You are on page 1of 13

International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018

RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS

Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part 69: Shabti


Boxes Inscriptions
Galal Ali Hassaan
Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering,Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Abstract:
This paper is the 69th research paper in a series investigating the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt.
It investigates the inscription of shabti boxes during the Middle and New Kingdoms, Third Intermediate Period and Late
Periods of ancient Egypt. It outlines the design , material, decoration, inscription, owner and present location of each shabti box.
The type of script used in the inscription of the shabti boxes is outlined and the technique of presenting the text on each box is
investigated.
Keywords — Mechanical engineering; ancient Egypt; shabti boxes, inscriptions.

was a hieroglyphic text on the box sides and


I. INTRODUCTION on its lids [4].
This is the 69 paper in a series of research The Metropolitan Museum (2018) studied a
papers aiming at exploring the role of ancient shabti box from the 19th Dynasty, reign of Pharaoh
Egyptians in the evolution of mechanical Ramses II with two compartments. It was painted
engineering. The paper focuses on the inscriptions and inscribed from all sides [5]. The Metropolitan
of shabti boxes during a time era from the Middle Museum (2018) presented a shabti box of
Kingdom to the Late Period of ancient Egypt. Paramnekhu from the 19th Dynasty, reign of
Bleiberg (2009) referred to the wooden Ramses II having two compartments with colored
shabti box of Amenenmhat, an official from the 18th hieroglyphic text written in vertical bounded
Dynasty located in the Brooklyn Museum.He columns [6].
outlined that the date of this box seem to be Tour Egypt (2018) presented the wooden
between the reigns of Pharaohs Thutmose IV and shabti box of Khons, Sennedjem's son consisting of
Akhenaten [1]. Milde (2012) studied the use of two compartments. It was inscribed by a
shabtis in the funerary practice in the ancient hieroglyphic text written in four bounded un-equal
Egyptian society. He presented a shabti box of lady columns [7]. BM Images (2018) presented a
Mutemuertes from the 22nd Dynasty located in the wooden shabti box from the Middle Kingdom of
National Museum of Antiquities at Leiden [2]. ancient Egypt in display in the British Museum. It
Marini (2017) studied the shabti box of had a rectangular-shaped compartments with domed
Djehutyhotep lived during the reign of Ramses II of lid. It was inscribed in a colored band in the middle
the 19th Dynasty located in the Egyptian Museum of perimeter of the box [8].
Turin. He presented also another shabti boxes for Hassaan (2018) investigated the inscriptions
Nefermesi ffrom the 20th Dynasty, Nia from the 19th of the ancient Egyptians through studying the
Dynasty, Nebhepet from the 20th Dynasty. He papyrus industry in ancient Egypt [9], the palettes
translated the inscriptions on the Djehutyhotep i9ndustry [10], the stelae industry [11,12] and the
shabti box to English [3]. The British Museum ostraca industry [13]. .
(2017) presented a rectangular wooden shabti box
from the 19th/20th Dynasties of the New Kingdom.
They described the shabti box and stated that there

ISSN: 2395-1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 436


International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
II. SHABTI BOXES OF THE MIDDLE - The first example is a 350 mm height
KINGDOM painted wooden shabti box of
The Middle Kingdom comprised the 11th Henutmehyt from the New Kingdom of
th
and 12 Dynasties over a time span from 2050 to Egypt (1543-1069 BC) in display in the
1710 BC [14]. We have one example of using British Museum at London and shown in
shabti boxes in the funerary practice during the Fig.2 [16]. The box has a rectangular
Middle Kingdom. It was produced from wood and a cross-section,
section, two compartme
compartments and
plaster layer to allow painting and inscribing the two vulture decorated domed lids.
box. It is in display in the British Museum at Besides the scenes drawn on the front
London and shown in Fig.1 [8]. It has a rectangular side of the box, a hieroglyphic text is
cross-section
section and a domed lid ladled by a colored written within vertical bounded columns.
boat. The box was inscribed using a hieroglyphic Th shabti box was fully decorated with
text written inside a bounded row near the middle patterns drawn using multi-colors
multi
perimeter of the box. pigments.

