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A MAJOR PROJECT REPORT

ON
ATM SYSTEM

Submitted to the Department of Bachelor Of Computer
Application in 
partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of

Institute of Professional Studies, Gangoh


Affiliated to C.C.S. University, Meerut
(Batch: 2015 -2018)

Submitted To Submitted By-


Mr. Arun Sharma NAKUL SAINI

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Roll no-1536309011

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that this submission is our work and that to the best
of our knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or
written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been
accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or
other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgement has
been made in the text.

Signature: NAKUL SAINI.


Name: NAKUL SAINI
Roll No.: 1536309011

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Report is entitled “ATM SYSTEM” which is submitted by


“NAKUL SAINI” Roll no-1536309011 in partial fulfillment of the requirement
for Bachelor of Computer Application (BCA) at Institute of
Professional Studies, (Gangoh) of CCS University, is a record of the
candidate own work carried out by him under my supervision. The matter
embodied in this report is original and has not been submitted for the award of
any other degree.

Supervisor:
Mr. Arun Sharma
Date:-

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives us a great sense of pleasure to present the report of BCA Major


Project undertaken during BCA 6th Semester (IIIrd Year). We owe special
debt of gratitude to my Director Sir Dr. J.S. Chauhan and Project Supervisor
Mr. Arun Sharma for his consultant support and guidance throughout the
course of our work.

Signature-
Name:
Date:

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Automated teller machine

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TABLE

S.no Contents Page no


1 Abstract 3
2 Problem statement 4
3 Proposed system 5
4 SRS of ATM
5 About UML 18
6 CLASS DIAGRAM 56
7 USE CASE DIAGRAM 58
8 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM 61
9 COLLABORATION DIAGRAM 62
10 ACTIVITY DIAGRAM 64
11 SWIMLANE DIAGRAM 66
12 STATE CHART DIAGRAM 69
13 COMPONENT DIAGRAM 71
14 DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAM 73

ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION:

An automated teller machine (ATM) or automatic banking machine (ABM) is a computerised


telecommunications device that provides the clients of a financial institution with access to financial

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transactions in a public space without the need for a cashier, human clerk or bank teller. On most
modern ATMs, the customer is identified by inserting a plastic ATM card with a magnetic stripe or
a plastic smart card with a chip, that contains a unique card number and some security information
such as an expiration date or CVVC (CVV). Authentication is provided by the customer entering
apersonal identification number (PIN).

ATM is known as Automated Teller Machine which basically deals with transactions
between a bank and its account holder.

ATM as the name states it is an automatic machine which connects to the bank server
to make transactions easily and efficiently.

The important features of ATM are as follows:-

1. An ATM machine can be accessed 24*7 hrs.


2. Whenever an account holder makes transactions using ATM ,all these transactions
are reflected back(updated) to his current account.
3. Every account holder who has an ATM card as provided by the bank is given a
distinct pass code to access that particular ATM machine.
4. This process works faster than a normal bank transaction which gives a lot of
overhead.
5. This kind of transaction is much more secure than the normal transaction.
6. An account holder can access his/her account from any ATM located in the city or
state irrespective of the name of the bank.

However, the main disadvantage concerned with this ATM is that an account holder
can withdraw a credit of limited amount.
.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

When they came into being, ATMs were treated to be a boon for the general public.
There was no need to stand in queues in banks to withdraw money, no need to go the
branch for years even to get a cheque deposited, cash deposited or for getting the
cheque book issued.

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1. When ATM were first developed there were only few ATM’s and people had to
travel long distance to access ATM.
2. People who were not familiar to the ATM machines they faced a lot of
problems for accessing it.
3. There were many security issues faced before ATM was introduced and after
its introduction some security issues were solved.
4. Some ATMs display the message “Your request cannot be processed now”, the
meaning of which has to be interpreted by the customer only. It can mean that
the ATM does not have sufficient funds, or that your account has some
problem, or it may also mean that the server of the bank is not working.
5. The servers of the banks working so slowly that it is difficult to understand if
the problem is with the machine or the banks's server.

PROPOSED SYSTEM
The following features should be added for a proposed system:

1. An account holder should be able to deposit amount in his/her account through ATM.
2. An account holder should be able to transfer funds from his/her account to any person
located anywhere in the world.
3. An account holder should be able to check his recent or past bank statements
e.g. Online credit card purchases .
4. An account holder should be provided with ‘foreign currency exchange software’ so that the
customer can exchange currency depending on his needs.
5. An ATM should be equipped with a security system which should scan the thumb
impression of the account holder after he had entered the pin code. This will make ATM
transaction more secure.

1.INTRODUCTION

1.1 Purpose:

This document describes the software requirements for an automated teller machine
network.ATM, It is intended for the designer, developer and maintainer of the ATM.

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1.2 Scope:

The function of the ATM is to support a computerized banking network.

1.3 Overview:
The remainder of this document is organized as follows :There will be some
definitions of important terms. section 2 contains a general description of the ATM.
Section 3 identifies the specific functional requirements,the external interfaces and
performance requirements of the ATM.

1.4 Definitions:
Account:

A single account in a bank against which transactions can be applied. Accounts


maybe of various types with at least checking and savings.A customer can hold more
than one account.

ATM:

A station that allows customers to enter their own transactions using cash cards as
identification.The ATM interacts with the customer to gather transaction information
sends the transaction information to the central computer for validation and
processing and dispenses cash to the customer. We assume that an ATM need not
operate independently of the network.

Bank:

A financial institution that holds accounts for customers and that issues cash cards
authorizing access to accounts over the ATM network.
Bank computer:

The computer owned by a bank that interfaces with the ATM network and the banks
own cashier stations. A bank may actually have its own internal network of
computers to process accounts but we are only concerned with the one that interacts
with the network.

Cash Card:

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A card assigned to a bank customer that authorizes access to accounts using an ATM
machine. Each card contains a bank code and a card number coded in accordance
with national standards on credit cards and cash cards.The bank code uniquely
identifies the bank within the consortium, The card number determines the accounts
that the card can access. A card does not necessarily access all of a customer’s
accounts. Each cashcard is owned by a single customer but multiple copies of it may
exist, so the possibility of simultaneous use of the same card from different machines
must be considered.

Customer:

The holder of one or more accounts in a bank. A customer can consist of one or more
persons or corporations. the correspondence is not relevant to this problem.The same
person holding an account at a different bank is considered a different customer.

Transaction:

A single integral request for operations on the accounts of a single customer. We only
specified that ATMs must dispense cash but we should not preclude the possibility of
printing checks or accepting cash or checks. We may also want to provide the
edibility to operate on accounts of different customers although it is not required
yet.The different operations must balance properly.

1.5 REFRENCES
http://user.it.uu.se/~johanb/kurser/DS-DV/HT02/Project/frs-example.html
http://user.it.uu.se/~johanb/kurser/DS-DV/HT02/Project/frs-example.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automated_teller_machine

2.General Purpose Descriptions


2.1 Product Perspective:

An automated teller machine (ATM) is a computerized telecommunications device


that provides the customers of a financial institution with access to financial
transactions in a public space without the need for a human clerk or bank teller. On

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most modern ATMs, the customer is identified by inserting a plastic ATM card with a
magnetic stripe or a plastic smartcard with a chip, that contains a unique card number
and some security information, such as an expiration date or CVC (CVV). Security is
provided by the customer entering a personal identification number (PIN).

