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AR6303

CLIMATOLOGY

UNIT – NO: 5

BY

B.HARIHARAN
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
MEASI ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE
CLIMATE AND DESIGN OF BUILDINGS

Unit – 5
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN HOT – DRY CLIMATES

NATURE OF THE CLIMATE:


• Very hot, dry air and dry ground.
• Day time air temperature may range between 27 to 49 deg c.
• Night time air temperature is 22 deg c.
• Humidity is continuously moderate to low.
• Little or no cloud cover to reduce the high intensity of direct sunlight.
• Minimal rainfall discourage plant life.
• Dusty ground reflects the strong sunlight, producing glare.
PHYSIOLOGICAL OBJECTIVES:
• Physical comforts depends on reduction of the intense radiation from sun, ground and surrounding
buildings.
• Materials for walls and roofs should be selected such that the inner surface is less than the skin
temperature during the day.
• At night the air temperature is frequently low enough to permit an increase in effective temperature
by surface temperature higher than this air temperature.
• Low humidity, evaporation is greater.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN HOT – DRY CLIMATES

FORM AND PLANNING:

• Outdoor conditions are hostile, both interior and exterior living spaces need to be protected

from solar radiation and hot, dusty winds.

• Compact inward looking building is most suitable.

• Reduction of movement distances and avoidance of unnecessary stairs benefit occupants by

reducing physical movements and fatigue.

• Surface exposed to sun should be reduced.

• Larger dimension of a building facing north – south.

• Worst orientation is west.


DESIGN STRATEGIES IN HOT – DRY CLIMATES

• Non habitable rooms like stores, toilets can be used as thermal barriers on east and west.

• Shading of roofs, walls and outdoor spaces by projecting roofs, verandas, shading devices etc

will be beneficial.

• Low thermal capacity materials for shading device close to openings, to ensure quick cooling

after sunset.

• East and west walls are placed close together, mutual shading will decrease the heat gain.

• Close group of buildings, narrow roads and streets, arcades, colonnades and small enclosed

courtyards in order to get maximum amount of shade and coolness.

• Double roof preferred.


DESIGN STRATEGIES IN HOT – DRY CLIMATES

EXTERNAL SPACES:

• Enclosure of outdoor areas by walls which are themselves shaded avoid heating up of ground
that causes glare and keep out of dust and hot winds.

• Trees, plants and water in the enclosed space will cool the air by evaporation, help to keep
dust down and provide shade, visual and psychological relief.

• Best external space is a courtyard for this type of climate. A pool of cool night air can be
retained.

• If the courtyard width less than height, even breeze will leave such pools of cool air
undisturbed. High walls cut-off the sun during day providing good shade.

• Cooler air, cooler surface, the earth beneath the courtyard will draw heat form the
surrounding areas, re-emitting it to open sky during the night.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN HOT – DRY CLIMATES

Roofs, walls, openings:

• Walls and roofs must be constructed of heavy materials, with a large of thermal capacity.

• During the day the absence of openings would be most desirable or openings as small as
possible, located on high walls.

• During the night the opening should be large enough to provide adequate ventilation for the
dissipation of heat emitted by the walls and roof.

• Solution for this is to provide large openings, with massive shutters.

• Office building with time lag of 4 to 6 hours

• Residential building with time lag of 9 to 12 hours is required.

• Separate day and night rooms is also preferable. Day rooms with high thermal capacity
elements and night rooms with lighter materials.

• Ground floors should be solid, no stilts.


DESIGN STRATEGIES IN HOT – DRY CLIMATES

Roof and wall surfaces:

• Light coloured or shiny surfaces will reflect large part of the incident solar radiation.

• Dark coloured surface should in all cases be avoided.

Ventilation and air flow:

• During day time openings should be closed and shaded.

• A separate roof and ceiling is the obvious solution. Roof should be light and the ceiling should
be massive. As the roof is warmer than the ceiling, and hot air rises to the roof, there will be
no convective currents, only conduction. The roof space should be ventilated properly to
avoid stagnant of hot air.