Fig.2 Wooden shabti box from the New Kingdom [16].

Fig.1 Shabti box from the Middle Kingdom [8]. - The second example is 318 mm height
wooden shabti box of Amunemhat
from the 18th Dynasty (1(1400-1336 BC)
III. SHABTI BOXES OF THE NEW in display in the Brooklyn Museum at
KINGDOM New York and shown in Fig. Fig.3 [17]. It
has one compartment with one domed
The New Kingdom was a strong and lid with carrying hands. It was inscribed
wealthy kingdom of ancient Egypt comprising the in a single column in the middle of the
18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties extended over a time front side using a hieroglyphic text as
span from 1570 to 1077 BC [15] The ancient depicted in the zoomed image of Fig.3.
Egyptians continued to produce shabtis and shabti - The third example is a 355 mm height
boxes and locate them inside their tombs as one of painted wood shabti of Courtier Yuya
their funerary practices. We have about 13 1 from the 18th Dynasty, reign of Pharaoh
examples highlighting this use: Amenhutep III (1390(1390-1352 BC) in
display in the Metropolitan Museum and
shown in Fig.4 [18]. The design is
similar to that of Fig.3 except the neat

ISSN: 2395-1303
1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 437
International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
production and finishing
ishing of Yuya as a - The fourth example is a 320 mm height
noble man of the 18th Dynasty. The painted wooden shabti box of Nakhtmun
inscriptions are neat written within a from the 19th Dynasty (1295-1185 BC)
red-color
color bounded column using black in display in Metropolitan Museum at
ink and a hieroglyphic script. A scene of New York and shown in Fig.Fig.5 [19]. The
the owner came in another side of the box was decorated by a scene for the
box. owner sitting with his wife on chairs and
hieroglyphic script was written in five
un-equal
equal bounded columns . The box
had one compartment and one flat cover.

Fig.3. Wooden shabti box from the 18th Dynasty [17]. Fig.5 Wooden shabti box from 119th Dynasty [19]

- The fifth example is a painted wooden


shabti box from the 19th-20th Dynasties
(1295-1069
1069 BC) in display in the North
Carolina Museum of Art and shown in
Fig.6 [20]. The box had two
compartments with domed lids. The
front panel was decorated by a colored
scene showing the owner seated on a
chair in front of an offering tab
table and
holding a sceptre by his right hand. The
name of the owner was inscribed in front
of his face using a hieroglyphic text
written in a bounded column.
- The sixth example is a 285 mm height
shabti box of Paramnekhu from the 19th
Dynasty, reign of Pharao
Pharaoh Ramses II
(1279-1213
1213 BC) in display in the
Metropolitan Museum and shown in
Fig.4. Wooden shabti box from the 18th Dynasty [18]. Fig.7 [21]. This is an elaborated

ISSN: 2395-1303
1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 438
International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
production of a colored shabti box Arqueologico Nacional , Madrid, Spain
comprising two compartments with two and shown in Fig.8 [22]. The design is
domed lids. The front panel was similar to that of Fig.7 with minor
decorated by a scene for the owner changes specially in the text.
mummy drawn twice. A hieroglyphic
text was written in four bounded
columns filling the rest of the surface of
the front panel.

Fig.88 Wooden shabti box from the 19th


Dynasty [22].

Fig.6 Wooden shabti box from 19th-20


- th
Dynasties [20]. - The eighth example is a 305 mm height
shabti box of Nia from the 19th Dynasty
(1292-1189 BC) in display in the
Egyptian Museum at Turin and shown in
Fig.9 [23].

Fig.7 Wooden shabti box from 19th


Dynasty [21].

- The seventh example is a 295 mm height


painted wooden shabti box of
Khabekhent from the from the 19 1 th Fig.9 Wooden shabti box from the 19th
Dynasty,, reign of Pharaoh Ramses II Dynasty [23].
(1292-1191 BC) in display in the Museo

ISSN: 2395-1303
1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 439
International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
In this shabti box, two compartments with domed Hieroglyphic text was written on the
lids were used to store the owner shabtis. The box panel within bounded columns. .
sides are full of colored scenes besides hieroglyphic
text written in bounded un-equal
equal columns.