2.2 Product Functions:

Using an ATM, customers can access their bank accounts in order to make cash
withdrawals (or credit card cash advances) and check their account balances.
The functions of the system are:
1. Login
2. Get Balance Information
3. Withdraw Cash
4. Transfer Funds

2.3 User Characteristics


There are several users of the ATM network
- Customer
The customer interacts with the ATM network via the ATM.It must be very easy for
them to use the ATM. They should be supported by the system in every possible way.
- Maintainer
It should be easy to maintain the whole system. The maintainer should be the only
person that is allowed to connect a new ATM to the network.
2.4 Abbreviations
Throughout this document the following abbreviations are used
k is the maximum withdrawal per day and account
m is the maximum withdrawal per transaction
n is the minimum cash in the ATM to permit a transaction
t is the total fund in the ATM at start of day

3.Specific Requirements

3.1 Functional Requirements

The functional requirements are organized in two sections .First requirements of the
ATM and second requirements of the bank.

Requirements of the ATM:

Functional requirement 1
 Description

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Initialize parameters t_k_m_n
 Input

ATM is initialized with t dollars k_m_n are entered


 Processing

Storing the parameters


 Output

Parameters are set

Functional requirement 2
 Description

If no cash card is in the ATM the system should display initial display.
Functional requirement 3
 Description

If the ATM is running out of money no card should be accepted.An error message is
displayed.
 Input

A card is entered
 Processing

The amount of cash is less than t.


 Output

Display an error message .Return cash card.

Authorization

The authorization starts after a customer has entered his card in the ATM.

Functional requirement 4
 Description

The ATM has to check if the entered card is a valid cash card.
 Input

Customer enters the cash card


 Processing

Check if it is a valid cash card. It will be valid if

1. the information on the card can be read.


2.it is not expired

 Output

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Display error message and return cash card if it is invalid.

Functional requirement 5

 Description

If the cash card is valid,the ATM should read the serial number and bank code.
 Input

Valid cash card.


 Processing

Read the serial number.


 Output

Initiate authorization dialog.

Functional requirement 6
 Description

The serial number should be logged.


 Input

Serial number from cash card


 Processing

Log the number.


 Output

Update to log file.

Functional requirement 7
 Description

Authorization dialog: The user is requested to enter his password. The ATM verifies the
bank code and password with the bank computer.
 Input

Password from user, bank code from cash card.


 Processing

Send serial number and password to bank computer, receive response from bank.
 Output

Accept or reject authorization from bank.

Functional requirement 8
 Description

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Different negative answers from bank computer for authorization dialog.
 Input

Response from bank or authorization dialog:


- “bad password” if the password was wrong.
- “bad bank code” if the cash card of the bank is not supported by the ATM. - “bad
account” if there are problems with the account.
 Processing

If the ATM gets any of these messages from the bank computer the card will be ejected
and the user will get the relevant error message.
 Output

Card is ejected and error message is displayed.


Functional requirement 9

 Description

If password and serial number are ok , the authorization process is finished.


 Input

The ATM gets accept from the bank computer from authorization process.
 Processing

Finishing authorization.
 Output

Start transaction dialog.

Functional requirement 10

 Description

If a card was entered more than three times in a row at any ATM and the password was
wrong each time, the card is kept by the ATM. A message will be displayed that the customer
should call the bank.

 Input

Entering a wrong password for the fourth time in succession

 Processing

Initiate authorization process. Response from bank computer is to keep the card.
 Output

Display error message that the customer should call the bank.

Functions
These are the requirements for the different functions the ATM should provide after authorization.

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Functional requirement 11

 Description

The kind of transactions the ATM offers is : withdrawal


 Input

Authorization successfully completed. Enter the amount to withdraw.


 Processing

Amount entered is compared with m.


 Output

Amount of money to be dispensed is displayed. Begin initial withdrawal sequence.

Functional requirement 12

 Description

Initial withdrawal sequence If it is too much withdrawal redo the transaction.

 Input

Customer has entered the amount of money

 Processing

Error if the amount is greater than m.


 Output

Start transaction or re-initiate transaction dialog if the amount is not within the pre-
defined transaction policy.

Functional requirement 13

 Description

Perform transaction.
 Input

Initial withdrawal sequence successful


 Processing

Send request to the bank computer.


 Output

Wait for response from the bank computer.

Functional requirement 14

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 Description

If the transaction is successful, the money is dispensed.


 Input

ATM gets message that transaction succeeded from the bank computer.
 Processing

ATM prints receipt updates ‘t’ and ejects the card. Dialog Customer should take the card.
 Output

After the Customer has taken the card the money is dispensed.

Functional requirement 15

 Description

If the money is dispensed and the amount is logged.


 Input

The number of $20 bills requested is dispensed to the customer.


 Processing

Log the amount of money against the serial number of the card.
 Output

Amount logged together with the serial number. Response sent to bank for money
dispensed.

Functional requirement 16

 Description

If the transaction is not successful an error message should be displayed. The card should
be ejected.
 Input

ATM gets message ” transaction not successful” from the bank computer.
 Processing

ATM displays error message. Dialog : Customer should take the card.
 Output

Eject card.

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Requirements of the bank computer for the ATM:

Authorization:
The bank computer gets a request from the ATM to verify an account.

Functional requirement 1

 Description

The bank computer checks if the the bank code is valid. A bank code is
valid if the cash card was issued by the bank.
 Input

Request from the ATM to verify card Serial number and password.
 Processing

Check if the cash card was issued by the bank.


 Output

Valid or invalid bank code.

Functional requirement 2

 Description

If it is not a valid bank code, the bank computer will send a message to
the ATM.
 Input

I invalid bank code.


 Processing

Process message.
 Output

The bank computer sends the message “bad bank code” to the ATM.

Functional requirement 3

 Description

The bank computer checks if the password is valid for a valid cash card.
 Input

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Request from the ATM to verify password.
 Processing

Check password of the customer.


 Output

Valid or invalid password.

Functional requirement 4

 Description

If it is not a valid password, the bank computer will send a message to the ATM.
 Input

Invalid password
 Processing

Process message. Update count for invalid password for the account.
 Output

The bank computer sends the message “bad password” to the ATM.

Functional requirement 5

 Description

If it is a valid cash card and a valid password but there are problems with the account , the
bank will send a message to the ATM that there are problems.
 Input

Valid cash card and password


 Processing

Process message
 Output

The bank sends message “bad account” to the ATM.

Functional requirement 6

 Description

If it is a valid cash card , a valid password and there are no problems with the account the
bank computer will send a message to the ATM that everything is ok.
 Input

Valid cash card, password and account


 Processing

Process message.

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 Output

Send “account ok” to the ATM.

Transaction:
The bank computer gets a request to process a transaction from the ATM.

Functional requirement 7

 Description

After a request the bank computer processes the transaction.


 Input

Request to process a transaction on an account and amount ‘m’ to


withdraw.
 Processing

Process transaction together with the software of the bank Update ‘k’
for amount
 Output

If transaction succeeded, the bank computer sends the message


“transaction succeeded” to the ATM. If not it will send “transaction failed” .

