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2016 International Conference on Internet of Things and Applications (IOTA)

Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Pune, India 22 Jan - 24 Jan, 2016

Efficient Waste Collection System


Saurabh Dugdhe1 , Pooja Shelar, Sajuli Jire and Anuja Apte
Department of Computer Engineering
K. K. Wagh Institute of Engineering Education and Research
Savitribai Phule Pune University
1 saurabhdugdhe18@gmail.com

Abstract - Waste is an important issue, which needs to be tackled high visibility of waste collection operations are forcing
smartly. Wisely, we segregate the waste at our homes for ease at residents to demand efficient collection and disposal of solid
processing and recycling. We observed trash vans/trucks come waste. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a schedule for
irregular to homes creating a havoc of households. Due to this allocation of trucks for collection of waste and dumping them
many civilians empty their overloaded dustbins in open spaces.
to the existing disposal sites so as to minimize costs.
This in turn increases environmental pollution. We got inspired
from “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” which is a national campaign by In every city, many trucks are used to collect and transport
the Government of India, to clean the streets, roads and waste from different parts of cities to landfills, incinerators
infrastructure of the country. The citizens want to have better and transfer stations. The waste emptied at transfer stations is
service, lower cost and having easy accessible reports on what has transported for final disposal using large vehicles such as
been done and how much it cost. The proposed system aims to barges and large capacity trucks. The waste sent to
schedule trucks by finding shortest path between the almost filled incinerators is burned and the residue is transported for
waste bins and bins which have produced harmful gases and ultimate disposal. As a result of increased regulations and
gives a route for collection. The system will consist of setting up public pressures, waste collection and disposal systems are in
smart waste bins/ trash cans per society, which will be IoT
continuous change in almost all countries. In those places
enabled. These smart bins will transmit information about its fill
status and harmful gas levels. Proposed system provides efficient where land becomes limited and regulations increase, landfills
and optimized routes to collect maximum waste with less cost and are being closed. With a view to reducing the dependence on
fuel. The system provides estimated dates for collection of waste, landfills for disposal, some cities are trying various
real time bin status, expected fill up dates for the bins, and alternatives including processing, exporting and prevention.
optimized shortest path for waste collection. The system will Currently we find the trucks landing at our doorstep
summarize the collected information and generate reports. irregularly. These trucks discard their further path if they get
Index Terms - Embedded system, Internet of Things, Smart filled at some point. Eventually delaying collection of waste in
Dustbin, Shortest path, Wireless Network some regions. This leads to waste accumulation in such
regions.
I. INTRODUCTION In order to avoid this, we have come up with the new
system for scheduling trucks for waste collection. The
Inefficient waste collection systems lead to environmental proposed system finds out the shortest path to collect the
pollution, which in turn results in breeding of insects, animal waste so that waste collection can be maximized with less fuel
scavengers and rodents, and giving rise to range of diseases. consumption. The waste which generates harmful gases need
The traditional method includes burning of the waste if not to be collected at its earliest so the system considers those bins
collected in time. Burning of waste causes air pollution to for prior collection. Human health issues related to the
great extent. Uncontrolled release of methane by an aerobic overloaded waste bins and harmful gas levels in the
decomposition of waste also adds in social health issues. atmosphere can be reduced by the use of proposed system, as
Normally, the municipal/corporation authorities maintain it focuses on collecting the waste efficiently and in time.
dust bins at specific places in the domestic areas where the Database maintained at the central server can be used to
residents are instructed to dispose their household wastage. generate the monthly or yearly reports regarding amount of
Though the authorities are instructed to clear away the waste collected in a month or year, quantity of fuel consumed.
wastage within a specific time period, they end up clearing This data can be used to predict the amount of waste that
them after few days by the time, the dustbins start over might be generated next year.
overflowing and smelling. Therefore, degradation of the waste
also causes bacterial & viruses to grow, thereby affecting the
public health. II. LITERATURE SURVEY
Solid waste collection is one of the costliest services provided For collection of waste, currently door to door collection
by a city to its residents. Between 75-80% of the solid waste system is available. In this approach waste collector knocks on
management budget is spent on collection and transfer costs. each door or rings doorbell and waits for waste to be brought
Therefore, productivity of collection and transfer operations is out by resident. Disadvantage of this system is residents must
of significant concern to the city administrators. Collection be available to hand waste over. Not suitable for apartment
and disposal operations begin when customers’ waste is buildings because of the amount of walking required. Also in
placed for pick-up and ends when the waste is discarded at a current system, trucks are used to collect waste and if trucks
disposal or processing site. Rising waste disposal costs and are overloaded then these trucks discard their further route of

