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1. p = i + 2j and q = λi – 3j, 2i – 6j = k(λ – 4) i – 2kj

p – q = (i + 2j) – (λi – 3j) = (1 – λ)i + 5j Hence, 2 = k(λ – 4) and 6 = 2k

√(1 – λ)2 + 52 = 13 Substituting k = 3 into 2 = k(λ – 4),

2 = 3(λ – 4)

(1 – λ)2 + 52 =

14 = 3λ

169 14

—–

(1 – λ)2 = 144

λ= 3

λ = 13 or –11 6. Take the unit vectors i and j to be due east and

When λ = 13, p – q = (1 – 13)i + 5j = –12i + 5j north respectively.

A unit vector in the direction

12 5 vM = 4i km h–1, WvM = – u1j km –1 h

p – q = – —– i + —– j

13 13 Substituting into WvM = vW – vM,

→ → –u1j = vW – 4i

2. (a) AP = 2AB, vW = 4i – u1j............................................... (1)

→ 5 3 5

OP – =2 – When the man increases his velocity,

3 –2 3

N

→

OP = 5 + 2 –2 =1

3 –5 – W

v M =u km h–1

2

7 45°

Since Q is the mid-point of BC,

→ 1 → 1 → vM = 6i m h–1

OQ = — OB + — OC

2 2

=—1 3 + 1 1 2

— = vM = 6i km h–1 and

2 –2 2 0 –1 –1

→ WvM = u2 cos 45°i – u2 sin 45° j km h

2 1 1 Substituting into WvM = vW – vM,

(b) PQ = – =

–1 –7 6 u2 cos 45° i – u2 sin 45° j = vW – 6i

= √12 + 62 = 6.08 vW = u2 cos 45°i – u2 sin 45° j + 6i

units

3. a = i + 2j, b = 4i – 3j and c = mi + 7j vW = (u2 cos 45° + 6)i – u2 sin 45° j ........... (2)

(a) a + b + c = (i + 2j) + (4i – 3j) + (mi + 7j) Comparing (1) and (2),

= (5 + m)i + 6j u2 cos 45° + 6 = 4 and sin 45° = u1

u2

(b) (i) From a + b + c = 10,

———

–2 —1

√(5 + m)2 + 62 = 10 u2 = 2 cos 45°= –2√2 , u1 = –2√2 × =–

√2

–

(5 + m)2 + 62 = Substituting u1 = –2 in (1),

100 (5 + m)2 = vW = 4i + 2j km h–1

64

5 + m = 8 or 5 + m = – 8

Therefore, m = 3 or m = –13 vW = √42 + 22 = √20 = 4.472 = 4.472 km h–1

(ii) A unit vector in the direction of 4

tan θ = — ⇒ θ = 63.43°

(5 + 3)i + 6j 2

a + b + c = —————–

10 Therefore, the actual velocity of the wind has

4 3 a magnitude of 4.472 km h–1 in the direction of

= —i + —j

5 5 N 63.43° E.

→ → → → 7. Since a = p and b = 1 are

4. OA•OB = |OA||OB| cos ∠AOB –3 q+1

(i + 4j)•(4i – j) = √12 + 42 √42 + (–1)2 cos perpendicular vectors,

∠AOB

p 1

(1)(4) + (4)(–1) = √17 × √17cos • =0

∠AOB –3 q+1

p – 3(q + 1) = 0

0 = 17 cos ∠AOB

p = 3(q + 1) ............................ (1)

cos ∠AOB = 0

AOB = 90°

1

unit2 |a| = √p2 + (–3)2

Area of triangle OAB = × √17 × √17 = 8.5

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:05 AM

1

= √9(q + 1)2 + 9 —

2 = 3√(q + 1)2 + 1 = 3|b| [shown]

→ → →

5. OA = 2i + 5j, OB = 4i – j and OC = λi – 3j Substitute p = 3 in (1),

→ → 3 = 3(q + 1)

AB = k BC, where k is a constant q=0

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:05 AM

2

3 1 Since ∠NPQ = 40° and ∠NPP1 = 7.52°,

a= and b =

–3 1 QPP1 = 40° + 7.52° = 47.52°

3 4 1 From ∆QPP1, sin 47.52° = —— P1Q

a+b = + =

–3 1 –2 26.4

= √42 + (–2)2 = √20 = 4.472 P1Q = 26.4 sin 47.52° = 19.47 nautical miles.