Functional requirement 8

 Description

Update account after money is dispensed


 Input

Response from ATM about money dispensed.

 Processing

Updates account
 Output

New account record.

Functional requirement 9

 Description

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Each bank has a limit k for each account about the amount of money
that is available via cash card each day/monthly.
 Input

Request to process transaction.


 Processing

Check if the amount of money doesn’t exceed k.


 Output

If the amount exceeds the limit ,the transaction will fail.

Functional requirement 10

 Description

The bank only provides security for their own computer and their own software.

UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE


Introduction:

The unified modeling language(UML)is a standard language for writing software blue prints.
The UML is a language for

 Visualizing
 Specifying
 Constructing
 Documenting

The artifacts of a software system:

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UML is a language that provides vocabulary and the rules for combing words in that vocabulary for
the purpose of communication.

A modeling language is a language whose vocabulary and rules focus on the concept and physical
representation of a system.
Vocabulary and rules of a language tell us how to create and real well
formed models, but they don’t tell you what model you should create and
when should create them.

VISUALIZING

The UML is more than just a bunch of graphical symbols. In UML each symbol has well defined
semantics. In this manner one developer can write a model in the UML and another developer or
even another tools can interpret the model unambiguously.

SPECIFYING

UML is used fro specifying means building models that are precise,unambiguous and complete.
UML addresses the specification of all the important analysis,design and implementation decisions
that must be made in developing and deploying a software intensive system.

CONSTRUCTING

UML is not a visual programming language but its models can be directly connected to a variety of
programminglanguages.
This means that it is possible to map from a model in the UML to a
programming language such as java, c++ or VisualBasic or even to tables in a relational database or
the persistent store of an object-oriented database.
This mapping permits forward engineering. The generation of code
from a UML model into a programming language.
The reverse engineering is also possible you can reconstruct a model from an implementation back
into the UML.

DOCUMENTING

UML is a language for Documenting. A software organization produces all sorts of artifacts in
addition to raw executable code. These artifacts include Requirements, Architecture, Design, Source
code, Project plans ,Test, Prototype, Release.
Such artifacts are not only the deliverables of a project, they are also critical in controlling,
measuring and communicating about a system during its development and after its deployment.

Conceptual model of the UML:

To understand the UML, we need to form a conceptual model of the language and this requires
learning three major elements.
The UML Basic Building Blocks.

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The Rules that direct how those building blocks may be put together.
Some common mechanisms that apply throughout the UML.

As UML describes the real time systems it is very important to make a conceptual model and then
proceed gradually. Conceptual model of UML can be mastered by learning the following three
major elements:

UML building blocks

Rules to connect the building blocks


Common mechanisms of UML
This chapter describes all the UML building blocks. The building blocks of UML can be defined as:

 Things
 Relationships
 Diagrams

Things:

Things are the most important building blocks of UML. Things can be:

 Structural
 Behavioral
 Grouping
 Annotational

Structural things:
The Structural things define the static part of the model. They represent physical and conceptual
elements. Following are the brief descriptions of the structural things.

Class:

Class represents set of objects having similar responsibilities.

Interface:

Interface defines a set of operations which specify the responsibility of a class.

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Collaboration:

Collaboration defines interaction between elements.

Use case:

Use case represents a set of actions performed by a system for a specific goal.

Component:

Component describes physical part of a system.

Node:

A node can be defined as a physical element that exists at run time.

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Behavioral things:

A behavioral thing consists of the dynamic parts of UML models. Following are the behavioral
things:

Interaction:

Interaction is defined as a behavior that consists of a group of messages exchanged among elements
to accomplish a specific task.

State machine:

State machine is useful when the state of an object in its life cycle is important. It defines the
sequence of states an object goes through in response to events. Events are external factors
responsible for state change.

Grouping things:

Grouping things can be defined as a mechanism to group elements of a UML model together. There
is only one grouping thing available.

Package:

Package is the only one grouping thing available for gathering structural and behavioral things.

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Annotational things:

Annotational things can be defined as a mechanism to capture remarks, descriptions, and comments
of UML model elements. Note is the only one Annotational thing available.

Note:

A note is used to render comments, constraints etc of an UML element.

RELATIONSHIP IN UML

Relationship is another most important building block of UML. It shows how elements are
associated with each other and this association describes the functionality of an application.
There are four kinds of relationships available.

Dependency:

Dependency is a relationship between two things in which change in one element also affects the
other one.

Association:

Association is basically a set of links that connects elements of an UML model. It also describes
how many objects are taking part in that relationship.

Generalization:

Generalization can be defined as a relationship which connects a specialized element with a


generalized element. It basically describes inheritance relationship in the world of objects.

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Realization:

Realization can be defined as a relationship in which two elements are connected. One element
describes some responsibility which is not implemented and the other one implements them. This
relationship exists in case of interfaces.

UML DIAGRAMS:
UML diagrams are the ultimate output of the entire discussion. All the elements, relationships are
used to make a complete UML diagram and the diagram represents a system.
The visual effect of the UML diagram is the most important part of the entire process. All the other
elements are used to make it a complete one.
UML includes the following nine diagrams and the details are described in the following chapters.

 Class diagram
 Object diagram
 Use case diagram
 Sequence diagram
 Collaboration diagram
 Activity diagram
 Statechart diagram
 Deployment diagram
 Component diagram

We would discuss all these diagrams in subsequent chapters of this tutorial.

ARCHITECTURE OF UML
Any real world system is used by different users. The users can be developers, testers, business
people, analysts and many more. So before designing a system the architecture is made with

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different perspectives in mind. The most important part is to visualize the system from different
viewer.s perspective. The better we understand the better we make the system.
UML plays an important role in defining different perspectives of a system. These perspectives are:

 Design
 Implementation
 Process
 Deployment

And the centre is the Use Case view which connects all these four. A Use case represents the
functionality of the system. So the other perspectives are connected with use case.

Design of a system consists of classes, interfaces and collaboration. UML provides class diagram,
object diagram to support this.

Implementation defines the components assembled together to make a complete physical system.
UML component diagram is used to support implementation perspective.

Process defines the flow of the system. So the same elements as used in Design are also used to
support this perspective.

Deployment represents the physical nodes of the system that forms the hardware. UML deployment
diagram is used to support this perspective.

CLASS DIAGRAM
Overview:

The class diagram is a static diagram. It represents the static view of an application. Class diagram
is not only used for visualizing, describing and documenting different aspects of a system but also
for constructing executable code of the software application.
The class diagram describes the attributes and operations of a class and also the constraints imposed
on the system. The class diagrams are widely used in the modelling of object oriented systems
because they are the only UML diagrams which can be mapped directly with object oriented
languages.
The class diagram shows a collection of classes, interfaces, associations, collaborations and
constraints. It is also known as a structural diagram.

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Purpose:

The purpose of the class diagram is to model the static view of an application. The class diagrams
are the only diagrams which can be directly mapped with object oriented languages and thus widely
used at the time of construction.
The UML diagrams like activity diagram, sequence diagram can only give the sequence flow of the
application but class diagram is a bit different. So it is the most popular UML diagram in the coder
community.
So the purpose of the class diagram can be summarized as:
 Analysis and design of the static view of an application.
 Describe responsibilities of a system.
 Base for component and deployment diagrams.
 Forward and reverse engineering.

