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METALLURGICAL EVALUATION OF

CREEP SERVICED COMPONENTS


OF POWER & PROCESS BOILERS

BY

P.SUNDARAMOORTHY
BHEL – TRICHY
Crept components after completing their
designed life are examined for their “Fitness for
the Purpose
Purpose” or “Life
Life Extension Programme
Programme” as
per the code requirements.

Revised IBR–November 1998 made in-situ


metallography – Replication as a mandatory
requirement during periodic inspection in life
extension programme (Temperature > 400
400°C)
C).

Materials are selected for the indented purpose


based on their properties during initial design
stage.
stage
COMMONLY USED SEAMLESS STEEL TUBE SPECIFICATIONS IN BOILER PRESSURE
PARTS AND APPLICABLE SERVICE TEMPERATURES
Nominal Product ASME CSN DIN BS Temperature
composition limit
CS Tube SA 192 -- St 35.8 BS 3059 427°C
SA 210 A1 -- St 45.8 P2 S2 45
SA 210 C --
CS Pipe SA 106 B -- St 35.8 BS 3602 427°C
SA 106 C -- St 45.8 HFS 27
1/2 Mo Tube SA 209 T1 -- 15 Mo 3 -- 482°C
1 Cr ½ Mo Tube SA213 T12 -- 13 Cr Mo 44 Bs 3059 535°C
P2 S2 620
1 Cr ½ Mo Pipe SA 335 P12 15111.1* 13 Cr Mo 44 BS 3604 535°C
HF 620
11/4 Cr ½ Mo Tube SA 213 T11 -- -- -- 552°C
21/4 C
Cr 1 Mo Tube S 213 T22
SA 22 -- 10 C
Cr Mo 910 BSS 3059
30 9 C
577°C
P2 S2 622/50
21/4 Cr 1 Mo Pipe SA 213 T22 -- -- BS 3604 577°C
HF 622/31
½C
Cr ½ M
Mo1/4
1/4 V T b
Tube -- 15123 1
15123.1 14 M
Mo V63 +BS
BS 3604 577 C
577°C
CD 660
½ Cr ½ Mo1/4 V Pipe -- 15123.1 14 Mo V63 +BS 3604 577°C
HF 660
18 C
Cr 8 Ni Tube
T b SA 213 TP304H -- -- -- 704°C
18 Cr 10 Ni Tube SA 213 TP321H -- X 10 Cr NiTi 189 -- 704°C
4C Ti 0.6
18 Cr 10 Ni Tube SA 213 TP347H -- -- -- 704°C
8C C
Co+TaT
18 Cr 10 Ni Tube -- -- -- BS 3605 822 704°C
5C Ti 0.7 T1
*Contains: vanadium of ¼ % ; +Discontinuing specification.
Effect of alloying element in steel
Sl Alloying Properties Melting
No. element point (°c)
01
01. Carbon C ↑Tensile Strength And Hardness.
Hardness 3500
↓ Ductility
02. Silicon Si ↑ Tensile Strength And Density 1414
03. Manganese ↑ Tensile Strength, Wear And Corrosion Resistance 1221
M
Mn
04. Phosphorus P Detrimental to steels. To be kept less than 0.03 to 0.05% 44
05. Sulphur S It renders steel brittle and so harmful Permissible limit is 444
0.025 to 0.03 % max.
06. Chromium Cr ↑ Tensile Strength, Resistance To Corrosion And Wear & 1920
Resistance To Heat And Scaling.
07. Nickel, Ni Ensures good through hardening. Improves toughness. 1453
Used along with chromium in SS to have resistance to heat,
scaling and corrosion
08. Molybdenum ↑ Tensile Strength, Heat Resistance. 2622
Mo ↑ Hardenability And Toughness
09. Vanadium V ↑ Tensile Strength, Heat Resistance 1920
10
10. T
Tungsten
t W ↑ Tensile
T il Strength,
St th Heat
H t Resistance
R i t 3380
11. Cobalt Co ↑ Hardness, Heat Resistance 1492
12. Aluminum Al ↑ Resistance To Heat And Scaling 658
13
13. C
Copper C
Cu ↑ Strength
St th A
And
d Yi
Yield
ld Point,
P i t ↓ Elasticity.
El ti it 1084
Renders Resistance To Rusting.
14. Nitrogen N Gives Resistance To Rusting, Acid And Heat. -210
15. Titanium Ti Used As Alloying Element in Austenitic, Corrosion 1727
Resistance Steel As Stabilizer.
16. Tantalum Ta Used As Stabilizer in Austenitic SS 3030
17. Niobium Nb Used As Stabilizer In Austenitic SS 2420
POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT TEMPERATURES FOR PRESSURE VESSELS
(Temperature in Deg C)

