Sie sind auf Seite 1von 112

DK-20e

INSTRUCTION MANUAL
( OPERATION )

01
e-V00
٨ Replacement Parts

・Hazards and nonconformities of imitation parts


<Use of imitation parts causes accidents.>
1. Recent engines have compact bodies and high power, and are designed to prevent fuel
deterioration and to reduce NOx discharge. Even if imitation parts are similar in shape
to the genuine parts, the use of imitation parts will degrade the engine performance
because of their fragile materials and low machining accuracy. Since the service life of
such parts is short, the engine must be maintained more frequently.
2. If imitation parts are used for the engines designed in accordance with MARPOL VI, the
certificate (EIAPP) may lose its validity, and operation of the engine may be inhibited.
3. If you use imitation parts, you will not be supplied with parts improved in quality and per-
formance.
4. If imitation parts are used, it may be difficult to make insurance claims for the engine
when any accident occurs.
5. We take no responsibility for the engine in which imitation parts are used.

Daihatsu Diesel supplies reliable engines. Use genuine parts to


operate your engine safely.

http://www.dhtd.co.jp

Head Office 1-30, Oyodo Naka 1-chome, Kita-ku, Osaka, 531-0076 Japan
TEL : 81-6-6454-2393 FAX : 81-6-6454-2686

Tokyo Office 16-11, Nihonbashi 1-chome, , Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 103-0027 Japan


TEL : 81-3-3279-0827 FAX : 81-3-3245-0359

Moriyama Division 45 Amura-cho, Moriyama-city, Shiga, 524-0035 Japan


TEL : 81-77-583-2551 FAX : 81-77-582-5714

Taiwan Office c/o Marine Technical Industries Co., Ltd.


No.14 Tai-Tang RD, Lin-Hai Industrial Zone, Kaohsiung, 812 Taiwan
TEL : 886-7-803-1082 FAX : 886-7-801-9179

Daihatsu Diesel (Europe) Ltd. 5th Floor, Devon House, 58-60 St. Katharine's Way, London E1W 1LB, U.K.
TEL : 44-20-7977-0280 Fax : 44-20-7702-4325

Daihatsu Diesel (AMERICA), Inc. 180 Adams Avenue, Hauppauge, NY 11788, U.S.A.
TEL : 1-631-434-8787/8/9 FAX : 1-631-434-8759

Daihatsu Diesel (ASIA PACIFIC) Pte.Ltd. 128 Pioneer Road, Singapore 639586
TEL : 65-6270-7235 FAX : 65-6270-6236

Daihatsu Diesel (SHANGHAI) Co.,Ltd. Room A Floor 9, Huamin Empire Plaza, No. 726 Yanan Rd (w), Shanghai, China
TEL : 86-21-6225-7876/7 FAX : 86-21-6225-9299
DK-20e INSTRUCTION MANUAL (OPERATION)
CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION 0
GENERAL 1
GENERAL CONSTRUCTION 2
ENGINE ADJUSTMENT STANDARDS
3
OPERATION 4
INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
5
FUEL OIL, LUBRICATING OIL AND COOLING WATER
6
TROUBLESHOOTING AND COUNTERMEASURES
7
䃁 As for the disassembly, maintenance, assembly, and the parts to be
replaced, refer to the separately provided INSTRUCTION MANUAL
(MAINTENANCE) and PARTS LIST.

 Keep this Instruction Manual and the related documents (drawings, materials, etc.) in
the specified place so that the persons engaged in operation of the engine can refer to
them whenever necessary, and in case that the supervisor of the engine is changed, be
minded that these documents, along with the duties, shall be transferred to the succes-
sor without a fall.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER

ITEM
CONTENTS DK-20e

Chapter 0 INTRODUCTION 0
1. Before Running Daihatsu Diesel Engine 0-1
2. Basic Information on Safety Operation 0-2
2.1 Safety Precautions 0-2.1
2.2 Safety Signs and Symbol Marks 0-2.2
2.3 Indication of Warning: Warning Labels 0-2.3
2.4 Indication of Warning: Warning Label Positions 0-2.4
3. Engine Conforming to NOx Technical Code 0-3
3.1 Outline 0-3.1
3.2 The parts to be Specified 0-3.2
3.3 Engine settings 0-3.3
4. General Information 0-4
4.1 Notation of Engine Types 0-4.1
4.2 Definition of Terms 0-4.2
4.3 Units 0-4.3

Chapter 1 GENERAL 1
1. Engine Specifications 1-1
2. Auxiliary Equipment 1-2
3. Engine Outline and Equipment Layout 1-3

Chapter 2 GENERAL CONSTRUCTION 2


1. Engine 2-1
1.1 Engine Frame, Cylinder Liner, and Main Bearing 2-1.1
1.2 Crankshaft and Bearing 2-1.2
1.3 Camshaft and Timing Gear 2-1.3
1.4 Piston and Connecting Rod 2-1.4
1.5 Cylind Head 2-1.5
1.6 Fuel Injecti Divice 2-1.6
1.7 Valve Operating Divice 2-1.7
1,8 Fuel Control Divice 2-1.8
1.9 Intake and Exhaust Systems 2-1.9

2. Piping Systems 2-2


2.1 Starting Pneumatic System 2-2.1
2.2 Fuel Oil System 2-2.2
2.3 Lubricating Oil System 2-2.3
2.4 Cooling Water System 2-2.4
2.5 Nozzle Cooling System 2-2.5

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER

ITEM

DK-20e CONTENTS

3. Controlling Engine Operation : Protective Device 2-3


3.1 Starting Control 2-3.1
3.2 Stoppage Control 2-3.2
3.3 Engirie Protection System 2-3.3

Chapter 3 ENGINE ADJUSTMENT STANDARDS 3


1. Operating Specifications 3-1
2. Valve Settings 3-2

Chapter 4 OPERATION 4
1. Precautions for Operation 4-1
1.1 In case of Starting 4-1.1
1.2 In case of Operation 4-1.2
1.3 In case of Stoppage 4-1.3
2. Preparation for Operation 4-2
2.1 Preparation for Daily Operation 4-2.1
2.2 Preparation for Initial Starting after Installation and 4-2.2
Starting after Extended Disuse or Overhaul
3. Starting 4-3
3.1 Starting Procedure 4-3.1
3.2 Inspection and Check Items Immediately after Starting 4-3.2
4. Operation 4-4
4.1 Running-in 4-4.1
4.2 Warming-up and Connecting Load to the Engine 4-4.2
4.3 Operation with Load (Normal Operation) 4-4.3
4.4 Operation Using Heavy Fuel Oil (for Heavy Fuel Oil Engines) 4-4.4
4.5 Allowable Operating Range 4-4.5
5. Special Operation 4-5
5.1 Low-load Operation 4-5.1
5.2 Operation with Air Cooler Cut-off 4-5.2
5.3 Non-Turbocharger Operation 4-5.3
5.4 Operation with Reduced Number of Cylinders 4-5.4
6. Stoppage 4-6
6.1 Normal Stoppage 4-6.1
6.2 Emergency Stop 4-6.2
6.3 Long-term Shutdown 4-6.3

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER

ITEM
CONTENTS DK-20e

Chapter 5 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE 5


1. Precautions for Inspection and Maintenance 5-1
1.1 Safety Precautions 5-1.1
1.2 Precautions after Inspection and Maintenance 5-1.2
2. Inspection and Maintenance Item Table 5-2
3. Measurements and Adjustments 5-3
3.1 Maximum Explosion Pressure and Exhaust Temperature 5-3.1
3.2 Pressure and Temperature of Each Part 5-3.2
4. Inspection and Maintenance 5-4
4.1 Inspecting Parts on and around Intake and Exhaust Valves, and 5-4.1
Adjusting Valve End Clearance
4.2 Inspection and Maintenance of Fuel Injection Valve 5-4.2
4.3 Cleaning Filters 5-4.3
4.4 Cleaning Turbocharger Blower 5-4.4
4.5 Cleaning Turbocharger Turbine 5-4.5
4.6 Measuring Crankshaft Deflection 5-4.6
4.7 Inspecting and Replacing Protective Zinc 5-4.7

Chapter 6 FUEL OIL, LUBRICATING OIL AND COOLING WATER 6


1. Fuel Oil Characteristics and Control 6-1
1.1 Selection Fuel Oil 6-1.1
1.2 Fuel Oil Characteristics and Control 6-1.2
2. Lubricating Oil Characteristics and Control 6-2
2.1 Selection Lubricating Oil 6-2.1
2.2 Lubricating Oil Characteristics and Control 6-2.2
3. Cooling Water Characteristics and Control 6-3
3.1 Cooling Fresh Water (Raw Water) 6-3.1
3.2 Corrosion Prevention Agent 6-3.2
3.3 Control of Cooling Watert 6-3.3

Chapter 7 TROUBLESHOOTING AND COUNTERMEASURES 7


1. Precautions for Troubleshooting 7-1
2. Troubleshooting and Countermeasures 7-2
2.1 When Starting is difficult 7-2.1
2.2 When Engine Revolution is Not Smooth 7-2.2
2.3 Insufficient Output 7-2.3
2.4 When Exhaust Gas Temperature or Maximum Explosion 7-2.4
Pressure is Abnormal

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER

ITEM

DK-20e CONTENTS

2.5 When Exhaust Gas Shows Abnormal Color 7-2.5


2.6 Abnormal Noise / Abnormal Vibration 7-2.6
2.7 When Engine Stops Suddenly 7-2.7
2.8 When Unable to Stop Engine 7-2.8
2.9 Overspeed 7-2.9
2.10 Low Lubricating Oil Pressure 7-2.10
2.11 High Lubricating Oil Temperature 7-2.11
2.12 Low Cooling Water Pressure (Jacket Line) 7-2.12
2.13 High Cooling Water Temperature (Jacket Line) 7-2.13

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Introduction 0
ITEM
Before Running Daihatsu Diesel Engine DK-20e 1.1

0. Introduction
1) Only skilled operators who have carefully read and fully understood the instruction
manual should operate, inspect and service this machine.
0
Operation, inspection or servicing by persons inadequately familiar with the machine
may result in personal injury, equipment damage or environmental hazard.
(2) No responsibility shall be assumed whatsoever for product damage or any associated
fires, oil spills or other environmental hazards, personal injuries, property damage or
economic losses caused by the use of non-genuine parts or operation, inspection or
servicing that deviates from the instruction manual.
(3) We shall repair new parts or replace any flawed parts made or sold by us, however no
compensation shall be provided for damage to any equipment not of our manufacture
or cargo, or personnel, fire-fighting, towing or other expenses arising from the use of
such flawed parts or fowled fuel, lubricant, cooling water or other medium.
(4) This instruction manual is subject to change without notice.

0-1. Before Running Daihatsu Diesel Engine


This instruction manual describes the proper operation procedure of the DK-20 engine,
its daily maintenance and inspection procedure, and other necessary information on the
engine.
To maintain the engine in good operating condition and ensure that it provides the
specified performance, be sure to read through this manual and become sufficiently
familiar with the proper procedures before operating the engine.
Do not use your engine for applications or under the conditions other than those it is
designed for.
Be sure to observe the procedures described in this manual. Improper practices can
cause damage to the engine or result in injuries or fatal accidents.

(1) Each piece of the information enclosed in the square box is an important safety precautions
and provided as a warning or caution.
(2) The features and structure of your engine may be different from those provided in this manual depend-
ing on the specifications of the engine delivered. In this case, the engine specifications and final docu-
ments supplied separately have priority over this manual.
(3) For the details on the following machine or device, see their instruction manual supplied with this manual:
1 Turbocharger 2 Governor 3 Air motor
4 Control equipment 5 Other special devices

(4) Be sure to use the genuine parts of DAIHATSU DIESEL MFG. CO., LTD. or those specified in the
parts list.
We will not guarantee the proper operation of the engine unless such parts are used.
For replacement of the parts or service on your engine, contact our Parts Sales Department, Service
Department branch office, or the nearest DAIHATSU DIESEL MFG.Co.,Ltd provided on the cover page.
Be sure to provide us with the "Type and Number of your Engine" when contacting us.
(5) To prevent environmental contamination, do not dispose of waste products, liquids, etc. thoughtlessly.
Be sure to entrust the disposal of such waste products, liquids, etc. to the authoriqed waste disposal
company.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
0 Introduction
ITEM
Basic Information on Safety Operation:
2.1 DK-20e Safety Precautions

0-2. Basic Information on Safety Operation

0-2.1 Safety Precautions

The diesel engine uses flammable oil. It has the high-speed rotational parts, the parts that
become extremely hot, or the parts that will be under high pressure fluid during operation.
Improper handling of the engine can result in serious injuries or fatal accidents. Be sure to
observe the safety precautions provided in this manual

(1) Beware of Rotational Parts

This engine has the high-speed rotational parts.


Inadvertent contact of human body or objects with such parts can cause the person to get
caught in the engine, or cause the chips of objects to fly in all directions.
(a) Never attempt to touch the rotational parts such as the flywheel and couplings during operation. Also,
be sure to place the protective cover in place before operation.
(b) Before starting operation, check that no personnel is around the engine. Warn any nearby personnel
by signaling that the engine is about to start operation.

(2) Beware of Hot Parts

The engine parts are very hot during and immediately after operation. Touching them with bare
hands or skin can cause burns. Note that the exhaust manifold, turbocharger, indicator valve
periphery, cylinder head, air cooler inlet, and heated heavy fuel oil pipes become extremely hot.
(a) Never attempt to touch any part of the engine with bare hand or skin during or immediately after oper-
ation.
(b) Be sure to wear safety gloves or other protective gear when conducting measurement or inspection
(c) Allow the engine to sufficiently cool down before performing inspection or maintenance work.

(3) Prevent Oil from Catching Fire

Fuel oil or lubricating oil coming in contact with extremely hot parts of the machine may catch
fire.
(a) Be attentive to oil leakage during operation. If any leakage is found, immediately stop the engine and
eliminate the leakage.
(b) Strictly observe the "Causion: Fire Strictly Prohibited" sign when adding fuel oil or lubricating oil.

If the engine is stopped due to failure or defect failure, be sure to eliminate


the cause of defect and restore it to the normal operating condition before
resuming the engine operation.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Introduction 0
ITEM
Basic Information on Safety Operation:
Safety Signs and Symbol Marks DK-20e 2.2

0-2.2 Safety Signs and Symbol Marks


This instruction manual and warning labels affixed to the engine carry one of the following safety signs
and symbol marks: 0
(1) Safety Signs and "Signal words"

:"Warning": Precaution related to safety of personnel (Potential hazard which could result in death or serious injury)

:"Caution": Precaution related to safety of personnel (Potential hazard which may result in minor or moderate injury)

:"Precautions for handling": Information on handling of the engine to prevent damage

:"Prohibition": Prohibited practice that can affect the safety of personnel and the engine

:"Obligatory acts": Recommended practice or instruction to be followed to ensure safety of personnel and the engine
(2) Symbol Marks
(a) Warning Signs b.Prohibition Signs

:General warning :Non-specific general prohibition

:Flammable → Fire :No Smoking

:Explosive → Explosion or Bursting :Naked fire forbidden

:Poisonous → Poisoning :Do Not Touch

:Voltage → Electric Shock (c) Signs for Obligatory Acts

:High temperature → Burn :Wear Eye Protection Gear (safety goggles, etc.)

:Rotational/Moving Part → Getting Caught :Wear Head Protection Gear (hard hat, etc.)

:Edge → Cut :Wear Ear (Noise) Protection Gear (ear plugs, etc.)

:High-Pressure Fluid Jet → Injury :Wear Hand Protection Gear (safety gloves, etc.)

:High Location → Fall :Wear Foot Protection Gear (safety shoes, etc.)

(d) Others

:Refer to other pages in this manual or other


documents

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
0 Introduction
ITEM
Basic Information on Safety Operation:
2.3 DK-20e Indication of Warning: Warning Labels

0-2.3 Indication of Warning: Warning Labels


The warning labels shown below, are used on the DAIHATSU DIESEL MFG. CO., LTD.

㩿㪈㪀 㩿㪉㪀 㩿㪊㪀

㩿㪋㪀 㩿㪌㪀

㩿㪍㪀 㩿㪎㪀 㩿㪏㪀 㩿㪐㪀

㜞ᚲߢߩ૞ᬺߪ‫⿷ޔ‬రߦᵈᗧ
ߒ‫ޔ‬ᱜߒ޿૞ᬺᆫ൓ߢⴕ߁ߎߣ
ࠪ࡝ࡦ࠳ࡋ࠶࠼਄ߥߤ㜞ᚲߦ‛
ࠍ⟎߆ߥ޿ߎߣ
$GUWTGHQQVKPICPFYQTM
RQUVWTGQPJKIJRNCEG
&QPQVRNCEGQDLGEVUQP
E[NKPFGTJGCFQTJKIJRNCEG

㩿㪈㪇㪀 㩿㪈㪈㪀 㩿㪈㪉㪀 㩿㪈㪊㪀 㩿㪈㪋㪀

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Introduction 0
Basic Information on Safety Operation: ITEM
Indication of Warning: Warning Label Positions DK-20e 2.4

0-2.4 Indication of Warning: Warning Label Positions


For safety, the warning labels shown below are affixed to the engine. The numbers carried by labels cor-
respond to those given on Item 2.3 of Chapter 0. 0
If a label is broken or falls, replace it with a new label, and make arrangement so that it may be visible
clearly at any time.







