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# Chapter 3 (1st Year Physics) Motion and Force

x = vv X t + ra, t y -1 a x
•x 2
X = Vx X
l
As the object is accelerated in downward direction under the force of
gravity, therefore ay = g. Since initial vertical velocity is zero i.c.. vy — 0.
Therefore, vertical distance y covered by the object is: y = vy x t + ^ayt2 V-

=»y = \gt2
Q tf 15. Find out the expression of instantaneous velocity for a projectile.
Ans. Consider a projectile is fired at an angle 0 with horizontal. The motion of a projectile can be studied easily by
resolving it in horizontal and vertical components, l.et u,and u\sintf are the horizontal and vertical component of
velocity, repectively. There is no force acting on the projectle acting on projectile in horzontal direction, therefore. ax
= 0. Therefore, by using the first equation of motion, we have:
Vfx = Vix + ax*t

=> v f x = v t cos 6
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As the vcrticlc component of velocity of the projectile is influenced by the
force of gravity, therefore, for upward motion ay = -g. The vcrticlc component of velocity can be find out by using
111 equation
of motion:
Vfy = V i y + a yXt
==> Vfy = Vj sin 8 - gt

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Written and composed by Prof. Muhammad All Malik (M. Phil Physics). Govt. Degree College. Naushera