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SCHOOL OF HOUSING, BUILDING

AND PLANNING
2017/2018

RES 202 - BUILDING TECHNOLOGY STUDIO II


ENERGY AUDIT REPORT
GROUP MEMBER:

ALDREN CHIM SHU ZHEN ----------------------------------- 132597


LAI PUI SUN ------------------------------------------------------ 132641
NUR AAINAA FARHANA BINTI ZURIN HAMIDI ------ 132690
SONG FONG YING ---------------------------------------------- 132737

STUDIO MASTER: DR. FAIZAL BIN BAHAROM


SUBMISSION DATE: 18th May 2018
Building Info
No. Item General Information

1. Building name K09, Cafeteria Aman

2. Building owner Universiti Sains Malaysia

3. Address Kafeteria Desasiswa Aman Damai,


Bangunan K09, Universiti Sains Malaysia,
11700 Gelugor, Pulau Pinang.

4. Building Function Student development

5. Client Universiti Sains Malaysia

6. Facilities Management Mr. Haji Mohd Zain Dollah

7. Energy Auditors Student of the HBP, USM

8. Date of audit Started: 16th April 2018


Completed: 26th 2018
Executive summary

The annual consumption of the Cafeteria Aman (K09) is 27935 kWh/ year and its bill is
RM11238.01 in year 2017. The BEI calculated for the cafeteria is 43.65 kWh /m2/ year, at
which it does not exceed the benchmark of the BEI, which is 135 kWh /m2/ year. Through
the energy saving measures, around 11310.62 kWh of energy can be saved annually and
hence RM 4635.42 of bill could be also saved approximately.

Acknowledgement

We would like to bid my thanks to Dr Faizal Baharom for granting us to conduct Energy
Audit assignment and have us learned the knowledge of it. We are very appreciated for the
guidance and knowledges that Dr Faizal Baharom have instilled into us and we have benefited
from it through collecting datas and analysing the data collected together.

Not to forget our group members who have given all out in their efforts to make this
report done on time. Through our synergism, we are able to learn from and help each other in
solving problems during completing this report.
Table of Contents

No Contents Page No
1.0 Introduction 1
2.0 Building Information 2
2.1 Building Fucntion
2.2 Layout Plan
2.3 Passive System
2.4 Active System
2.5 Electrical layout plan
3.0 Energy consumption 8
3.1 History of bill analysis
4.0 Methodology 10
4.1 Energy audit process
5.0 Measuring and monitoring equipment 12
6.0 Energy usage 14
7.0 Building Energy Index (BEI) 15
8.0 Energy Saving Measures 16
9.0 Conclusion 20
10.0 References 20
1.0 Introduction

Energy audit is a process to evaluate the energy of a building or a plant used and identify
opportunities to reduce the consumption of energy. Different individuals have different
mean to energy audits. The scope of an energy audit, the complexity of calculations, and
the level of economic evaluation are all issues that may be handled differently by each
individual auditor and should be defined prior to beginning any audit activities. There is a
direct relationship to the cost of the audit. How much data will be collected and analysed,
and the number of conservation opportunities identified. [1]

Furthermore, the energy auditing also aimed to prioritize the energy uses according to
the greatest to least cost-effective opportunities for energy savings. The objectives are:

i. To identify Building Energy Indices (BEI)


ii. To identify present and historical energy usage pattern
iii. To suggest energy saving measures including the implementation cost and return
on investment.

Therefore, the duration of the energy audit works is three (3) weeks. Below, the table
depicts the audit work’s milestone.

TASKS STARTING DATE ENDING DATE


Data collection 16th April 2018 18th April 2108
Data analysis 18th April 2018 23rd April 2018
Report preparation 21st April 2018 26th April 2018

1st Draft report submission 27th April 2018


Final report submission 30th April 2018

Table 1.1

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2.0 Building description

Figure 2.1: Front view of Aman Cafeteria, Block K09

Aman Cafeteria (Kafeteria Aman) or K09 is a doubled-story building which located in


Jalan Aman. K09 is situated between the Aman Hostel buildings K02 and K03, opposite to
Damai Cafeteria K10 and near to Fajar Lake. (Tasik Fajar) Aman Cafeteria is a strategic
place as it easy to access. Student can take bus B to reach this place.