• Roof slopes should be oriented towards the prevailing breeze, and any obstructions which
would prevent the air flow next to the roof surfaces should be avoided.

• High solid parapet walls around the roof would also create a stagnant pool of hot air and
therefore should be avoided.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN HOT – DRY CLIMATES

TRADITIONAL SHELTER:

• Traditional shelter found in most desert regions has heavy walls of earth, brick or stone and
roofs of the same material, often supported by a few timbers where vaulting is not used.

• Thick walls provide good capacity, as well as security and protection against noise.

• Structures tend to be hot at night during hot seasons. At these times roofs and courtyards
are frequently used as sleeping out- of-doors.

• Rooms built around a central courtyard, that provides cool private out-door space.

• Windows and door openings are small and few in size. Windows located high on the walls,
but ventilation is inadequate.

• Eg. Egyptians village houses


MARITIME DESERT CLIMATE:

• It differs slightly from hot dry regions- the main difference being the high humidity.

• The coastal winds blowing off the sea during the day may be utilised to ameliorate thermal
conditions.

SOLUTION:

• One with high thermal capacity walls and roof, for use at night, especially during the coolest
part of the year. This should have no openings facing the inland directions.

• One of light weight construction, the roof only to provide shade, the side facing the sea, as
well as the opposite side being almost completely open. This is the best solution for day time
use, especially during the hottest part of the year.

• Windscoop has its greater benefit for this climate.


DESIGN STRATEGIES IN WARM-HUMID CLIMATES

NATURE OF THE CLIMATE:


• Hot sticky conditions and the continual presence of dampness.
• Air temperature remains moderately high, between 21 to 32 deg c, with little variation
between day and night.
• Humidity is high during all seasons.
• Heavy cloud and water vapour in the air act as a filter to direct solar radiation
• Moisture in the air combined with moderate heat and high rainfall is favourable to the
growth of vegetation. The plant cover of the ground reduces reflected radiations and lessens
the heating up of the ground surface.
• Winds are generally of low speed, variable in speed, but almost constant in direction.
PHYSIOLOGICAL OBJECTIVES:
• Air temperature nearing skin temperature.
• Comfort can be achieved by encouraging out-door breeze to pass not only through the
building, but across the body surface of the occupants.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN WARM-HUMID CLIMATES

FORM AND PLANNING:


• As movement of air is the only available relief from climatic stress, the building have to be opened up
to breeze and oriented to catch whatever air movements there is.
• Open elongated plan shapes across the prevailing wind directions, with a single row of rooms to allow
cross ventilation.
• Doors and windows openings should be as large as possible.
• Plant cover of the ground tends to create steeper wind gradient than an open surface.
• Building elevated on stilts will capture higher velocities of air movements.
• Openness and shading will be the dominant characteristics of the building.
• Shading all vertical surfaces, of both openings and solid walls will be beneficial.
• Roof can extend as overhanging eaves, providing the necessary shading to both openings and wall
surfaces.
• Orient buildings with long axes in east-west direction.
• Low rise building – orientation for wind is more advisable.
• High rise building – avoidance of sun should be the decisive factor.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN WARM-HUMID CLIMATES
EXTERNAL SPACES:
• Shading and free passage of air is important.
• Trees and planting can be relied on for shading, as plant carry full foliage all year round.
• Pergolas and light framing structure to be covered by climbing plants can be provided. Opens
spaces left under buildings elevated on stilts can also be put to use as shaded out-door
spaces.
• Paling fences and screen walls should be devised which do not permit view but allow the
breeze to penetrate.
• The density of development in warm-humid regions is always far less than in hot-dry climates
for three reasons:
• 1. To allow free movement of air through buildings and through spaces between buildings.
• 2. To provide privacy by distance, as walls and screens cannot be used for this purpose.
• 3. Many activities are carried on out – of – doors.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN WARM-HUMID CLIMATES

ROOFS AND WALLS:

• Use light weight construction.

• Reflective upper surface, a double roof construction, with roof space ventilated. Both the
roof and the ceiling should be of low thermal capacity.