978-1-5090-0044-9/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE 143


waste collection, hence no waste collection in some areas. Due III. PROPOSED SYSTEM
to this we have seen people emptying out their overloaded
Consider a smart city that has IoT infrastructure integrated
dustbins in open spaces.
to it. The smart city has sensors, actuators as well as wireless
Though large numbers of research have been done on
sensor networks that enable the use of IoT in the city for many
different aspect of solid waste management, but a few works
aspects of city administration. The city is divided into many
have been done on bin monitoring. . In [9-10] authors
sectors. We are considering smart city with Wi-Fi cover. The
discussed about Radio Frequency Identification (RFID),
city has dustbins of the same size, shape, build and capacity
Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Geographic
which are located at regular intervals. A set of trucks will be
Positioning System (GPS), transportation model, waste
used to collect the waste from the city. We call the bins smart,
collection with bin monitoring application. In [6] some studies
because the bins will be “self-aware”. They will have a device
have done on real time bin monitoring but with some
which integrates sensors and communication technology.
limitations. The researchers collected bin data using
GSM/GPRS communication from the bin to the server, which
includes GSM/GPRS connectivity to each bin causing a large
increase of operating cost.
In [11] authors consider wireless sensor network for
monitoring the bin status. But the researchers used Argos mote
whose geographical coverage is only up to 430m and the
system is considering single parameter for the bin status.
Another approach uses wireless sensor network and can
respond as soon as someone throw waste inside a bin. The aim
of this work is to design a framework that can collect data on
bin status in real time, which in turn helps to optimize waste
collection. The main problems of the existing solid waste
collection process and management system are as follows:
i) Lack of the information about the collecting time and area.
ii) Lack of the proper system for monitoring, tracking the
trucks and trash bins that have been collected in real time
iii) Loss of productivity due to inefficient utilization and
unauthorized use of vehicles
iv) There is no quick response to urgent cases like truck
accident, breakdown, longtime idling.
v) There is no quick way to response to client's complaints Each city has a workstation located at the municipal office,
about uncollected waste. which gathers the information from the bins in that particular
In [1] authors propose a dynamic routing algorithm, which city. The device in the bin uses Wi-Fi for sending the sensed
handles the issues when a truck get overloaded or damaged parameters of fill level and presence of gas to the
and need replacement, they assumes two kinds of trucks for workstations. The workstation maintains a database that will
waste collection, the Low Capacity Trucks (LCTs) and the hold real-time values acquired from the bins. The workstations
High Capacity Trucks (HCTs). In [7] authors described calculate shortest path in between almost filled bins and
simulation-optimization model for allocating trucks to prepare a schedule for trucks for waste collection for the day.
disposal sites which leads to reduce travelling and waiting Hence the trucks have a schedule and route for waste
time costs. In [3] authors designed the electronic system which collection for that particular day. At the end of the day, these
consist of biosensor sensor, weight sensor and height sensor to workstations located in each city will back-up the data to a
detect overflow of the waste in the dust bin and the extent of central server. The central server generates reports about waste
pollution caused by unwanted toxic gases from the bin. collection and fuel consumption. The central server will have
In [4] authors have used Dijkstra’s algorithm for computing a web interface from which we can access visualization and
shortest path. They also suggested Floyd-Warshall based reports.
variants algorithm as an alternative approach for finding
shortest path. In [2] authors proposed a Top-k query based A. System Architecture:
dynamic scheduling model as a solution to solid waste
collection in Smart Cities. In [5] authors described a robust The System is composed of following components
routing method for top-k query processing in MANETs. In
this method, Top -k bins are included for addressing. 1. Smart Trash Bins: Smart Trash Bins compose of
sensors and communication technology. This unit is
attached to the top of the bin, under the lid. These
sensors will sense fill level status of the bin as well as
gas present in the bin and report these values to the
workstations.

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1. Sensing: The sensing unit will consist of two sensors.
These will include fill level sensor and gas sensor.
The fill level sensor will measure the level of waste
in the bins. This fill level sensor will use ultrasonic
waves for distance measurement. The gas level
sensor will measure the presence of gas in the trash
bins.
2. Wi-Fi module: The Wi-Fi module is used to send
information about waste level and gas presence in the
bins to the workstations.
3. Microcontroller: This will be the processing unit for
the embedded system at the bins. This will be used
for controlling sensors and send information via
network.
4. Power supply: The Power supply will provide
electrical power for the microcontroller. It is the most
important part of the embedded system.
Fig 1: System Architecture

2. Workstations: Each region contains a workstation at For prototyping the device in the bins the microcontroller
the municipal office. These workstations receive and is used of the type Open-source hardware (OSH). It will be
stores the data sent by the smart bins in that region in Arduino based.
real-time. The workstation then calculates the
shortest path to collect maximum waste in that region
by considering bins filled more than 80%. The
workstations predict estimated fill-up dates for other
remaining bins, and predicts estimated dates to
collect that waste. These workstations backup all the
data at the end of the day to a central server.
3. Central Server: This holds up all the data that has
been recorded. It generates reports. It hosts all the
data in a database. It is responsible for report
generation.
4. Web Interface: This is where we can access and
view reports, estimated pick-up dates.