㜞 ᚲ ߢ ߩ ૞ ᬺ ߪ ‫ ⿷ޔ‬ర ߦ ᵈ ᗧ ߒ ‫ޔ‬ᱜ
ߒ޿૞ᬺᆫ൓ߢⴕ߁ߎߣ
ࠪ࡝ࡦ࠳ࡋ࠶࠼਄ߥߤ㜞ᚲߦ‛ࠍ
⟎߆ߥ޿ߎߣ
$ G U W T G HQQVK P I CPFY Q T M 
R Q U V W T GQP JKI J RNCEG
& Q PQVRNCEGQDLGEVUQ P
E[NKPFGTJGCFQTJKIJRNCEG










DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
0 Introduction
ITEM
Engine Conforming to NOx Technical Code:
3.1-3.3 DK-20e Outline/Parts to be Specified/Engine Setting Values

0-3. Engine Conforming to NOx Technical Code


0-3.1 Outline
(1) The marine diesel engines to which the 13th rule "Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Secondary Regulation (Tier
II)" in Supplement VI "Rules to Prevent Air Pollution by Ships" to MARPOL73/78 Treaty applies should
conform to NOx Technical Code 2008.
(2) The engines conforming to NOx Technical Code are authorized as an engine group or an engine family,
and it is allowed to apply the engine parameter check method to them, when receiving the NOx dis-
charge inspection on board.
The engine parameter check method is a method for verifying that the engine components and setting
values conform to the requirements specified in the technical file, and does not require the measurement
of NOx discharge. To the engines that are not conforming to the requirements of the technical file, the
engine parameter check method cannot be applied. For such engines, the measurement of NOx dis-
charge shall be required.

0-3.2 Parts to be Specified


The technical file states the engine components that can affect the NOx discharge specified in NOx
Technical Code, and shows the identification marks stamped on them, and the user is required to main-
tain the technical file for each engine. When replacing any parts shown in the technical file, be sure to use
our genuine parts stamped with the identification marks. In the case that any parts without the identifica-
tion mark is used, it shall be regarded as nonconformance to the requirements of the technical file, and in
such a case, inspection by the engine parameter check method cannot be applied.
The followings are the parts that have the identification marks specified in the technical file. When
replacing any of these parts, be sure to check the identification marks.( :"Technical file")
<Parts with identification marks>
1 Cylinder head

2 Piston

3 Turbocharger

4 Air cooler
5 Cam shaft

6 Fuel injection pump

7 Fuel injection pump plunger


8 Fuel injection valve

9 Fuel injection valve nozzle

0-3.3 Engine Setting Value


The engines conforming to NOx Technical Code are adjusted to conform to the specifications before
shipment. After shipment, they should not be adjusted to such a manner that the setting values specified
in the technical file may be deviated.
If any change is made in the manner that may deviate from the settings specified in the technical file, it
shall be considered to be nonconformance to the requirements of the technical file, and the inspection by
the engine parameter check method cannot be applied.
The followings are the items that have been set to conform to NOx Technical Code:
<Items set before shipment>
(1) Fuel injection timing

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Introduction 0
ITEM
General Information:
Notation of Engine Type, Definition of Terms, and Units DK-20e 4.1-4.3

0-4. General Information

0-4.1 Notation of Engine Type 0


5, 6, 8 DK (M) - 20 e (F) (L)
• Number of cylinders
• Name of series
• Marine propulsion engine
• Cylinder bore (cm)
• Engine conforming to NOx Technical Code-Secondary Regulation (Tier II)
• Front end drive
• Reverse rotation

0-4.2 Definition of Terms


Definitions of the terms used in this manual are as follows:
• Rear side of engine: Output end side (flywheel side)
• Front side of engine: Opposite side to the output end 㪍
Front 㪌 Exhaust side
• Exhaust side: Exhaust manifold side (on the right when side 㪋

seen from the output end) 㪉

• Pump side: Fuel injection pump side (on the left when
Normal
seen from the output end) rotation
(Rightward
• Normal rotation (rightward rotation): Clockwise rotation rotation)
when seen from the output end
• Reverse rotation (leftward rotation): Counterclockwise
rotation when seen from the output end.
• Front end drive: Output to be taken from the engine front Pump side
• Cylinder and journal numbers 1, 2, 3,----starting from the Rear side
Reverse rotation
output end (Leftward rotation)

0-4.3 Units to be used


Basically, SI units are used on the engine and in this manual. Note that figures in { } are reference val-
ues given in the conventional uinits.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
1 General
ITEM
1, 2 DK-20e Engine Specifications and Auxiliary Equipment

1-1 Engine Specifications


Model 5DK-20e 6DK-20e 8DK-20e
Type Vertical water-cooling direct injection type 4-cycle diesel engine
Number of cylinder 5 6 8
Cylinder bore mm 200
Piston stroke mm 300
-1
Engine speed min
kW
Output
{PS}
Constant speed 1-3-5-4-2 1-5-3-6-2-4 1-3-2-5-8-6-7-4
Ignition sequence
Variable speed 1-2-4-6-5-3 1-3-2-5-8-6-7-4
Rotating direction Clockwise when seen from the flywheel
Turbocharging method Turbocharged by exhaust gas turbine equipped with air cooler
Starting method, Compressed air Air motor Direct (Starting valve)
Jacket Fresh water
Cooling method
Cooler Fresh water or Sea water
Note : (1) Both the ignition sequence and the rotation direction show the data in the case of normal
rotation respectively.
(2) Since the engine speed and the output, which are marked with , differ depending upon
each specifications, be minded to enter the data after referring to the "Engine Specifications"
and "Test Run Record".

1-2 Auxiliary Equipment

Auxiliary / equipment Type Remarks


Turbocharger Radial turbine type
Air coler Multi-tubular type
Governor Hydraulic type
Fuel injection pump Bosch type
Fuel oil valve Bosch type
Fuel oil feed pump Gear type
Fuel ooil filter Notch-wire, duplex type
Lubricating oil pump Gear type
Lubricating ooil cooler Multi-tubular type
Lubricating oil filter Auto back-wash type
Lubricating oil tank Installed on the common base plate,
or on a separate base type
Cooling water pump Centrifugal type
Fresh water cooler Multi-tubular type
Note : The data given in the above table show those in the case of the standard specifications.
Therefore, the data of your engine may differ from those shown in this table, and in such a case be
minded to refer to the "Engine Specifications".

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
General 1
ITEM
Engine Outlineand Equipment Layout DK-20e 3

1-3 Engine Outline andEquipment Layout

Turbocharger Gauge board Operating lever Governor

1
Air cooler

Cooling
water pump

Lubricating oil pump Fuel oil feed pump Starting air operation valve Flywheel

Lubricating oil temperature control valve Turbocharger

Lubricating oil filter


(Automatic backwashing)

Air cooler

Lubricating oil relief valve Lubricating oil cooler

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
1 General
ITEM
3 DK-20e Engine Outlineand Equipment Layout

1-3 Engine Outline andEquipment Layout (5DK)

Air Motor Ring Gear

5DK-20e

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
General 1
ITEM
MEMO DK-20e

1
CHAPTER
2 General Construction
ITEM
1.1~1.5 DK-20e Engine

2-1 Engine
2-1.1 Engine Frame, Cylinder Liner,and 2-1.4 Piston and Connecting Rod
Main Bearing The piston is of an assembly type made of spe-
The frame is a monoblock structure made of cial alloy steel with ductile cast iron, and is cooled
cast iron, and the upper section of the frame forms down by the lubricating oil that is transferred from
a cooling jacket, together with the cylinder liner. the connecting rod via piston rod.
The main bearing is a suspension type, and The connecting rod is form-turned forged prod-
mounted to the engine frame with 2 mounting bolts uct with the large end, which is horizontally split
and 2 side bolts. into three parts, to allow overhaul of the piston
without disassembling the bearing unit.
Intake air, lubricating oil, and each cooling water
channel, and the timing gear case are incorporated
in the engine frame.
A frame safety valve is provided to the cover on
the enqine frame side.

2-1.2 Crankshaft and Bearing


The crankshaft is made of a forged and mono-
lithic structure.
The flywheel is installed at the rear end (output
side) of the crankshaft, and the crank gear for driv-
Exhaust manifold Rocker arm device
ing the camshaft is installed at the front end of the
camshaft, together with the auxiliary drive gear for Intake and exhaust
valves
driving various pumps. Piston
Cylinder head
The main bearing and crank pin bearing have a Fuel oil nozzle
Cylinder Starting valve
thin-walled, two-piece structure, and a thrust metal liner Indicator-
is attached to the front and rear end of the No.1 Intake duct safety valve

bearing located at the rear end. Connecing


rod
Fuel oil injection
valve
2-1.3 Camshaft and Timing Gear Valve operating
device
The camshaft is located on the left side of the
engine (when seen from the output side). Crank shaft Cam shaft

The intake cam, exhaust cam, and fuel cam are


Engine frame
fixed to the camshaft by shrink fitting.
Engine frame
The timing gear for driving the camshaft is safty valve Side bolt
installed on the rear side of the engine, and the
cam gear is driven from the crank gear via the mid-
Crankpin
dle gear. shell
In 6.8DK engine, the drive coupling of the start-
ing air rotary valve is installed on the rear side of
the engine.
Note that in 5DK engine, the starting air rotary
valve is not installed since the engine is air motor
starting type.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
General Construction 2
ITEM
Engine DK-20e 1.1~1.10

2-1.5 Cylinder Head 2-1.7 Valve Operating Device


The cylinder head is of a highly rigid structure The intake and exhaust valves are driven by
made of special cast iron, and is hydraulically motion transferred from the camshaft via swing
secured to the piston with 4 bolts. arm, push rod, and rocker arm
Four valve system is employed having 2 intake .
valves and 2 exhaust valves, and a water cooling 2-1.8 Fuel Control Device
valve seat, which is directly attached to the cylin-
der head, is installed for each exhaust valve. The governor is installed on the rear of the
engine, and is driven by the cam gear.
The indicator valve and cylinder safety valve are
installed on the upper face of the cylinder head, The control lever is located near the gauge
board on the front side of the engine, together with
and the starting valve is located on the side of the
head. Note that 5DK engine has no starting valve the starting valve. 2
since it is motor starting type.
2-1.9 Intake and Exhaust System
2-1.6 Fuel Injection Device The turbocharger and air cooler are mounted on
The fuel injection pump is a Bosch-type high the front end or on the rear end (option) of the
pressure pump and a tappet-incorporated mono- engine.
lithic type. It is provided with a closed-type plunger The standard specification of the turbocharger is
barrel and isobaric valve, and plunger lubrication is non-cooling and forced-feed lubrication, however
employed. the specifications may vary according to the
Also, the high-pressure oil inlet coupling, which engine type, output, and specification of each
is a horizontal-insertion type, is connected to the order.
fuel injection pump via high-pressure coupling ( : "Instruction Manual of Turbocharger")
made of forged steel. The exhaust manifold and air intake duct are
installed on the same side of the engine, and the
intake duct is incorporated in the engine frame.

Gauge board
Governor

Cam gear

Idle gear

Control lever

Starting air rotary


valve (6, 8DK)

Cooling water pump

Lubricating oil pump

Auxiliary drive gear


Crank gear

Crankshaft Main bearing shell Thrust force receptor

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
2 General Construction
ITEM
2.1 DK-20e Piping System: Starting Pneumatic System

2-2 Piping Systems


Piping systems and related equipment vary depending on the engine applications,
type of fuel used, and specifications.
This section describes the typical piping systems of standard specifications. For
more details, refer to the pipinq systems included in the final documents.

2-2.1 Starting Pneumatic System The compressed air sent through the main
starting air pipe effects the piston, causing the
Starting operation of the engine is by pneumatic
engine to start its rotation.
system, and direct starting system is employed for
6.8DK, and air motor starting system is employed The starting operation valve, starting air
for 5DK. valve, and starting air rotary valve are
installed on the front side of the engine, and
starting air rotary valve is driven from the front
(1) Direct Starting Type end of the camshaft.
Starting operation is made by means of the
Note that a safety valve and a check valve
piloted ignition system using compressed air.
is installed in the main air pipe for prevention
When the push button for the starting oper- of the reversed flow of combustion air.
ation valve is pressed, control air flows to the
In case that the engine is started remotely
starting air valve to open the main valve, and
or automatically, the starting operation is
the compressed air reaches to the starting
made by means of the solenoid valve, allow-
valve of each cylinder.
ing control air to reach the starting operation
Meanwhile, the compressed air branched valve.
off from the main starting air pipe is sequen-
( : "Starting Method")
tially supplied to each cylinder by the starting
air rotary valve according to the ignition
order,and opens the starting valve of each
cylinder.

Engine starting solenoid valve Starting operation valve


(In case of remote or auto starting)

Safety valve
Starting air rotary valve

Starting valve Check valve


(Cylinder head)

Starting valve
Starting air
Control air

Air tank

Starting Pneumatic System ; Direct starting type

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
General Construction 2
ITEM
Piping System: Starting Pneumatic System DK-20e 2.1

(2) Air Motor Starting Type (5DK)


The engine is started by an air motor operating
To start the engine on the engine side, press the
with compressed air.
start button on the side of the engine. The starting
To start the engine remotely or automaticaly, operation runs as in the case of the remote start.
press the start button on the engine control board
To protect each of the equipment, there is a
or on the operation board (monitoring board). The
strainer in front of the pressure reducing valve at
start solenoid valve operates. The controlling air
the entrance of the engine.
flows to the air motor. The pinion gear of the air
To start the engine in an emergency, for exam-
motor is pushed.
ple, in a trouble such as power failure, use a screw
When the pinion gear is engaged with the ring
gear attached to the flywheel, the controlling air
driver or the like to turn the emergency start valve
on the starting solenoid valve to open the path of
2
reaches from the air motor to the starting valve, the control air.
and the main air circuit of the rstarting valve
( :4.3.1"Starting Procedure"))
opens.
Consequently, the air motor is driven by the
main air, and the engine starts its rotation.

Starting push button

Starting solenoid valve


Control air
Air motor
Starting solenoid valve

Air vent Ring gear


valve
Starting valve Safty valve

Relief valve

Starting valve Pressure


regurating valve
for emergency
(manual) Air filter

Starting air

Starting Pneumatic System ; Air motor starting type

DK-20e A 11-06
CHAPTER
2 General Construction
ITEM
2.2 DK-20e Piping System: Fuel Oil System

2-2.2 Fuel Oil System


Fuel oil system vary depending on the grade of High pressure oil fed by the fuel injection pump
the oil used, and a typical example of the fuel oil is introduced into the fuel injection valve connector
system for heavy fuel oil is as shown below. from the cylinder head side via high-pressure pip-
ing coupling.
When heavy fuel oil is used, oil must be heated
and kept at a constant temperature to maintain the In case of heavy fuel oil specification, nozzle
oil viscocity suitable for injection. cooling is provided to prevent the formation of car-
bon flower.
Oil heated by the heater and pressurized by the
fuel feed pump is transferred to the fuel injection ( : 2-2.5 "Nozzle Cooling System")
pump via filter. Surplus of oil is returned to the inlet When diesel fuel oil is used, heating or heating
side of the oil feed pump via pressure regulating insulation of oil, and nozzle cooling is not required.
valve (relief valve), and is then circulated again.
The oil pipe is provided with various heat insulat-
ing arrangement such as steam trace or ragging,
and is kept at a constant temperature.
The lubrication of the fuel injection pump is
made by means of fuel oil circulation system, and
the plunger is lubricated by means of forced-feed
lubrication system using lub ricating oil.
( : "Lubricating Oil System")

Heavy fuel oil supply system Air separator

Fuel injection valve leakage main pipe


Heavy
fuel Diesel
oil fuel Fuel high-pressure block
tank oil leakage oil main pipe
Accumulator
tank

Fuel high-
Pressure damper pressure Fuel injection
block valve
Filter

Fuel oil
Viscosity feed
controller pump
Inlet connector
Fuel
injection
Heater Filter pump Inlet main pipe

Filter Pressure damper


Waste
Pressure control valve Return main pipe leakage
oil tank
Fuel Oil System

DK-20 A 10-6
CHAPTER
General Construction 2
ITEM
Piping System: Lubricating Oil System DK-20e 2.3

2-2.3 Lubricating Oil System


The lubricating oil system is as shown below. The lubricating pump is of a gear type provided
Lubricating oil transferred to the lubricating oil with a safety vaive, and is installed on the front
cooler from the lubricating oil pump is regulated to side of the engine, to be driven from the crank-
reach the specified temperature and pressure, by shaft.
means of the automatic temperature control valve The lubricating oil filter is an automatic back-
(hereinafter referred to as temperature control wash type. The filter is constantly cleaned during
valve) and relief valve respectively, and the lubri- operation, which keeps the lubricating oil in a good
cating oil is transferred to the oil channel of the condition for a long time.
engine frame from the cooler via filter. Then, from
this oil channel, the lubricating oil is supplied to the
Lubricating oil is supplied to fuel injection pump
via special lubricating oil filter respectively.
2
piston through the holes of the connecting rod via
Lubricating oil, that has circulated through and
each main bearing metal and crank pin metal.
has lubricated each part, returns to the base plate
Lubricating oil is also supplied to the camshaft,
of the engine (oil tank).
valve-operating swing arm, fuel injection pump,
various gears, and around the locker arm.