MATERIALS IBR ASME Sec I 2001(PNo) ASME B31.1 2001 BS 1113/ 1999 BHEL's Practice

Carbon steels 600±20 593 min(P1) 600‐650 550‐600 610°±15

½ Mo Steels 620‐660 593 min(P3) 600‐650 ‐‐ 610°±15

1Cr ½ Mo Steels 620‐660 593 min(P4) 700‐750 620‐680 665°±15

2¼ Cr 1 Mo Steels 650‐750 677 min(P5A) 700‐750 680‐730 695°±15

5 Cr ½ Mo Steels ‐‐ 677 min(P5B‐1) ‐‐ 735‐780 ‐‐

9Cr 1 Mo Steels (T9/P9) ‐‐ ‐‐ ‐‐ 740‐780 ‐‐

9Cr 1 Mo ¼V 0.1 Nb 0.05  745°±15 
‐‐ 704 min(P5B‐2) 700‐760 735‐780
N Steels(T91/P91) 760°±10

½ Cr ½ Mo¼V  ‐‐ ‐‐ ‐‐ 680‐720

12 Cr1Mo¼V½Ni 
‐‐ ‐‐ ‐‐ 720‐760 750°±10
750 ±10
(X20CrMoV121‐ DIN 17175)
Replication:
p Test Method ASTM E1351

This is an in-situ metallography


g p y technique.
q

Thick walled components


p subjected
j to creep
p
service are examined for their microstructures
using
g this technique.
q

Structural zones deviating g vastly


y from normal,,
e.g. decarburisation, were ground off from the
surface p
prior to replica
p documentation.

The component
p to be examined is fine g
ground
using emery grits ranging from coarse to fine.
Fine Grinding Using Emery Grits (Flapper Wheel) Under Progress at Site
The microscopical appearance of slight creep
damage may be strongly influenced by the
surface preparation. i.e. mechanical or
electrolytical polishing, and etching.

Select the appropriate polishing technique for


getting a mirror like surface on the component
surface.

Mechanical Polishing: Diamond Paste of


different size particles (10µm to 0.5µm) with
coolant.
Mechanical Polishing Under Progress at Site
Electrolytic
y Polishing:
g Alcohol + Acid Mixture

Steel: 10 ml Perchloric Acid + 90 ml Butoxy


y
Ethanol

Etching: Select appropriate etchant to reveal


the microstructure.

CS and LAS: 3% Nital

HAS: 1: 3 ((Con HNO3: Con HCl ) +Methonal

Replication:
p Cellulose acetate film / p
paper
p of
thickness 25µm and acetone.
Cellulose Acetate Film After Blackening

Polished and Etched Surface


Blackening g to improve
p the reflection of the
film and transfer the film to glass slide using
double ggum tape.
p

Gold sputtering
p g at lab to further improve
p the
reflectivity of the film and for viewing at
higher
g magnifications
g in OM as well as SEM.

Microstructure examination,, capturing


p g and
image analysis.

Assigning spheroidisation level and creep


rating
g to the microstructure .
The Film is Transferred to Glass Slide for Examination at Lab
MASTER CURVES FOR ESTIMATION OF METAL
TEMPERATURE AND REMAINING LIFE FRACTION.
Prolonged exposure of Carbon and low alloy steels
to elevated temperature in their normal heat treated
condition undergo changes in their microstructure,
particularly in the carbide phase
phase.

This is the commonly


known as “spheroidisation”
p
of the carbide phase.

