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Percussion instruments: 1 tarole, 1 snare drum, 1 snareless side drum, 3 tom-

toms, 2 bongos, 1 bass drum, 3 suspended cymbals (high, medium, low), 2 tam-
tams (medium, low), xylomarimba
‘Llanto is a very rare example in 20th-century poetry of a text conceived with a
musical ulterior motive so obvious that the music only had to be written as a
continuation to complete it. Moreover, this poem is the resurgence of a very old
current in mediaeval Western poetry, when musicians were often also poets and
had a gift for double-listening.’
‘When I composed the Llanto, after Lorca, and received so many favourable
reactions (Alejo Carpentier, who was not yet the great novelist of The Age of
Enlightenment or Baroque Concerto but a music critic for a Venezuelan
newspaper, wrote an extremely laudatory article about me), I understood that I
was right to advocate a return to a sensual music resolutely turned towards
! Publisher : Pierre Noël, taken over by Billaudot, 1966

CANTIGAS (no. 23) Playing time: 29’

for soli, mixed chorus and instrumental ensemble
6 pieces: I-Cantiga de los reyes magos, text by José de Valdivielso (c.1560-
1638); II-Cantiga del destierro, text by Fray Ambrosio Montesino (c.1444-1514);
III-Cantiga de vela, text by Gonzalo de Berceo (c.1198-c.1268); IV-Cantiga del
Azahar, text by Alfonso X el Sabio; V-Cantiga de la noche santa, text by Fray
Ambrosio Montesino; VI-Cantiga del Nacimiento, text by Juan Álvarez Gato
(mid-15th century)
" Forces: 1 child soprano/treble soloist, 1 mezzo-soprano soloist, mixed chorus
SATB of 26-32 voices, instrumental ensemble made up of 2 oboes, 1 English
horn, 1 clarinet, 2 bassoons, 1 contrabassoon, 2 trumpets, 2 trombones, 1
bass trombone, percussion (2 performers), piano (that can be replaced by a
positive organ for church performances)
Percussion instruments:
I: 2 Chinese cymbals (high, medium) suspended then struck, 2 suspended
cymbals, military drum, side drum, woodblock (medium), 3 tom-toms (tuned
approximately to A, E flat, G), 1 double-bass tom-tom (or, lacking that, a medium
bass drum)
II: hammer glockenspiel, vibraphone, xylophone, 3 suspended cymbals (high,
medium, low), 3 tam-tams, 3 woodblocks, 2 bongos (medium, low), whip,
! Publisher: Schott (Mainz) in chorus/piano reduction, then Billaudot, 1968
‘The work is constructed in a dramatic spirit. The first Cantiga (Cantiga of the
Wise Men) is a scene from the Nativity. The second (Cantiga of Exile) deals with
the flight into Egypt. The third (Cantiga of the Watch) introduces something
totally foreign: it is a vision of Christ on the cross, and the singing enjoins the
Jews who have had him crucified to carefully guard the body and protect it
against those who might seek to steal it. It is a powerful, dramatic song, filled
with hatred. Immediately afterwards comes a “laude” (Cantiga of the Orange
Blossom), static and dreamy; it is followed by a Compostela pilgrim song, with
episodes and refrain, which is doubtless sung round campfires (Cantiga of the
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