Rocker arm

Cooler Fuel injection pump

Filter Filter
Temperature
control valve Relief Swing arm
valve

Camshaft

Turbo-
charger

Pump

Safty valve Timming gear


Governor driving gear
Cooling water pump

Base plate of engine Leaked oil tank


Lubricating Oil System

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
2 General Construction
ITEM
2.4 DK-20e Piping System: Cooling Water System

2-2.4 Cooling Water System Pressured and sent by the cooler system cool-
ing-water pump, the cooling water passes the
The cooling water system can be a fresh-water lubricating oil cooler to the air cooler before going
simplex system cooling method or can be a fresh- back to the low temperature line.
/sea-water (or fresh-water) duplex system method.
Pressured and sent by the jacket cooling-water
(1) Fresh-water simplex cooling pump, the cooling water goes into the engine's
This cooling method consists of a cooler system jacket, cools down each component, and then
(low temperature), where the cooling water sup- meets the cooler system's flow before going back
plied from the low temperature line to the engine is to the low temperature line.
pressured and sent by a cooler cooling-water
pump (built-in or separately installed), and a jacket
system (high temperature), where the cooling (2) Duplex system cooling
water diverging from the cooler system is pres- This consists of a jacket system and a cooler
sured and sent by a jacket cooling-water pump system. In the jacket system, the cooling water is
(built-in). fresh water. In the cooler system, the cooling water
is seawater (for watercraft) or fresh water.

Head tank

Air cooler Jacket line


outlet main pipe

Lubricating Temperature
oil cooler control valve

Cooling water pump Diesel


Coolinjg water pump engine
(Cooler line)
(Jacket line)

To low temperature
From low temperature water line
water line
Cooling Water System
(Fresh water one line system)

Head tank

Fresh water cooler

Air cooler
Jacket line
outlet main pipe

Temperature
Lubricating control valve
oil cooler

Cooling water pump Diesel


Coolinjg water pump
(Cooler line) engine
(Jacket line)

Cooling Water System (two lines system)


(fresh water-fresh water or fresh water-sea water)

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
General Construction 2
ITEM
Piping System: Cooling Water System /
Nozzle Cooling System DK-20e 2.4,2.5

The jacket system makes a circulation system. 2-2.5 Nozzle Cooling System
After cooled down by the freshwater cooler, the
cooling water is pressured and sent by the jacket Nozzle cooling is employed for engines that use
cooling-water pump and goes into the engine's low-quality fuel oil.
jacket, where the cooling water cools down each Nozzle ends need to be cooled to prevent car-
component before passing through the exit mani-
fold and going back to the freshwater cooler. The bon flower, which forms at ends of fuel injection
engine (or the fresh-water cooler) is equipped with valve nozzles while the fuel oil is hot. In one
a cooling-water temperature adjustment valve method, the cooling water passes in the nozzles to
between the exit and the entrance, which main- cool them down (cooling nozzles). In another
tains the cooling water at a prescribed tempera- method, the cooling water is sprayed on the outer
ture.
circumferences of the nozzles to cool them down
The cooling water in the cooler system is pres-
sured and sent by the cooler system pump, passes
(non-cooling nozzles).
The cooling water is fresh water. Part of the
2
through the lubricating oil cooler, the air cooler,
and fresh-water cooler before discharged. cylinder jacket cooling water diverges, which pass-
es through the entrance main pipe to reach the
nozzles or the vicinity of the nozzles. After cooling
down the nozzles, the cooling water converges
into the exit main pipe before going back to the
cooling-water pump entrance.

Orifice Valve
Outlet main pipe

Inket main pipe

Cylinder head
Valve
Jacket line
Fuel nozzle fresh water
pump
Jacket cooling

Nozzle Cooling System (Non-cooling Nozzle)

Valve Orifice
Outlet main pipe

Valve Orifice
Inlet main pipe

Jacket line
fresh water pump
Fuel nozzle Jacket cooling

Nozzle Cooling System (Cooling Nozzle)

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
2 General Construction
ITEM Engine Operation Control, Protective Device:
3.1 DK-20e Starting Control

2-3 Engine Operation Control and Protective Device

Control and protective devices such as the starting air vaive and stoppage cylinder
are activated by low-pressure control air.
This section describes a system generally used for the power station that is remotely
controlled for starting and stopping. The engine that is actually delivered may differ
from the examples shown in this section dipending on the specifications, and there-
fore refer to the final documents, which are separately provided, for the details.
As for the starting air system (high pressure), refer to the previous section 2-2.1.

2-3.1 Starting Control d) When the engine reaches the specified rota-
tion speed, the low-speed relay (14) is activat-
(1) For Generator (Remote control)
ed, canceling the start command and resetting
a) In case of starting the engine by remote con-
the protective circuit, so that the engine is set
trol, the control lever must always be set to
to operating state.
"RUN" position. The handle switch (HS) will be
turned "ON" at this state, and if the turning
safety switch (TC) is also turned "ON", the (2) Automatic Starting
engine will be on standby and ready for opera- When the engine is started automatically,
the engine starting solenoid valve is activated
tion.
in response to the start command issued auto-
b) In case of directly starting the engine, the matically in the specified sequence, so that
starting solenoid (88V) is powered, excited, and the control air flows into the starting air valve
activated by a start command, so that control and the engine starts its rotation. (Direct start-
ing system)
air flows into the starting air valve via starting
operation valve, and the starting air reaches The air motor starts the machine as follows. A
the starting valve as the main valve is opened. prescribed sequence issues a start command
The air motor starts the machine as follows. automatically. The start solenoid valve oper-
As a start command is issued, the start sole- ates. The decompressed air flows to the air
noid valve operates. The controlling air flows motor, which rotates the engine.
to the air motor. The controlling air pushes out
the pinion gear of the air motor. (3) Engine Side Starting (Local starting)
When the pinion gear is engaged with the In case of starting the engine from the
engine side (locally), the operation mode must
ring gear attached to the flywheel, the control-
be set to "LOCAL" position, and in case of
ling air reaches from the air motor to the start- direct starting system, if the push button of the
ing valve, and the main air circuit of the start- starting operation valve is pressed, control air
ing valve opens. flows into the starting air valve, and starting air
flows into the cylinder.
c) Meanwhile, the same start command allows The air motor starts the machine as follows.
the fuel control solenoid (88L) to activate, caus- You switch the operation mode to enable the
ing control air to flow into fuel regulating cylin- machine side switch. When you push the
der, and allows the common rod to be held in starting push button, the start solenoid valve
position, so that the fuel injection amount is operates to circulate the decompressed air to
the air motor.
controlled not to be excessive at the time of
starting.

DK-20e A 11-06
CHAPTER
General Construction 2
Engine Operation Control, Protective Device: ITEM

Starting Control DK-20e 3.1

Starting operation valve Governor motor


Turning bar Pulse sensor
63 Starting
Q2 air valve Speed switch


From L.O.




%
(12,13,14)
piping Governor Meter display
(4-20mA)
Turning Stop Control
safety cylinder cylinder Common rod
Starting air
switch

Control air

Control air
rotary valve
Fuel oil shut
down device
Fuel oil injection pump
Stop Operation lever
Starting
valve Air tank
cylinder

RUN
2
To fuel START
oil injection pump
of each cylinder STOP

Control air
0.8MPa
{8kg/cm2} Handle switch (HS)

Stating Fuel oil Fuel oil Fuel oil


sorenoid shut down control shut down
valve solenoid solenoid solenoid
valve valve valve
䇭䇭䋨㪏㪏䌖䋩 䇭䇭䋨䋵䌖䋩 䋨䋸䋸䌌䋩 䇭䋨䋵䌓䋩

Starting and stoppage System of Constant-Speed Engine (Direct Starting Type)

Governor motor
Pulse sensor
Flywheel Starting push button Governor

Starting solenoid valve





Speed switch
(12,13,14)


㩿㪏㪏㪭㪀
Meter display
(4-20mA)
Air motor Control air Control cylinder
Stop cylinder Common rod
Air vent
valve
Fuel oil shut
down device
Fuel oil injection pump
Starting valve
Safty valve Operation lever
Stop cylinder
Turning bar
Relief valve
RUN
Pressure To fuel START
regurating valve oil injection pump
Air filter of each cylinder STOP
Air tank
Turning
safety switch Handle switch (HS)
Starting air
63
Q2
Control air Fuel oil Fuel oil Fuel oil
shut down control shut down
From L.O. piping 0.8MPa
solenoid valve solenoid valve solenoid valve
{8kg/cm2} (5V) (㪏㪏䌌) (5S)

Starting and Stoppage System of Constant-Speed Engine ( Air motor starting type)

DK-20e A 11-06
CHAPTER
2 General Construction
ITEM Engine Control, Protective Device:
3.1 DK-20e Controlling Engine Stoppage/ Engine Protective Device

(4) For marine propulsion engine


a) Engine Side Starting (Local starting) b) Remote Starting (Starting from the bridge)
i ) In case of starting the engine from the engine i ) When the engine is to be started remotely
side (locally), the changeover valve on the (starting from the bridge), set the control handle
engine must be set to the local side, and the of the bridge to "NEUTRAL" position, and set
control lever must be changed to "START" the operating lever to "RUN" position.
position from "STOP" position. At this state, the Then, the handle switch (HS) will be turned
handle switch (HS) will be turned to "ON", and "ON", and the turning safety switch (TC) will
the protective circuit will be released. also be turned to "ON", so that the engine is
ii) When the push button of the starting operating on standby position for starting.
valve is pressed, control air flows into the start-
ii) The starting solenoid (88V) is powered, excit-
ing valve, and starting air (high pressure) flows
ed, and activated by a start command, and
into the starting valve as the main valve of the
control air flows into the starting valve via start-
starting air valve is opened.
ing operation valve, so that the main valve is
iii) When the engine reaches the specified rota- opened, and starting air flows into the starting
tion speed, the low-speed relay (14) is activat- valve.
ed, so that the start command is canceled and
the protective circuit is reset, allowing the
engine to be at starting state.
iv) When the idle rotation speed becomes stable,
turn the operating lever to "RUN" position from
"START" position.

63 Starting operation valve


Q2 Pulse sensor
From L.O. Starting air valve Air piston Governor
piping 12
Speed switch
Explosion plate
13

14

C
(12,13,14)
Meter display
(4-20mA)
Starting air Fuel oil shutdown
rotary valve and control device
Common rod

Fuel oil injection pump

Stop Operation lever


Starting cylinder
Air tank
valve
RUN
Governor boost To fuel START
sorenoid (GVB) oil injection pump
of each cylinder STOP

Control air
0.8MPa Handle switch (HS)
{8kg/cm2}

Fuel oil shutdown Fuel oil shutdown


Governor boost air solenoid valve solenoid valve
Governor air (from control handle) (5V) (5S)
(0.1~0.4 MPa (1~4 kg/cm2)

Starting and stoppage System of Variable-Speed Engine


(Direct Starting Type.Engine side Operation)

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
General Construction 2
Engine Control, Protective Device: ITEM

Controlling Engine Stoppage/ Engine Protective Device DK-20e 3.2,3.3

2-3.2 Stoppage Control 2-3.3 Engine Protection System


(1) For Generator (1) As for the errors that may be led to serious
The fuel shutdown solenoid (5V) is activat- accidents or failures, alarm is issued and emer
ed by a stoppage command, causing control gency stop is made.
air to flow into the fuel shutdown device, so
Each abnormal operation data or value is
that the common rod is turned toward stop-
detected by a switch or sensor, and the fuel
page direction, and then the engine is
shutdown solenoid is activated by an emer-
stopped.
gency stoppage command, so that the engine
In case of stopping the engine from the is immediately stopped.
engine side (locally), turn the operating lever
to "STOP" position.
Note that the fuel control cylinder above
(2) Depending the specifications, the dual safety
system will be provided. In such a case, in 2
addition to the normal engine stoppage, control
described is the monolithic type assembled air is flowed into the stoppage air cylinder
with the fuel shutdown device. attached to the fuel injection pump to stop the
engine.
(2) For Marine propulsion engine (3) When the forward clutch of the reduction gear
The fuel shutdown solenoid (5S) is activat- is engaged, the governor boost solenoid is acti-
ed by a stoppage command, causing control vated by movement of the control handle,caus-
air to flow into the stoppage cylinder, so that ing the governor air boost to reach the gover-
the rack of the fuel injection pump is moved nor, so that the reduction of the engine rotation
toward the stoppage direction, and then the speed is prevented.
engine is stopped. Further, the engine rotation speed is controlled
by governor air via governor, and at the same
time the governor air reaches the FO control
cylinder to control the rotation speed of the
common rod, so that the excessive supply of
fuel injection is restrained, (for the specifica-
tions of the marine propulsion engine)

Table 2.3-1 Alarm and Stoppage Items (Examples)

Detection item Alarm Shutdown Location Remarks


Overspeed Cam gear
Decrease of lubricating Engine inlet
oil pressure 63Q1 63Q2
Increase of fresh cooling TB4 26W2 Engine outlet TB4:Combined use
water temperature for issuing command
Decrease of turbocharger 63QT Turbocharger inlet
lubricating oil pressure
Increase of lubricating oil TB3 Combined use for
temperature Engine inlet issuing command
Increase of exhaust Turbocharger inlet Combined use for
temperature TB1 (or outlet) issuing command
Oil leakage from high-pressure 33F Tank level of leaked
fuel oil pipe coupling or waste oil
Decrease of lubricating 33Q
oil level Engine lubricating oil tank

Marked : Option

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
2 General Construction
ITEM Engine Control, Protective Device:
3.3 DK-20e Engine Protective Device

Oil leaakage from


Speed sensor (TS) high-pressure fuel Level switch Level switch
oil pipe coupling (33F) (33Q)
Speed
switch unit
(12, 13, 14)
12
13
14
C Lubricating oil
Fuel oil leakage
(Resistance bulb)
GM 88V 5V 88L 5S HS TC TS 63Q2 26W2 33F 63QT 63Q1 63A
TB1 TB2 TB3 TB4
4 1 4 1
M 3 2 3 2

A B 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 4 2 1 4 3 1 S + - 4 1 2 4 1 2 2 2 4 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 4 3 4 S + - E 1 2 1 4 2 2 1 4 1 4 1 4 A B B A B B A B B A B B
MA
MB

57

60

63

66
55

58

61

64
56

59

62

65
5

22

25

30

33
1

3
4

6
7

13
2

18

20
21

23
24

26

28
29

31
32
11

14

19

27
15
12
A

C
B

Contact of each switch indicates


C C : Control panel C C the state during operation. C
S+ -E
12 14
C 12A 14A 14B

Engine Protection System (Example)

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
General Construction 2
ITEM
MEMO DK-20e

2
CHAPTER
3 Engine Adjustment Standards
ITEM
1 DK-20e Operating Specifications

3-1 Operating Specifications

Item Alarm setting value


Normal value (emergency stop value) Reference

Air tank 1.5 ~ 3.0 1.5


{15 ~ 30} {15}
Starting air
Air motor 0.5 ~ 0.6
{5.0 ~ 6.0}
Pressure MPa (kgf/cm2)‫ޓ‬

Control air Air tank 0.7 ~ 0.9 0.6


{7.0 ~ 9.0} {6.0}
Varies depending on
Intake air Intake air duct the engine output
0.5 ~ 0.6
Fuel oil Engine inlet {5.0 ~ 6.0}
Engine inlet 0.4 ~0.55 0.25(0.20)
(filter outlet) {4.0 ~ 5.5} {2.5 (2.0)}
Lubricating oil
Turbocharger Varies depending on
inlet the turbocharger spec.
Jacket line 0.25 ~ 0.40
(jacket inlet) Consider static and
{2.5 ~ 4.0}
Cooling water dynamic pressure due
Cooler line 0.1 ~ 0.2 to tank head and pipe
(cooler inlet) {1 ~ 2} resistance

Intake air Intake air duct 45 ~ 55

Cylinder outlet 500


Exhaust gas
Temperature ( C)

Turbocharger inlet 600


O

Turbocharger outlet 500


Engine inlet
Lubricating oil (cooler outlet) 50 ~ 60 65

Jacket inlet
Cooling water

65 ~ 70 80
Jacket line
(fresh water)
Jacket outlet 70 ~ 75 85(90)
Cooler line Engine inlet
Sea water ~ 32
Fresh water 36 ~ 38
Note: (1) As for the alarm setting value and emergency stop value, each item of the pressure represents the
lower limit value, and each item of the temperature represents the upper limit value.
(2) Manometer, thermometer, and alarm / emergency stop device will be provided depending on the
individual specifications.
(3) The actual data found on each engine may differ from those shown in the abave table, and therfore
refer to the Test Run Record (includes in the final documents) for the details.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Engine Adjustment Standards 3
ITEM
Valve Setting Values DK-20e 2

Item Adjustment value Remarks


(design value)

8DK May vary depending on the engine


output and specificatins. Refer to the
Opening start angle (60 ) o
Test Run Record Table (included in
(before top dead center) 6DK the final documents).