Fig 3: Arduino UNO Board

This microcontroller will be interfaced with an ultrasonic


ranging module HC-SR04 which provides 2cm-400cm non-
contact measurement function, the ranging accuracy can reach
to 3mm. The module includes ultrasonic transmitters, receiver
and control circuit.

Fig 2: Device Architecture

B. Device Architecture:

The IoT device that will be in the bins will contain


following modules:
Fig 4: HC-SR04 level sensor

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The microcontroller will be also interfaced with At the other end the unit will consist of a workstation which
MQ4, a gas sensor which has high sensitivity to methane, will receive the data from the bins. The workstation will
which is a major bi-product of waste decomposition. maintain a city graph which will have nodes as bins. These
workstations will be working in a distributed way. There will
be one workstation per geographical region. It will be
computing shortest path between bins and schedule trucks for
the same. It will only consider bins which will be filled more
than 80% or have any hazardous gas present. In static routing,
all bins are selected, instead considering only bins filled more
than 80% will increase weight collected per unit distance [6].
The distance covered will be less, time spent will be less, fuel
consumption will be less, and the amount of waste collected
will be more. Suppose a bin doesn’t get filled faster, but its
waste generates bi-products like methane which is explosive
and the closed bins might catch fire in a hot country like India.
Hence gas monitoring is necessary. These nodes will be used
for shortest path determination. At the workstation end the
shortest path will be computed and the trucks will be
Fig 5: MQ-4 Gas quality sensor scheduled. The workstations will summarize data for the day
and then back up this data to server. They will also provide the
server with the fill statuses and collection status to the server.
The server will do report generation. The server will have a
web interface. Using this web portal, reports can be accessed
for regions.

C. Shortest Path Calculation:


As per the proposed system to calculate shortest path
among trash bins, well known Dijkstra Algorithm has been
used. Dijkstra Algorithm having some constraints like bin is
80% filled or safe gas limits has been crossed. Dijkstra’s
algorithm is iteratively run for each selected bin as a source
node to find shortest path from source node to all other bins or
nodes.
The working of proposed system:
x Input: Graph of city
x Output: Shortest Path
x Working:
1. Flag the bins that satisfy the constraints imposed on
the algorithm and consider them as graph nodes, let
the number of flagged bins be ‘Nb’.
2. Let ‘n’ be the number of trucks. Each truck is having
maximum capacity ‘m’ and each bin also has fixed
volume ‘b’.
3. Number of required trucks ‘t’ to collect flagged bins
t= ™b / m
4. Iteratively run dijkstra’s algorithm for each flagged
nodes , assign the flagged bins to nth truck where 1” n
” t.
5. Update the capacity of the truck based on the ‘ 0/1
Knapsack’ strategy depending on waste collected as,
m=m-b
If m==0 then select ( n+1)th truck
Fig 6: Flow Diagram 6. STOP

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IV. CONCLUSION [10] M. Hannan, M. Arebey, R. A. Begum, and H. Basri, "Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID) and communication technologies for solid waste
Currently in India waste collection has been treated in a bin and truck monitoring system", Waste Management, Vol. 31, pp.
static way. Using Internet of Things approach we are 2406-2413, 2011.
[11] S. Longhi, D. Marzioni, E. Alidori, G. Di Buo, M. Prist, M. Grisostomi,
proposing to tackle the problem of waste collection by et al., "Solid Waste Management Architecture Using Wireless Sensor
dynamic method. As waste directly affects public health, it has Network Technology", The 5th International Conference on New
become an important issue. Domestic waste has been growing Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), 7-10 May 2012, Istanbul,
day by day and hence wastage management has very high pp. 1-5, 2012.
priority. The generated waste needs to be collected and proper
transportation should be made as well as proper waste
treatment and disposal. Improper disposal & improper
maintenance of the domestic waste creates issues in public
health & environmental pollution. This paper attempts to
provide practical solutions to help the local municipal
administration in waste management system. i.e., monitoring
of domestic wastage clearance at proper time to avoid damage
to the public health. In this paper, Waste Collection System
architecture using Internet of Things has been proposed. The
architecture consists of embedded device with sensors and
microcontroller for sensing information of Bins and sending to
workstation, which is situated at municipal office for finding
shortest path. This technique of waste removal will keep the
city clean. The proposed system is an attempt to improve
current waste collection system in India for the “Clean India
Mission”. The system will also generate reports about waste
gathering and fuel consumption.

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