This phenomenon can be used to get a rough


estimate of the mean metal temperature,
temperature
experienced by the steel in service.
THE CLASSIFICATION OF LEVEL OF
SPHEROIDISATION IN 2 ¼ CR 1MO STEEL -
SCHEMATIC SKETCH
THE CLASSIFICATION OF LEVEL OF
SPHEROIDISATION IN 2 ¼ CR 1MO STEEL
- SCHEMATIC SKETCH Contd….
Hence Spheroidised microstructures are
classified as below into 6 levels: (Ref: R.Viswanathan, Journal of
Pressure Vessel Technology, vol.107, August 1985, Transaction of ASME.PP 218-225)

IL. As received condition / original microstructure


of tthe
o e material
ate a
II L. In-situ spheroidisation of the carbide phase
III L. Complete
p spheroidisation
p of the carbide
phase and partial dispersion within the matrix
IV L. Same as level III and the degree
g of dispersion
p
of the carbide phase is more than level III
V L. Degree
g of carbide dispersion
p is more than
observed in level IV
VI L. Completep spheroidisation
p of the carbide
phase and complete dispersion within the matrix
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION BASED ON
MICROSTRUCTURE FOR ½MO,
½MO 1¼CR½MO AND
2¼CR 1MO, MATERIALS: (Ref: R.Viswanathan, Journal of
Pressure Vessel Technology,
Technology vol.107,
vol 107 August 1985,
1985 Transaction of
ASME.PP 218-225)

X-axis:
X axis: For a particular level of Spheroidisation and
service hours

Y-Axis: The estimated mean metal temperature

Data were analysed using Larson - Miller parameter


for taking into account the combined effects of
times and temperature.
P=T(C+ log10t) Where T- Temp in °K,
C =20 (Constant) and t – Time in Hours
However estimates from these optical
Microstructural Spheroidisation levels are
only approximate, since they are influenced
by
y the original
g (prior
(p to service))
microstructure, and also the actual chemical
composition of the material.

Master curves follows


REAMAINING LIFE FRACTION ESTIMATION:

Evaluation of replicas from headers and pipes,


reveal the extent of spheroidisation and creep
cavitation, which is the normal mechanism of
creep damage for the commonly used low alloy
steels.

Five levels of creep cavitation are recognized


-as visually
i ll seen, under
d optical
ti l microscope
i
In accordance with a long lasting practical
experience
p the creep p damage g classes were
defined as follows: (Ref.: VGB – TW 507)
Creep Creep Damage Conditions
Rating
0 As received, without thermal service load

1 Creep exposed, without cavities

2 (A) Advanced creep exposure - isolated cavities

3 (B) Advanced Creep damage - oriented cavities

4 (C) Advanced creep damage - micro cracks

5 (D) Large creep damage - macro cracks


(5)

(4)

(3)

(2)

Ref: High Temp Component life Assessment By G.A. Webster & R.A. Ainsworth
REMAINING LIFE ASSESSMENT (RLA)
REPLICATION AND METALLURGICAL EVALUATION

CREEP DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM PROPOSED BY WEDAL AND NEUBAUER
Five levels of creep cavitation are related to an
“A-parameter”
A-parameter which is commonly used as one of
the quantitative creep damage parameter.

“A-parameter” is the fraction of cavitated


boundaries and the same has been related to
boundaries,
remaining life fraction through certain
mathematical creep models.
models
The commonly y used q
qualitative damage
g ratingg ((as
reported in replica analysis reports) are shown in
the same g graph
p on the Y-axis for g getting
g an
approximate estimate of remaining life fraction.

The approximate range of A-parameter


corresponding
p g to various damage
g ratings
g ((as used
on the graph) are as given below. These values
are typical
yp for 2¼Cr1Mo steel.

The g graph
p in the next slide shows the remaining
g
life fraction as a function of A-parameter.
Reference: Sri.R.Viswanathan, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, vol.107, August 1985
Tests to estimate the Remnant Life of Serviced
Tubes:
1. Visual Examination
2. Dimensional measurements
3. Chemical composition
p & Deposit
p Analysis
y
4. Macro Examination: Steam-side oxide scale
measurement ((in-situ at site))
5. Hardness measurement
6. Flattening
g Test to detect damageg due to
Hydrogen embrittlement
7. Micro Examination: Microstructure – Other
Damages
8. Tensile Test if required
q
9. Creep Test for RH and SH Tubes.
Visual examination for any macro level damage,
deposits, presence of oxide scales etc.

