF =AVERAGEIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)
to sum? the first the second
is criteria=AVERAGEIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D92,D106)
RAGEIFS for the second match
match match
e down for=COUNTIF(C92:C103,C106)
UNTIF more detail
UNTIFS =COUNTIFS(C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)
XIFS =MAXIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C10,D92:D103,D106)
re conditional
NIFS functions
=MINIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)
=SUMIFS(H3:H14,F3:F14,F17,G3:G14,G17)
e down for more detail

## MIF with a value argument

This is the This is the
e's an example of the SUMIF function using greater than (>) to find all values greater than a given amount:
MIF(D118:D122,">50") first range to second range
look in for to look in for
mook
up through
some values based on
these cells... this criterion: matches matches
nd if the value is greater than 50, sum it up.

TE: If you find you are making a lot of conditional formulas, you might find that a PivotTable is a better solution. See this PivotTable article f
Dive down for more detail Next
re information on thedown
Dive web for more detail Next
Conditional functions - COUNTIF
COUNTIF and COUNTIFS let you count values in a range based on a criteria you
specify. They're a bit different from the other IF and IFS functions, in that they only
ate a drop-down list
have a criteria range, and criteria. They don't evalute one range, then look in another
e Excel training online
to summarize.

## 1 Select cell D64 and type =COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64). COUNTIF is structured

like this:
What range do you
want to look at?

=COUNTIF(C50:C61,C64)

## What value (text or number)

do you want to look for?

2 COUNTIFS is the same as SUMIF, but it lets you use multiple criteria. So in
this example, you can look for Fruit and Type, instead of just by Fruit. Select
cell H17 and type =COUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64). COUNTIFS is
structured like this:
This is the first This is the second
range to count range to count

=COUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64)

## This is the criteria This is criteria for

for the first match the second match

## More conditional functions

More conditional functions
You've already seen SUMIF, SUMIFS, COUNTIF, and COUNTIFS. Now you can try on
your own with the other functions, such as AVERAGEIF/S, MAXIFS, MINIFS. They're
all structured the same way, so once you get one formula written, you can just replace
the function name with the one you want. We've written all the functions you'll need
for cell E106, so you can copy/paste these, or try to type them yourself for practice.

SUMIF =SUMIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)
SUMIFS =SUMIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)
AVERAGEIF =AVERAGEIF(C92:C103,C106,E92:E103)
AVERAGEIFS =AVERAGEIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D92,D106)
COUNTIF =COUNTIF(C92:C103,C106)
COUNTIFS =COUNTIFS(C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)
MAXIFS =MAXIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C10,D92:D103,D106)
MINIFS =MINIFS(E92:E103,C92:C103,C106,D92:D103,D106)

## SUMIF with a value argument

Here's an example of the SUMIF function using greater than (>) to find all values
greater than a given amount:

## Sum up some ....Look through ...and if the

values based these cells... value is
on this greater than
criterion: 50, sum it up.

=SUMIF(D118:D122,">50")

NOTE: If you find you are making a lot of conditional formulas, you might find that a
PivotTable is a better solution. See this PivotTable article for more information.

## Create a drop-down list Free Excel training online

Fruit Amount Fruit Type Amount
Apples 50 Apples Fuji 50
Oranges 20 Oranges Florida 20
Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60
Lemons 40 Lemons Rough 40
Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50
Oranges 20 Oranges Navel 20
Bananas 60 Bananas Lady Finger 60
Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40
Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50
Oranges 20 Oranges Navel 20
Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60
Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40

## Fruit SUMIF Fruit Type SUMIFS

Apples Oranges Florida

ent from the other IF and IFS functions, in that they only have a criteria range, and criteria. They don't evalute
EXPERT TIPone range, then look in anoth
Each one of the Fruit and Type cells has
a drop-down list where you can select
different fruits. Try it, and watch the
formulas automatically update.
uit and Type, instead of just by Fruit. Select cell H17 and type =COUNTIFS(F50:F61,F64,G50:G61,G64). COUNTIFS is structured like this:

r functions, such as AVERAGEIF/S, MAXIFS, MINIFS. They're all structured the same way, so once you get one formula written, you can just

Fruit Amount Fruit Type Amount
Apples 50 Apples Fuji 50
Oranges 20 Oranges Florida 20
Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60
Lemons 40 Lemons Rough 40
Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50
Oranges 20 Oranges Navel 20
Bananas 60 Bananas Lady Finger 60
Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40
Apples 50 Apples Honeycrisp 50
Oranges 20 Oranges Navel 20
Bananas 60 Bananas Cavendish 60
Lemons 40 Lemons Eureka 40

## Fruit COUNTIF Fruit Type COUNTIFS

Apples 3 Oranges Florida 1
Fruit Type Amount
Apples Fuji 50
Oranges Florida 20
Bananas Cavendish 60
Lemons Rough 40
Apples Honeycrisp 50
Oranges Navel 20
Lemons Eureka 40
Apples Honeycrisp 50
Oranges Navel 20
Bananas Cavendish 60
Lemons Eureka 40