Hence, shortest distance between A and B

→ →

8. AB = x and BC = y = 19.47 nautical miles.

E D PP1

From cos 47.52° = ——,

26.4

2y PP1 = 26.4 cos 47.52° = 17.829 nautical miles.

F C

Time taken for A to travel from P to P1

y

17.829

= ——— = 5.0 hours

A x B 3.5659

→ → → Therefore, the time when the two ships are at

(a) AC = AB + BC = x + y their shortest distance apart is 1700 hours (5

→ → p.m.).

(b) AD = 2BC = 2y

→ → → 3 –1

(c) CD = AD – AC 10. (a) •

4 √3

= (2y) – (x + y) = y – x

→ → → = √32 + 42 × √(–1)2 + (√3 )2 cos

(d) AE = AD + DE ∠QPR

→ →

= (2y) + BA = 2y – AB = 2y – x –3 + 4√3 = 10 cos ∠QPR

∠QPR = 66.87°

(b) Area of triangle PQR

→ →

→

1 → = — × PQ × PR sin 66.87°

9. OA = vA = 5 knots, OB = vB = 4 2

knots,

→ = 5 sin 66.87°

BA = AvB = velocity of A relative to

B. = 4.598 units2

A → →

vA = 5 knots From PA = 3PQ,

60°

45°

→ 2 1 2

O θ v

A B OA – =3 –

3 4 3

vB = 4 knots B

→ –3 2 –1

OA = + =

Using the cosine rule in OAB, 3 3 6

BA2 = 52 + 42 – 2(5)(4) cos 45° → 1 →

From BR = — PB,

BA = √41 – 40 cos 45° = 3.5659 4

knots

–3 – → 1 OB→

Using the sine rule in ∆OAB, OB = — – 2

0 4 3

5 3.5659

——– = ——— –3 → → 2

sin θ sin 45° 4 – 4OB = OB –

5 sin 45° 0 3

θ = sin–1 ———— = 82.52° → –12 2 –10

3.5659 5OB = + =

From ∠NBO + 105° = 180°, ∠NBO = 75° 0 3 3

∠NBA = 82.52° – 75° = 7.52°. → –2

Hence, OB =

Therefore, the velocity of A relative to B has —3

5

a magnitude of 3.5659 knots with a bearing → –2 –1 –1

007.52° (N 7.52° E). (b) AB = – =

3 6 –5.4

—

N N 5

→

AB = √(–1)2 + (–5.4)2 = 5.492

Q v

A B

= 3.5659 12.

knots D C

P1 V

Y

P

Let P1 be the position of ship A when it is when

at the shortest distance from ship B, i.e. ∠QP1

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:06 AM

2

P = 90°. U

A 2 X 1 B

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:06 AM

3

→ → → A unit vector that is perpendicular to

(a) BU = h(BC + CD)

→ → → –—

3

BU = hBC + hCD ..................... (1) 5

2a + b is 4 .