- The ninth example is a 355 mm height


painted wooden shabti box of Khons,
son of Sennedjem, the Royal tomb
builder during Pharaohs Seti I and
1213 BC) of the 19th
Ramses II (1290-1213
Dynasty in display in the Metropolitan
Museum of Art (!) and shown in Fig. 10
1
[24]. It has two compartments with twi
domed lids. The front side was
decorated by the owner embalming a
mummy (may be for himself).
Heiroglyphic text was written in four
bounded columns covering the rest of
the side surface around the scenes..
scenes.
Fig.11 Wooden shabti box from the 19th
-20th Dynasties [25].

- The eleventh
enth example is a wooden
shabti box of Khaemter from the 19th -
20th Dynasties (12001200-1150 BC) in
display in the Rijks Museum at Leiden
and shown in Fig.1212 [26]. It had three
compartments with domed lids. The
front panel of the box presented a scene
for the owner offering water to a tree
with hieroglyphic text written in vertical
columns in thee top part of the front panel.

Fig.10 Wooden shabti box from the 19th


Dynasty [24].

- The tenth example is a 335 mm height


painted wooden shabti box from the 19th
-20th Dynasties (1250-11 1150 BC) in
display in the British Museum and
shown in Fig.11 [25]. ]. It had two
compartments with vaulted lids). The
front panel of the box was decorated by
a funerary scene for the owner offering Fig.12 Wooden shabti box from the 19th-20th
to two of the ancient Egyptian deities. Dynasties [26].

ISSN: 2395-1303
1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 440
International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
inscribed by hieroglyphic text written in
- The twelfth example is a 300 mm height two bounded columns near the two
shabti box of Nefermesi from the 20th vertical edges of the front panel.
Dynasty (1187-1069 BC) in display in
the Egyptian Museum at Turin and
shown in Fig.13 [27].]. The It comprised
three compartments with domed lids.
The panels of the box are decorated by
funerary scenes and a hieroglyphic text
written in vertical columns descending
from the top
p edges of the panels.

Fig.14 Shabti box from the 21st Dynasty [29].

- The second example is a wooden shabti


box of Amenhotep, the Priest of Amun
during the 21st Dynasty (1070
(1070-945 BC)
in display in the British Museum at
London and shown in Fig.15 [30]. The
box was inscribed using the hieroglyphic
text written in six columns located
inside a square in the m
middle of the front
panel of the box.
Fig.13 Wooden shabti box from the 20th Dynasty
[27].

IV. SHABTI BOXES OF THE THIRD


INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

The Third Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt


comprised the Dynasties from the 21st to the 25th
over a time span from 1069 to 664 BC [28]. The
ancient Egyptians continued to use shabti boxes
as one of their funerary activities during this
Intermediate Period. Here some of the shabti
Fig.15 Wooden shabti box from the 21st Dynasty
boxes production during the Third Intermediate [30].
Period:
- The first example is a shabti box of - The third example is a 340 mm length
Pinedjem I, the High Priest of Amun at wooden shabti box from the Third
Thebes during the 21st Dynasty (1070-
(1070 Intermediate Period (1069-664 BC) in
1032 BC) in display in the Egyptian display in the World Museum at
Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.14 Liverpool and shown in Fig.
Fig.16 [31]. It
[29]. It had two compartments with flat had one compartment with a single
lids. It was decorated by two cartouches domed lid. The front panel was
in the middle of the front paned and

ISSN: 2395-1303
1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 441
International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
inbscribed by a scene in the center and a using the hieroglyphic script. Its lid was
funerary text written using hieroglyphic flat and the designer used the jackal
text in six bounded columns, three in statue to raise the cover.
each side of the scene.

Fig.16 Wooden shabti box from 3rd IP [31].