Figure 2.2: Location map of Aman Cafeteria, Block K09

Ground floor of K09 is dining area while upper floor is hostel representative room and
vacant office. There are 4 lots of food stores with 2 operating tenants. This provide
convenient to student especially who live in Desasiswa Aman Damai. Student can save
time and money from dining off campus as the walking distance between Aman Hostel and
Aman Cafeteria is only five minutes. For the upper floor, it is mainly used for student
development activities.

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2.1 Building function
The K09 block belongs to Desasiswa Aman Damai, Universiti Sains Malaysia and it is
mainly used as public cafeteria and for student development. Students and publics are allowed
to dine in here or spend their leisure time at here as television is provided. Cafeteria Aman
becomes hot spot for student to conduct group discussion especially for student who live in
Desasiswa Aman as the operation hours of this block is 24 hours while the food services only
available from 8.00 am to 10.00 pm. However, the lighting system including the low bay
lighting are switched on using a timer at 6 pm will switch off at 2 am.

For upper floor, it is mainly used for student development activities. There includes a
hostel representative room and a vacant office.

2.2 Layout plan

Figure2.3: First floor layout plan

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Figure 2.4: Second floor layout plan

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2.3 Passive system
Passive systems dissipate the vibration excitations without using any external power
source for operation and utilize the motion of the structure to develop the control force. Since
the properties of these type of control system cannot be modified after installation, these
[2]
systems are regarded as passive. In the other word, passive system is a kind of design that
takes advantage of the climate to improve human comfort. This system is inexpensive, simple
and low maintenance cost.

For building K09, it is an open-air dining hall which allows ventilation for the building.
The building is open air for North, East and West side and shaded with overhangs while South
side is blocked from sunlight. This allows the tenants store their food in food store without
expose to the sun directly. The main entrance of K09 located at West side where the main
entrance is facing to the car park. These caused more heat reflected to the building. Vegetations
are planted at North and East side of the building. This help to absorb heat and prevent glare
efficiently. Consequently, the comfort perceptions of occupants increase.

2.4 Active system


Active systems refer to the electrical and mechanical systems, such as the HVAC
[3]
(heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems and lighting systems. The electricity
supply for K09 is supplied by Tenaga National Berhad (TNB) which caters the lighting system
(fluorescent lamp, recessed lighting, outdoor spotlight), ventilation system (ceiling fan, exhaust
fan) and air conditioning system (air conditioner). Besides, ATM machine and water dispenser
are also provided in this building to fulfil student’s need.

List of available electrical equipment

Electrical equipment Unit(s)


Fluorescent lamp 131
Recessed lighting 8
Outdoor spotlight 2
Ceiling fan 12
Socket outlet 74
Emergency light 3
Air conditioner 6
Exhaust fan 4

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2.5 Electrical layout plan

Legend:
Recessed lighting
Socket outlet
Fluorescent lamp
Ceiling fan
Emergency light
Exhaust fan

Figure 2.5: First floor electrical layout plan

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Legend:
Air conditioner
Socket outlet
Fluorescent lamp
Ceiling fan
Emergency light
Exhaust fan
Figure 2.6: Second floor electrical layout plan

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3.0 Energy consumption
3.1 History of bill analysis

Quantity Total
Month (kWh) (RM)

January 2266 521.18


February 2118 487.14
March 3213 738.99
April 2512 577.70
May 2704 1352.00
June 2164 1082.00
July 1493 746.50
August 1744 872.00
September 2409 1204.50
October 2595 1297.50
November 2566 1283.00
December 2151 1075.50

Total 27935 11238.01

Table 3.1: The total energy consumption Aman Cafeteria year 2017

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ENERGY COMPSUMTION OF CAFETERIA
AMAN YEAR 2017
1600

Electricity cost (RM)


1400 May,RM 1352
1297.5 1283
1200 1204.5
1082 1075.5
1000
800 872
738.99 746.5
600 577.7
521.18
400
200 Feb,RM 487.14
0

Month

Chart 3.1: The total energy consumption Aman Cafeteria year 2017

Chart above showed the total energy consumption Aman Cafeteria year 2017.
According to the chart, K09 block experienced the highest electricity energy usage in May
(RM 1352.00) while the lowest electricity energy usage in February (RM 487.14). This is
because study week and exam week fall on May. Consequently, students will spend their time
at Aman Cafeteria to do revision especially who live in Desasiswa Aman. In February, Aman
Cafeteria is mostly empty during that time because students were going back to their
hometown for Chinese New Year celebration. During the semester break (January, July and
August), electricity cost is lower than other months, but the electricity cost of January is
lowest among these three months. This is because tariff was increased from 23 cents/ kWh to
50 cents/ kWh after May 2017.