How to draw Class Diagram?

Class diagrams are the most popular UML diagrams used for construction of software applications.
So it is very important to learn the drawing procedure of class diagram.
Class diagrams have lot of properties to consider while drawing but here the diagram will be
considered from a top level view.
Class diagram is basically a graphical representation of the static view of the system and represents
different aspects of the application. So a collection of class diagrams represent the whole system.
The following points should be remembered while drawing a class diagram:
The name of the class diagram should be meaningful to describe the aspect of the system.
Each element and their relationships should be identified in advance.
Responsibility (attributes and methods) of each class should be clearly identified.
For each class minimum number of properties should be specified. Because unnecessary properties
will make the diagram complicated.
Use notes when ever required to describe some aspect of the diagram. Because at the end of the
drawing it should be understandable to the developer/coder.
Finally, before making the final version, the diagram should be drawn on plain paper and rework as
many times as possible to make it correct.
Now the following diagram is an example of an Order System of an application. So it describes a
particular aspect of the entire application.
First of all Order and Customer are identified as the two elements of the system and they have a
one to many relationship because a customer can have multiple orders.
We would keep Order class is an abstract class and it has two concrete classes (inheritance
relationship) SpecialOrder and NormalOrder.
The two inherited classes have all the properties as the Order class. In addition they have additional
functions like dispatch () and receive ().
So the following class diagram has been drawn considering all the points mentioned above:

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Where to use Class Diagrams?

Class diagram is a static diagram and it is used to model static view of a system. The static view
describes the vocabulary of the system.
Class diagram is also considered as the foundation for component and deployment diagrams. Class
diagrams are not only used to visualize the static view of the system but they are also used to
construct the executable code for forward and reverse engineering of any system.
Generally UML diagrams are not directly mapped with any object oriented programming languages
but the class diagram is an exception.
Class diagram clearly shows the mapping with object oriented languages like Java, C++ etc. So
from practical experience class diagram is generally used for construction purpose.
 So in a brief, class diagrams are used for:
 Describing the static view of the system.
 Showing the collaboration among the elements of the static view.
 Describing the functionalities performed by the system.
 Construction of software applications using object oriented languages.

OBJECT DIAGRAM

Object diagram shows a set of objects and there relationships.Object diagram represents
static snapshot of instances of the things found in class diagram.
These diagrams addresses static design view or static process view of a system.

USE CASE DIAGRAM


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Overview:

To model a system the most important aspect is to capture the dynamic behaviour. To clarify a bit in
details, dynamic behaviour means the behaviour of the system when it is running /operating.
So only static behaviour is not sufficient to model a system rather dynamic behaviour is more
important than static behaviour. In UML there are five diagrams available to model dynamic nature
and use case diagram is one of them. Now as we have to discuss that the use case diagram is
dynamic in nature there should be some internal or external factors for making the interaction.
These internal and external agents are known as actors. So use case diagrams are consists of actors,
use cases and their relationships. The diagram is used to model the system/subsystem of an
application. A single use case diagram captures a particular functionality of a system.
So to model the entire system numbers of use case diagrams are used.

Purpose:

The purpose of use case diagram is to capture the dynamic aspect of a system. But this definition is
too generic to describe the purpose.
Because other four diagrams (activity, sequence, collaboration and Statechart) are also having the
same purpose. So we will look into some specific purpose which will distinguish it from other four
diagrams.
Use case diagrams are used to gather the requirements of a system including internal and external
influences. These requirements are mostly design requirements. So when a system is analyzed to
gather its functionalities use cases are prepared and actors are identified.
Now when the initial task is complete use case diagrams are modelled to present the outside view.
So in brief, the purposes of use case diagrams can be as follows:
 Used to gather requirements of a system.
 Used to get an outside view of a system.
 Identify external and internal factors influencing the system.
 Show the interacting among the requirements are actors.

How to draw Component Diagram?

Use case diagrams are considered for high level requirement analysis of a system. So when the
requirements of a system are analyzed the functionalities are captured in use cases.
So we can say that uses cases are nothing but the system functionalities written in an organized
manner. Now the second things which are relevant to the use cases are the actors. Actors can be
defined as something that interacts with the system.
The actors can be human user, some internal applications or may be some external applications. So
in a brief when we are planning to draw an use case diagram we should have the following items
identified.
Functionalities to be represented as an use case
Actors

Relationships among the use cases and actors.

Use case diagrams are drawn to capture the functional requirements of a system. So after
identifying the above items we have to follow the following guidelines to draw an efficient use case
diagram.

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The name of a use case is very important. So the name should be chosen in such a way so that it can
identify the functionalities performed.
Give a suitable name for actors.
Show relationships and dependencies clearly in the diagram.
Do not try to include all types of relationships. Because the main purpose of the diagram is to
identify requirements.
Use note when ever required to clarify some important points.
The following is a sample use case diagram representing the order management system. So if we
look into the diagram then we will find three use cases (Order, SpecialOrder and NormalOrder) and
one actor which is customer.
The SpecialOrder and NormalOrder use cases are extended from Order use case. So they have
extends relationship. Another important point is to identify the system boundary which is shown in
the picture. The actor Customer lies outside the system as it is an external user of the system.

INTERACTION DIAGRAM
We have two types of interaction diagrams in UML. One is sequence diagram and the other is a
collaboration diagram. The sequence diagram captures the time sequence of message flow from one
object to another and the collaboration diagram describes the organization of objects in a system
taking part in the message flow.
So the following things are to identified clearly before drawing the interaction diagram:

 Objects taking part in the interaction.


 Message flows among the objects.
 The sequence in which the messages are flowing.
 Object organization.

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Following are two interaction diagrams modeling order management system. The first diagram is a
sequence diagram and the second is a collaboration diagram.

The Sequence Diagram:

The sequence diagram is having four objects (Customer, Order, SpecialOrder and NormalOrder).
The following diagram has shown the message sequence for SpecialOrder object and the same can
be used in case of NormalOrder object. Now it is important to understand the time sequence of
message flows. The message flow is nothing but a method call of an object.
The first call is sendOrder () which is a method of Order object. The next call is confirm () which is
a method of SpecialOrder object and the last call is Dispatch () which is a method of SpecialOrder
object. So here the diagram is mainly describing the method calls from one object to another and
this is also the actual scenario when the system is running.

The Collaboration Diagram:

The second interaction diagram is collaboration diagram. It shows the object organization as shown
below. Here in collaboration diagram the method call sequence is indicated by some numbering
technique as shown below. The number indicates how the methods are called one after another. We
have taken the same order management system to describe the collaboration diagram.
The method calls are similar to that of a sequence diagram. But the difference is that the sequence
diagram does not describe the object organization where as the collaboration diagram shows the
object organization.
Now to choose between these two diagrams the main emphasis is given on the type of requirement.
If the time sequence is important then sequence diagram is used and if organization is required then
collaboration diagram is used.

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Where to use Interaction Diagrams?