Fig.18 Wooden shabti box from 22nd Dynasty [33].
- The fourth example is a painted wood
shabti box from the 21st Dynasty (1000 - The sixth example is a 410 mm height
BC) shown in Fig.17 [32]. ]. The box had painted wooden shabti box from the
three compartments with domed-multi-
domed Third Intermediate Period (850
(850-700 BC)
colored lids. The front panel of the in display in the Walters Art Museum
shabti box depicted the owner praying to and shown in Fig.19 [34]. The shabti
Osiris with a funerary text written using box was decorated by colored scenes for
a hieroglyphic script in eleven bounded some of the ancient Egyptian Deities
columns. and inscribedd on its front panel by a
hieroglyphic text written in a single
bounded column.

Fig.17 Wooden shabti box from 21st Dynasty [32].

- The fifth example is a 340 mm length


wooden shabti box from rom the 22nd
Dynasty (900 BC) with a jackal on its Fig.19 Wooden shabti box from 3rd IP [34].
lid. It was in display as a private
collection and shown in Fig.
Fig.18 [33]. It - The seventh example is a wooden shabti
was inscribed in four bounded columns box from Thebes during the 25th

ISSN: 2395-1303
1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 442
International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
Dynasty (747-656
656 BC) in display in the two boats. The whole perimeter of the
National Museums Scotland and shown box was inscribed using the hieroglyphic
in Fig.20 [35]. It consisted of one text written in 22 columns with while
compartment with lid labelled by a Nile and light brown colors alternating with
boat. The box was inscribed by a each other. Black ink was used to write
hieroglyphic text written within a the text inside the columns. This is a
bounded row across the middle master piecee in the art of shabti box
perimeter of the box body. production. I am as an Egyptian citizen
is surprising how this wonderful artefact
can leave Egypt with the available
administration and military facilities
available nowadays !!!.

Fig.20 Wooden shabti box from 25th Dynasty [35].

- The eighth example is a 291 mm height


painted wooden shabti box of Priest Hor
from the 25th Dynasty (747-656
(747 BC) in
display in the British Museum at
London and shown in Fig.21 [36]. The m 25th Dynasty [36].
Fig.21 Wooden shabti box from
whole perimeter of the box was full of a
funerary text from the book of dead
written using hieroglyphic text in 16
bounded columns. Columns boundaries
and text were drawn using a black ink
that could sustain environmental effects
for more than 2700 years.
- The ninth example is a 310 mm length
painted wooden shabti box of Djit-Iset-
Djit
hebsed, singer of the Sanctuary of Amun
from the 25th-26th Dynasties (747-525
(747
BC) from the collection of Old Joseph
Nestor between 1910 and 1940 and was
in display for sale by Pierre Berge and
Associes with estimated price of 21,554 Fig.22 Wooden shabti box from 25th-26th Dynasties [37].
to 24,248 US$ and shown in Fig.22 [37].
The box had one compartment and one - The tenth example is a 280 mm length
domed lid designated by the scene
s of painted wooden shabti box from the

ISSN: 2395-1303
1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 443
International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
25th-26th Dynasties (747-525 525 BC) in using the hieroglyphic text written in seven
display in the Petrie Museum at London bounded columns.
and shown in Fig.23 [38]. It had one
compartment with flat lid labelled by a
boat. The box was inscribed on its V. SHABTI BOXES OF THE LATE PERIOD
perimeter in a red-color-bounded
bounded row
using the hieroglyphic text. The Late Period of ancient Egypt comprised the
Dynasties from the 26th to the 30th over a time span
from 664 to 332 BC [40]. The use of shabti boxes
in the funerary practice continued to be practiced
during the Late Period of ancient Egypt, but with
less extend than in the New Kingdom and Third
Intermediate Period.od. We have five examples
depicting this use presented as follows:
- The first example is a shabti box of
Priest Montu Neser Amun from the 26th
Dynasty (664-525
525 BC) in display in the
Kunsthisterisches Museum at Vienna,
Austria and shown in Fig.25 [41]. It ha
had
one compartment and a single lid. The
Fig.23 Wooden shabti box from 25th-26
- th Dynasties front panel was decorated by a colored
[38]. scene for the owner presenting offerings
to some of ancient Egypt deities. The
- The eleventh example is a 60 mm length was no inscriptions in the panel clear in
terracotta shabti box of Ditamenpaankh Fig.25..
from the 25th Dynasty (715-656
(715 BC) in
display in the Cleveland Museum of Art
at Cleveland and shown in Fig.24 [39].

