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LECTURE NOTES

EMT 2502 VIBRATIONS


MECHATRONIC ENGINEERING
Y5 S1
DeKUT

By
Inno Odira


c Copyright by Inno Odira, 2018
Table of Contents

Table of Contents iii


0.1 MDOF Modal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
0.1.1 Decoupling the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
0.1.2 Eigenvector Orthogonality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
0.1.3 Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
0.1.4 Orthonormal Eigenvectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Bibliography 6

REFERENCES 6

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1
0.1 MDOF Modal Analysis
Example:
Consider a simple 2DOF mass- spring system Fig. 3

Figure 1: 2DOF Mass-Spring system

EOM: 2DOF hence 2 Equations of motion from Previous example


In Matrix form:
" #" # " #" # " #
m1 0 ẍ1 k1 + k2 −k2 x1 f1
+ = (1)
0 m2 ẍ2 −k2 k2 + k3 X2 f2
| {z } | {z } | {z } | {z } | {z }
M Ẍ K X F

In a familiar form
M Ẍ + KX = F (2)

• If either M or K have off-diagonal terms, we say that the system is coupled

• In this case, the system is stiffness (spring) coupled. There are off-diagonal terms
in K

Now Consider a simple 2DOF mass- spring system Fig. 2


EOM: 2DOF hence 2 Equations of motion from Previous example
In Matrix form:
" #" # " #" # " #
m1 + m2 −m2 l ẍ k 0 x f (t)
+ = (3)
−m2 l m2 l2 θ̈ 0 m2 gl θ 0
| {z } | {z } | {z } | {z } | {z }
M Ẍ K X F

Note:
2

Figure 2: 2DOF Mass-Spring system

• For this other example, the mass/inertia matrix (M ) has off-diagonal terms, so the
system is inertially (mass) coupled

• We prefer systems to be uncoupled

• Solving coupled equations is harder. We need to solve them simultaneously.

• For uncoupled case, we can solve them independently

0.1.1 Decoupling the system


Using our first example, Let us decouple the system
Consider a simple 2DOF mass- spring system Fig. 3

Figure 3: 2DOF Mass-Spring system

EOM: 2DOF hence 2 Equations of motion from Previous example


3
In Matrix form:
" #" # " #" # " #
m1 0 ẍ1 k1 + k2 −k2 x1 f1
+ = (4)
0 m2 ẍ2 −k2 k2 + k3 X2 f2
| {z } | {z } | {z } | {z } | {z }
M Ẍ K X F

Let m1 = m2 = 1kg and k1 = k2 = k3 = 1N/m


Assume The forcing function is harmonic:

f1 = f¯1 cos ωt and f2 = f¯2 cos ωt


Then after substitutions
" #" # " #" # " #
1 0 ẍ1 2 −1 x1 f¯1
+ = cos ωt (5)
0 1 ẍ2 −1 2 X2 f¯2
The eigenvalues are ω12 = 1 and ω22 = 3 and
" # " #
1 1
The eigenvectors are X̄1 = and X̄2 =
1 −1
Let us define

" #
1 1 1
U = √
2 1 −1
|{z}
Explained later
| {z }
eigenvectors as columns
" #
r1
H =
r2
" #
x1
X =
x2

We can use these to decouple the system

The EOM in standard form:

M Ẍ + KX = F̄ cos ωt

Let X = UH
Plug this in the EOM

M U Ḧ + KU H = F̄ cos ωt (6)
4
Pre-multiply (6) by U T

T T T
U
| {zM U} Ḧ + U
| {zKU} H = U
| {zF̄} cos ωt (7)
Ḿ Ḱ F́

New Transformed equation

Ḿ Ḧ + ḰH = F́ cos ωt (8)

Solving this using our example parameters we obtain


" #" # " #" #  
1 0 r̈1 1 0 r1 1 ¯ ¯
√ (f1 + f2 )
+ = 2  cos ωt (9)
0 1 r̈2 0 3 r2 √1 (f¯1 − f¯2 )
2

This Equation is decoupled.


Note:

• On matrix Ḱ, the eigenvalues ωi2 are on the diagonal

• ri variable is referred to as modal coordinate with the physical meaning - The response
of a single mode

• Any response can be written as a linear combination of eigenvetors- concept referred


as Modal contribution

For example , if " # " #


x1 0
=
x2 4
Then " # " # " #
x1 0 1
= 2 + 2
x2 1 −1
| {z } | {z }
Mode 1 contribution Mode 2 contribution

This holds for any point in time.

0.1.2 Eigenvector Orthogonality


For spatial vectors (position, velocity, etc),

• Orthogonal means perpendicular

• Mathematically- It means the dot product is zero i.e. No component of one vector is
in the direction of the other (AT B = 0)
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• Eigenvectors are orthogonal, but not in this way.

– They are orthogonal with respect to the mass and stiffness matrices
– i.e. UiT M Uj = 0 and UiT KUj = 0 for all i 6= j

0.1.3 Normalization
" #
1 1 1
• Earlier we used √
2 1 −1
|{z}
normalization constant
| {z }
eigenvectors as columns

• For a nice decoupling, we want U T M U = I (I ≡) identity matrix, only 1s on the


diagonal

• Look at the transformation without the scaling


" # " #
T T
Ui
h ih i Ui M U i 0
UT MU = M Ui Uj =
UjT 0 UjT M Uj

The zeros in one of the diagonals is because of orthogonality

• So, we want UiT M Ui = 1 but In general, this is not true. (Here UiT M Ui = 2)

• To define a normalized eigenvector Ûi = √ 1


Ui
UiT M Ui

0.1.4 Orthonormal Eigenvectors


• Eigenvectors are orthogonal

• If they have been normalized, then they are also normal, making the eigenvectors
orthonormal.

• If the eigenvectors are orthonormal, then:

ÛiT M Ûi = 1 and ÛiT K Ûi = ωi2

ÛiT M Ûj = 0 and ÛiT K Ûj = 0


REFERENCES