We have already discussed that interaction diagrams are used to describe dynamic nature of a
system. Now we will look into the practical scenarios where these diagrams are used. To understand
the practical application we need to understand the basic nature of sequence and collaboration
diagram.
The main purposes of both the diagrams are similar as they are used to capture the dynamic
behaviour of a system. But the specific purposes are more important to clarify and understood.
Sequence diagrams are used to capture the order of messages flowing from one object to another.
And the collaboration diagrams are used to describe the structural organizations of the objects
taking part in the interaction. A single diagram is not sufficient to describe the dynamic aspect of an
entire system so a set of diagrams are used to capture is as a whole.
The interaction diagrams are used when we want to understand the message flow and the structural
organization. Now message flow means the sequence of control flow from one object to another
and structural organization means the visual organization of the elements in a system.
In a brief the following are the usages of interaction diagrams:

 To model flow of control by time sequence.


 To model flow of control by structural organizations.
 For forward engineering.
 For reverse engineering.

STATE CHART DIAGRAM


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Overview:

The name of the diagram itself clarifies the purpose of the diagram and other details. It describes
different states of a component in a system. The states are specific to a component/object of a
system.
A Statechart diagram describes a state machine. Now to clarify it state machine can be defined as a
machine which defines different states of an object and these states are controlled by external or
internal events.
Activity diagram explained in next chapter, is a special kind of a Statechart diagram. As Statechart
diagram defines states it is used to model lifetime of an object.
Purpose:
Statechart diagram is one of the five UML diagrams used to model dynamic nature of a system.
They define different states of an object during its lifetime. And these states are changed by events.
So Statechart diagrams are useful to model reactive systems. Reactive systems can be defined as a
system that responds to external or internal events.
Statechart diagram describes the flow of control from one state to another state. States are defined
as a condition in which an object exists and it changes when some event is triggered. So the most
important purpose of Statechart diagram is to model life time of an object from creation to
termination.
Statechart diagrams are also used for forward and reverse engineering of a system. But the main
purpose is to model reactive system.
Following are the main purposes of using Statechart diagrams:

 To model dynamic aspect of a system.


 To model life time of a reactive system.
 To describe different states of an object during its life time.
 Define a state machine to model states of an object.

How to draw Component Diagram?

Statechart diagram is used to describe the states of different objects in its life cycle. So the emphasis
is given on the state changes upon some internal or external events. These states of objects are
important to analyze and implement them accurately.
Statechart diagrams are very important for describing the states. States can be identified as the
condition of objects when a particular event occurs.
Before drawing a Statechart diagram we must have clarified the following points:
 Identify important objects to be analyzed.
 Identify the states.
 Identify the events.
The following is an example of a Statechart diagram where the state of Order object is analyzed.
The first state is an idle state from where the process starts. The next states are arrived for events
like send request, confirm request, and dispatch order. These events are responsible for state
changes of order object.
During the life cycle of an object (here order object) it goes through the following states and there
may be some abnormal exists also. This abnormal exit may occur due to some problem in the
system. When the entire life cycle is complete it is considered as the complete transaction as
mentioned below.
The initial and final state of an object is also shown below.

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Where to use Interaction Diagrams?

From the above discussion we can define the practical applications of a Statechart diagram.
Statechart diagrams are used to model dynamic aspect of a system like other four diagrams disused
in this tutorial. But it has some distinguishing characteristics for modeling dynamic nature.
Statechart diagram defines the states of a component and these state changes are dynamic in nature.
So its specific purpose is to define state changes triggered by events. Events are internal or external
factors influencing the system.
Statechart diagrams are used to model states and also events operating on the system. When
implementing a system it is very important to clarify different states of an object during its life time
and statechart diagrams are used for this purpose. When these states and events are identified they
are used to model it and these models are used during implementation of the system.
If we look into the practical implementation of Statechart diagram then it is mainly used to analyze
the object states influenced by events. This analysis is helpful to understand the system behaviour
during its execution.

So the main usages can be described as:


 To model object states of a system.
 To model reactive system. Reactive system consists of reactive objects.
 To identify events responsible for state changes.
 Forward and reverse engineering.

ACTIVITY DIAGRAM
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Overview:

Activity diagram is another important diagram in UML to describe dynamic aspects of the system.
Activity diagram is basically a flow chart to represent the flow form one activity to another activity.
The activity can be described as an operation of the system.
So the control flow is drawn from one operation to another. This flow can be sequential, branched
or concurrent. Activity diagrams deals with all type of flow control by using different elements like
fork, join etc.

Purpose:

The basic purposes of activity diagrams are similar to other four diagrams. It captures the dynamic
behaviour of the system. Other four diagrams are used to show the message flow from one object to
another but activity diagram is used to show message flow from one activity to another.
Activity is a particular operation of the system. Activity diagrams are not only used for visualizing
dynamic nature of a system but they are also used to construct the executable system by using
forward and reverse engineering techniques. The only missing thing in activity diagram is the
message part.
It does not show any message flow from one activity to another. Activity diagram is some time
considered as the flow chart. Although the diagrams looks like a flow chart but it is not. It shows
different flow like parallel, branched, concurrent and single.
So the purposes can be described as:
Draw the activity flow of a system.
Describe the sequence from one activity to another.
Describe the parallel, branched and concurrent flow of the system.
How to draw Component Diagram?
Activity diagrams are mainly used as a flow chart consists of activities performed by the system.
But activity diagram are not exactly a flow chart as they have some additional capabilities. These
additional capabilities include branching, parallel flow, swimlane etc.
Before drawing an activity diagram we must have a clear understanding about the elements used in
activity diagram. The main element of an activity diagram is the activity itself. An activity is a
function performed by the system. After identifying the activities we need to understand how they
are associated with constraints and conditions.
So before drawing an activity diagram we should identify the following elements:
 Activities
 Association
 Conditions
 Constraints
Once the above mentioned parameters are identified we need to make a mental layout of the entire
flow. This mental layout is then transformed into an activity diagram.
The following is an example of an activity diagram for order management system. In the diagram
four activities are identified which are associated with conditions. One important point should be
clearly understood that an activity diagram cannot be exactly matched with the code. The activity
diagram is made to understand the flow of activities and mainly used by the business users.
The following diagram is drawn with the four main activities:
 Send order by the customer
 Receipt of the order
 Confirm order

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 Dispatch order
After receiving the order request condition checks are performed to check if it is normal or special
order. After the type of order is identified dispatch activity is performed and that is marked as the
termination of the process.

Where to use Interaction Diagrams?

The basic usage of activity diagram is similar to other four UML diagrams. The specific usage is to
model the control flow from one activity to another. This control flow does not include messages.
The activity diagram is suitable for modeling the activity flow of the system. An application can
have multiple systems. Activity diagram also captures these systems and describes flow from one
system to another. This specific usage is not available in other diagrams. These systems can be
database, external queues or any other system.
Now we will look into the practical applications of the activity diagram. From the above discussion
it is clear that an activity diagram is drawn from a very high level. So it gives high level view of a
system. This high level view is mainly for business users or any other person who is not a technical
person.
This diagram is used to model the activities which are nothing but business requirements. So the
diagram has more impact on business understanding rather implementation details.
Following are the main usages of activity diagram:
 Modeling work flow by using activities.
 Modeling business requirements.
 High level understanding of the system's functionalities.
 Investigate business requirements at a later stage.