5DK (35o)
Intake valve

Closing end angle B


(after bottom dead center) (35o)
A

Valve end clearance "C" 0.31mm


3
Opening start angle
(55o) Valve end clearance adjusting procedure
(before bottom dead center)
Exhaust valve

(1) Valve end clearance data represents


8DK the clearance available when the
engine cold.
Closing end angle (50o) (2) Adjust valve end clearance "A" and
(after top dead center) 6DK
"B" shown above such that it becomes
equal to "0" first. Then, adjust valve
5DK (75o) end clearance "C" such that it becomes
equal to the value given in this table.
Valve end clearance "C" 0.31mm
Opening start angle
Starting air

(before top dead center) (4o) In case of direct starting system.


valve

Closing end angle


(after top dead center) (130o)
Pumping start angle by May vary depending on the engine output
fuel injection pump and specifications. Refer to the Test Run
(before top dead center) Record Table (included in the final documents).

Fuel oil injection valve opening pressure 29.4MPa


(adjustment value) {300kgf/cm2}
May vary depending on the engine output
Maximum combustion pressure and specifications. Refer to the Test Run
Record Table (included in the final documents).

Cylinder safety valve opening pressure 19.1MPa


(adjustment value) {195kgf/cm2}

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM

1.1, 1.2 DK-20e Precautions for Operating Engine

4-1.Precautions for Operating Engine


4-1.1 For Start
(1) Conduct preparations before start of the operation of engine, such as the inspection of oil, water,
and air levels, as well as proper operation of the valves without fault, and be minded to start opera-
tion only after it has been confirmed that all the conditions are ready for the start of engine.
(2) It is extremely dangerous to start the operation of engine with the turning bar inserted in the fly-
wheel. Be minded to remove the bar and store it in a specified place after turning is completed.
(3) Confirm that there are no working staff around the engine. When anyone is around the engine, be
minded to send a signal and confirm safety before starting the operation of engine.

4-1.2 For Operation

(1) After the starting engine, inspect the following items, and confirm that the engine is in a good and
removal operating for. In case that any defect is found, immediately stop the engine, so that the
causes of the defect can be investigated and the measures for recovery can be taken.
Any abnormal data of the engines, such as inadequate lubricating oil pressure, inadequate
exhaust temperature, etc.
Abnormal sound, excessive heating, etc.
Any leakage from piping. (Particularly, leaks from oil piping will result in fire.)
Be minded never to attempt to resume the operation of engine, until the causes of the problem
or defect are found and eliminated, and the engine is restored to normal operating conditions.
(2) Inadvertent contact of the body of working staff or objects with the rotary parts (e.g. flywheel and
coupling) will result in dangerous accidents such as that the staff may be caught up or the chips of
the objects caught may fly out in all directions. Therefore, be minded that both person or object
may not touch the rotary parts.
Further, ensure that the protective covers of the rotary parts are always attached without fall.
(3) During the operation of engine, particularly the following parts are extremely hot, and therefore
there is a danger of burn if touched with bare hands or skin. Be minded to wear safety gloves or
protective gears whenever maintenance or inspection works are conducted.
After the completion of the work, restore the lagging, heat covers, combustible oil splash preven-
tive means (FN tape) and protective covers that have been removed for maintenance and inspec-
tion.
Exhaust pipe
Turbocharger
Air cooler inlet pipe
Cylinder head
Indicator valve
Fuel injection pump and high-pressure coupling
Fuel oil filter and fuel oil pipe (in case of heavy fuel oil)

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
Precautions for Operating Engine DK-20e 1.3

4-1.3 For Stop


(1) Make sure that the engine is stopped after load is taken off the engine, except in the case of emer-
gency.
(2) In case that the engine is stopped in emergency stop, be minded never attempt to resume the oper-
ation until the causes of the problems is found and eliminated, and the engine is restored.
(3) Do not open the crankcase for at lease 10 minutes after the engine is stopped and fully cooled
down. Otherwise, there is a danger of explosion since the inflammable mist gas in the crankcase
may catch fire.
(4) The engine immediately after it is stopped is still extremely hot like during the operation, and there
is a danger of burn. Therefore, be minded to wear the protective gears whenever inspection or
maintenance works is conducted without fall.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM

2.1 DK-20e Preparation of Daily Operation

4-2.Preparation of Daily Operation


It is essential to keep the engine in "Operable Conditions" whenever the engine is being oper-
ated. Therefore, be sure to perform pre-operation inspections before the starting of engine, and
take proper corrective actions and countermeasure whenever any problem is found, to confirm
that the engine is in normal conditions for operation, before starting the operation of engine.
If the engine is started without pre-operation inspections or preparations, it will cause not only
the troubles when starting the engine but also result in a sudden stoppage or damaging acci-
dents.

4-2.1 Preparation for Daily Operation

The number of the inspection items required


before starting the operation varies depending
on how long the engine has been out of oper-
ation.
Daily starting: Short period of disuse (within Upper limit
one month)
Initial starting after a long period of disuse, Lower limit
or after overhaul or maintenance.
The daily starting procedures is described in
this section. As for the latter (initial starting),
refer to the following section.
( :4-2.2 "Preparation for Initial Starting l")

Inspecting Engine Lubricating Oil

Oil port Oil port

Level gauge

RHD6 UG10

Inspecting Governor Lubricating Oil Level

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
Preparation for Daily Operation DK-20e 2.1

(1) Inspection before Start


a) Inspection and Feeding of Lubricating Oil Operation
Check the oil level of the oil tank, and feed lever 䌁
new oil to the upper limit level of the oil gauge
(level gauge).

Inspect the amount of the lubricating oil
while the engine is not operating. Before start-
ing inspection, wipe off the oil on the oil 䌃 Fuel injection pump
Oil feeding point
gauge, and then start inspection.
Manual oil feeding: Around common rod and
Further, in case that the lubricating oil is fuel injection pump
found inadequate after examination, proceed
with makeup or replace the entire amount of Potentiometer Oil feeding point
the lubricating oil.

( :6-2 "Lubricating Oil Characteristics and


Control")
① Engine lubricating oil tank
(Base plate common to engines)
View A: Around C: Around
potentiometer link operation lever
Engine Model 5DK 6DK 8DK
Amount of Lubri- Fuel injection pump
4
cating Oil (L) 740 1100 1400

Note: The oil level shown above may vary


depending on specifications.
② Governor
Lubricating oil level, RHD6: 1.3L
Oil feeding point
UG10: 1.7 L View B: Around fuel injection pump
③ Generator (in case of self-lubricating type)
( :Separately provided "Generator
Instruction Manual") Indicator Rack scale
④ Reduction gear (in case of marine
plopulsion engine)
( :Separately provided "Generator
Instruction Manual") RUN

b) Inspection, lubrication, and Operation


RUN
Check around the Fuel Regulation System
Manually lubricate the bearing and sliding STOP
STOP

parts of pins, after checking for any loose or


missing levers, link pins, and bolts around the
governor, common rod, stop system, and fuel
inspection pump rack. Operation lever
Set the operation lever to "STOP" position
and confirm that the rack scale is "0", and
then alternately move the lever to "STOP" and
"RUN" positions, to confirm that the common
rod and pump rack moves smoothly.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM

2.1 DK-20e Preparation for Daily Operation

c) Draining of Condensed Water from Intake d) Draining Condensed Water from, and
Air Inlet Duct Supply Air,to Air Tanks
Open the drain cock of the intake air inlet In case of automatically supplying air, first
duct of the engine frame, and drain the con- drain the condensed water out of the starting
densed water out.Confirm draining the con- air tank and starting air control tank, and then
densed water or discharging the air during confirm that air pressures in these tanks is
engine running. above the lower limit value.
In case of manually supplying air (including
manual starting of the air compressor), supply
air to the upper limit value.
Open

Close Item Upper limit Lower limit


Drain cock of engine Direct 3.0 MPa 1.8 MPa
frame inlet air duct Starting air
starting 㨧30 kgf/cm2㨩 㨧18kgf/cm2㨩

Air motor 3.0 MPa 1.8 MPa


starting 㨧30 kgf/cm2㨩 㨧18 kgf/cm2㨩

0.9 MPa 0.7 MPa


Control air
㨧9 kgf/cm2㨩 㨧7 kgf/cm2㨩

e) Checking and Feeding of Fresh Cooling


Water
Check the level of fresh cooling water, and if
the level is at the lower limit, supply fresh water
Engine Frame Inlet Air Duct
up to the upper limit, and at the same time add
a proper amount of the additive.
Further, in case that each properties of
water has reached the limit level, replace the
entire amount of water.
Always keep the drain cock of 。the engine
frame inlet air duct open about 60 (2/3), after
draining the condensed water by fully operat- ( : 6-3 "Cooling Water Characteristics and
ing the drain cock. Control")
In case that the humidity is high and the
cooling water temperature of the air cooler is
low, a large amount of condensed water will
accumulate, any may cause corrosion or
abnormal wear on various parts flowing into
the cylinder and may cause serious accident
as the case may be.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
Preparation for Daily Operation DK-20e 2.1

f) Draining of Fuel Oil and Supply of Oil


First drain fuel oil out of the fuel oil service
tank, and then check the oil level and supply oil
up to the upper limit of the level gauge.
g)Confirmation of the Clutch Being "Neutral"
(in case of the clutch-mounted engine)
In case of the engine such as the marine
propulsion engine, make sure that the clutch is
in "Neutral" position.

h) Opening and Closing of valves


Repeat "Fully open" and "Fully close" opera-
tion of the valves on the piping system 2 to 3
times to confirm that the valves move smoothly,
and then set the valves to "RUN" position.
Some of the examples are shown as follows.
Since the layout positions of the piping systems
and valves differ depending on each engine,
refer to the piping diagrams of the final docu-
ments for the details.
4
[Example]
① Valves for fuel oil inlet pipe and return pipe:
"Open"
② Valves for cooling water (jacket and cool-
er), inlet pipe, and outlet pipe: "Open"
③ Valves for starting air pipe: "Closed"
("Open" only when starting operation)
④ Valves for operation air pipe: "Open"
⑤ Valves for pipe coupling parts provided for
emergency, priming, cleaning, etc.:
"Closed"

If the screw-tightening valves are used on


the state of half-open, the valve handle may
be turned during operation and the opening
degree may be changed, causing malfunc-
tions.
Therefore, the valves should be fully turned
toward either "Open" or "Close" position, and
should be locked tightly.
In case that the valves must necessarily be
left half open for the sake of flow adjustment,
be sure to secure the valve handles with wire
ring and the like, and fix them to prevent their
loosening and turning.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM

2.1 DK-20e Preparation for Daily Operation

(2) Standby Preparation (Engine on standby) [Turning]


Before entering the operation of engine, conduct <Work Procedure>
the following preparations: i ) Conduct priming with lubricating oil.
ii) Set the operation lever to "STOP" position.
a ) Priming with Lubricating Oil (Do not injected fuel oil.)
Start the motor-driven lubricating oil priming iii) Set the indicator valve to "Fully open" posi-
tion.
pump (or a reserve pump) 5 minutes before start-
iv) Conduct turning 1 to 2 times, and confirm that
ing the operation of engine, and confirm that there
the engine rotates smoothly.
is no oil leaks from various parts of the piping .
[Priming by Manual Pump]
When priming is conducted by manual pump,
Close
instead of motor-driven pump, follow the following
procedure.
i ) Open the valve of the manual pump outlet.
ii) Operate the pump lever/
iii) Conduct priming for about 5 minutes, while
confirming the swing of the indicator or the lubri-
cating oil gauge. Open
iv) Afyer the completion of priming, securely close
the outlet valve.

b) Turning or Air Running


Conduct turning or air running to discharge the Indicator Valve
dusts or water drops that has collected in the cylin-
der while the engine is stopped.
Further, when the engine is started after the
inspection of various parts of the engine, or after a
Rack scale
long period of disuse of the engine, conduct turn-
Indicator
ing before air running to confirm the safety.

In case that a large amount of water or oil is


accumulated in the cylinder due to the leak-
age from the cylinder head or fuel injection
valve, there is possibility of serious accidents
such as bending damage of the connecting
rod by water hammer. RUN

When conducting turning or air running,if


water or oil has gushes out of the indicator STOP
STOP
valve, immediately stop the starting of engine,
so that the causes can be investigated and
the coutermeasure can be prepared and
taken.
Operation Lever

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
Preparation for Daily Operation DK-20e 2.1

[Air Running (abbreviated as Air Run.)]


<Work Procedure> The air motor may be damaged if you keep
i ) Conduct priming with lubricating oil. using the motor for purposes other than start-
ii) Set the operation lever to "STOP" position. ing the engine--for example, for the purpose of
iii) "Fully open" the indicator valve. discharging air out of the fuel pipe. Do not use
iv) Open the starting air valve and the control air the motor for cranking on the purpose of air
valve, and press the push button for the start- discharge.
ing operation valve. Then, starting air flows If you keep the air motor operating for more
into the stsrting air valve, and the engine than 30 seconds, stop it and wait for 2 min-
start its rotation. utes and 30 seconds or longer. This allows
When the air motor is used for the engine the air motor to cool down automatically.
starting, you push the starting push button on
the side of the engine. The start solenoid c) Heating of Fuel Oil (when heavy fuel oil is
valve operates. The starting air flows to the used.)
air motor, and the engine rotates.
In case that heavy fuel oil is used, heating
v) Keep pressing the push button for 3 to 4 sec- shall be made according to the following items:
onds. (for air run)
i ) Turn on the fuel oil heating device.
vi) Release the push button. Then, the starting
ii) Operate the motor-driven oil feed pump.
air valve closes, and the engine stops its
rotation. ( :6-1 "Fuel Oil Characteristics and
When the air motor is used for the engine
starting, you release the starting push button.
Control")
4
The operation of the air motor stops, and the
engine stops.
Heated heavy fuel oil is extremely hot
(100℃ or more), may cause burn if you touch
the piping or equipment on the fuel oil system.
If the engine starts its rotation during the Therefore, in case of handling the equipment
inspection of the inside of the engine or rotary
parts, it is extremely dangerous since the of fuel oil system that carriers heat oil, be sure
working staff may be caught up or the objects to wear safety gloves and never touch them
that has been caught up may fly out in all with bare hands.
directions.
When conducting air run, strictly observe the d) Turning "ON" of Protective and Alarm
following points. Circuit
1) Confirm that the turning device or turning
bar is set "OFF". Turn "ON" the protective and alarm circuit on
2) Send a signal to coworkers and confirm the monitor panel, and confirm that the warning
safety before starting to press the push but- lam is lit up.
ton of the starting operation valve.
e) Operation of Motor-Driven Pumps
In case that the engine is equipped with the
motor-driven cooling water pump and fuel oil
Do not fully open the starting air valve dur- feed pump, start the pumps 5 minutes before the
ing air run, keeping the opening at about 1/3, starting of engine, and confirm that there is no
and carefully conduct air running at low oil leaks from various parts of piping.
speed.
If air run is conducted at high speed by fully
opening the starting air valve, it will not only
expend air uselessly, but also will result in
serious accidents such as aggravation of the
defects if any defect had been caused.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM
Preparation for operation: Preparation of Initial Starting after A
2.2 DK-20e Long Period of Disuse, and Overhaul

4-2.2 P r e pa r a t i o n f o r I n i t i a l Open the following filters, and cleanse the