[shown] —

5

→ → 2 2

CU = kCX 15. a = xi + yj ⇒ |a| = √x + y

→ → → →

BU – BC = k(BX – BC)

a x y

→ → → 1 → — = ———– i + ———– j

2 2 2 2

a √x + y √x + y

BU = BC – kBC + k —

3 BA

→ 1 →

√

= (1 – k) BC + — kCD...... (2) [shown] a =

Magnitude of — ———x 2

+ ———y 2

3 a 2

√x + y 2

√x + y2

2

→ → → 1 → x2 + y2

hBC + hCD = (1 – k) BC + — kCD =

1

h = 1 – k and h = — k

3

Hence,

√ ———

2

x +y

2 = 1 unit

3 —

1 |a|

1–k=—k

3 (a) Magnitude of 8i – 15j = √82 + (–15)2 =

4 3 17

1=—k⇒k= —

A unit vector that is parallel to 8i – 15j

8 15

3 4 = —– i – —– j

17 17

3 1 (b) A unit vector that is perpendicular to the

h = 1 –— =—

4 4 15 8

→ 1 → vector 8i – 15j = —– i + —– j

Hence, BU = — BD. [shown] 17 17

4 16. A(5, 0), B(4, 3) and C(1, 4).

(b) Let CV = nCY.

→ → For a rhombus ABCD,

CV = nCY. → →

→ → 1 CA→ 1 CD→ AD = BC

BV – BC = n — +— , → 5 1 4

2 2 OD – = –

→ → → 0 4 3

where CY = —1 CA + — 1 CD

2 2 → 5 –3 2

OD = + =

→ → 1 → → 1 → 0 1 1

BV – BC = — n(CB + BA) + — nCD Hence, D(2, 1).

2 2

→ → 1 → 1 → 1 → → 1 5 –4

BV = BC + — n(–BC) + — nCD + — (a) AC – =

nCD = 4 0 4

2 2 2

→ 1 → → = √(–4)2 + 42

BV = 1 – — n BC + nCD [shown]

2 = 4√2

13. (a) Resultant force, → 2 4 –2

F = (i + 3j) + (2i – j) + (i + j) = (4i + 3j) N BD = – =

1 3 –2

(b) F • j = √42 + 32 × 1 × cos θ, where θ is the

= √(–2) + (–2)

2 2

(4i + 3j) •j = 5 cos θ = 2√2

5 cos θ = (4)(0) + (3)(1) → →

(b) Area of the rhombus = —1 AC BD

2

–1 3

θ = cos — = 53.13° 1

5 = — (4√2 )(2√2

)

1 2 2

14. From a = and b = ,

2 –1 = 8 unit2

x 1

17. • = √x2 + 12 × √12 + (–3)2 cos 135°

1 2 4 1 –3

2a + b = 2 + = 1

2 –1 3 x – 3 = √10(x2 + 1) × –—–

2 2

√2

2a + b = √4 + 3 = 5 units

—

4

(a) A unit vector that is parallel to 2a + b

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:08 AM

3

Squaring both sides of the equation, (x – 3)2 = 5(x2 + 1)

x – 6x + 9 = 5x2 + 5

2

1 4

=— = 5 4x2 + 6x – 4 = 0

5 3 —3

5 2x2 + 3x – 2 = 0

(2x – 1)(x + 2) = 0

–3

1

(b) A vector perpendicular to 2a + b is . x = — or x = –2

2

4

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:08 AM

4

1 From equation (2),

→ —

————– = ——–

1 v2 u

For x = — , the vectors are OA = 2

2 1 sin (θ + α) cos α

→ 1 Substituting θ + α = 90°,

and OB = . u

–3 v2 = ——– ............................................ (4)

cos α

Area of triangle OAB

2 2

2 2 2 u u

= Hence, v +v ———– + ——–

+ 12 × sin 135° 1 2

2 cos α cos α

√

1

= × —1 √

2

— 12 + (–3)2

2

= ——2u —– + —2 u

1 √5 1 5 —–

= — × —– × √10 × —– = — unit2 4 cos2 α cos2 α

2 2 √2 4 5u 2

= ———– [shown]

→ –2 4 cos2α

For x = –2, the vectors are OA = and

1 19. P(0, – 1) and Q(5, 4)