Fig.25 Wooden shabti box from 26th Dynasty [41].

- The second example is a painted


wooden shabti box of lady Nehemsbast
from the Late Period (664-332
(664 BC) in
display in the National Museum of
Fig.24 Wooden shabti box from 25th Dynasty [39]. Ireland and shown in Fig.26 [42]. A
scene for the owner lady was drawn in
It had a miniature design having one compartment the middle of the front panel of the box
and a single flat lid The front panel was inscribed surrounded by three columns from each

ISSN: 2395-1303
1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 444
International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
side of hieroglyphic text written inside presented a colored scene for some of
bounded columns. ancient Egypt symbols and deities. In
front of each deity, the designer wrote
his name in a vertical un un-bounded
column using the hieroglyphic text.

Fig.28 Wooden shabti box panel from Late Period [44].


Fig.26 Wooden shabti box from Late Period [42].
- Thee fifth example is a shabti box of lady
- The third example is a painted wooden Tadihastet from the Late Period (664(664-
shabti box of Pedilset from the Late 332 BC) in display in the Egyptian
Period (664-337
337 BC) ) in display in the Museum at Barcelona, Spain and shown
National Museums Scotland and shown in Fig.29 [45]. It had one compartment
in Fig.27 [43]. It had one compartment with flat lid. It was inscribed in 32
and a single lid identified by a Nile boat. bounded columns using the hier
hieroglyphic
The box was inscribed on its middle script. The background color of the
perimeter in a bounded-single
single row. columns changed alternatively.

Fig.27 Wooden shabti box from Late Period [43].


Fig.29 Shabti box from Late Period [45].
- The fourth example is painted wooden
panel from a 557 mm length shabti box
from the Late Period (664-332
(664 BC)
shown in Fig.27 [44]. The panel

ISSN: 2395-1303
1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 445
International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
VI. CONCLUSIONS Museum, Culture and History of the Ancient Near East,
vol.38, pp.39-44, 2009.
- The paper investigated the evolution of
Mechanical Engineering in ancient Egypt 2. H. Milde, Shabtis in W. Wendrich (Editor), UCLA
through the shabti boxes industry during the Encyclopedia of Egyptology, vol.1, issue 1, pp.1-15,
Middle Kingdom to Late Period. 2012.
- It focused on the inscription of the shabti 3. P. Marini, A sgabti box of Djehutyhotep (Turin
Vat.2443), Rivista del Museu Egizio 1, pp.1-12, 2017.
boxed.
4. British Museum, Shabti box,
- They used wood as a raw material for shabti http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online
boxes production coated with a layer of /collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=125534&partId
plaster for painting scenes and text using =1&searchText=anhai&page=1 , 2017.
colored pigments. 5. Metropolitan Museum, Shabti box and shabtis,
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/59095
- The practice of using shabti boxes in the
2 , 2018.
ancient Egyptian funerary process started 6. Metropolitan Museum, Shabti box of Paramnekhu,
during the Middle Kingdom. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/54470
- They labelled some of their shabti boxes by 3, 2018.
a boat scene (or more) on its lid during the 7. Tour Egypt, Sennedjem gallery- Box of Khons,
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/sennedjemt3.htm ,
Middle Kingdom , Third Intermediate
2018.
Period and Late Period. 8. BM Images, Shabti box, Middle Kingdom, Egypt,
- Multi compartments shabti boxes appeared https://www.bmimages.com/preview.asp?image=0069893
during the New Kingdom and continued 0001, 2018.
during the Third Intermediate Period. 9. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical Engineering in ancient Egypt,
Part 62: Papyrus industry , International Journal of
- They extensively decorated their wooden
Emerging Engineering and Technology, vol.6, issue 1,
shabti boxes during the New Kingdom, pp.7-17, 2018.
Third Intermediate and Late Periods. 10. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical Engineering in ancient Egypt,
- They used the hieroglyphic script to inscribe Part 63: Palettes industry , WorldJournal of Engineering
their shabti boxes since the Middle Research and Technology, vol.4, issue 2, pp.168-194,
2018.
Kingdom down to the Late Period.
11. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical Engineering in ancient Egypt,
- They inscribed their shabti boxes in single Part 64: Stelae industry (Early Dynastic to Middle
bounded row, single bounded column and Kingdom), International Journal of Advanced Research
multi bounded columns. in Management, Architecture, Technology and
- In some of their shabti boxes, the perimeter Engineering, vol.4, issue 3, pp.1-9, 2018.
of the box body was full of funerary text. 12. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical Engineering in ancient Egypt,
Part 65: Stelae industry (Second Intermediate Period and
- They designed box lids either flat (New New Kingdom), International Journal of Advanced
Kingdom to Late Period) or domed (Middle Research in Management, Architecture, Technology and
Kingdom to Late Period). Engineering, International Journal of Engineering abd
- They combined text and scenes on the box Techniques, vol.4, issue 2, pp.42-53, 2018.
13. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical Engineering in ancient Egypt,
panels during the New Kingdom through the
Part 68: Ostraca industry, World Journal of Engineering
Late Period. Research and Technology, Accepted for Publication
- Outstanding professional inscriptions 2018.
appeared in colored columns with 14. Wikipedia, Middle Kingdom of Egypt,
alternative background colors during the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt
Third Intermediate and Late Periods. , 2018.
15. Wikipedia, New Kingdom of Egypt,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Kingdom_of_Egypt ,
2018.
REFERENCES
16. British Museum, Shabti box / shabti,
1. E. Teeter, Egypt: Treasures from the collection of the http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online
Oriental Institute University Bleiberg, Reused or restored /collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=163664&partId
=1, 2017.
? The wooden shabti of Amenemhat in the Brooklyn