Sta r t i n g a ft e r L o n g P e r i o d inside and the elements of the filters:
① Starting air filter and control air filter
of Disuse
② Fuel oil filter (including oil filters on the
Since the engine is not ready for immediate outside of the engine)
starting of operation after a long period of disuse,
and overhaul or maintenance, it is particularly nec- ③ Lubricating oil filter
essary to thoroughly conduct the preparations for ④ Cooling water filter
operation. ( :5-4.3 "Cleaning Filters")
Before the preparation for daily operation, con-
duct the following preparation works (4-2.1).
(1) Inspection of Crankcase and Cylinder Liner,
and Supply of Oil
a) Inspection of the Inside of Crankcase
Open the side cover of the engine frame, and
check and ensure that tools, waste clothes, for-
eign matters such as desiccants are not left
behind, and that there is no rusting on the cylin-
der liners, crankshaft, and so on.
b) Supplying Lubricating Oil to Cylinder Liner
After a long period of disuse, the various parts
of engine are not covered with sufficient amount
of lubricating oil. Particularly around the cylin-
der, lubricating oil cannot be supplied sufficiently
with priming alone, and therefore supply lubricat- Spray (Spray
ing oil on the following procedure: lubricating oil)
i ) Conduct turning to allow the pistons to move
upward, and apply lubricating oil on the lower
part of the cylinder liners by a spray device
No foreign matters
and the like.
such as desiccant or
ii) Sequentially conduct the above procedure to silicagel should be
each cylinder. present.
(2) Inspection of Connections and Joints
Applying Procedure of Lubricating Oil
Inspect again the external connections or
joints to confirm that there is no connections that
(4) Priming with Lubricating Oil and
has been forgotten to be tightened, or loosened
joints. If combustible oil splash preventive Exhausting Air
means has been removed from joints, newly Conduct priming with lubricating oil and
treat the joints in the same manner after the exhausting air on the following procedure:
completion of the work. a) Run the lubricating oil priming pump for 5 min-
(3) Opening, Cleaning, and Cleansing of Filters utes. While the pump is operating, open the
turning plug (on the cylinder head top surface) to
Dust or foreign objects, that had been collect-
perform turning two or three times, and check for
ed into piping during transportation, and outfit-
leakage of fuel oil, lubricating oil and water from
ting or installation, is accumulated in the filters of
the turning plug.
the engine inlet.
b) At the same time, open the each cover and
check the dripping-down conditions of lubricating
oil from each part.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
Preparation for operation: Preparation of Initial Starting after A
Long Period of Disuse, and Overhaul DK-20e 2.2

① Engine frame: Main bearing, crank pin, pis- Check that the joints that were once discon-
ton (cooling chamber), and piston pin nected are provided with combustible oil splash
② Cam case: Cam bearing, swing arm, and tappet preventive means .
③ Cylinder head: Rocker arm and valve retaining tee
Air vent valve
c) Operate the priming pump, open the air vent
valve for lubricating oil filter, and drain lubricat-
ing oil until air bubbles in the oil are completely
O S
vanished. Take care not to splash the oil.
d) Check that there is no oil leakage from various
parts of the piping during priming.

(5) Priming with Fuel Oil and Exhausting Air


Conduct priming with fuel oil and exhausting
air bubbles on the following procedure:
i ) Operate the fuel oil feed pump (in case of the
engine equipped with a motor-driven oil feed
pump).
ii) Open the fuel oil inlet valve, after confirming
that the operation lever is set to "STOP"
position.
iii) Open the air vent valve of the fuel oil filter,
4
and drain oil until air bubbles in oil are com-
Exhausting Air of Notch-Wire Filter
pletely vanished.
iv) Open the air vent valve of the fuel injection Air vent plug
pump, and drain oil until air bubbles in oil
are completely vanished.
v) After completely removing air vent, securely
tighten the deflator.

The heavy fuel oil is heated to a high


temperature (100℃ or more).
Touching the splashing oil may scald your
hands. If high-temperature parts are splashed
with the oil, a fire may occur. Take care not to
splash the oil when discharging air.
Exhausting Air of
Fuel Injection Pump
(6) Cleaning of Turbocharger Pre-Filter
Dust or debris are collected in the pre-filter of Pre-filter
the turbocharger during transportation, outfitting,
and installation, causing the filter to be stained
or damaged.
Therefore, clean it or replace it with a new one
before starting the operation.

(7) Checking the covers are fitted


Check that the lagging for high-temperature
parts (exhaust pipe, turbocharger, etc.), exhaust
pipe cover and heat box cover that were
removed for disassembly and servicing have
been restored as they were.
Turbocharger

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM

3.1 DK-20e Starting Procedure

4-3.Starting Indicator Rack scale

Inadvertent contact of working staff or objects


with the rotary parts is extremely dangerous RUN
since the person may be caught up or the
object that has been caught up may fly out in all
directions. RUN

START
Therefore, strictly observe the following items
when starting the operation. STOP
STOP
䃂 Confirm that the protective covers of rotary

parts are mounted in normal state, and that


the rotary parts are free of any obstacle.
Operating Lever
䃂 Confirm that the turning device or turning bar

is set to "OFF".
䃂 Send a signal to a coworker if there is any, (2) Remote Starting (Manual and Push Button
and confirm safety before starting the opera- Starting)
tion of engine.
<Work Procedure>
i ) Switch the starting mode to the remote mode
4-3.1 Starting Procedure (from monitor chamber) from local mode (from
engine side).
(1) Starting from Engine Side
ii) Set the operation lever to "RUN" position.
Starting procedure can be classified into the
three types; engine side starting (local starting), iii) Open the starting air valve and control air
remote starting, and automatic starting, and valve, after confirming that "READY" indicator
which of these should be employed depends on lamp has lit up.
the specifications. However, local starting (start- iv) Press the starting push button.
ing from engine side) by manual operation v) Confirm that "RUN" indicator lamp on the panel
should always be employed after a long period has lit up as the rotation speed of the engine
of disuse or after overhaul or maintenance. has reached the specified rate, and each pres-
sure has reached the specified value.
<Work Procedure>
vi) Close the starting air valve.
i ) Open the starting valve and control air valve.
(Leave the control air valve "OPEN" as it is.)
ii) Set the operation lever in "START," position.
iii) Press the push button for the starting operation
(3) Automatic Starting
valve.
iv) If the rotation speed of the engine has rapidly In case of automatic starting, the engine starts
increased and starting has been established automatically by the starting command based on
along with continuous ignition sounds, release preset starting conditions, such as the overload
the push button. conditions of power shutdown or other engines
(in case of plural engines), and therefore it is
v) After confirming that the rotation speed of the
essential that the engine should always be kept
engine has reached the specified speed, and
in operable conditions
each pressure hasreached the specified value,
set the operating lever to "RUN" position. Engines should be kept in the following condi-
tions at all times:
vi) Close the starting air valve.
1 Starting mode : "AUTO"
(Leave the control air valve "Open" as it is.)
2 Operation lever position : "RUN"
3 Starting air valve and control air valve : "OPEN"

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
Starting Procedure/Inspection and Check Items
Immediately After Starting DK-20e 3.1, 3.2

(4) Corrective Measure in Case of Faulty Starting


In case that the engine has failed to start or
has not started smoothly, take corrective meas- BOOST LUB.OIL
ures by referring to a separately provided RPM
section.
( :7 "Trouble Shooting and Countermeasure") JACKET FUEL OIL

In case that the engine has repeatedly


T/C L.O. COOLER
failed to start in an extremely cold weather
while the engine is still in cold condition, the
unburnt mist of fuel oil may remain in the
exhaust manifold, having a possibility of
catching fire or explosion being caused by
high-temperature combustion gas.
When starting failure has been repeated, GAUGE BOARD
conduct air running and exhaust the unburnt
mist in the exhaust manifold, before restarting
the engine.

4-3.2 Inspection and Check Items


Immediately After Starting (3) Abnormal Sound
4
Check the following items immediately after Carefully listen to the sound of the following
starting. engine parts, and check if there is any abnormal
sound or not.
When any abnormal error has been found,
immediately stop the engine and take proper ① Cylinder head and surrounding parts (intake
measures. and exhaust valves)
( :7 "Trouble Shooting and Countermeasure") ② Crankcase
③ Crankcase and timing gear and auxiliary drive gear
④ Turbocharger
After conducting overhaul or maintenance
of the sliding parts or rotary parts, be sure to (4) Exhaust Temperature
once stop the engine and check that there is Check the exhaust temperature of each cylin-
no error or failure by hand-touching. der, and confirm that all the cylinders are
properly burnt (at 200℃ or more).

(1) Engine Rotation Speed (5) Gas Leakage from Starting Valve
Confirm that the engine rotation speed (the If gas has leaked from the starting valve, the
number of idle rotation speed, in cse of the starting air main pipe becomes hot.
marine propulsion engine) has reached the Check if the starting air main pipe is not heat-
specified rotation speed, and hunting (swinging ed or not by lightly touching the pipe.
of tachometer) is not occurred.
(6) Leakage and Loosening of Each Part
(2) Pressure Reading of Each Parts Check if the bolts and nuts of installation part
Confirm that the indicator of pressure reading, or connecting part are not loosened, and if oil,
for the manometer with blue mark, is within the water, or gas is not leaked.
blue mark, showing the pressure is within the
specified value.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM

4.1 DK-20e Running-in Operation

4-4.Operation
4-4.1 Running-in (2) Operating Conditions during the Running-in
Be sure to operate the engine during the run-
Do not apply a load abruptly since the sliding ning-in period under the following conditions,
parts of the engine are not yet sufficiently ready gradually increasing the load referring to the fig-
to work smoothly or freely when the engine is ure 4.1 and paying special attention to the
started for the first time after its installation or inspection items during the initial running-in
immediately after replacement of the parts such indicated in the section (1).
as the cylinder liners and the piston ring.
Conduct the running-in operation to ensure
smooth and free working of the sliding parts ① Load: 80% or less.
according to the following procedure before get- ② Fuel oil to be used: Diesel fuel oil.
ting into the steady mode of operation. Even for the engines of heavy fuel oil type, use
diesel fuel oil during the running-in period.
(1) Initial Running-in ③ Notwithstanding the prescription given by the
Whether or not the pistons and the oil rings item ② above, the lubricating oil specified for the
move smoothly and freely will substantially affect engines of heavy fuel oil type may be used for
the engine performance, especially the combus- such engines from the start of engine driving.
tion performance and consequently the con- ④ Running-in period is 20 to 30 hours.
sumption of lubricating oil. Further, it is assumed
that they will be decided by the initial operation At the time when the running-in operation is
of a few hours. completed, conduct the following inspection
The revolution of the engine should be gradu- works and confirm that there is not any abnor-
ally increased, then the engine should be mality before entering the normal and regular
stopped after it is driven for two or three minutes operation of engine.
without a load and then conduct the following
inspection that is to be effected after completion ① Inspection of foreign matters and stains in the
of the initial running-in when the engine is start- crankcase.
ed for the first time after its installation or ② Visual inspection of the inner surface of the
replacement of any of parts located in the cylinder liner.
periphery of the cylinder such as the cylinder ③ Inspection and cleaning of the element of each
liner, the piston, the piston ring. And especially filter.
the following items in the checking list for the ini- ④ Remove the flushing filter attached to the ele-
tial running-in should be watched and checked ment of the fuel oil filter.
during the engine operation in order to find out
any symptom of a trouble as soon as possible or
to prevent it from occurring. Be minded never to perform the operation
<Inspection Items during the Initial Running-in> of engine using heavy fuel oil, while the flush-
ing filter is attached.
① Abnormal sound.
② Partial heating. Load
③ Leakage from connection points and loosen (%)
ing of the bolts and nuts. 100
④ Exhaust temperature, irregular exhaust color : Continuous
operation
....... Abnormal combustion.
⑤ Excessive consumption of lubricating oil : 75
....... Poor adaptability of liners and rings.

<Inspection after Completion of the Initial 15 min


50
Running-in>
① Checking the condition of sliding portions of
the cam and the roller, and the cam metal by 15 min
tactile feeling of the finger. 25
② Checking the condition of the internal surface
of the cylinder liner. Preparatio
③ Checking the condition of the main shaft, the Start (Manual)
0
crankpin metal and the cylinder liner by tactile 0 30 60 Time(min)
feeling of the finger. Fig. 4.1 Running-in Pattern (Example)

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
Warming-Up and Connecting Load to the Engine DK-20e 4.2

4-4.2 Warming-Up and Connecting


Load to the Engine
Be minded to perform no-load operation on
In case that the engine is started while it is still in for warming-up operation, and restrain the
a cold state, first perform the warm-up operation, duration of no-load operation within 10 min-
except for the case of emergency, and gradually utes.
connect the load after the engine has sufficiently Running the engine under no-load for long
been warmed up. hours will result in malfunctions such as faulty
If the load is hastily connected while the various combustion and collection of carbons in the
parts of the engine are still cold and not yet in the combustion chamber.
conditions for proper fuel combustion and lubrica-
tion, malfunctions such as faulty combustion, B.Connecting Load to the Engine
excessive wear of the sliding parts, and seizure The lower the engine temperature (tempera-
may be caused. tures of jacket cooling water and lubricating oil)
is, the longer time it is needed to connect the
(1) Warming-up Operation of Engine load.
a) Use diesel fuel oil for warming-up operation The standard load connecting time is shown in
Be sure to use diesel fuel oil for warming up the figure below.
the engine, even in case of the engine with ( :Fig. 4.2 "Load Connection Pattern")
heavy fuel oil specification. In case of the marine propulsion engine (direct
The engines of the heavy fuel oil start/stop
specifications (optional) keep the warm water
connection by propeller), be minded to gradually
increase the rotation speed, since the load will
4
circulating to warm them up while they are not increase according to the rotation speed.
operating. Even so, you must gradually increase
load.
When increasing the rotation speed, be
minded to quickly pass the dangerous running
b) No load speed zone, under which torsional vibration
First operate under no load or light load, and causes damages (the ref mark zone), on the
connect the load after jacket cooling water and tachometer.
lubricating oil temperature has increased. Running the engine within this zone for long
hours may cause the breakage of the crank-
shaft.

Load
(%)
䌴 䋺 40°䌃 䌴 䋺 15°䌃
(Normal ioad)
75

50

25
䌴 䋺 Jacket cooling water and lubricating oil
temperature at stsrtup
No load
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 TIME (min)

Fig. 4.2 Load Connection

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM

4.3 DK-20e Operation with Load (Normal Operation)

4-4.3 Operation with Load (Normal duced, and judge if there is any problem and
Operation) check the degree of deterioration.
( :"Test Run Record Table" in the final
Inspect the running conditions of the engine and
measure the operating performance data in regular documents)
intervals, during the continuous operation with load <Measurement Item>
(including period of the running-in operation). ① Room temperature
In case that any problem is found as the results ② Load (output)
of the inspection and measurement, take proper ③ Rotation speed....In case of variable-speed engine
measures such as adjustment or repair of the ④ Maximum combustion pressure (each cylinder)
defective parts. (Refer to a separately provided ⑤ Intake air temperature (turbocharger inlet)
section.) ⑥ Exhaust temperature (each cylinder outlet)
( :5-3 "Measurement and Adjustment") ⑦ Intake air pressure (engine inlet)
( :7 "Troubleshooting and Countermeasures") ⑧ Lubricating oil pressure (engine inlet)
(1) Inspection of Operating Conditions ⑨ Cooling water pressure (engine inlet)
<Check Item> ⑩ Fuel oil pressure (engine inlet)
... In case of heavy fuel oil specification
① Abnormal sound and abnormal vibration
⑪ Inlet air temperature (engine inlet)
② Partial overheat
⑫ Lubricating temperature (engine inlet)
③ Leakage from connections and looseness of ⑬ Cooling water temperature (engine inlet)
screws
⑭ Fuel oil temperature (engine inlet)
④ Abnormal combustion pressure, exhaust tem- ... In case of heavy fuel oil specification
perature, and exhaust color ⑮ Fuel injection pump rack scale
...... Abnormal combustion
⑤ Excessive consumption of lubricating oil (3) Regular Inspection and Maintenance
...... Damaged cylinder liner and ring Conduct inspection and maintenance of the vari-
ous parts of engine regularly.
(Refer to a separately provided section.)
During the operation of engine, particularly ( :5 "Inspection and Maintenance")
the following parts become extremely hot, and
touching these parts with bare hands or skin (4) Operation Records
may cause burns. After completion of the inspection and meas-
Therefore, be minded to use the protective urement, keep the records of the works per-
gears such as safety gloves when working on formed on adjustments or repairs in the log
them.
book.
Exhaust pipe
Turbocharger
Air cooler inlet pipe
Cylinder head
Operation records are very important docu-
Indicator valve
ments when understanding the conditions of
Fuel oil system equipment and piping (in engine and tracing the history of the inspec-
case of heavy fuel oil)
tion or maintenance that has been performed.
Keep and store them carefully, and when
(2) Measuring Performance Data the supervisor is changed, be sure to transfer
a) Measure the operating performance data at the records to the successor without fall.
least once every day, when the load variation is
less and the load is stable.
b) Compare each of the measured data with the
data obtained when the engine was newly intro

