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# Analysis of building frames

## with semi-rigid connections

is equal to the connection constant 'Y. Professor Cross (11) has shown that the area of
the analogous column at a pin connection is infinite, and in the region of a completely
rigid zone it is equal to zero. The semi-rigid connection obviously is a case
somewhere between these two extremes, and the column analogy may readily be used
to obtain the moment-distribution factors for a member so connected. Fig. 7 illustrates
a cross section through the analogous column of a member with semi-rigid end
connections.

## ANALYSIS BY SLOPE-DEFLECTION METHOD

An illustrative example will be preseIltted in detail to demonstrate the
application of both the slope-deflection and moment-distribution methods to the
analysis of a frame with semi-rigid joints, taking into account the width of
the members.
The frame shown in Fig. 8 corresponds to one of the frames actually tested
(lihat gambar. 9), and the connection constant used in the analysis was
obtainedexperimentally from tests of a sample joint. All of the connections were
identically alike, and each beam, therefore, was individually symmetrical.
The results of the connection test gave an experimental value of 'Y = 0.01775 X 10-3
in inch-kip units. The stiffness of the frame members was measured by bending tests
preliminary to fabrication of the frame, and the quantity E I was thusfound to be 3,550
X 103 and 3,321 X 103 for the beams and columns, respectively, in inch-kip units.
The net length l of the beams between con nections was 168 in. - 8 in. = 160 in. The
columns are continuous, and the beam connections were of the welded seat and top
angle type. An approximate
.correction for column length may be shown to be one third of the beam depth
at each end that frames with a beam (see heading "Effect of Width of Member
Upon Analysis"). Hence, for the second-story columns, l = 120 - 6.67
= 113.33 and, for the first-story columns, l = 120 - 3.33 = 116.67. This
correction could well be omitted with but little error.
The constant (X for the beams was

Because of the individual symmetry of the beams, the slope-deflection
equations in the form of Eqs. 9 were applicable. The typical equation for any beam is
written by substituting the values of (x, E K, b, l, etc., in Eqs. 9, which
for any loaded beam results in the following:

The right-hand side of this and the following equations has been divided
by 1,000 to give more convenient values of 8. The moment MAB = 34.2338A

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