ISSN: 2395-1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 446


International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
17. Brooklyn Museum, Shabti box of Amunemhat, 36. Art Sand Culture, Shabti box of Hor,
https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects
useum.org/opencollection/objects https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/shabti
https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/shabti-box-of-
/3549 hor/5wEwSuC8MybpOQ
18. Metropolitan Museum, Shabti box of Yuya, 37. PBP, Auctions, Box with oushebti in the name of the
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/54451
m.org/art/collection/search/54451 Singer of the Sanctuary of Amon Djit-Iset-hebsed,
Djit
7?sortBy=Relevance&what=Boxes&ao=on&a http://www.pba-
mp;ft=*&offset=0&rpp=100&pos=23 , auctions.com/html/fiche.jsp?id=24200
auctions.com/html/fiche.jsp?id=2420072&np=5&lng=en
2018. &npp=20&ordre=&aff=5&r
19. Metropolitan Museum, Shabti box of Nakhtmun, 38. UCL, Shabti boxes, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/museums
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/10000 static/digitalegypt//burialcustoms/shabtiboxes.html
1126?rpp=20&pg=7&ao=on&ft=*&deptids=10&what=S 39. Cleveland Art, Shawabtys ys of Ditamenpaankh, 715
715-656
BC,
culpture&pos=121 , 2018. http://www.clevelandart.org/art/1914.718?collection_sear
20. Pinterest, Shabti box, Thebes, New Kingdom, D19-20, D19 ch_views_fulltext=&collection_search_views_artist_full_
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/420664421422557576/ name=&field_images_field_large_image_url=All&field_
21. Metropolitan Museum, Shabti box of Paramnekhu, highlight_museum=All&f%5B0%5D=object_location:Ga
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/54470
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/54470, llery%20107
2018. 40. Wikipedia, Late Periodod of Ancient Egypt,
22. Global Egyptian Museum, Shabti box of Khabekhent, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Period_of_ancient_Eg
http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/detail.aspx?id=74 ypt , 2018.
67 41. Global Egyptian Museum, Shabti box, 26th Dynasty,
23. Research Gate, Shabti box of Nia, Turin Cat. 2444, http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/advanced_result.a
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Shabti
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Shabti-box-of-Nia- spx?pag=118
Turin-Cat-2444-Nineteenth-Dynasty-H-30 30-5-cm-Photo- 42. Global Egyptian Museum, Shabti box of the lady
by-Nicola_fig2_322704745 Nehemsbast,
24. Tour Egypt, Sennedjem gallery, box of Khons, http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/record.aspx?id=2
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/sennedjemt3.htm 801
, 2018. 43. Nms Scan, Shabtis and model coffin,
25. British Museum, Shabti box, http://nms.scran.ac.uk/database/record.php?usi=000
http://nms.scran.ac.uk/database/record.php?usi=000-190-
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online
w.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online 004-205-C
/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=125534&partId 44. Lot Art, Fantastic Egyptian wooden panel from shabti
=1&searchText=anhai&page=1 , 2017. box, https://www.lot-art.com/auction
art.com/auction-lots/Fantastic-