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
Operation Using Heavy Fuel Oil DK-20e 4.4

4-4.4 Operation Using Heavy Fuel Oil d) In Case Load Variation is Heavy
(in case of Heavy Fuel Oil ① When entering or leaving port
Specification Engine) ② When weather is rough and stormy
③ When cargo is being loaded or unloaded
Since heavy fuel oil is lower in its quality and
higher in its viscosity as comperared with diesel e ) Before Stopping Engine
fuel oil, it is required to carry out an appropriate
operation control, such as operating the engine by ( :4.6 "Stoppage")
changing to diesel fuel oil depending on the load
conditions, in addition an appropriate control of the (2) Switching Fuel Oil Types
fuel oil and lubricating oil, when this type of oil is to Heavy fuel oil is normally heated up to 80 to
be used. 90℃ in the service tank, and 100℃ or more at
the engine inlet, and the temperature difference
Further, the starting and stopping the engine, is larger as compared with that of diesel fuel oil
when heavy oil is used, is only allowed on the (non-heated), and therefore if fuel oil is suddenly
engine of the heavy-fuel-oil starting-and stopping switched between these oils, it may cause mal-
specification. functions such as sticking of the fuel injection
pump, vapor lock, and so on.
( :6.1 "Fuel Oil Characteristics and Control")
a) Slowly switch from diesel fuel oil to heavy fuel
( :6.2 "Lubricating Oil Characteristics and oil, so that the rate of change in the fuel oil tem-
Control") perature at the engine inlet is between 5 and

(1) Operation with Diesel Fuel Oil (


10℃ per minute.
:Fig. 4.3 "Switching Pattern from Diesel
4
Be minded to use heavy fuel oil only under Fuel Oil to Heavy Fuel Oil")
stable load conditions, and be sure to use diesel b) Maintain the viscosity (temperature) of heavy
fuel oil in the following cases: fuel oil at the engine inlet at the specified value
c) Do not raise the temperature of diesel fuel oil
a) During Running-In Operation Period (20~30 hours) beyond the flashing point (60℃ is the standard
① Immediately after installation point).
② After replacement of the sliding parts around d) To prevent the generation of vapor, maintain
cylinder (e.g. cylinder liner, piston, and piston the pressure of fuel oil at the specified value.
ring) Further, remove the air bubbles in fuel oil in
( :4.4.1 "Running-In Operation") the various equipment of the fuel oil system
(heater, filter, tank, etc.) from time to time, so
that the accumulation of vapor can be pre-
b) During Starting or Warming-Up Operation vented.
( :4.3 "Starting")
( :4.4.2 "Warming-Up Operation") If high-temperature parts are splashed with
the oil, a fire may occur. Take care not to
c) During idling or Low-Load Operation splash the oil when discharging air.
When the engine is operated under low load,
e) Confirm that the heat traces on piping and
the compressed air temperature in the cylinder
equipment is properly functioning.
and fuel injection pressure of fuel oil is low, and
therefore if the heavy fuel, of which combustion
quality is lower than that of diesel fuel oil, is
used, combustion will become unstable, result- The fuel oil is heated, and the filter and the
piping are at high-temperatures. If touched
ing in undesirable conditions, such as worsening
with bare hands or skin, it may cause a burn.
of the exhaust smoke, sticking of the ring, and Therefore, be minded not to directly touch the
so on. In case of the connection of the load that exposed metallic parts such as the valves and
is below the lower limit described in the engine cocks, and wear the protective gear such as
specification, be minded to use diesel fuel oil. safety gloves when working on them.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM

4.4 DK-20e Operation Using Heavy Fuel Oil

In case that emergency stop is made during


the operation with heavy fuel oil, immediately
switch the heavy fuel oil to diesel fuel oil,
operate the separate pump, and perform
flushing of the fuel oil system.
If the engine is cooled down with the heavy
fuel oil left unchanged, the oil will be solidified
and the operation will be prohibited.

㪪㫎㫀㫋㪺㪿㫀㫅㪾㩷㪽㫉㫆㫄㩷㪛㫀㪼㫊㪼㫃㩷㪝㫌㪼㫃㩷㪦㫀㫃㩷㫋㫆㩷㪟㪼㪸㫍㫐㩷㪝㫌㪼㫃㩷㪦㫀㫃 㪪㫎㫀㫋㪺㪿㫀㫅㪾㩷㪽㫉㫆㫄㩷㪟㪼㪸㫍㫐㩷㪝㫌㪼㫃㩷㪦㫀㫃㩷㫋㫆㩷㪛㫀㪼㫊㪼㫃㩷㪝㫌㪼㫃㩷㪦㫀㫃㩷㩷

㪭㫀㫊㪺㫆㫊㫀㫋㫐㩷㪸㫋 㪈㪊䌾㪈㪋㩷㫄㫄㪉㪆㫊 㪭㫀㫊㪺㫆㫊㫀㫋㫐㩷㪸㫋 㪈㪊䌾㪈㪋㩷㫄㫄㪉㪆㫊


㪼㫅㪾㫀㫅㪼㩷㫀㫅㫃㪼㫋 㪼㫅㪾㫀㫅㪼㩷㫀㫅㫃㪼㫋
㪍㪇㩷㫋㫆㩷㪎㪇㩷㫊㪼㪺㩷㪩㪮㩷㪥㪦㪅㪈 㪍㪇㩷㫋㫆㩷㪎㪇㩷㫊㪼㪺㩷㪩㪮㩷㪥㪦㪅㪈
㪝㫌㪼㫃㩷㫆㫀㫃㩷㫋㪼㫄㫇㪼㫉㪸㫋㫌㫉㪼

㪝㫌㪼㫃㩷㫆㫀㫃㩷㫋㪼㫄㫇㪼㫉㪸㫋㫌㫉㪼

㪟㪼㪸㫍㫐㩷㪽㫌㪼㫃㩷㫆㫀㫃㩷 㪟㪼㪸㫍㫐㩷㪽㫌㪼㫃㩷㫆㫀㫃㩷
㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㫋㪼㫄㫇㪼㫉㪸㫋㫌㫉㪼 㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㫋㪼㫄㫇㪼㫉㪸㫋㫌㫉㪼
㪸㫋㩷㪼㫅㪾㫀㫅㪼㩷㫀㫅㫃㪼㫋

㪸㫋㩷㪼㫅㪾㫀㫅㪼㩷㫀㫅㫃㪼㫋

㪁㩷Charge spped :䇭 㪁㩷Charge spped :


O O
5 to 10 C/min 㩷㩷䇭5 to 10 C/min

㪛㫀㪼㫊㪼㫃㩷㪽㫌㪼㫃㩷㫆㫀㫃㩷 㪛㫀㪼㫊㪼㫃㩷㪽㫌㪼㫃㩷㫆㫀㫃㩷
㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㫋㪼㫄㫇㪼㫉㪸㫋㫌㫉㪼 㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㫋㪼㫄㫇㪼㫉㪸㫋㫌㫉㪼
Operation
Operation

Switching from Operation Operation Switching from


Operation with diesel fuel oil to with heavy with heavy heavyfuel oil to Operation with diesel
diesel fuel oil heavyfuel oil fueloil fueloil diesel fuel oil fuel oil (warming up)
Check items

Check items

Check heavy fuel oil Check that load is stable Check that load is stable Check heavy fuel oil
supply equipment (above lower load limit) (above lower load limit) supply equipment
for proper operation during switching during switching for proper operation

㪥㫆㫋㪼㩷㪑㩷㪈㪅㩷㪪㫀㫅㪺㪼㩷㫋㪿㪼㩷㫇㫉㪼㫋㫉㪼㪸㫋㫄㪼㫅㫋㩷㫆㪽㩷㪽㫌㪼㫃㩷㫆㫀㫃㩷㪻㫀㪽㪽㪼㫉㫊㩷㪻㪼㫇㪼㫅㪻㫀㫅㪾㩷㫆㫅㩷㫋㪿㪼㩷㫌㫊㪼㩷㫇㫌㫉㫇㫆㫊㪼㩷㫆㪽㩷㫋㪿㪼㩷㪼㫅㪾㫀㫅㪼㪃㩷㫋㪿㪼㩷㫆㫇㪼㫉㫊㫋㫀㫅㪾㩷
㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㫄㪼㫋㪿㫆㪻㩷㫊㫌㫀㫋㫊㪹㫃㪼㩷㫋㫆㩷㪼㪸㪺㪿㩷㫊㫐㫊㫋㪼㫄㩷㫀㫊㩷㫅㪼㪺㪼㫊㫊㪸㫉㫐㪅
㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㩷㪉㪅㩷㪫㪿㪼㩷㪻㫀㪼㫊㪼㫃㩷㪽㫌㪼㫃㩷㫆㫀㫃㩷㫋㪼㫄㫇㪼㫉㫊㫋㫌㫉㪼㩷㫎㪿㪼㫅㩷㫊㫎㫀㫋㪺㪿㫀㫅㪾㩷㫆㫅㩷㪿㪼㪸㫋㪼㪻㩷㪺㫆㫅㪻㫀㫋㫀㫆㫅㩷㫊㪿㪸㫃㫃㩷㪹㪼㩷㪍㪇㩷㫆㪚㩷㫆㫉㩷㫄㫆㫉㪼㪅

㪝㫀㪾㪅㩷㪋㪄㪊㩷㪪㫎㫀㫋㪺㪿㫀㫅㪾㩷㪧㪸㫋㫋㪼㫉㫅㩷㪽㫉㫆㫄㩷㪛㫀㪼㫊㪼㫃㩷㪝㫌㪼㫃㩷㪦㫀㫃㩷㫋㫆㩷㪟㪼㪸㫍㫐㩷㪽㫌㪼㫃㩷㪦㫀㫃

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
Allowable Operation Range DK-20e 4.5

4-4.5 Allowable Operating Range (In


case of marine propulsion engine)
In case of the marine propulsion engine, the (1) In case of Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP)
load channges in accordance with the marine The fixed pitched propeller is generally designed
characteristics, and according to the changes in by including the sea margin, which has taken into
the rotation speed. consideration the fouled hull surface, in addition to
the absorbed horsepower due to the marine char-
The allowable operating range and recommend-
acteristics.
ed operating range within the marine characteris-
tics are shown in the figure below. In case that fouling of the hull surface has
advanced, increasing the resistance, and has
When acutually operating, be mineded to select
exceeded beyond the sea margin, the absorbed
a proper rotation speed and engine torque (Pme,
horsepower increases to such an extent that the
to be judged based on the reading on the rack
excessive torque occurs even if the rotation speed
scale), and keep operating within the recommend-
is maintained constant. Therefore, always heed
ed operating range as far possible, to prevent
cautions to the rotation speed and the reading on
being overloade.
the rack scale to prevent excessive torque.
Note that the lower load limit is normally 30%
Further, particularly be careful when the
when using heavy fuel oil, and if the load to be
absorbed propeller hordepower suddenly increas-
connected is lower than this limit value, use diesel
es, for example when in stormy weather and so
fuel oil.
on, since this will often cause the excessive torque
( :Fig.4.4 "Allowable Operating Range")
As for the output characteristics of the engine to
to occur, eventually leading to surging of the tur-
bocharger.
4
be actually operated, refer to "Test Run Record
Table" included in the separately provided final
documents.

100

Propeller design point


85
Output

80
Allowable orerating range
OG
2
2 Recommended continuous
㧔%㧕 㧑 $/' OG normal operating range
60  
/ ' 2
2
$
㧑 P-curve : Marine propeller
characteristic curve

M-curve M-curve : Curve with sea margin


40 taken into consideration
P-curve
㪊㪇㩷䋦 Allowable range of
short-time operation
20 on diesel fuel oil in the
case of standard
㪈㪇㩷䋦 specifications

50 60 70 80 90 95 100 105 Revolution (%)


Idling speed
Fig. 4.4 Allowable Operating Range

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM

5.1, 5.2 DK-20e Low-Load Operation

4-5. Special Operation 4-5.2 Operation with Air Cooler Cut-Off


4-5.1 Low-Load Operation In case that the defects such as breakage of the
fine tube in the air cooler or water leakage from a
Since running the engine with a low-load lower
than a certain limit can lead to unfavorable com- caulked sections is found, and the repairing cannot
bustion conditions such as the reduction of intake be performed quickly, an emergency messure can
air pressure and blowing-back of exhaust air, if the be taken by cutting off the air cooler on the follow-
engine is operated under such conditions for long ing procedure:
hours, it may result in the various malfunctions
such as fouling of the turbocharger and combus-
tion chamber, faulty combustion and so on. (1) Low-Load Limit
Therefore, be sure to minimize the low-load a) Stop water supply to the cooler cooling system,
operation to a shorter period of time as much as and draw out the water from the air pipe.
possible, and in case that the engine must be
inevitably run under a low-load for long hours, be b) Insert a shielding plateⒶ into the flange part of
sure to observe the following conditions: the air cooler cooling water inlet pipe and outlet
pipe.
(1) Low-Load Limit
c) "Fully open" the bypass valve of the air cooler.
The low-load limit varies depending on each
specification. Confirm the low load limit described d) Operate the cooler cooling water pump, and
on the specification supplied with the engine. confirm that no water is leaking from the flange
(2) Use of Diesel Fuel Oil packing area.
In case of the heavy fuel oil specification, be
sure to switch it to diesel fuel oil.
(3) Increase of Intake Air Temperature Shielding plate A
To improve the combustion conditions, increase
the intake air temperature and adjust to as a high-
er level as possible, within the following limit:
o
Intake air : 75 C or less
Exhaust air temperature (cylinder outlet) :
o
450 C or less
( :5-3.2(2) "Measurement and Adjustment: Open
Intake Air Temperature")
(4) Cleaning of Turbocharger
Properly increase the number of times of Cooling water inlet Close Cooling water outlet
cleaning the turbocharger according to necessity.
Air Cooler By-pass Valve
The turbocharger is at a high-temperature
during operation and just after the engine is
stopped. If you touch it with bare hands dur- (2) Prerequisites for Operation
ing cleaning, you may burn your hands. Wear a) The fuel oil to be used is diesel fuel oil.
safety gloves without fail.
b) Restrain the output as low as possible, refer-
ring to the following values as the standard:
(5) Intermittent High Load Operation
If the load is switched to the high load (60%  Pme(average effective pressure):
or more) for about 30 minutes during low-oad 0.8MPa {8 kgf/cm2}
operation, it will have an effect to restrain or
 Exaust air temperature (cylinder outlet):
reduce the fouling of the combustion chamber,
as well as the intake and exaust air systems. 450 oC or less

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
Non-Turbocharger Operation and Operation with
Reduced Number of Cylinders DK-20e 5.3, 5.4

4-5.3 Non-turbocharger Operation 4-5.4 Operation with Reduced Number


Non-turbocharger operation implement (tur- of Cylinders
bocharger blind plate ) is provided, so that opera- Adoption of the operation with the reduced num-
tion in emergency can be made even when the tur- ber of cylinders impose such problems as the tor-
bocharger may have been damaged. ( Option ) sional vibration of the shaft system as well as the
The non-turbocharger operation procsdure is as external vibration of the engine, and therefore this
the followings: operation should be limited as a secondary meas-
ure to be used only in emergency.
(1) Preparation for Operation In case of 5Dk engines, the operation with the
reduced number of cylnders is prohibited due to
Install the non-turbocharger operation implement
the axternal vibration of engine.
in accordance with the Turbocharger Instruction
Manual. The operation with the reduced number of cylin-
ders may be conducted in various cases such as
the case of only reducing the fuel oil, or the case in
which the operating parts are needed to be
During operation or immediately after stop- removed. Further, since the prohibited items for
the operation vary depending on each case, be
ping the engine, the turbocharger is extremely
sure to inquire our company for the working proce-
hot, and if the turbocharger is touched with dures, cautionary items on the operation, ansd so
bare hands or skin, it may cause burns. on, obtain the necessary instructions, and strictly
Therefore, perform the disassembly work observe them, when the operation with the
reduced number of cylinders is conducted.
4
after the turbocharger is completely cooled
down.
<Preparation for Operation>
If it must be removed before it cools down,
a) The fuel oil to be used is diesel fuel oil..
wear safety gloves, and remove it taking care
not to burn your hands. b) The output shall be as below:
(No. of cylinders)-(No. of reduced cylinders)
X 70%
(Total number of cylinders)
(2) Prerequisites for Operation
However,the output may be reduced
a) The fuel oil to be used is diesel fuel oil. according to the turbochager sursing or
exhaust air temperature in each case.
b) Restrain the output as a lower level as possi-
ble, referring to the following values asthe stan- c) Exhaust temperature : 450℃ or less
dard: (each cylinder outlet)

Pme(average effective pressure):


0.44MPa {4.5 kgf/cm2}
Exaust air temperature (cylinder outlet): Be attentive of the external vibration of
engine and the gear sound, and if any abnor-
400 oC or less
mality is found, immediately stop the engine. If
the engine is kept operating disregarding such
abnormality, serious accidents may be
caused.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM

6.1 DK-20e Normal Stoppage

4-6. Stoppage Indicator


Rack scale
4-6.1 Normal Stoppage
(1) Preparations for stoppage
a) In case that heavy fuel oil is used, switch the RUN
fuel oil to diesel fuel oil 30 minutes before
stopping the engine.
b) Immediately before stopping the engine, start RUN

the operation of lubricating oil priming pump. STOP


c) Confirm that the starting air pressure is at STOP

2.0 MPa {20 kgf/cm2} or more.


(The preparation for the next round of starting)
Operating Lever
(2) Stoppage
a) Conduct the stop operation on the following
procedures:
(3) After Stop
[In case of local operation] a) Operate both the lubricating oil priming pump
Shift the operation lever to "STOP" position. and cooling fresh water pump for about 20
Then, fuel oil injection will be shut off by minutes, and cool down the engine and tur-
means of the common rod, and the engine will bocharger.
be stopped.