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4.0 Methodology
4.1 Energy audit process

1. Briefing Project
a. Introduce the team audit members
b. Briefing the project audit to the teammate
c. Announce that the project Audit is starting
d. Make sure everyone is understood about the project process

2. Group Meeting
a. Make the meeting to know the progress of teammate
b. Share the information during meeting
c. Talks about the problem that they faced
d. Make a decision for the problem
e. Always do the meeting to proceed for the next step

3. Progress Section
a. To know the progression of teammate
b. Solving the problem
c. Got the information from leader
d. Knew what to do the next step

4. Site visit to Collect The Data


a. Make a site visit
b. Get knowing how the environment at the site
c. Collect the data used the equipment (Extech Light Meter and Extech Hydro
thermal Anemometer
d. Make a visit with teammates
e. Help each other to collect the data for the analysis

5. Data Evaluation
a. A process of evaluating data by using analytical and logical reasoning to
examine each component of the data provided.
b. Data occurs from various sources are checked

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c. Gathered and then it will be analyzed to gain conclusion.

6. Evaluation of Energy Saving Measures


a. Some of the energy saving measures is simple and inexpensive to implement,
while others are more complicated and expensive.
b. The extent of energy saving realized, the implementation approach will vary
by consumer.
c. Energy saving measures is achieved by three levels that are no-cost measures,
low-cost measures and higher-cost measures.

7. Audit Report Presentation


a. Used all the data and make a good audit report
b. Make a conclusion based on the analyzed
c. Make a slide show for presentation
d. Just put the main item on the slide
e. Finish the report and the slide before presentation.

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5.0 Measuring and monitoring equipment

Figure 5.1: EA30 Extech Light Meter

EA30 Extech Light Meter is used to measure the amount of light, illuminance level (lux) at
designated spot in the building. This value does not correlate to an objective value of energy
radiated or reflected, as different wavelengths within the visible spectrum are perceived with
varying sensitivity by the eye, so lux meters evaluate light intensity in consideration of this
variable.
Features

• Compact and rugged design


• Widest range to 40,000Fc/ 400,000Lux is ideal for outdoor applications
• Large display with bargraph, relative function for zero or difference from reference
value
• Peak function captures short light pulse, Data Hold and Min/Max readings
• Auto power off and zero function

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Figure 5.2: Extech 3 in 1 Thermo Hygro Anemometer

Extech 3 in 1 Thermo Hygro Anemometer is used to measure temperature and air velocity or
relative humidity at designated spot in the building. This value also does not correlate to an
objective value of energy radiated or reflected, as we can see in above figure shows a fan at the
top of the extech thermo hygro anemometer which it only meaures when it detected the
surrounding air velocity and same goes to the surrounding temperature.

• Simultaneously displays Temperature and Air Velocity or Relative Humidity


• Type K input socket for high temperature measurements to 2372°F (1300°C) using
optional (TP870) Type K thermocouple
• Min/Max, Data hold, Auto power off with disable feature
• Built-in low friction vane wheel improves air velocity accuracy
• Thin-film capacitance humidity sensor for fast response

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6.0 Energy usage

Reference Percentage
Value (lux) exceeding
Location Luminance Level (lux)
MS 1525: recommended
2007 range
Min Max Average
North 1791 2024 1908 200 954 %
South-East 1188 1201 1195 200 598 %
South 565 553 559 200 280 %
South-West 435 438 437 200 219 %

East 2616 2835 2726 200 1363 %


West (Entrance) 2935 3110 3023 100 3023 %
Corridor 969 987 978 50 1956 %
Toilet (M) 653 772 713 100 713 %
Toilet (F) 1005 1008 1007 100 1007 %
Room 300 - 400 %
Lux Reading During Daytime (Lights Off)