26. R. Koopman, Shabti box of Khaemter, RMO Leiden, Egyptian-wooden-panel-from-shabti
shabti-box/72-
https://www.flickr.com/photos/koopmanrob/3990631171/ fantastic_egyptian-22.10-ancient,, 2018.
in/album-72157620858973835/ 45. M. Scott, Late Period shabti box of Lady Tadibatet,
27. Research Gate, Shabti box of Nefermesi, https://twitter.com/hashtag/shabti?lang=ar
m/hashtag/shabti?lang=ar , 2016.
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Shabti
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Shabti-box-of-
Nefermesi-Turin-Cat-2445-Twentieth-Dynasty Dynasty-H-30-cm-
Photo-by-Nicola_fig1_322704745
28. Wikipedia, Third Intermediate
rmediate Period of Egypt, BIOGRAPHY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Intermediate_Period
_of_Egypt , 2018.
29. Ushabtis, Shabti box of Pinedjem I, Cairo Museum,
https://www.ushabtis.com/royal-cache-db320/db320/
30. Ancient, Painted wooden shabti box of the Priest of
Amun, Amenhotep, https://www.ancient.eu/image/5233/
31. Liverpool Museums,
http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/wml/collections/ant
iquities/ancient-egypt/item-458598.aspx , 2018
32. Getty Images, Painted wood shabti abti box depicting the
deceased before Osiris,
https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news--
photo/egyptian-civilization-new-kingdom--painted-wood-
shabti-box-news-photo/122225606#/egyptian
photo/122225606#/egyptian-
civilization-new-kingdom-painted-wood-shabti shabti-box-
depicting-picture-id122225606
33. Egypt Museum, Plyon-shaped
shaped shabti box with an
inscription and a statue of Anubis, https://egypt-
https://egypt
museum.com/post/164808905511/plyon-shaped shaped-shabti-
box-statue-anubis-thebes , 2017 Galal Ali Hassaan
34. Art the Walters, Box for shabtis or canopic jars, • Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics
http://art.thewalters.org/detail/2451/box-for
for-ushabtis-or-
canopic-jars/ and Automatic Control.
35. History Extra, Clay shabtis
btis and wooden shabti box from • Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo
Thebes, https://www.historyextra.com/period/ancient-
https://www.historyextra.com/period/ancient
egypt/seeking-eternity-5000-years-of-ancient
ancient-egyptian- University in 1970 and 1974.
burial/ , 2018.

ISSN: 2395-1303
1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 447
International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 4 Issue 3, May - June 2018
• Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford
University, UK under the supervision of
Late Prof. John Parnaby.
• Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo
University, EGYPT.
• Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical
Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and
History of Mechanical Engineering.
• Published more than 230 research papers in
international journals and conferences.
• Author of books on Experimental Systems
Control, Experimental Vibrations and
Evolution of Mechanical Engineering.
• Chief Justice of the International Journal of
Computer Techniques.
• Member of the Editorial Board of some
international journals including IJET.
• Reviewer in some international journals.
• Scholars interested in the authors
publications can visit:
http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

ISSN: 2395-1303 http://www.ijetjournal.org Page 448