[In case of remote control]


i ) Press the "STOP" push button on the control
panel. The turbocharger continues to run at high
speed even after the engine is stopped.
Then, the fuel oil injection solenoid valve will Lubrication of the turbocharger provided with
be activated to operate the fuel shutdown this engine is made using the system oil, and
device, and the engine will be stopped. therefore if the supply of lubricating oil is
ii) Shift the operation lever to "STOP" position. stopped immediately after the engine is
stopped, it may damage the bearing.
b) After stop operation, be attentive of any abnor-
mal sound in the engine and turbocharger,
b) Fully open the indicator valve to conduct air
and confirm that there is not any abnormal
running for 3 to 4 seconds and exhaust the
sound.
combustion gas out of the combustion cham-
ber.
c) Close the valves on all the systems.
In case that the engine does not stop even
when the stop operation is conducted, forcibly
stop the engine on the following procedure:
1)Forcibly set the rack of the fuel injection
pump to "0".
2)Fully close the valve of the fuel oil inlet main
pipe.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
Emergency Stop DK-20e 6.2

4-6.2 Emergency Stop (2) Measures after Emergency Stop


In case that the engine is stopped by activa-
(1) When Emergency Stop is Required.
tion of the protective device or stopped automat-
Immediately stop the engine when any of the fol- ically, take the following measures:
lowing abnormalities is found:
a) In case that the engine is stopped by remote
① Announcement of "Emergency" or "Alarm" operation or stopped automatically, set the
( Activation of the protective device ---Automatic) operating lever to "STOP" position after the
Overspeed engine is stopped.
b) In case that the operation had been made
Decrease of lubricating oil pressure
using heavy fuel oil, immediately switch the
Suspension of water supply/increase of fuel oil to diesel fuel oil, operate the motor-
cooling water temperature driven oil feed pump, and conduct flushing of
Increase of exhaust air temperature the fuel oil system (However, this procedure
Other alarming (depending on each does not apply when the fuel oil pipe is bro-
specification) ken.)
Further, conduct turning of the engine, and
② Abnormal sound and abnormal vibration exhaust the heavy fuel oil remaining in the fuel
③ Heating of the bearings or other moving parts, injection pump or fuel valve.
or generation of smokes, or abrupt increase of
mist.
④ Loosening or falling-off of the governor, com-
mon rod rink, each lever around the fuel oil
injection pump, link pin, or bolt.
In case that the engine is stopped during 4
the operation using heavy fuel oil and the
⑤ Deterioration of fuel oil or lubricating oil, or engine is cooled down without changing the
damage of the cooling water pipe. fuel oil, heavy fuel oil in the equipment of the
⑥ Abrupt increase or decrease of rotation speed. fuel oil system (e.g. pump, filter, etc.) and pip-
ing will not only solidify to prohibit restarting,
⑦ Abrupt increase of lubricating oil temperature
but also incur substantial labor to clean and
⑧ Water supply disability due to suspension of cleanse after the accident.
cooling water supply
c) Disconnect the load off the engine, and return
the operation lever, each valve, and the state
In case that the engine is overheated due to of all other equipment to "STOP" position.
suspension of water supply, do not hastily
supply cooling water.
If cooled down abruptly, each part of the
engine may be deformed, resulting in In case that the emergency stop is conduct-
malfunction or accidents. ed, be minded not to restart the engine until
the cause is determined, the countermeasures
⑨ Mixing of water into lubricating oil are taken, and recovery is completed.
In case that the engine is started without
⑩ Abrupt increase of exhaust air temperature
removing the cause of the abnormality, the
⑪ Abrupt decrease of the turbocharger rotation malfunction may be aggravated and serious
speed or intake air pressure accidents may be caused.
⑫ Generation of abnormal sound in the propeller
or the stem shaft system
(In case of the marine propulsion engine.)
⑬ Breakage or loosening of the bolts of each
section

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
4 Operation
ITEM

6.2, 6.3 DK-20e Emergency Stop / Long-Term Shutdown

d) Insert the moisture-proof agent such as sil-


icagel into the crankcase, according to the
Be minded not to open the crank case for at ambient air conditions (e.g. weather and
least 10 minutes after engine is stopped and humidity) and according to necessity.
is completely cooled down. If the crank case e) Place the cover on the outside air opening sec-
is opened immediately after the engine is tion of the exhaust air pipe and the mist pipe.
stopped, flammable mist in the crank case
may catch fire and explode. f) Cover the engine with a sheet, and carefully
Particularly be careful when a large amount cover the electric equipment with particular
of mist is generated due to overheat or seizing attention to prevent collection of dust on them.
of the engine.
Be minded never to let flames or sparks
approach the crankcase even after it is over-
hauled. Sheet cover

4-6.3 Long-Term Shutdown


In case that the operation of engine is suspend-
ed for a long term (one month or more), take the
preservation measures (mainly, anti-rusting meas-
ure) on the following procedures:

(1) Shutdown within 3 Months


a) Fully open the indicator valve once every
week, and conduct turning of the crankshaft
several times while conducting priming with
lubricating oil. Spray
In this case, stop the crankshaft at a position (Rust-preventive
different from that before turning. After turn- agent)
ing, securely close the indicator valve.
b) In case that there is a risk of freezing in
extremely cold season, be minded to remove
cooling water from the engine.

(2) Shutdown over 3 Months ... Measures for


Long-Term Storage Silicagel
In case that the operation of engine is suspend- (Desiccant)
ed for 3 months or more, the following measures
for long-term storage is required:
a) Remove cooling water from the engine.
b) Add rust-preventive oil to lubricating oil, open
Spray
the indicator valve, and conduct turning of the
crankshaft several times while conducting (Rust-preventive
agent)
priming with the lubricating oil.
After turning, securely close the indicator
valve.
c) Open each cover of the engine frame, cam
case, and the cylinder head, and spray rust-
preventive oil to the internal parts.
Measures for Long-Term Stage

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Operation 4
ITEM
MEMO DK-20e

4
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
1.1 DK-20e Precautions for Inspection and Maintenance

5-1. Precautions for Inspection and Maintenance

When conducting the inspection and maintenance works of engine, be minded to read this
manual carefully, understand the structure of the related parts and the work contents, carefully
examine the working procedures, and prepare the consumable parts and tools in advance,
before starting these works.
If the works are conducted without previous and sufficient examinations, it will not only lead
to the expense of useless labors, but also result in failure or damage of the engine due to mis-
taken assembling, and further in personal accidents.Be sure to replace all the damaged parts, or
the parts that have reached replacing limit, both of which have been so found after the results of
inspections.
In case that replacing these parts are difficult on site, or the necessary parts are not readied,
inform the Parts Sales Department, Service Department, Daihatsu Diesel Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
or the nearest branch office or shop, and take proper actions.

5-1.1 Safety Precautions


(1) Do not open the crank case side cover for at least 10 minutes after the engine is stopped and is
completely cooled down. While the engine is overheated, there is a danger that oil mist may
catch fire and explode if new air is flowed into the crank case when it is opened.

(2) If the engine is rotated during disassembly or inspection works, it may impose serious dangers
such as caught-up accidents and so on.
Be minded to start these works, after returning the operating lever to "STOP" position, securely
closing the starting air valve, and confirming that the engine is not running.
When conducting the turning of engine, be minded to start it after confirming that nothing is in
contact with the rotational parts, and no danger is imposed on coworkers by the rotation of
engine, and after sending the signal to them.
Perform a proper preventive measures to prevent the crankshaft from freely turning.

(3) Be minded to wear the protective gears such as safety glove, helmet, safety shoes, safety gog-
gles, according to the circumstances.
During the operation of engine and immediately after stopping the engine, the engine parts, partic-
ularly exhaust manifold, turbocharger, parts round the cylinder are extremely hot. Therefore, be
sure to wear safety gloves, and proceed the works taking care not to incur burns.
The engine room floors and the surrounding areas are slippery due to oils stuck on them.
Therefore, be minded to start the works after sufficiently wiping off the oils stuck on floors or shoe
soles. Particularly when working on a high-rise places such as on the foot-step board, pay
enough attentions to the periphery of your feet, so that falling-off accidents should not happen.

(4) When disassembling the piping systems, "Close" all the valves of the external connection parts,
gradually warm up the air vent plug, and start the disassembly after removing residual pressure.
Immediately after stopping engine, when disassembling the filters and connection parts of piping
systems, you may burn on your skin on a injected high temperature oil or water of residual pres-
sure. If high temperature parts are splashed with the fuel oil or the lubricating oil, a fire may
occur. Take utmost care when disassembling them.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Precautions for Inspection and Maintenance DK-20e 1.1, 1.2

(5) When disassembling the spring-loaded devices such as the regulation valves, proceed the works
paying careful attentions, since there is a risk that the springs may fly out and injury accidents
may occur.

(6) Be minded to use wire rope and chain block when suspending the heavy-weight parts or equip-
ment, and do not try to forcibly raise these parts or equipment by physical force. Further, be
minded not to approach the areas immediately under the suspended parts or equipment.
(7)When handling the electric parts, be sure to cut off the power source.

(8) When handling the liquids, be minded to strictly observe the following items:
 Flammable liquids such as fuel oil and lubricating oil, the sources of fire, e.g.: The source of fires
such as flames or sparks are strictly prohibited.
 Poisonous substances such as rust-preventive agent for fresh water, anti-freeze solution for fresh
water, mercury (thermometer): Drinking is prohibited, and if any of these has stuck on hands or
skin, immediately wash it off.
 Poisonous substance or substance which generate flammable gas, such as battery liquids:
Drinking is prohibited, and if any of these has stuck on hands or skin, immediately wash it off, and
the source of fires such as flames or sparks are strictly prohibited.
 For the sake of preventing environmental contamination, be minded to entrust the disposal and
treatment of the waste oils and liquids to the authorized special waste disposing company.

5-1.2 Cautionary Items When Finishing Inspection and Maintenance 5


(1) Restore the lagging or heat-preventive covers, combustible oil splash preventive means and pro-
tective covers, that have been removed for inspection and maintenance, to each original position.

(2) After the completion of assembling, confirm that there is no abnormality in each part, by conduct-
ing the turning of engines and the priming with each corresponding oil.
After checking the parts during turning, close the reducing valve without fail.

(3) After the completion of working, return the turning equipment and turning bar, that have been
used, to "OFF" position.

(4) Record the work contents of the inspection and maintenance that have been performed, and the
replaced parts in the daily report respectively.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
2 DK-20e Inspection and Maintenance Item Table

5-2. Inspection and Maintenance Item Table


This table shows the inspection and maintenance work items (basically, those to be performed within 6
months). As for the work items concerning the regular overhaul and maintenance after the long-term opera-
tion, refer to the corresponding sections of "Maintenance" version, which is separately provided.
(  :Normal,  :Initial operation and 1st operation after overhaul,  :Initial operation after installation, overhaul,
and maintenance,  :Replacement)

Intervals (Hours)

before operation
Inspection
Ref.

1000-1500

2000-3000
3 months

6 months
300-500
Monthly
Weekly
Parts to be

Daily
Descriptions Remarks
inspected

Engine appearance Check loose parts and leaks. 䂾 䂾


Piping system Check loose parts and leaks. 䂾 䂾
Cylinder head cover Check internally. (Valve end clearance, rotator) 䂥 䂾 5-4.1
Including when
Cylinder head Check and tightn head bolt. 䂥 overhauling
Fuel injection pump Remove and check valve. Clean and adjust it. 䂥 䂾 5-4.2
Including when
Connecting rod Check and tighten connecting rod bolt. 䂥 overhauling
Cylnder liner Visually check internal surface. 䃂 䂥 䂾
Crankshaft Measure and adjust deflection. 䂥 䂾 5-4.5
Camshaft Check cam and roller. 䂥 䂾
Governor Check and supply hydraulic oil. 䂾 䂾 䃁 4-2.1 䃁 Replace hydraulic oil.
Fuel control link Check movement and supply oil. 䂾 䂾 4-2.1
Clean filter. 䃂 䃩䂾 4-2.2 䃩150-200 hr
Turbocharger Clean blower. 䃩䂾 5-4.4 䃩150-200 hr
Clean turbine. 䃩䂾 5-4.5 䃩150-200 hr
Starting rotary valve Drain water. 䃂 䂾
Check pressure. 䂾 䂾 4-2.1
Starting air tank
Drain water. 䃂 䂾 4-2.1
Reducing valve Check and adjust pressure. 䃂 䂾
Starting valve Open, check, and clean valve. 䂾 For air motor
䃩During 1 month
Air filter Open, check, and clean valve. 䃩䂾 䂾 5-4.3 after initial operation
Lubricate pump rack. 䃂 䂾 4-2.1
Fuel injection pump
Check reading on rack scale. 䂾 5-3.1
Drain water. 䂾 䂾
Fuel oil filter Clean by blowing-off. 䂾 5-4.3
Open, check, and clean filter. 䃂 䂥 䂾 5-4.3
Refer to the separate
volume "Operation and
Lubricating oil filter 5-4.3 Maitenance Manual for
Lubricant Oil Automatic
Backwashing Filter"
Lubricating oil
by-pass filter Open, check, and clean valve. 䃩䂾 5-4.3 䃩 100~250 hr
Y-Type Filter Open, check, and clean valve. 䃂 䂥 䂾 5-4.3 For plunger lubrication
Check oil level and supply oil. 䂾 䂾 4-2.1
Lubricating oil tank
Analyze and examine oil. 䃂 䂾 6-2
Lubricating oil
temperature control valvel Open, check, and clean valve. 䂾 5-3.2
Fresh water filter Open, check, and clean filter. 䃂 䂾
Open, check, and clean tank. 䃂 䂾
Fresh water tank
Check water quality. 䃂 䂾 6-3
Check protector (zinc) and replace it when necessary. 䂾 5-4.6 For air cooler
Protactive zinc
Check protector (zinc) and replace it when necessary. 䂾 5-4.6 For lub. oil cooler
gauge board Check thermometer and pressure gauge. 䂾
Controlling and
protective device Check and confirm movement. 䃂 䂾

Note: This table shows the standard inspection intervals for inspection and maintenance to be conducted
under normal operating conditions when heavy fuel oil is used. Determine the most adequate interval
of inspection and maintenance, in accordance with the operating conditions and inspection results.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Measurement and Adjustment: Exhaust Air Temperature,
Pressure and Temperature of Each Part DK-20e 3.1

5-3. Measurement and Adjustment


5-3.1 Maximum Combustion Pressure Since the indicator valve is extremely hot
and Exhaust Temperature during the operation of engine, there is a dan-
Maximum combustion pressure and exhaust ger of burns if it is touched by bare hands.
temperature serve as the important indicators for Therefore, be sure to wear safety gloves
knowing the engine combustion conditions and the when handling the valve.
changes according to the elapse of time.
Normally, the decrease of the engine perform-
ance can be indicated by the following irems. Indicator A Exhaust valve E
 Decrease of the maximum combustion pressure
 Increase of the exhsust temperature ILock nut D
Conduct the measurement with the interval of
once a week or so, and record the resuits, so that
IIndicator catch C
the tendency of the change can be identified and
the data can be used as the judgment materials
when determining the interval of the adjustment. Close

(1) Maximum Combustion Pressure


(hereinafter referred to as Pmax
Open
a) Pmax
Pmax is determined by load, and varies
depending on the factors such as the fuel oil
viscosity, intake air pressure, and intake air
temperature. Odinarily, however, this adjust- 5
ment is not necessary. Wrench for indicator valve
Pmax varies according to the initial fuel injec-
tion pumping angle, however, it is readily
adjusted and set at an optimum value at the
Safety valve Indicator valve B
time of shipment from our factory.
The fuel cam is fixed to the camshaft by shrink
fitting, and therfore, ordinarily, it cannot be
adjusted.