Reference Percentage
Value (lux) exceeding
Location Luminance Level (lux)
MS 1525: recommended
2007 range
Min Max Average
North 157 159 158 200 79 %
South-East 108 126 117 200 59 %
South 140 141 141 200 71 %
South-West 261 272 267 200 134 %

East 55 78 67 200 34 %
West (Entrance) 154 158 156 100 156 %
Corridor 70 84 77 50 154 %
Toilet (M) 126 129 128 100 128 %
Toilet (L) 103 104 104 100 104 %
Room 300 - 400 %
Lux Reading During Night time (Lights On)

In our building, the cafeteria is an open area and its entrance is facing
West direction. The luminance level of the South-East, East and West (the
entrance) are extremely high due to the strong daylight. It could be considered

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that the cafeteria need no artificial lighting during the daytime unless gloomy
day. Most of the percentage exceeding the recommended range of luminance
level, as per Reference value in MS 1525: 2007. For the corridor and toilets, the
luminance are still sufficient for normal activities.
During the night time, at which the artificial lighting are switched on, the
luminance level are comparatively lower than that during daytime. The highest
percentage of exceeding the recommended range is 156%, which happened at
the entrance of the Desasiswa Aman cafeteria. It can be concluded that the
lighting using in Desasiswa Aman cafeteria is very low and much lower than
the standard level. To conclude, Desasiswa Aman cafeteria consumes less
energy which that this area can be improved in terms of its luminance level
intensity, so as to provide a space for students to have discuss about their
assignments and group works.

7.0 Building Energy Index (BEI)

A building’s energy performance is commonly used to determine the building’s energy


consumption against its building size. Referring energy consumption alone is unable to
determine whether the building over-consumes or under-consumes energy. Instead, energy
consumption has to be analysed relative to its building size as well as its function. Determining
the energy consumption against its building size is known as building energy index (BEI) or
sometimes as energy performance index (EUI).

BEI is calculated simply by dividing the total annual energy consumption of the
building (kWh/year) with its total occupied floor area as follows:

BEI = 43.65 kWh /m2/ year

With reference to energy management system standard, MS 1525: 2014 Code of


Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of Renewable Energy for Non-residential Buildings,
which is developed to promote energy management on national scale. It recommends that for
non-residential building, the ideal building energy index shall not exceed 135 kWh / m2/ year.

In comparison with the audited building, it excels in building energy index. Indeed, it
employs day lighting sagaciously through plentiful openings which in return dissuades
artificial lighting at daytime. However, through observation and audit, the justification for the

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exemplary performance is the minimal usage of the building. The entire first floor
experiences minimal usage with half of it as temporary storeroom with restricted access while
another half is exclusive student representative office which is being used occasionally.
Accommodating a total of 4 food stores and 1 convenience store at ground floor. The main
consumers of electricity is the lighting system which solely being needed at nighttime.

8.0 Energy Saving Measures


Energy saving measures include any type of project conducted or technology implemented to
reduce energy consumption. According to the energy audit, it led to 6 fitting Energy Measures
which it conserved estimated 8787 kWh, RM 2021 per year.

1. Awareness programme
The purpose of the program is to train the residents to use the electric wisely with minimize
wastage. Through the program, it is hope that those residents will practice by switched the
light off when not required. This programme might lead to saving energy about 0.5%.
Calculation
Annual energy saving (kWh)
( for Jan - April ) = estimated of 0.5% electricity
= 0.005 x 10109 kWh per year
= 50.55 kWh/year
( for May - Dec ) = estimated of 0.5% electricity
= 0.005 x 17826 kWh per year
= 89.13 kWh/year
Total annual energy saving = 50.55 kWh/year + 89.13 kWh/year
= 139.68 kWh/year

Annual cost saving


( for Jan - April ) = annual energy saving x energy cost
= 50.55 kWh/year x RM 0.23
= RM 11.63
( for May - Dec ) = annual energy saving x energy cost
= 89.13 kWh/year x RM 0.50
= RM 44.57

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Total annual cost saving = RM 11.63 + RM 44.57
= RM 56.20

2. Delamping
Inside the representative room has 6 light fitting consisting 12 lamps while the lower ground
has 9 light fitting consisting 18 lamps, that contribute to high luminance level while switched
on. This problem can be reduced by delamping. By implementing measure, energy is estimated
to be save up to 0.4%.