• As rainfall is rather high in these regions, a pitched roof will most often be used.

• Solid vertical walls insulation is not necessary if they are shaded.

AIR FLOW AND OPENINGS:

• Openings placed in prevailing wind direction to permit natural air flow.

• Openings should be large and fully openable, but at the same time give protection from
driving rain, insects, smells and noise.

• The flow of air can be influenced by topographical features, by the orientation of the
buildings and other obstruction.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN WARM-HUMID CLIMATES

VENTILATION:

• Exchange of air is also necessary.

• This climate requires frequent change of air and sensible air movement across the body
surface.

• Ventilation of the roof surface can cause a ceiling temperature to drop 2 deg c.

TRADITIONAL SHELTER:

Two basic types of traditional shelters are found in warm-humid climates.

1. where timber is scarce, single storey, earth-walled houses are typical, with the roof framed in
timber and covered with thatch. Broad overhanging eaves shade the walls. Disadvantages
includes erosion of earth walls during rainy seasons and interiors remain constantly damp.

2. The light weight timber construction on stilts with thatch roofs, promotes good air circulation
and shade.
WARM-HUMID ISLAND CLIMATE:

• This is more favourable than the warm-humid climate.

• Temperature slightly lower, but there is a steady wind.

• The orientation and construction of buildings to catch the maximum amount of air

movement.

• These islands lie in the tropical cyclone belt construction and structure must be designed to

withstand winds of up to 70 m/s.


DESIGN STRATEGIES IN COMPOSITE CLIMATES

NATURE OF THE CLIMATE:

• Composite or monsoon climates are neither consistently hot dry, nor warm and humid. Their
characteristics changes from season to season, alternating between long hot, dry periods to
shorter periods of concentrated rainfall and high humidity.

• In many areas there is also a third season, with dry, sunny days and uncomfortable cold
nights, which is referred to as ‘winter’.

PHYSIOLOGICAL OBJECTIVES:

• The objectives set out for warm humid and hot dry climates apply to the respective seasons
of composite climates.

• Third seasons creates problems, physical comfort depends on the prevention of heat loss
from the body.

• Warm season people get acclimatised to high temperature, so their tolerance of cold
conditions will be reduced.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN COMPOSITE CLIMATES

DESIGN CRITERIA:

• Thermal criteria recommended for hot-dry climates are applicable not only to the hot-dry
season of composite climate, but also to the cold season, except for minor details.

• Many constructional features may serve equally well in all seasons.

• Cold season is most important for thermal design as it predominance over the other two
seasons.

FORM AND PLANNING:

• Compact internal planning with courtyards will be beneficial.

• Low rise development is suitable.

• Houses with separate day and night rooms.

• Shading of walls is desirable but not critical.

• External openings requires shading.


DESIGN STRATEGIES IN COMPOSITE CLIMATES

EXTERNAL SPACES:
• Large projecting eaves with wide verandas are needed in warm-humid and dry seasons.
• Dry seasons controlled landscape and enclosure walls are necessary to provide protection
against dust and thermal winds.
• Deciduous plants can serve a useful purpose. Courtyards may even be covered by a pergola,
carrying deciduous creepers. They would provide shade in the hot season but admit the sun
in the winter.
ROOFS AND WALLS:
• The retention of night-time low wall temperature is desirable in the hot-dry season only but
the same thermal properties will be useful in the cold season to retain the heat of the day for
the uncomfortably cold nights.
• Roofs and external walls should be constructed of solid masonry or concrete, to have a 9 to
12 hour time lag in heat transmission.
• Best arrangement is if the thermal capacity is provided in massive floors, partitions and
ceilings, permitting the outer walls to be used more freely for large openings.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN COMPOSITE CLIMATES

SURFACE TREATMENT:

• The back walls of south facing verandas should be made highly absorptive.

• Used reflective surfaces in hot seasons.

• Whitewashing roofs at beginning of warm season and paint them black before the cold
season arrives.

OPENINGS:

• Large openings in opposite walls, preferably with solid shutters which can be opened when
cross ventilation is necessary.

