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Generator Protection

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Protection
• Introduction
• Device Numbers
• Symmetrical Components
• Fault Current Behavior
• Generator Grounding
• Stator Phase Fault (87G)
• Field Ground Fault (64F)
• Stator Ground Fault (87N, 51N, 59N, 27-3N)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Protection
• Loss of Field (40Q, 40Z)
• Over/Under Frequency (81O/81U)
• Overexcitation and Overvoltage (24, 59)
• Out of Step (78)
• Negative Sequence (Current Unbalance) (46)
• Inadvertent Energization (27, 50, 60, 81, 62, 86)
• Loss of Voltage Transformer (60)
• System Backup (51V, 21)
• Conclusion

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Protection
49 63
25

51N
64F
51
60
87G
REG
24 47 87T

62 27 81U 51
59 81O

32-1 32-2 40 51V 50 46


IE

59N 27-
3N

51-
GN

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Steam Generator Stator Windings

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Hydraulic Generator Stator / Rotor

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Hydraulic Generator Stator Core

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Protection

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Split Phase Relaying CT

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Cylindrical Rotor in Need of Repair

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Protection

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Protection

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components
• Positive Sequence
– A set of three phasors that have the same magnitude, are equally
displaced from each other by 120º, and have the same phase
sequence as the system under study (ex ABC)
• Negative Sequence
– A set of three phasors that have the same magnitude, are equally
displaced from each other by 120º, and have the opposite phase
sequence as the system under study (ex ACB)
• Zero Sequence
– A set of three phasors of equal magnitude that are all in phase or
have zero displacement from each other

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components
Example Problem
• One conductor of a three phase line is
open. The current flowing to the delta
connected load thru line a is 10A. With
the current in line a as reference and
assuming that line c is open, find the
symmetrical components of the line
currents.

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components
Example Problem
• Ia = 10/0° A, Ib = 10/180° A, Ic = 0 A
• Ia0 = (1/3)(Ia + Ib + Ic )
• Ia0 = (1/3)(10/0° + 10/180° + 0) = 0
• Ia1 = (1/3)(Ia + αIb + α2 Ic )
• Ia1 = (1/3)(10/0° + 10/180+120° + 0)
• Ia1 = 5.78 /-30°
• Ia2 = (1/3)(Ia + α2 Ib + αIc )
• Ia2 = (1/3)(10/0° + 10/180+240° + 0)
• Ia2 = 5.78 /30°

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components
Example Problem
• Ib0 = 0
• Ib1 = 5.78 /-150°
• Ib2 = 5.78 /150°
• Ic0 = 0
• Ic1 = 5.78 /90°
• Ic2 = 5.78 /-90°

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components
Example Problem
• Ia0 = 0, Ib0 = 0, Ic0 = 0
• Ia1 = 5.78 /-30° , Ib1 = 5.78 /-150° , Ic1 = 5.78 /90°
• Ia2 = 5.78 /30° , Ib2 = 5.78 /150° , Ic2 = 5.78 /-90°

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components
Example Problem
• Note: the components Ic1 and Ic2 have
definite values although line c is open and
can carry no net current. As expected, the
sum of these currents is zero.
• The sum of the currents in line a is 10/0°
• The sum of the currents in line b is 10/180°

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components

Single Phase Line to Ground Fault

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components

Generator Sequence Networks

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Symmetrical Components

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Fault Current Behavior of a
Synchronous Generator

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Fault Current Behavior of a
Synchronous Generator

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Fault Current Behavior of a
Synchronous Generator

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Fault Current Behavior of a
Synchronous Generator

Max DC Offset

No DC Offset

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Fault Current Behavior of a
Synchronous Generator

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Fault Current Behavior of a
Synchronous Generator

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Grounding

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Grounding

•Low Impedance Grounding


•Single phase to ground fault current between 200A and 150%

•High Impedance Grounding


•Single phase to ground fault current between 5 and 20A

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Phase Fault
Protection (87G)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Phase Fault
Protection (87G)
•87G used to protect for:
•3 phase line to line
•1 phase line to line
•multi-phase line to ground
•May not be able to detect a 1 phase to ground fault on high
impedance grounded generators
•Restraint or Percentage Differential Trip Characteristic
•Used to improve sensitivity for detecting small levels of
fault current
•Also maintains security against inadvertent tripping due
to thru faults

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Phase Fault
Protection (87G)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Phase Fault
Protection (87G)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Phase Fault
Protection (87G)
•Split-phase protection scheme
•Able to detect turn-turn faults
•Windings for each phase split into equal groups
•Individual winding currents are vector summed
•Any difference in winding current results in a output from CT
•Overcurrent relay (50/51) can be used to monitor difference
current
•Setting must be above any normal unbalances that may exist

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Phase Fault
Protection (87G)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Field Ground Fault
Protection (64F)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Ground Fault
Protection (87N, 51N, 59N & 27-3N)

For Low Impedance Grounded Generators

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Ground Fault
Protection (87N, 51N, 59N & 27-3N)

For Low Impedance Grounded Generators

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Ground Fault
Protection (87N, 51N, 59N & 27-3N)

External Generator Phase-Ground Fault

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Ground Fault
Protection (87N, 51N, 59N & 27-3N)

External Generator Phase-Ground Fault

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Ground Fault
Protection (87N, 51N, 59N & 27-3N)

Internal Generator Phase-Ground Fault

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Ground Fault
Protection (87N, 51N, 59N & 27-3N)

Internal Generator Phase-Ground Fault

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Generator Stator Ground Fault
Protection (87N, 51N, 59N & 27-3N)