COMPONENT DIAGRAM
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Overview:

Component diagrams are different in terms of nature and behaviour. Component diagrams are used
to model physical aspects of a system.
Now the question is what are these physical aspects? Physical aspects are the elements like
executables, libraries, files, documents etc which resides in a node.
So component diagrams are used to visualize the organization and relationships among components
in a system. These diagrams are also used to make executable systems.

Purpose:

Component diagram is a special kind of diagram in UML. The purpose is also different from all
other diagrams discussed so far. It does not describe the functionality of the system but it describes
the components used to make those functionalities.
So from that point component diagrams are used to visualize the physical components in a system.
These components are libraries, packages, files etc.
Component diagrams can also be described as a static implementation view of a system. Static
implementation represents the organization of the components at a particular moment.
A single component diagram cannot represent the entire system but a collection of diagrams are
used to represent the whole.
So the purpose of the component diagram can be summarized as:
Visualize the components of a system.
Construct executables by using forward and reverse engineering.
Describe the organization and relationships of the components.

How to draw Component Diagram?

Component diagrams are used to describe the physical artifacts of a system. This artifact includes
files, executables, libraries etc.
So the purpose of this diagram is different, Component diagrams are used during the
implementation phase of an application. But it is prepared well in advance to visualize the
implementation details.
Initially the system is designed using different UML diagrams and then when the artifacts are ready
component diagrams are used to get an idea of the implementation.
This diagram is very important because without it the application cannot be implemented
efficiently. A well prepared component diagram is also important for other aspects like application
performance, maintenance etc.
So before drawing a component diagram the following artifacts are to be identified clearly:
 Files used in the system.
 Libraries and other artifacts relevant to the application.
 Relationships among the artifacts.
 Now after identifying the artifacts the following points needs to be followed:
 Use a meaningful name to identify the component for which the diagram is to be drawn.
 Prepare a mental layout before producing using tools.
 Use notes for clarifying important points.
The following is a component diagram for order management system. Here the artifacts are files. So
the diagram shows the files in the application and their relationships. In actual the component
diagram also contains dlls, libraries, folders etc.

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In the following diagram four files are identified and their relationships are produced. Component
diagram cannot be matched directly with other UML diagrams discussed so far. Because it is drawn
for completely different purpose.
So the following component diagram has been drawn considering all the points mentioned above:

Where to use Component Diagrams?


We have already described that component diagrams are used to visualize the static implementation
view of a system. Component diagrams are special type of UML diagrams used for different
purposes.
These diagrams show the physical components of a system. To clarify it, we can say that component
diagrams describe the organization of the components in a system.
Organization can be further described as the location of the components in a system. These
components are organized in a special way to meet the system requirements.
As we have already discussed those components are libraries, files, executables etc. Now before
implementing the application these components are to be organized. This component organization is
also designed separately as a part of project execution.
Component diagrams are very important from implementation perspective. So the implementation
team of an application should have a proper knowledge of the component details.
Now the usage of component diagrams can be described as:
 Model the components of a system.
 Model database schema.
 Model executables of an application.
 Model system's source code.

DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAM
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Overview:

Deployment diagrams are used to visualize the topology of the physical components of a system
where the software components are deployed.
So deployment diagrams are used to describe the static deployment view of a system. Deployment
diagrams consist of nodes and their relationships.

Purpose:

The name Deployment itself describes the purpose of the diagram. Deployment diagrams are used
for describing the hardware components where software components are deployed. Component
diagrams and deployment diagrams are closely related.
Component diagrams are used to describe the components and deployment diagrams shows how
they are deployed in hardware.
UML is mainly designed to focus on software artifacts of a system. But these two diagrams are
special diagrams used to focus on software components and hardware components.
So most of the UML diagrams are used to handle logical components but deployment diagrams are
made to focus on hardware topology of a system. Deployment diagrams are used by the system
engineers.
 The purpose of deployment diagrams can be described as:
 Visualize hardware topology of a system.
 Describe the hardware components used to deploy software components.
 Describe runtime processing nodes.

How to draw Component Diagram?

Deployment diagram represents the deployment view of a system. It is related to the component
diagram. Because the components are deployed using the deployment diagrams. A deployment
diagram consists of nodes. Nodes are nothing but physical hardwares used to deploy the
application.
Deployment diagrams are useful for system engineers. An efficient deployment diagram is very
important because it controls the following parameters
 Performance
 Scalability
 Maintainability
 Portability
So before drawing a deployment diagram the following artifacts should be identified:
Nodes
Relationships among nodes
The following deployment diagram is a sample to give an idea of the deployment view of order
management system. Here we have shown nodes as:
 Monitor
 Modem
 Caching server
 Server
The application is assumed to be a web based application which is deployed in a clustered
environment using server 1, server 2 and server 3. The user is connecting to the application using
internet. The control is flowing from the caching server to the clustered environment.

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So the following deployment diagram has been drawn considering all the points mentioned above:

Where to use Deployment Diagrams?

Deployment diagrams are mainly used by system engineers. These diagrams are used to describe
the physical components (hardwares), their distribution and association.
To clarify it in details we can visualize deployment diagrams as the hardware components/nodes on
which software components reside.
Software applications are developed to model complex business processes. Only efficient software
applications are not sufficient to meet business requirements. Business requirements can be
described as to support increasing number of users, quick response time etc.
To meet these types of requirements hardware components should be designed efficiently and in a
cost effective way.
Now a day's software applications are very complex in nature. Software applications can be stand
alone, web based, distributed, mainframe based and many more. So it is very important to design
the hardware components efficiently.
So the usage of deployment diagrams can be described as follows:
 To model the hardware topology of a system.
 To model embedded system.
 To model hardware details for a client/server system.
 To model hardware details of a distributed application.
 Forward and reverse engineering.

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UML NOTATIONS
UML notations are the most important elements in modeling. Efficient and appropriate use of
notations is very important for making a complete and meaningful model. The model is useless
unless its purpose is depicted properly.
So learning notations should be emphasized from the very beginning. Different notations are
available for things and relationships. And the UML diagrams are made using the notations of
things and relationships. Extensibility is another important feature which makes UML more
powerful and flexible.
The chapter describes the UML Basic Notations in more details. This is just an extension to the
UML buildling block section I have discussed in previous chapter.
Structural Things:
Graphical notations used in structural things are the most widely used in UML. These are
considered as the nouns of UML models. Following are the list of structural things.
Classes
 Interface
 Collaboration
 Use case
 Active classes
 Components
 Nodes
 Class Notation:
UML class is represented by the diagram shown below. The diagram is divided into four parts.
 The top section is used to name the class.
 The second one is used to show the attributes of the class.
 The third section is used to describe the operations performed by the class.
 The fourth section is optional to show any additional components.

Classes are used to represent objects. Objects can be anything having properties and responsibility.

Object Notation:

The object is represented in the same way as the class. The only difference is the name which is
underlined as shown below..

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As object is the actual implementation of a class which is known as the instance of a class. So it has
the same usage as the class.