• The area of openings should not normally exceed the area of solid walling on the same
elevation. On the adjacent walls the windows should not occupy more than about 25% of the
total area.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN COMPOSITE CLIMATES

VENTILATION AND CONDENSATION:

• Two small openings one high level and one low level can be provided.

• Cold season – air flow in at low level and out at high level.

• Hot dry season – air flow in at high level and out at low level.

During transitional periods condensation may occur when two factors coincide:

1. Relative humidity of the air is high.

2. The surface of a wall or ceiling is cold enough to cool the adjacent layer of air below its
dewpoint.

• Very rarely such conditions may arise towards the end of the rainy season.

Traditional shelter:

• Ground floor with massive walls with large shuttered openings, laid out around a courtyard
and a first floor structure with light weight materials.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN TROPICAL UPLAND CLIMATES

NATURE OF THE CLIMATE:

• Similar to composite or monsoon climates.

• It is dominated by strong solar radiation, often with moderate to cool temperature. Warmest

part of the year air temperature rarely reaches 30 deg.c.

• Humidities are not excessive and there is an almost constant air movement, never very

strong.

PHYSIOLOGICAL OBJECTIVES:

• As the air temperature rarely exceeds the upper comfort limit, overheating would only be

caused by solar radiation. Excessive glazed areas can be a source of overheating.


DESIGN STRATEGIES IN TROPICAL UPLAND CLIMATES

Protection against such overheating can be provided by several means:

1. The provision of adequate shading.

2. By limiting the heat admission of buildings during the strongest sunshine hours.

3. If the building is overheated, this can be counteracted by the provision of adequate ventilation.

• Cold discomfort can often occur at night, even in the warm season.

The building itself can ameliorate the cold night conditions by,

A. Providing a closed internal environment.

B. Storing some of the heat gained from solar radiation, to re-emit it at night, during the cold
period.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN TROPICAL UPLAND CLIMATES

FORM AND PLANNING:

• Building plan should be reasonably compact.

• Solar control devices will be the prominent feature of the building.

• North and south facing vertical walls receive the least amount of radiation.

• West wall receive the most.

EXTERNAL SPACES:

• Well shaded external spaces should be provided.

• Shade could be provided by the building itself, by pergolas, awnings or vegetation.

• In cooler periods of the year sunshine may be welcome in external spaces. Two possibilities
are open to the designer.

1. To provide some form of adjustable shading device to the external activity area

2. To provide alternative external spaces for use in different seasons: shaded for the hot period
and unshaded, wind protected for the cool part of the year.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN TROPICAL UPLAND CLIMATES

ROOFS AND WALLS:

• Nights are cool and solar radiation can cause overheating of building. For continuously
occupied buildings the task is therefore two-fold:

• 1. To limit the heat admitted during the strong sunshine hours.

• 2. To store some heat, to be re-emitted during the cool period.

• East and west walls should be massive.

SURFACE TREATMENT:

• Reflective surfaces would be useful in reducing the heat load.

• A massive roof slab of atleast 8 hours time lag can regulate heat.

• If bituminous felt is used for roofing, the top layer should be faced with aluminium foil.
DESIGN STRATEGIES IN TROPICAL UPLAND CLIMATES

OPENINGS:
• As the air temperature rarely reaches the upper limit, there is no need for physiological cooling
by air movement.
• Solar heat gain will be the only factor governing the orientation of windows.
• For ventilation and day lighting, in most cases, a window of some 20% of the elevation area will
be quite adequate.
TRADITIONAL SHELTER:
• Traditional rural shelter in these climates is the round hut, with mud-and –wattle walls and
thatched roofs. The walls consists of vertical poles driven into the ground in a circle, horizontal
twigs and branches threaded in between to form a basket-weave pattern. The whole is
plastered with mud. Subsequent layers of mud are often built up to thickness of 0.25m, thus
providing a substantial thermal capacity.
• In urban areas where stone is available, one can see masonry walling and slate roofs. Roofs may
still be thatched or of wood framework plastered with mud. Openings are always small.