→ 1 Using ratio theorem for R that divides PQ in

OB = the ratio 3 : 2,

–3 0 5

→ → 2 +3

Area of triangle OAB → OP + 3 OQ

OR = ————–— = —————— = 3

2 –1 4

1 5 5 2

= — × √(–2)2 + 12 × √12 + (–3)2 sin

135°

2

1 1 5 → 6

= — × √5 × √10 ×—– = — unit2 OT =

2 √2 2 –1

→ → → 6 3

3

18. (a) Let OW = water current and OS = velocity RT = – =

–1 2 –3

of the ship. → → 3 5 0

RT•PQ = • –

N N N N –3 4 –1

W 3 5

S W = • = 15 + (–15)

v2 –3 5

u v1 θ

v u =0

S

θ α θ → →

θ v 2θ Since RT•PQ = 0, RT and PQ are

O O perpendicular to each other. [shown]

20. Differentiating r = e t i + 2t j with respect to t,

(b) Using the sine rule for first diagram,

velocity, v = e t i + 2 j

v1 u v

—— = —————— = ——– ............ (1) Differentiating v = e t i + 2 j with respect to

sin θ sin(180° – 3θ) sin 2θ t, acceleration, a = e t i + 0 j = e t i

Using sine rule for second diagram, When t = 0, v = i + 2 j and a = i

v2 u v 2 v =i+2j

————– = ————— = ————— tan θ = —

sin (θ + α) sin (90° – α) sin (90° – θ) 1 θ

v2 u v θ = tan–1 2 = 63.4° a =i

————– = ——– = ——– ................

(2)

sin (θ + α) cos α cos θ 21. vA = (8i + 6j) km h–1, vB = (16i + 21j) km h–1

–1

From (1) and (2), AvB = (8i + 6j) – (16i + 21j) = (– 8i – 15j) km h

— = ——— = ——– j (North)

v sin 2θ cos θ

3

3 sin θ – 4 sin θ cos α i (East)

———————– = ——– θ

2 sin θ cos θ cos θ

v = 17 km –1

h

3 sin θ – 4 sin3 θ A B

———————– = cos α

2 sin θ 15

tan θ = —–

Since θ ≠ 0°, 3 – 4 sin2 θ = 2 cos 8

α

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:08 AM

4

Therefore, 2 cos α = 3 – 4 sin2 θ. θ = 61.93°

Direction of the relative velocity is inclined at

[shown] (c) From equation (1),

61.9° below vector – i.

v1 u v j

——– = —————— = ——–

sin θ sin(180° – 3θ) sin 2θ

B0 25 km A0

v1 = u sin θ i

——————— 61.93°

3 sin θ – 4 sin3θ

u u

= ————– = ———– ................... (3) A1

3 – 4 sin2θ 2 cos α v = 17 km h–1

A B

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:08 AM

5

Let the closest distance between the two ships 1 2

= A1B0, where ∠A0A1B0 = 90 °. 26 × 13— 24

(b) Resultant force, F = =

A1 B0 26 × — 5 10

sin 61.93° = ——– 13

25

A1B0 = 25 sin 61.93° = 22.06 km λ+2 24

=

N µ–4 10

N Therefore, λ = 22 and µ = 14

A

24. B

α 0 C

v = p km h–1

A B RN

vA = √730 km h–1 Q N

B

90°

α0 60°

O O PN A

→

v = (16i + 21j) km h–1 From triangle OAC, |OA| = P N,

B → → →

Using v = vA – vB,

A B |AC| = |OB| = Q N and |OC| = R N.

pj = vA – (16i + 21j) Using ∆OAC, where ∠OCA = ∠BOC = 90°,

vA = (p + 16)i + 21j km h–1

Q

—

√(p + 16)2 + 212

= √730 sin 60° = P

p2 + 32p + 256 + 441 = 730 Q

—√3– — =

p2 + 32p – 33 = 2 P

0 (p + 33)(p – 1) = Hence, P : Q = 2 : √3 .

0 Using Pythagoras’ theorem in ∆OAC,

p = 1 since p 0

Hence, vA = 17i + 21j km h–1 R 2 = P 2 – Q2

2

21

The direction that A is steered = tan–1 —– = P2 – —2√3– P

17

= 51.0° to unit vector i. 1

R2 = — P2

4

1

R = — P since R 0. [shown]

2

v = 1 j km h–1

25. (a) When t = 0, A is at O(0, 0) and B is at (80,

A B

0).

Position vector of A at time t s

= (0 i + 0 j) + (15 i + 12 j)t

= (15t i + 12t j) m.

25 tan 61.93° Position vector of B at time t s

Time taken = —————– = 46.88 hours

1 = (80 i) + (6 i + 6 j) t = (6t + 80) i + 6t j

22. A(– 4, – 1), B(4, 3) m. (b) When t = 4 s, position vector of

→ → B = (104 i + 24 j) m

AC = 2BC Distance moved through by B in 4 s

→ – –4

OC = 2→OC – 4

–1 3 = √(104 – 80)2 + 242 = 33.94 m

→ 4 –4 12 (c) Velocity of A relative to B = (15 i + 12 j)

– (6 i + 6 j) = (9 i + 6 j) m s–1

OC = 2 –=

3–1 7 v

A B

= (9 i + 6 j) m –1s

→ → A1

Since ∠APC = 90°, PA•PC = 0

–4 x 12 x

– • – =0

–1 y 7 y θ

i

A0 80 m B0

–4 – x 12 – x

• =0

–1 – y 7–y

(– 4 – x)(12 – x) + (– 1 – y)(7 – y) =0 tan θ = —6 ⇒ θ = 33.69°

9

(– 48 + 4x – 12x + x2) + (– 7 + y – 7y + y2) =0 Hence, the shortest distance between the

x2 + y2 – 8x – 6y – 55 =0 two particles,

A1B0 = 80 sin 33.69° = 44.4 m

23. (a) Resultant force,

λ –3 5 0 0 This occurs at time,

F= + + + = 80 cos 33.69°

–2 4 –6 µ t = —————— = 6.15 s

0

2 2

λ+2 0 Therefore, λ = – 2 and µ = 4

=

µ–4 0

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:09 AM

5

√9 + 6 in 2nt

26. (a) Differentiating r = d with

s cos 2nt

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:09 AM

6

2n cos 2nt

respect to t, velocity, v = d –36t + — t3 + 36t = 0

–2n sin 2nt 9

2

Differentiating velocity with respect to t, —9 t3 = 0

2

–4n sin 2nt 2

t =0

acceleration, a = d Hence, initially the acceleration of the particle

–4n2 cos 2nt is perpendicular to its velocity. [shown]

sin 2nt 29.

= – 4n2 d = – 4n2 r [shown] A

cos 2nt

0.6 m s–1

sin 2nt 2n cos 2nt

(b) a•v = – 4n2 d •d

500 m P R

= – 4n2d2 [2n sin 2nt cos 2nt 0.2 m s–1 Q

+ (cos 2nt)( – 2n sin 2nt)]

= – 4n2 d2 (2n sin 2nt cos B 100 m C

2nt

– 2n sin 2nt cos 2nt) tan ∠AQR = tan ∠ABC = —50—0

100

27. = 0 [shown]

∠AQR = 78.69°

N

∠PQA = 180° – 78.69° = 101.31°

vC = 6 m s–1

45°

C0 Using sine rule for triangle PQA,

v –1 AQ 0.6 0.2

200 m

P C

vP = 8 m s ————– = ————– = ————– ........ (1)

θ sin ∠APQ sin 101.31° sin ∠PAQ

0.2 sin 101.31°

P0 sin ∠PAQ = ——————–

0.6

Using the PvC = vP – ∠PAQ = 19.08°

vC, ∠APQ + 101.31° + 19.08° = 180°

0 8 sin θ 6 sin 45° ∠APQ = 59.61°

= –

k 8 cos θ 6 cos 45°

From (1),

8 sin θ – —6– AQ 0.6

0 ———— = ————–

sin 59.61° sin 101.31°

Ground velocity of boat, AQ = 0.5278 m s-1

= √2 ....................(1)

k Distance AB = √5002 + 1002 = 509.90 m

8 cos θ – —6–

√2

6

8 sin θ – — – =

0

√2

sin θ = 6 Time taken for boat to sail from A to B

—– 509.90

8√2 = ——— = 966.1 s

Hence, θ = 32.0° 0.5278

From (1), ∠PAR = 180° – 90° – 59.61° = 30.39°

Hence, the man has to steer his boat upstream

k = 8 cos 32.0° – —6 – = 2.5417 m s–1 at an angle 30.39° to AC.

√2

B1 B2

Therefore, time taken by the policeman in the

chase = ———200

= 78.7 s

2.5417 500 m X

0.2 m s–1

28. a = (–3t i + 6 j) cm s –2 Y

0.6 m s–1

3

v = –— 2 B

2 t i + 6t j +

When t = 0 and v = 12 i cm s–1, To reach the opposite bank in the shortest time

12 i = c possible, the man has to steer his

3 boat in a direction perpendicular to the bank or

— t2 j + 6t j + 12 i current, i.e. along BB1.

Hence, v = – 2

= 12 – — t2 i + 6t j cm s–1 B

2

0.2 B B 1 2

—– = — —

When acceleration is perpendicular to the

velocity,

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:10 AM

6

0.6 500

(– 3t i + 6 j)• 12 – — 3 2

2 t i + 6t j = Hence, B1B2 = 166.67 m

The boat lands at B2, a point which is

166.67 m downstream from B.

0 (–3t) 12 –2 —3 t2 + (6)(6t)

30. a = (3t2i + 2λj) m s–2

=0 v = (t3i + 2λtj) + c ..............................(1)

When t = 0 and v = i m s–1,

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:10 AM

7

Hence, c = i CQ2 = 14 400

Hence, v = (t3i + 2λtj) + i = (t3 + 1)i + 2λtj m s– CQ = 120 km h–1

1

The least time taken to fly from C to D

When t = 2, v = 9i + 4λj

2 2

√9 + (4λ) = 216

= —— = 1.8 hours.

120

15

81 + 16λ2 =

225

16λ2 = 144 34. (a) (6i + 5j) + (i – 2j) + (– 4i + 3j)

λ=3 = λ(i + 2j)

31. A(1, 7), B(4, 6), C(– 1, 0) and D(5, – 2). 3i + 6j = λ(i + 2j)

→ 4–1 3 3(i + 2j) = λ(i + 2j)

(a) AB = = λ = 3 [shown]

6–7 –1

→ 5 – (–1) 6 3 (b) F = (3i + 6j) N

CD = = =2 Magnitude of the resultant force

–2 – 0 –2 –1

ABDC is a trapezium since CD // AB and = √32 + 62 = 6.708

CD = 2AB. [shown] N

Hence, AB : CD = 1 : 2. (c) (3i + 6j) • i = (6.708)(1) cos θ

(b) If ABPD is a parallelogram, 3 = 6.708 cos θ

→ → cos θ = 0.447

AB = DP 35.

3 → 5 E D

= OP –

–1 –2

→ 3 5 8 2 N

OP = + = F

2 N

C

–1 –2 –3

4 N

32. (a) p + q = 16 .................................... A 6N B

(1)

A C Resultant force, P

4×— –

√3

1–2 × — –2 × —1

8N 6 2 2 2

p N = + + +

0

θ 4×— –2 × —√3– 2 × —√3–

1

O q N

B 2 2 2

2

q +8 =p 2 2

…………………… 7.464

= N

(2) Substitute (1) into (2), 2

(16 – p)2 + 64 = p2 = (7.464 i + 2 j) N

256 – 32p + p2 + 64 = p2 36.

32p = 320 B

p = 10 60° v

f s

From (1), 10 + q = 16 ⇒ q = 6 80 cm

A1

8

(b) cos θ = —– ⇒ θ = 3 6 .8 7 ° vf = 4 cm –1

s

10

Hence, ∠AOB = 90° + 36.87° = 126.87° A v s = 5 cm s–1 C

33. (a) Using BvA = vB – vA,

√2 v × —1 – (a) Velocity of fly relative to spider,

v =

B A

– =

√2 v × — –

f s

1 v 0 = (7 i + 2√3 j) cm s–1

√2 Angle made by the relative velocity with

The magnitude of velocity of B relative to

——

2√3

A is v and in the direction due east. AC = tan–1 = 26.33°

V km h–1

D

C 50 km h–1 P

Q

CD = 216

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:11 AM

7

st distance between the fly and the spider

130 km h–1 = CA1

S CA

h sin 26.33° = ——1

o

CA1 = 80 sin 26.33° = 35.48 cm

r

Magnitude of velocity of fly relative to the

t

spider

e

= √72 + (2√3 )2

= 7.8102 cm s–1

In the triangle of velocities, 80 cos 26.33° = 9.18 s

Time taken = ——————

CQ2 + 502 = 1302 7.8102

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:11 AM

8

37. (a) B C 38. North Q

θ 40 km h–1

4√3 East

2p N N R

θ

200 km h–1

A v km h–1

O p N

p2 + (4√3 )2 = (2p)2

48 = 3p2 ∠PRQ = 45° + 90° = 135°

p = 4 since p 0 200 40 v

———– = ————– = ————– ............ (1)

sin 135° sin ∠QPR sin ∠PQR

tan θ = —4— ⇒ θ = 30°. 40 sin 135°

4√3 ∠QPR = sin–1

∠AOB = 30° + 90° = 120° ————— = 8.13°

200

(b) r = (sin 3t i + cos 3t j) m The plane is steered in the direction N 8.0° E

v = (3 cos 3t i – 3 sin 3t j) m s–1 ..... (1) in order to fly from A to B.

1 ∠PQR = 180° – 8.13° – 135° = 36.87°

When t = — π,

6 200 v

1 1 From (1), ———– = ————

v = 3 cos 3 — π i – 3 sin 3 —π j sin 135° sin 36.87°

6 6 v = 169.71 km h–1

= – 3j m s–1

a = (– 9 sin 3t i – 9 cos 3t j) m s–2 Time of flight from A to B = —4—00— = 2.36 hours

169.71

|a| = √(–9 sin 3t)2 + (–9 cos 3t)2

0 –40 cos 45° 28.28

= √81(sin2 3t + cos2 3t) v =

p b

– = km h–1

169.71 –40 sin 45° 197.99

= √81 = 9 m s–2 [shown]

N

2v × —–1 v × —1 – —v– 28.28

√2 √2 √2 v

p b

= km –1h

(c) B vA = = 197.99

–2v × — – 1 v×— –—

B

√2 1– 3v– A1

400 km

2 √2 √2 α

√

2

|BvA| = v

—– + – 3v

—–

√2 √2 A

√—

10–v = √5 v km 28.28

α = tan–1 ———

= = 8.129°

197.99

h–1

2

3v |pvb| = √28.282 + 197.992 = 199.999 km h–1 .

— –

θ = tan –1

—√—2 = tan–1 3 Shortest distance between the plane and the

= 71.57 balloon = 400 sin 8.129°

—v– = 56.56 km

√2 = 56.5 km

The velocity of B relative to A is of

magnitude √5 v km h–1 and is in Time taken to reach their positions

the

direction S(90 – 71.57)° E, i.e. 400 cos 8.129°

= ——————– = 1.98 hours

S 18.43° E. 199.99

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:13 AM

8

8

ACE Ahd Mth STPM V2 (WA)EP4 4th.indd Cyan Black 1/7/2009 10:36:13 AM

9

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