Dimensional measurement reveals overheating


if any, erosion, corrosion etc during service.

Chemical composition of the tubes were


d
determined
i d using
i Vacuum
V OES in
i which
hi h C,
C S&P
are also estimated.

Water side Deposit Analysis: 40mg/cm² max


allowed.
ll d Chemical
Ch i l cleaning
l i may be
b suggested
t d
based on inside deposit analysis.
Macro examination for any defects and steam
side oxide scale thickness measurement to
estimate the extent of overheating temperature
using Larson- Miller Parameter.

L
Logx = 0.00022(T+460)
0 00022(T+460) / (20+logt)-7.25
(20+l t) 7 25
x scale thickness in mils
x-
T- Temp in °Rankine (T°R=T°F+460)
t – Service in Hrs.
Hrs
Hardness Measurement:
Vickers Hardness with 10 kg load as per ASTM
E92 on the wall thickness of the tube after due
specimen preparation.
Hardness values reflects the Tensile strength of
the material related to microstructure.

Lower values than the min requirements


indicate overheating / structural degradation.

Fl
Flattening
i Test
T as per ASTM A450
A4 0 / A370:
A3 0

Height H = (1+e)tD
( ) / (e+t)
( )

e – Constant 0.07 for MCS


t-Wall thickness
D-Outside Diameter
Tube section of 63.5 mm length is flattened to
the height H. The ID corroded region where
deposits are observed shall be under tension
during test.

Cracked specimen
indicating damage due to
H d
Hydrogen embrittlement.
bi l

No cracks will be seen if other than Hydrogen


damage.
MICRO EXAMINATION:

A ring section of the tube is micro examined


after polishing to mirror like surface and
etching with suitable etchant depending on
the chemical composition off the material.

Micro examination
Mi i i conducted
d d through
h h out the
h
section of the specimen for any defects and
microstructure
i using
i OM and d SEM.
SEM

The level
Th l l I L microstructures
i t t off various
i t b
tube
materials is shown in the next two slides.
SA210 A1 850X SA213T11 – 340X

SA213T22 – 850X SA213T91 – 340X


SA213 Type 347 H
Spheroidised Microstructures and creep cracks

Spheroidisation Level – I L Spheroidisation Level – II L

Spheroidisation Level – IV L Spheroidisation Level – VI L


Microstructures of T91 T91 – Mild overheating

Creep cracks in T22 Material


Graphitization in CS

Weld

HAZ

C - Migration

Carbon Migration in DMW


Copper segregation - ID
OVERHEATING STRUCTURES OF WW TUBES

SHORT TERM OVERHEATING


(<AC1)

ORIGINAL MICROSTRUCTURE
OVERHEATING STRUCTURES OF WW TUBES

SHORT TERM OVERHEATING


(AC1 TO AC3)

ORIGINAL MICROSTRUCTURE
OVERHEATING STRUCTURES OF WW TUBES

SHORT TERM OVERHEATING TO >AC3)

ORIGINAL MICROSTRUCTURE
H2 DAMAGE IN WW TUBES

ID

ID

H2 Damage-As polished H2 Damage- Etched

Tube Microstructure
CORROSION FATIGUE IN WW TUBES

Oxide filled parallel cracks on ID – Cu segregation –


No microstructure damage
CIRCUMFERENTIAL CRACK
ON OD DUE TO THERMAL
FATIGUE AND DEPOSIT &
METAL LOSS ON ID – WW
TUBE
OD

ID
THERMAL FATIGUE CRACKS ON OD

Cu

ID-circumferential cracks OD- circumferential cracks


DISSOLVED OXYGEN
(O2) PITTING IN
SA209 T1 – SH COIL
PITS ON ID MICROSTRUCTURE

Max depth of the pit is about 2.26mm


against
g the wall thickness of 3.66mm
measured at the pit location
SA213 TP347H MATERIAL - SCC
TUBE HAZ

Weld

TUBE HAZ

SA213 TP347H material - SCC