## Fruit Type Try it

Lemons Eureka 80

Item Amount
Donuts 100
Cakes 50
Pies 20
200
one range, then look in another to summarize.
ruit and Type cells has
where you can select
y it, and watch the
tically update.
FS is structured like this:

ormula written, you can just replace the function name with the one you want. We've written all the functions you'll need for cell E106, so
ns you'll need for cell E106, so you can copy/paste these, or try to type them yourself for practice.
GOOD TO KNOW
Double-click this cell and you'll see that the formula
is different. Specifically, the sum criteria is ">=50"
which means greater than or equal to 50. There are
other operators you can use like "<=50" which is
less than or equal to 50. And there's "<>50" which is
not equals 50.
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1
Previous
Next
Overview of formulas in Excel
2 (by category)
Excel functions
Excel functions (alphabetical)
Free Excel training online

Previous

the
Let the Function Wizard guide you
Function
u know Wizard
the name ofguide you you want, but you're not sure how to build it, you can use the Function Wizard to help you out.
the function

If you know the name of the function you want, but you're not sure how to build it,
OD TO you
can type cell and range references, or select them with your mouse.
1 Select cell D10, then go to Formulas > Insert Function > type VLOOKUP in the
Search for a function box, and press GO. When you see VLOOKUP
highlighted, click OK at the bottom. When you select a function in the list,
Excel will display its syntax.
e information on the web
rview of formulas in Excel
2 (by Next,
el functions enter the function arguments in their respective text boxes. As you
category)
enter each one, Excel will evaluate it, and show you its result, with the final
el functions (alphabetical)
Excel training result
online at the bottom. Press OK when you're done, and Excel will enter the
formula for you.

GOOD TO KNOW
You can type cell and ra

GOOD TO KNOW
As you enter each argum
description will be displ
above the Formula resu

Previous Next

Overview of formulas in Excel

## Excel functions (alphabetical)

Excel functions (alphabetical)

Fruit Amount
Apples 50
Oranges 20
Bananas 60
Lemons 40

Apples 50

## CHECK THIS OUT

You should end up with
=VLOOKUP(C10,C5:D8,2,FALSE)

GOOD TO KNOW
You can type cell and range references, or select them

GOOD TO KNOW
As you enter each argument's section, the argument's
description will be displayed toward the bottom of the form,
above the Formula result.
GOOD TO
KNOW
Fixing
At some
Clicking Fixing formula errors
formula
point inerrors
time, you'll run across a formula that has an error, which Excel will display with #ErrorName. Errors can be hel
Error checking
Options will let- Go to Formulas > Error Checking. This will load a dialog that will tell you the general cause for your specific erro
you setclick
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EXPERIMENT
are displayed
What's something's
wrong
or ignored. here? Hint:not working
We're tryingright, butup
to SUM they canitems.
all the be challenging to fix. Fortunately, there
are several options that can help you track down the source of the error, and fix it.
Previous
Next 1
Detect errors in formulas
How to avoid broken formulas
Evaluate a nested formula one step at a time
Free Excel training online

3
Previous

ng
ome Fixing formula errors
formula errors
point in time, you'll run across a formula that has an error, which Excel will display with #ErrorName. Errors can be helpful, because th
r checking - Go to Formulas > Error Checking. This will load a dialog that will tell you the general cause for your specific error. In cell D9, the
u click Help on this Error, a help topic specific to the error message will open. If you click Show Calculation Steps, an Evaluate Formula dialo
h timeAtyousome point in time,
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will step acrossthe
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ERIMENT display with #ErrorName. Errors can be helpful, because they point out when
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We're tryingright, butup
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all the be challenging to fix. Fortunately, there
are several options that can help you track down the source of the error, and fix it.

1 Error checking - Go to Formulas > Error Checking. This will load a dialog
that will tell you the general cause for your specific error. In cell D9, the
e information on the web
#N/A error is caused because there is no value matching "Apple". You can
ect errors in formulas
fix this by using a value that does exist, suppress the error with IFERROR, or
w to avoid broken formulas
ignore it and know it will go away when you do use a value that exists.
uate a nested formula one step at a time
Excel training online

2 If you click Help on this Error, a help topic specific to the error message
will open. If you click Show Calculation Steps, an Evaluate Formula dialog

3 Each time you click Evaluate, Excel will step through the formula one
section at a time. It won't necessarily tell you why an error occurs, but it will
point out where. From there, look at the help topic to deduce what went
Each time you click Evaluate, Excel will step through the formula one
section at a time. It won't necessarily tell you why an error occurs, but it will
point out where. From there, look at the help topic to deduce what went

Previous Next

Detect errors in formulas

## Free Excel training online

me. Errors can be helpful, because they point out when something's not working right, but they can be challenging to fix. Fortunately, there

Fruit Amount
Apples 50
Oranges 20
Bananas 60
Lemons 40

Apple #N/A

GOOD TO KNOW
Clicking Options will let you set the
rules for when errors in Excel are
displayed or ignored.

Fruit Amount
Apples 50
Oranges 20
Bananas 60
Lemons 40

Total #NAME?

EXPERIMENT
What's wrong here? Hint: We're trying to
SUM up all the items.
enging to fix. Fortunately, there are several options that can help you track down the source of the error, and fix it.
Press ALT+Q and type what you want to know.
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