Interface Notation:

Interface is represented by a circle as shown below. It has a name which is generally written below
the circle.

Interface is used to describe functionality without implementation. Interface is the just like a
template where you define different functions not the implementation. When a class implements the
interface it also implements the functionality as per the requirement.

Collaboration Notation:

Collaboration is represented by a dotted eclipse as shown below. It has a name written inside the
eclipse.

Collaboration represents responsibilities. Generally responsibilities are in a group.

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Use case Notation:

Use case is represented as an eclipse with a name inside it. It may contain additional
responsibilities.

Use case is used to capture high level functionalities of a system.

Actor Notation:

An actor can be defined as some internal or external entity that interacts with the system.

Actor is used in a use case diagram to describe the internal or external entities.
Initial State Notation:
Initial state is defined show the start of a process. This notation is used in almost all diagrams.

The usage of Initial State Notation is to show the starting point of a process.

Final State Notation:

Final state is used to show the end of a process. This notation is also used in almost all diagrams to
describe the end.

The usage of Final State Notation is to show the termination point of a process.
Active class Notation:
Active class looks similar to a class with a solid border. Active class is generally used to describe
concurrent behaviour of a system.

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Active class is used to represent concurrency in a system.

Component Notation:

A component in UML is shown as below with a name inside. Additional elements can be added
wherever required.

Component is used to represent any part of a system for which UML diagrams are made.

Node Notation:

A node in UML is represented by a square box as shown below with a name. A node represents a
physical component of the system.

Node is used to represent physical part of a system like server, network etc.

Behavioural Things:

Dynamic parts are one of the most important elements in UML. UML has a set of powerful features
to represent the dynamic part of software and non software systems. These features include
interactions and state machines.
Interactions can be of two types:
 Sequential (Represented by sequence diagram)
 Collaborative (Represented by collaboration diagram)

Interaction Notation:

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Interaction is basically message exchange between two UML components. The following diagram
represents different notations used in an interaction.

Interaction is used to represent communication among the components of a system.


State machine Notation:
State machine describes the different states of a component in its life cycle. The notations are
described in the following diagram.

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State machine is used to describe different states of a system component. The state can be active,
idle or any other depending upon the situation.

Grouping Things:

Organizing the UML models are one of the most important aspects of the design. In UML there is
only one element available for grouping and that is package.

Package Notation:

Package notation is shown below and this is used to wrap the components of a system.

Annotational Things:

In any diagram explanation of different elements and their functionalities are very important. So
UML has notes notation to support this requirement.
Note Notation:
This notation is shown below and they are used to provide necessary information of a system.

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Relationships
A model is not complete unless the relationships between elements are described properly. The
Relationship gives a proper meaning to an UML model. Following are the different types of
relationships available in UML.
 Dependency
 Association
 Generalization
 Extensibility

Dependency Notation:

Dependency is an important aspect in UML elements. It describes the dependent elements and the
direction of dependency.
Dependency is represented by a dotted arrow as shown below. The arrow head represents the
independent element and the other end the dependent element.

Dependency is used to represent dependency between two elements of a system.

Association Notation:

Association describes how the elements in an UML diagram are associated. In simple word it
describes how many elements are taking part in an interaction.
Association is represented by a dotted line with (without) arrows on both sides. The two ends
represent two associated elements as shown below. The multiplicity is also mentioned at the ends
(1, * etc) to show how many objects are associated.

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Association is used to represent the relationship between two elements of a system.

Generalization Notation:

Generalization describes the inheritance relationship of the object oriented world. It is parent and
child relationship.
Generalization is represented by an arrow with hollow arrow head as shown below. One end
represents the parent element and the other end child element.

Generalization is used to describe parent-child relationship of two elements of a system.

Extensibility Notation:

All the languages (programming or modeling) have some mechanism to extend its capabilities like
syntax, semantics etc. UML is also having the following mechanisms to provide extensibility
features.
Stereotypes (Represents new elements)
Tagged values (Represents new attributes)
Constraints (Represents the boundaries)

Extensibility notations are used to enhance the power of the language. It is basically additional
elements used to represent some extra behaviour of the system. These extra behaviours are not
covered by the standard available notations.

Abstraction Relationship
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An abstraction relationship is a dependency between model elements that represents the same
concept at different levels of abstraction or from different viewpoints. You can add abstraction
relationships to a model in several diagrams, including use-case, class, and component diagrams.

Activity edges
In activity diagrams, an activity edge is a relationship between two activity nodes that you can use
to represent the control flow or object flow in an activity diagram.

Aggregation relationships
An aggregation relationship depicts a classifier as a part of, or as subordinate to, another classifier.

Association relationships
In UML models, an association is a relationship between two classifiers, such as classes or use
cases, that describes the reasons for the relationship and the rules that govern the relationship.

Binding relationships
In UML models, a binding relationship is a relationship that assigns values to template parameters
and generates a new model element from the template.

Communication paths
In UML modeling, a communication path is a type of association between nodes in a deployment
diagram that shows how the nodes exchange messages and signals.

Composition relationships
A composition relationship, which was named composition association relationship in UML 1.4,
represents whole–part relationships and is a form of aggregation. A composition relationship
specifies that the lifetime of the part classifier is dependent on the lifetime of the whole classifier.

Dependency relationships
In UML modeling, a dependency relationship is a relationship in which changes to one model
element (the supplier) impact another model element (the client). You can use dependency
relationships in class diagrams, component diagrams, deployment diagrams, and use case diagrams.

Deployment relationships
In UML modeling, deployment relationships specify that a particular node type supports the
deployment of an artifact type.
Directed association relationships
In UML models, directed association relationships are associations that are navigable in only one
direction.

Generalization relationships
In UML modeling, a generalization relationship is a relationship in which one model element (the
child) is based on another model element (the parent). Generalization relationships are used in class,
component, deployment, and use case diagrams.

Implementation relationships
In UML modeling, an implementation relationship is a specialized type of realization relationship

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between a classifier and a provided interface. The implementation relationship specifies that the
realizing classifier must conform to the contract that the provided interface specifies.

Include relationships
In UML modeling, an include relationship is a relationship in which one use case (the base use
case) includes the functionality of another use case (the inclusion use case). The include
relationship supports the reuse of functionality in a use case model.

Manifestation relationships
In UML modeling, a manifestation relationship shows which model elements, such as components
or classes, are manifested in an artifact. The artifact manifests, or includes, a specific
implementation for, the features of one or several physical software components.

Realization relationships
In UML modeling, a realization relationship is a relationship between two model elements, in which
one model element (the client) realizes the behavior that the other model element (the supplier)
specifies. Several clients can realize the behavior of a single supplier. You can use realization
relationships in class diagrams and component diagrams.

Usage relationships
In UML modeling, a usage relationship is a type of dependency relationship in which one model
element (the client) requires another model element (the supplier) for full implementation or
operation.