High Impedance Grounded


50MVA, 13.2kV Generator
Xc = 10,610Ω for 0.25uf @ 60Hz
Rpri = 10,610/3 = 3537 Ω

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Loss of Field Protection (40Q, 40Z)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Loss of Field Protection (40Q, 40Z)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Loss of Field Protection (40Q, 40Z)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Over/Under Frequency Protection
(81O/U)
•Causes:
•Significant load addition
•Sudden reduction in mechanical input power
•Loss of generation
•Loss of load
•Underfrequency can cause:
•Higher generator load currents
•Overexcitation
•Turbine blade fatigue
•Overfrequency can cause:
•Overvoltage on hydro turbines

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Overexcitation and Overvoltage
Protection (24, 59)
•Modern Excitation Systems include over excitation limiting
and protection, but it may take several seconds to limit
•Overexcitation occurs when the V/Hz ratio exceeds 105% at
FL and 110% at no load
•V/Hz relays set at 110% with a 5 – 10 sec delay
•Generator overvoltage can occur without exceeding V/Hz
relay setting due to large over speed on hydro generator
•Generator overvoltage relay, 59 may be used

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Out of Step Protection (78)
•High peak currents and off-frequency operation can occur
when a generator losses synchronism
•Causes winding stress, high rotor iron currents, pulsating
torques and mechanical resonances
•Conventional relaying approach – analyzing variations in
apparent impedance as viewed at generator terminals
•Variation in impedance can be detected by impedance
relaying and generator separated before the completion of one
slip cycle

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Out of Step Protection (78)
EA EB
ZA ZT ZB
A B

Generator Transformer System

+X
EA/EB>1
B

EA/EB=1
ZB
Q
EA/EB<1

ZT
-R +R

ZA δ P

A
-X

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Out of Step Protection (78)
A B
X

System

R
Trans

P M

Gen X'd

A B Mho
Element Element Element
Pickup Pickup

Blinder
Elements

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Negative Sequence Protection (46)
•Protects generator from excessive heating in the rotor due to
unbalanced stator currents
•Negative sequence component of stator current induces
double frequency current in rotor, causing heating
•Rotor temperature rise proportion to I22t
•Negative sequence relays provide settings for this relationship
in the form of a constant, k = I22t
•Minimum permissible continuous unbalance currents are
specified (ANSI/IEEE C50.13)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Inadvertent Energization Protection
(27, 50, 60, 81U, 62 and 86)
•Protects against closing of the generator breaker while
machine is not spinning / on turning gear
•Caused by operator error, breaker flash-over, control circuit
malfunction
•Two schemes illustrated:
•Frequency supervised overcurrent
•Voltage supervised overcurrent

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Inadvertent Energization Protection
Frequency Supervised Overcurrent
+DC

G 50 (3-phase)
81U

62

50 60
60 86

81U 0.5sec Pickup


62 86
0.1sec Dropout

-DC

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Inadvertent Energization Protection
Frequency Supervised Overcurrent
• Uses an underfrequency relay (81U) to enable a sensitive
instantaneous overcurrent relay (50)
• Overcurrent relay picks up at 50% or less of expected
inadvertent energizing current
• Frequency relay contacts must remain closed if sensing
voltage goes to zero
• Voltage balance relay (60) protects against loss of sensing
• Time delay relay (62) protects against sudden application
of nominal voltage during inadvertent energization,
allowing overcurrent to trip lockout relay (86)
• Lockout relay must be manually reset

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Inadvertent Energization Protection
Voltage Supervised Overcurrent
•Same illustration as frequency supervised overcurrent except
81U replaced by 27
•Undervoltage setpoint of 85% of the lowest expected
emergency operating level

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Loss of Voltage Transformer
Protection (60)
• Common practice on large systems to use two or more VTs
• One used for relays and metering
• The other used for AVR
• VTs normally fused
• Most common cause of failure is fuse failure
• Loss of VT protection blocks voltage based protective
functions (21, 32, 40 … etc)
• Loss of VT protection measure voltage unbalance, typical
setting is 15%

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Loss of Voltage Transformer
Protection (60)

G
vt

60

To To
Protective Excitation
Relays Controller

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


System Backup Protection (51V, 21)

• Common practice to provide protection for faults outside


of the generator zone of protection
• Voltage supervised time-overcurrent (51V) or distance
relaying (21) may be used
• Distance relay set to include generator step up transformer
and reach beyond, into the system
• Time delays must be coordinated with those of the system
protection to assure that system protection will operate
before back up
• CTs on neutral side of generator will also provide backup
protection for the generator

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


System Backup Protection (51V, 21)

21
51V

a.) Neutral Connected ct's

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


System Backup Protection (51V, 21)

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


System Backup Protection (51V, 21)

• For medium and small sized generators, voltage-restrained


or voltage controlled time overcurrent relays (51V) are
often applied
• Control or restraining function used to prevent or
desensitize the overcurrent relay from tripping until the
generator voltage is reduced by a fault

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


System Backup Protection (51V, 21)
100% Enable
Percent Set Value for Pickup

Pickup Inhibit/Enable
25% Inhibit

25% Percent Nominal Volts 100% Percent Nominal Volts 80% 100%

a.) Voltage-Restrained Overcurrent b.) Voltage-Contolled Overcurrent

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Conclusion

• Generators must be protected from electrical faults,


mechanical problem and adverse system conditions
• Some faults require immediate attention (shutdown) while
others just require alarming or transfer to redundant
controllers
• Design of these systems requires extensive understanding
of generator protection
• Further study – IEEE C37.102 Guide for AC Generator
Protective Relaying

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION