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Sharad Dube 1, Sudhakar Jaiswar 2, Sanjay Gupta 3, Digvijay Jha 4

sharaddube007@gmail.com1, sudhjaiswar@gmail.com2, 3 3
Mechanical properties of concrete incorporating
Waste ceramic tiles and Waste foundry sand

respectively on mechanical properties of concrete such as
Abstract— From the last few years various researchers have strength, workability, durability, etc. of ordinary concrete.
worked on concrete. Concrete is one of the most vital and This research emphasizes on producing an eco-friendly
common materials used in the construction field. concrete.
The present work deals with introducing waste foundry
sand (WFS) and waste ceramic tiles (WCT) in the ordinary II. LITRATURE REVIEW
concrete. Waste foundry sand (WFS) is the by-product of metal Tarun R. Naik et. al. investigated the performance of fresh
casting industries, which causes environmental problems and hardened concrete containing discarded foundry sand
because of its improper disposal. Construction industries in place of fine aggregate was carried out [7]. Concrete
require huge amount of ceramic tiles and other ceramics for
architectural appearance, the productions of which are
mixes were proportioned to replace 25% and 35% by
drastically increased. The waste so produced during handling weight of regular concrete sand with clean/new foundry
and usage of ceramic tiles has also increased. sand and used foundry sand. The results of this
The present work recommends the effective use of waste investigation showed that mix containing 25% discarded
foundry sand (WFS) as a partial replacement for fine foundry sand showed about 10% higher compressive
aggregate and waste ceramic tiles as a partial replacement for strength at 28days than the mix containing 35% discarded
course aggregate in concrete. The aim of this research is to foundry sand. However, the compressive strength of the
know the behavior and mechanical properties of concrete for control mix was about 20-30% higher than the mixes
its eco-friendly and economical use. containing discarded foundry sands. They added that no
marked difference was observed in the density of fresh and
Index Terms— Waste foundry sand (WFS), Waste Ceramic hardened concrete.
Tiles (WCT), Compressive strength, Workability.
Another investigation by Eknath P. Salokhe and D. B.
Desai concluded that WFS reduces the workability when
I. INTRODUCTION added as natural sand replacement (at same w/c); higher
Now-a-days the construction sector is exploring rapidly on amount of superplasticizer is required in order to maintain
a large scale and also involves new techniques for rapid and the same workability [8]. Despite the absolute value of
comfort works on the field. Concrete as a building material compressive strength, the negative influence ascribed to the
plays an important role in this sector. The consumption of presence of WFS in reducing the compressive strength
natural resources as an ingredient of concrete, costs high as seems greater when lower w/c is adopted.
well as it is on verge of extent. These problems force us to Maximum increase in compressive strength of concrete was
recover the natural resources or to find an alternative option observed with 15% WFS in the work by Kumbhar P. D. and
to overcome the problems. Presently, the manufacture of Usharani S. Sangar [9]. WFS increase the ultrasonic pulse
waste foundry sand as a by-product of metal casting velocity values and decrease the chloride ion penetration in
industries is causing various environmental problems. concrete. They also found that the workability goes on
Usage of this waste in building material would help in reducing with the increase in WFS content. At 28 days,
reduction of stress on environment. The waste produced Compressive strength for different replacement levels of
from the industries creates environmental problems. WFS is increased whereas flexural tensile strength goes on
A large amount of tiles get broken or wasted in tile reducing for WFS content more than 20%.
industries and on mega construction projects. The residual Rafat Siddique et. al. investigated the mechanical properties
and unused wastes are disposed into environment as burden of concrete mixtures in which fine aggregate was partially
without any commercial return. replaced with used foundry sand with three percentages
Consequently, huge money is being spent for their disposal 10%, 20% and 30% by weight [5]. Tests were performed for
reasons as well as environmental pollution occurs. It is well the properties of fresh concrete, compressive strength were
known that addition of these wastes in concrete as a determined at 28, 56, 91 and 365 days. Test results showed
supplement generally reduces the construction cost and that increase in compressive strength varied between 8%
more or less maintains the properties of concrete. In and 19% depending upon UFS percentage and testing age.
addition, waste materials, when properly processed, have In another study, effect of waste foundry sand over fine
shown to be effective as construction materials and readily aggregate replacement on the compressive strength and
meet the design specifications. split tensile strength of concrete with M-20 mix proportion
Ceramic tile aggregates are hard having considerable value of 1:1.82:2.89:0.5 is investigated at different curing periods
of specific gravity, rough surface on one side and smooth on (7 days, 14 days and 28days) [5]. The percentage of waste
other side, are lighter in weight than normal stone foundry sand used for replacement are 10%, 20%, 30%,
aggregates. Using ceramic tile aggregate in concrete not 40%, 50% and 60% by weight of fine aggregate. Test
only will be cost effective, but also will be good from showed magnificent results, showing capability of waste
environment point of view. Hence the reuse of this waste foundry sand for being a component in concrete for
material can be emphasized. imparting strength.
The present work investigates the effect of waste foundry Shyam Makwana and Prof. Yashwantsinh Zala studied the
sand (WFS) and waste ceramic tiles (WCT) as partial physical and chemical properties of ceramic waste and
replacement of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate foundry sand. They made a review on utilization of ceramic
waste and foundry sand in civil engineering practice. In the

world, there are large amounts of calcined-clay wastes and

waste foundry sand produce from the industry each year. of concrete”, Elsevier, Construction and Building Materials
So, these wastes are use in landfills. Reusing these wastes 23 (2009) 976–980.
in concrete can be very beneficial situation for society. 6. Saveria Monosi, Daniela Sani and Francesca Tittarelli,
Therefore, at one side, we can solve the problems of “Used foundry sand in cement mortars and concrete
industries and at the other side, they can make more production”, The Open Waste Management Journal, Vol.3,
sustainable concrete by reducing non renewable resources ISSN 1876-4002, pg.18-25, 2010.
like cement, aggregates and also solve the environmental 7. Tarun R. Naik, Viral M. Patel, Dhaval M. Parikh,
problems related to land fill wastes. They determine the Mathew P. Tharaniyil,“Utilisation of used foundry sand in
proportion of SiO2 is about 60-70% and in foundry sand is concrete”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 6,
80-90% which is responsible to improve the strength and No. 2, May, 1994.
durability of concrete. So, it can be used in concrete to 8. Eknath P. Salokhe, D. B. Desai, “Application of
improve the properties of concrete and reduce disposal foundry waste sand in manufacture of concrete”, IOSR-
problems on land and environmental problem JMCE, ISSN: 2278-1684, PP: 43-48.
Making eco-friendly concrete from recycled materials saves 9. Kumbhar P. D. and Usharani S. Sangar,
energy and conserves resources which lead to a safe “Experimental study of mechanical properties of concrete
sustainable and economical environment. blended with used foundry sand”, Global Journal
Engineering and Applied Sciences, ISSN.
II.CONCLUSION 10. Shyam Makwana and Prof. Yashwantsinh Zala, “A
Review on Utilization of Ceramic Waste and Foundry Sand
Research on the usage of waste construction materials is
very important due to the fact that the construction material in Concrete” ISSN - 2249-555X, Vol-5, Issue-1, January
waste is gradually increasing with the increase in
population and increase in the urban development. The
reasons that many investigations and analysis have been
made on ceramic tile aggregate are because tile aggregates
are easy to obtain and their cost is cheaper than the natural
aggregates. For natural aggregates mining is needed but tile
aggregate can ignore this process. And also, waste foundry
sand can be efficacious as fine aggregate in place of
regularly used river sand in concrete.
The following conclusions are expected regarding
properties of concrete incorporating waste foundry sand and
waste ceramic tile.
1. The compressive strength of concrete mix will increase
with increase in percentage of waste foundry sand and
waste ceramic tiles as compare to regular concrete.
2. Workability of concrete mix increases with increase in
percentage of waste foundry sand and waste ceramic tiles as
compared to regular concrete.
3. As waste foundry sand is waste from metal industries
and waste ceramic tiles is waste from construction
industries, both waste can be effectively used in concrete
mix hence an eco-friendly construction initiative.
4. By using this waste in concrete, problems regarding to
safe disposal will be reduced.

1. Foundry Industry Recycling Starts Today (FIRST),
Foundry Sand Facts for Civil Engineers, Federal Highway
Administration Environmental Protection Agency
Washington, DC; 2004.
2. Han-Young Moon, Yun-Wang Choi, Youg-Kyu Song
and Jung-KyuJeon, “Fundamental properties of Mortar and
Concrete using waste foundry sand”,Journal of the Korea
Concrete Institute, Vol.17, No.1, pp.141-147, February
3. J.M. Khatib, B.A. Herki, S. Kenai, “Capillarity of
concrete incorporating waste foundry sand”, Elsevier,
Construction and Building Materials 47 (2013) 867-871
4. H. MerveBasar, NuranDeveciAksoy, “The effect of
waste foundry sand (WFS) as partial replacement of sand
on the mechanical, leaching and micro-structural
characteristics of ready-mixed concrete”, Elsevier,
Construction and Building Materials 35 (2012) 508–515.
5. Rafat Siddique, Geert de Schutter, Albert Noumowe,
“Effect of used-foundry sand on the mechanical properties