Common Mechanisms In UML

Specifications

textual statement of syntax & semantics


diagrams give view of specification

Adornments

elements in UML - unique graphical notation


adornments - added information about class

Common Divisions

general property vs. specific instance


class vs. object
use case vs. use case instance
UML syntax: underline name of instance

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separation of interface & implementation
interface - contract
implementation - concrete realization of contract

Extensibility Mechanisms

stereotype

allows creation of new kinds of building blocks from existing ones

tagged value

allows creation of new information in specification

constraint

allows addition of new rules & modification of existing rules

Rules Of UML
 specify what model should look like
 semantic rules for
 names
 scope
 visibility
 integrity
 execution
 Common properties of models
 elided - hide some elements for simplicity
 incomplete
 inconsistent
 rules of UML make it easier to address these problems

TERMS AND CONCEPTS

UML 2.2 has 14 types of diagrams divided into two categories.[10] Seven diagram types represent
structural information, and the other seven represent general types of behavior, including four that
represent different aspects of interactions. These diagrams can be categorized hierarchically as
shown in the following class diagram:

UML does not restrict UML element types to a certain diagram type. In general, every UML
element may appear on almost all types of diagrams; this flexibility has been partially restricted in
UML 2.0. UML profiles may define additional diagram types or extend existing diagrams with
additional notations.

In keeping with the tradition of engineering drawings, a comment or note explaining usage,
constraint, or intent is allowed in a UML diagram.

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Structure diagrams

 Structure diagrams emphasize what things must be in the system being modeled:
 Class diagram: the class diagrams describes the structure of a system by showing the
system's classes, their attributes, and the relationships among the classes.
 Component diagram: depicts how a software system is split up into components and shows
the dependencies among these components.
 Composite structure diagram: describes the internal structure of a class and the
collaborations that this structure makes possible.
 Deployment diagram: serves to model the hardware used in system implementations, and
the execution environments and artifacts deployed on the hardware.
 Object diagram: shows a complete or partial view of the structure of a modeled system at a
specific time.
 Package diagram: depicts how a system is split up into logical groupings by showing the
dependencies among these groupings.
 Profile diagram: operates at the metamodel level to show stereotypes as classes with the
<<stereotype>> stereotype, and profiles as packages with the <<profile>> stereotype. The
extension relation (solid line with closed, filled arrowhead) indicate what metamodel
element a given stereotype is extending.

Since structure diagrams represent the structure they are used extensively in documenting the
architecture of software systems.

Behavior diagrams

Behavior diagrams emphasize what must happen in the system being modeled:

 Activity diagram: represents the business and operational step-by-step workflows of


components in a system. An activity diagram shows the overall flow of control.
 State machine diagram: standardized notation to describe many systems, from computer
programs to business processes.
 Use case diagram: shows the functionality provided by a system in terms of actors, their
goals represented as use cases, and any dependencies among those use cases.

Since behavior diagrams illustrate the behaviour of a system, they are used extensively to describe
the functionality of software systems.

CLASS DIAGRAM
The class diagram describes the attributes and operations of a class and also the constraints imposed
on the system. The class diagrams are widely used in the modelling of object oriented systems
because they are the only UML diagrams which can be mapped directly with object oriented
languages.
The class diagram shows a collection of classes, interfaces, associations, collaborations and
constraints. It is also known as a structural diagram.

Contents:
Class diagrams commonly contain the following things

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 Classes
 Interfaces
 Collaborations
 Dependency,generation and association relationships

Fig: Class Diagram


CLASS DIAGRAM OF ATM

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USE CASE DIAGRAM
Use case diagrams are used to gather the requirements of a system including internal and external
influences. These requirements are mostly design requirements. So when a system is analyzed to
gather its functionalities use cases are prepared and actors are identified.
Now when the initial task is complete use case diagrams are modelled to present the outside view.
So in brief, the purposes of use case diagrams can be as follows:

 Used to gather requirements of a system.


 Used to get an outside view of a system.
 Identify external and internal factors influencing the system.
 Show the interacting among the requirements are actors.

Fig: Use Case Diagram

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USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR ATM

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INTERACTION DIAGRAM
That is why sequence and collaboration diagrams are used to capture dynamic nature but from a
different angle.
So the purposes of interaction diagram can be describes as:

 To capture dynamic behaviour of a system.


 To describe the message flow in the system.
 To describe structural organization of the objects.
 To describe interaction among objects.

Fig:Sequence Diagram

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Fig: Collaboration Diagram

SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR ATM

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Fig:Sequence Diagram

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COLLABORATION DIAGRAM FOR ATM

Fig: Collaboration Diagram

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ACTIVITY DIAGRAM
Activity diagram is another important diagram in UML to describe dynamic aspects of the system.
Activity diagram is basically a flow chart to represent the flow form one activity to another activity.
The activity can be described as an operation of the system.
So the control flow is drawn from one operation to another. This flow can be sequential, branched
or concurrent. Activity diagrams deals with all type of flow control by using different elements like
fork, join etc.

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ACTIVITY DIAGRAM OF ATM

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Branching

A branch specifies alternate paths takes based on some Boolean expression


Branch is represented by diamond
Branch may have one incoming transition and two or more outgoing one on each outgoing
transition,you place a Boolean expression shouldn’t overlap but they should cover all possibilities.

Forking and Joining

Fork
A fork represents the splitting of a single flow of control into two or more concurrent
Flow of control.
A fork may have one incoming transition and two or more outgoing transitions, each of which
represents an independent flow of control.
Below fork the activities associated with each of these path continues in parallel.

Join
A join represents the synchronization of two or more concurrent flows of control.
A join may have two or more incoming transition and one outgoing transition.
Above the join the activities associated with each of these paths continues in parallel.

Swimlane:
Swimlanes are useful when we model workflows of business processes to partition the activity
states on an activity diagram into groups.
Each group representing the business organization responsible for those activities,these groups are
called swimlanes.

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SWIMLANE DIAGRAM FOR ATM

Fig:Swimlane diagram for ATM

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FORK AND JOIN DIAGRAM FOR THE ATM

Fig: Fork and Join for the ATM

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STATE CHART DIAGRAM
A state chart diagrams a state machine, emphasizing the flow of control from state to state.

Contents

State chart diagrams commonly contain


 Simply state and composite states
 Transitions, including events and actions

Common use

They are use to model the dynamic aspects of a system.


Event ordered behavior of any kind of objects, to model reactive objects.

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STATE CHART DIAGRAM FOR ATM

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COMPONENT DIAGRAM
Component diagrams are different in terms of nature and behaviour. Component diagrams are used
to model physical aspects of a system.
Now the question is what are these physical aspects? Physical aspects are the elements like
executables, libraries, files, documents etc which resides in a node.
So component diagrams are used to visualize the organization and relationships among components
in a system. These diagrams are also used to make executable systems.

Fig: Component Diagram

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COMPONENT DIAGRAM FOR ATM

Fig: Component Diagram

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DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAM
Deployment diagrams are used to visualize the topology of the physical components of a system
where the software components are deployed.
So deployment diagrams are used to describe the static deployment view of a system. Deployment
diagrams consist of nodes and their relationships.
Purpose:
The name Deployment itself describes the purpose of the diagram. Deployment diagrams are used
for describing the hardware components where software components are deployed. Component
diagrams and deployment diagrams are closely related.
Component diagrams are used to describe the components and deployment diagrams shows how
they are deployed in hardware.

Fig: Deployment Diagram

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DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAM FOR THE ATM

Fig: Deployment Diagram

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