Calculation
Potential annual energy saving
( for Jan - April ) = estimated of 0.4% electricity
= 0.004 x 10109 kWh/year
= 40.44 kWh/year
( for May - Dec ) = estimated of 0.4% electricity
= 0.004 x 17826 kWh/year
= 71.30 kWh/year
Total annual energy saving = 40.44 kWh/year + 71.30kWh/year
= 111.74 kWh/year

Annual cost savings


( for Jan - April ) = annual energy saving x energy cost
= 40.44 kWh/ year x RM 0.23
= RM 9.30 per year
( for May - Dec ) = annual energy saving x energy cost
= 71.30 kWh/year x RM 0.50
= RM 35.65
Total annual cost saving = RM 9.30 + RM 35.65
= RM 44.95

3. Install motion sensor


According to survey, it showed that the lighting and fan are not switched off even when not in
use or after use. The motion sensor should be install to switch off lighting and mechanical

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ventilation when the area is vacant. The reasoning is the building has low occupant activity at
dining hour and in the mid night thus can save a lot of electricity to install motion sensor.

Calculation

Estimate off Period = 5 hours

Total energy = 60 lamp x 40w

= 2400 w per hour

= 2.4 kW per hour

Energy savings = 2.4 kW x 5 hours x 30 days x 12 months

= 4320 kWh/year

4. Annual cost saving

( Jan - April ) = 4320 kWh x 1/3 x RM 0.23

= RM 331.20/years

( May - Dec ) = 4320 kWh x 2/3 x RM 0.50

= RM 1440/years

Total annual cost saving = RM 331.20 + RM 1440

= RM 1771.20

Estimate investment = RM 245

Return over investment = immediate return

5. Replace all T12 (40w) Fluorescent lamp with T5 (14w) LED lamp
To improve energy efficiency, the inefficient fluorescent lamps are suggested to be replaced
with more efficient LED T5 14W lamp. Also LED lamp tend to have much longer life span
than fluorescent lamp.

Calculation
Energy consumption = 90 units x 14w x 8hrs x 30days x 12month
= 3628800 Wh/ year
= 3628.8 kWh /year

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Energy saving = (10368- 3628.8) kWh/ year
= 6739.2 kWh/year

Annual cost saving


( for Jan - April ) = 6739.2 x 1/3 x RM 0.23
= RM 516.67
( for May - Dec ) = 6739.2 x 2/3 x RM 0.50
= RM 2246.40
Total annual cost saving = RM 516.67 + RM 2246.40
= RM 2763.07

Estimate investment = RM 30 x 90
= RM 2700

Return over investment = immediate return

Energy Saving Measures Proposal


The following table summarize the energy saving, cost saving, investment and rate of return
of investment as the result of implementation of respective recommended energy saving
measures. They will reduce estimated 11311 kWh of energy wastage, and save RM 4635 on
electricity bill per year.

Measures Energy Cost Saved Investment Rate of Return


Saved (kWh) (RM) (RM) (Year)

No Cost Measures

Awareness 139.68 56.20 - -


Programme

Delamping 111.74 44.95 - -

With Cost Measures

Install Motion 4320 1771.20 245 Immediate

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Sensor

Replace T12 lamp 6739.2 2763.07 2700 Immediate


with T8 lamp

Total 11310.62 4635.42 2945

Table 1 : Recommended Energy Saving Measures

9.0 Conclusion
The annual consumption of the Cafeteria Aman (K09) is 27935 kWh/ year and its bill
is RM11238.01 in year 2017. The BEI calculated for the cafeteria is 43.65 kWh /m2/ year, at
which it does not exceed the benchmark of the BEI, which is 135 kWh /m2/ year. Through
the energy saving measures, around 11310.62 kWh of energy can be saved annually and
hence RM 4635.42 of bill could be also saved approximately.

10.0 References
1. Need.org
http://www.need.org/Files/curriculum/infobook/ConsI.pdf
2. Energy Consumption
https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/energyconsumption.php
3. Building Energy Index and Green Building Index Malaysia - JAPHETH LIM.COM
http://blog.japhethlim.com/index.php/2012/05/22/building-energy-index-in-malaysia/
4. Eprints.uthm.edu.my
http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/3960/1/TRN168.pdf

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