Since the items mentioned in this section Be sure to "Fully open" or "Fully close" both
will be he items, to which the engine setting the indicator valve and the exhaust valves are
value specified in Nox techical code shall be used.
applied, do not make any change that may If these valves are used on the "Hlf-open"
deviate from the setting value. state, hogh-temperature gas will flow into the
( :0-3 "Engine Conforming to Nox Tec threaded parts of the valve, and the screws
hical Code") may be seized.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Measurement and Adjustment:Maximum Combustion
3.1 DK-20e Pressure and Exhaust Temperature

b) Measuring Pmax (3) Adjustment of Reading on Fuel Injection


Perform the measurement of Pmax after the Pump Rack
warming-up operation of engine has been In case that the exhaust temperature differs
completed and the load has become stable. from those of other cylinders in excess of the
During measurement, the measured values range specified in the above (2)., for example,
may change due to such factors as the occur- when the fuel injection plunger or the fuel injec-
rence of the load fiuctuation. In such a case, tion valve nozzle is replaced, adjust the fuel injec-
perform the measurement again to obtain a tion amount by increasing or decreasing the read-
ing on the rack scale.
stable data.
( :"Test Run ecord" included in the final doc- <Rack Adjusting Procedure>
uments) The reading on the rack scale can be increased
<Measuring Procedure> or decreased by adjusting screw A of the fuel
injection pump rack lever.
i ) Open the indicator valve B with a special i ) Loosen the lock nut B
wrench ffor indicator valve before installing the ii) Turn the adjusting screw A and change the
indicator A , and close the indicator valve after reading on the rack scale.
lightly releasing it 1 or 2 times.  Clockwise turning "Increase" (Increase of

ii) Install the indicator to the indicator catch C , exhaust air temperature)
 Counterclockwise turning "Decrease"
and securely lock it by turning the lock nut D .
(Decrease of exhaust air temperature)
iii) Close the exhaust valve E of the indicator. iii) Confirm that the exhaust air temperature is
iv) Open the indicator valve. within the specified value.
v) Check the reading of the pressure on the indi- iv) Securely tighten the lock nut.
cator.
vi) Close the indicator. Difference between cylinders: 1.5 mm or less
vii) Open the exhaust valve of the indicator, and
remove the indicator after indicating reading
has become "O".

Pmax
: Test Run Record Table
Difference between cylinders:
0.6MPa {6 kbf/cm2} Fuel injectipn pump

Rack lever
(2) Exhaust Temperature
Lock nut B
The exhaust temperature at each cylinder out-
let slightly varies from one cylinder to another
depending on the factors such as the effect of Increase
other cylinders as well as the distance to the tur-
bocharger inlet.
The exhaust temperature can be adjusted by Decrease
increasing or increasing the reading on the fuel
injection pump rack, however, the adjustment is Rack adjusting
ordinarily unnecessary as long as the difference screw A
between cylinders is within the following value.
Rack link
Difference between cylinders: 40℃ or less
Adjusting Rack

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Measurement and Adjustment:
Pressure and Temperature of Each Part DK-20e 3.2

5-3.2 Pressure and Temperature of ture to be within the specified proper range, as far
Each Part as possible.
When the intake air temperature is too low, it
The pressure and temperature of lubricating oil, causes abnormal or excessive wear of the cylin-
fuel oil, and cooling water, etc. are controlled by der liner, intake air valve, etc., since the water
the relief valve, so that they should be proper val- drops is formed by the dew condensation.
ues being within each specified value during the Further, if the intake air temperature is too high, it
operation of engine, however, when actually damages the parts around the combustion cham-
operating the engine, the pressure and tempera- ber such as the exhaust valve, since the exhaust
ture of these fluids may not be within the speci- air temperature will increase. (Exhaust air tem-
fied and proper values. perature varies in proportion to the intake air tem-
In such a case, readjust the setting values of perature, and also varies in the rate of approxi-
the valves, and perform the operation within the mately 2 times the change of the suction air tem-
specified proper range. perature of the turbocharger.)
If the intake air temperature gets out of the
(1) Intake Air Pressure proper range owing to a low room temperature, or
Since the intake air pressure changes in accor- when automatic adjustment of intake air tempera-
dance with load, each pressure when the engine
ture cannot be made for some reasons, operate
was new (or, after adjustment) becomes a refer-
ence value. the following procedure.
The more the turbocharger is fouled, the more
<Intake Air Adjusting Procedure>
the intake air will decrease, resulting in the deteri-
oration of the engine performance (e.g. increase The intake air adjustment can be made by chang-
of the exhaust air temperature and increase of ing the cooling water flow rate in the air cooler.
the fuel consumption rate), and therefore regular- i ) Operate the handle of the bypass valve A ,
ly conduct the blower cleaning and prevent the and change the opening angle of the valve.
progress of fouling.
( :5-4.4 "Cleaning Turbocharger Blower")
 Open the bypass valve. (Handle facing side-

ways) Increase of tnmperature 5


 OpenClose the bypass valve (Handle facing

downward) Decrease of tnmperature


The turbocharger is at a high-temperature ii ) Be attentive to changes of the intake air tem-
during operation and just after the engine is perature, and open the bypass valve so as to
stopped. If you touch it with bare hands dur-
be within the proper range, and adjust the
ing cleaning, you may burn your hands. Wear
safety gloves without fail. angle.

Bypass valve A
It is impossible to completely remove the
fouls even when cleansed by blower cleaning,
and to prevent the deterioration of engine per-
formance by the elapse of time, however, if
the cleaning is neglected, fouling will acceler-
ate, resulting in worsening of the engine per-
formance, and as the result it will be required
to disassemble and clean the turbocharger
much earlier than when the cleaning is period-
ically conducted.
Open
(2) Intake Air Temperature
Close
Proper temperature: 45 ~ 55℃ (at full load)
Cooling water inlet Cooling water outlet
Intake air, that is either higher or lower than the
Air Cooler Bypass Valve
specified range, will affect the engine, and there-
fore be minded to adjust and keep the tempera-

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Measurement and Adjustment:
3.2 DK-20e Pressure and Temperature of Each Part

In case that the intake air does not fall within iii) Be attentive to changes of the pressure, and
the proper range even when the bypass valve is confirm that the pressure has entered within
fully opened and the entire amount of cooling the blue mark range.
water is flowed into the air cooler, it is required to iv) Tighten the lock nut B and attach the cap A
disassemble and adjust the air cooler since the .
fouling of the air cooler can be considered.
( :12-3 "Air Cooler" in the Instruction
Manual, "Maintenance Version") Lubricating
oil filter
(3) Lubricating Oil Pressure

Proper range (blue mark range of manome-


ter) : 0.4 ~ -0.5 MPa {4 ~ 5 kgf/cm2}

Lubricating oil pressure changes in accordance Lock nut B


with the changes in the viscosity and temperature Cap A
of lubricating oil.
When the engine is started in extremely cold
weather, and the temperature of the lubricating oil
Decrease
is still low and the viscosity is high, the pressure
reading may go up beyond the blue mark range, Increase
however, it does not impose any problem if the Adjusting screw C
reading falls back within the blue mark range Case
when the engine is warmed up.
In case that the pressure reading is beyond or Lubricating Oil Pressure Adjusting Procedure
under the blue mark range, adjust the pressure
on the following procedure:

In case that the lubricating pressure does


Lubricating oil pressure decreases when the not change even when the adjustment screw
filter is fouled. Be sure to perform the adjust- is turned, there is the possibilities of sticking of
ment of pressure after the filter is cleaned well. regulating valve, suction of air, pump failure,
( :5-4.3 "Cleaning Filters") and so on, and therefore investigate the
causes of the trouble.
<Lubricating Oil Pressure Adjusting
Procedure>
When adjusting the lubricating oil pressure, use
the adjusting screw on the lubricating oil regulat-
ing valve.
i ) Remove the screw cap A , of the relief valve,
and loosen the lock nut B .
ii ) Turn the adjusting screw C , and adjust the
pressure.
 Clockwise turning (tightening) −−−
Increase of pressure
 Counterclockwise turning (loosening) −−−
Decrease of pressure

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Measurement and Adjustment:
Pressure and Temperature of Each Part DK-20e 3.2

D.Lubricating Oil Temperature


Use range: 30 ~ 60℃ (Cooler outlet)
Proper range: 50 ~ 60℃ (cooler outlet) Since the oil temperature changes accord-
ing to the load, be minded to set the oil tem-
Lubricating oil temperature is controlled to perature at a rather lower level, so that it will
remain within the proper range of temperature by not exceed the limit when heavily loaded.
the automatic temperature control valve installed
at the lubricating oil cooler outlet.

a) Lubricating Oil Temperature Control Valve Temperature control valve


The temperature control valve is an automatic LocK nut A
bypass valve, that changes the flow rate of lubri- Adjusting screw B
cating oil passing through the cooler, according to Low High
its temperature, and when the engine is started
while it is still in cold state, this valve rapidly rais-
es the lubricating oil by letting the oil bypass
through the cooler, and when the engine is oper-
ated normally, this valve maintains the lubricating
oil to be within the suitable range of the specified
value.
In case that the lubricating oil does not fall with-
in the proper range, for example, because the
cooling water (low temperature) temperature is Lubricating oil cooler
different from the design temperature, the temper-
ature of lubricating oil can be adjusted by the
adjusting screw of the temperature control valve.
5
However, in case that the actual temperature is
(5) Cooling Water Pressure
exceeding the correctable range and the adjust-
ment is impossible, contact us for consultation on
the problem. Proper range: 0.15 ~ 0.40 MPa
{2.5 ~ 4.0 kgf/cm2}
b) Manual Adjustment-Emergency Measures
In case that the temperature control valve has
become faulty and the temperature control has Jacket cooling water pressure substantially
become impossible, the engine can continuously changes depending on the external conditions
be operated by performing the emergency meas- such as the cooling water expansion tank head,
pipe resistance, and so on.
ures on the following procedure.
When cooling water pressure is too low, it will
cause corrosion of the engine frame or cylinder
<Adjusting Procedure> liner, and therefore adjust the cooling water pres-
i ) Loosen the lock nut A , and screw the adjust- sure at the engine outlet using the valve or orifice,
ing screw B down to its bottom. so that the pressure should be proper during the
operation of engine.
Totally close the passage of the cooler.
ii ) Closely watch the changes of the oil tempera-
ture while returning the adjusting screw, and
set the lock nut when the tnmperature has
entered the following range:

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Measurement and Adjustment:
3.2 DK-20e Pressure and Temperature of Each Part

(6) Cooling Water Temperature iii) Closely watch the change of the pressure,
and confirm that the pressure reading is within
the proper range.
Proper range: 70 ~ 75℃ (engine outlet)
iv) Tighten the lock nut B , and attach the screw
a) Warming-Up Operation cap A .
When jacket cooling water temperature is too
low, it will cause faulty combustion or the corro-
sion or wear of the parts around the combustion
chamber, and therefore be minded to start the
operation of engine with load after raising the
cooling water temperature by warming-up
operation.
( :4-4.2 "Warming-Up Operation")

b) Temperature Control
Cooling water temperature is controlled to
remain within the proper range by the tempera-
ture control valve installed between the jacket
cooling water inlet and outlet pipe (fresh water
cooler inlet andoutlet pipe). Lock nut B
This temperature valve is an automatic bypass
Increase Decrease
valve that is functionlly identical with the lubricat-
ing oil temperature control valve. Adjusting screw C

( : 5-3.2(4) "Lubricating Oil


Cap A
Temperature")

(7) Fuel Oil Pressure Fuel Oil Pressure Adjusting Procedure


a .Engine using Heavy Fuel Oil
When the engine with heavy fuel oil specifica-
When using heavy fuel oil, the pressure of
tion is operated by diesel fuel oil, the fuel oil pres-
heavy fuel oil must be adjusted to be within the
sure does not decrease since the fuel oil cannot
following range, so that generation of vapor due
be pressurized as in the heavy fuel oil supply line,
to heating-up of the fuel oil can be prevented:
however, the adjustment of the fuel oil pressure is
not required if the pressure is within the following
Proper range: 0.5 ~ 0.6 MPa {5-6 kgf/cm2} range.

<Fuel Oil Pressure Adjusting Procedure> 0.2 MPa {2 kgf/cm2}


Adjustment of fuel oil pressure can be made by
the pressure adjusting screw of the fuel oil relief
valve. b) Engine using Diesel Fuel Oil
i ) Remove the screw cap A of the relief valve,
and loosen the lock nut B . Proper range: 0.2 ~ 0.3 MPa {2~3 kgf/cm2}
ii) Turn the adjusting screw C , and adjust the
In case of diesel fuel oil specification, the pres-
pressure.
sure adjustment procedure is the same as in case
 Clockwise turning (tightening) → Increase of of heavy fuel oil specification, since the same
pressure type of the fuel relief valve is used in both cases.
 Counterclockwise turning (loosening) →
Decrease of pressure

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Measurement and Adjustment:
Pressure and Temperature of Each Part DK-20e 3.2

(8) Fuel Oil Temperature ... When Using Heavy


Fuel Oil
Heavy fuel oil must be heated so as to make its
viscosity suitable for injection, before the oil is sup-
plied to the engine.

Proper viscosity (engine inlet) dynamic


viscosity: 14 ± 1.5 mm2 /S

Since the temperature appropriate for proper


viscosity varies depending on the properties (vis-
cosity) of heavy fuel oil, be minded to keep the
proper viscosity referring to the following figure as
a standard:
( :Fig. 6-1.1 "Fuel Oil Viscosity
/Temperature Curve")
In case that the viscontroller (automatic viscosity
regulator) is installed to the engine, control the fuel
oil viscosity in accordance with instruction manual,
and be minded to carefully keep the manual.
( :4-4.4 "Operation Using Heavy Fuel Oil")

( :6.1 "Fuel Oil Characteristics and Control")

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Inspection Parts around Intake Nd Exhaust Vlves, and
4.1 DK-20e Adjusting valve End Clearance

5-4.Inspection and Maintenance valves, and a single valve holder tee is provided to
simultaneously push down both pairs of intake and
5-4.1 Inspecting Parts around Intake
exhaust valves, and therefore unless the valve end
and Exhaust Valves, and clearance of each pair of both intake and exhaust
Adjusting Valve End Clearance valves is equal, the valve pushing force will be
(1) Replacing Consumables, Implements, and unbalanced, resulting in abnormal wear or damage
Measuring Instruments Valve retainer tee Intake and exhaust
valve rocker arm
B
a) Replacing Consumables ( "Parts List")
C
1 Seal (cylinder head cover) 3-18 A10 (5DK)
A
3-21 A10 (6,8DK) A
B
b) Implements and Measuring Instruments
Push rod
1 General tools
( :"Implements List" in the final documents)

(2) Inspecting Parts around Intake and Exhaust


Valve rotator
Valves
Intake and exhaust valve cotter
Both intake and exhaust valves are the parts
that are exposed to the most severe conditions
Valve End Clearance Adjusting Procedure
among all other parts of the engine. Therefore, be
minded to periodically inspect these valves, and
confirm that both valves operate normally.
of the valve holder tee and the guide parts.
a) Confirm that there is no abnormal operating
sounds in both the intake and exhaust valves
<Valve End Clearance Adjusting Procedure>
during the operation of engine.
i ) Place the cylinder in the explosion stroke, and
b) Check the following points on these valves close the intake and exhaust valves.
removing the cylinder head cover when the
ii) Loosen the lock nuts of the adjusting screws A
engine is stopped.
and B , and turn back the adjusting screw A
① Lubricating conditions of the rocker arm and
and B .
push rods
iii) Closely fit the valve end "A" place the dial
② Lubricating and sludge collecting conditions of gauge against the valve holder tee, and tight-
the intake and exhaust valve cotters, and en the adjusting screw A until the scale point-
valve rotators er swings, so that it can be confirmed that the
③ Sludge collecting conditions around the valve valve ends "A" and "B" are both closely fit at
spring the same time.
④ Rotating conditions of the valve rotators iv) Engage a spanner around the hexagonal head
⑤ Valve end clearance of the adjusting screw A , and tighten the lock
nut while paying attention so that the screw
and nut do not slip and turn.
(3) Adjusting Valve End Clearance
v) Insert a thickness gauge of the specified thick-
Since valve end clearance decreases due to the
ness into the clearance "C" on the top part of
wear of the valve seat part, and therefore be mind-
the valve holder tee, and adjust the clearance
ed to periodically inspect and adjust it.
using the adjusting screw B .
When the valve end clearance is too small, it will
cause improper setting of the valve on its seat dur-
ing the operation of engine due to thermal expan- Proper clearance: 0.31 mm (for both
sion of the valve itself and push rod, resulting in intake and exhaust valves)
burning of the seat.
Further, the valve system of this engine is 4-
valve type, having 2 intake valves and 2 exhaust

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Inspecting and Maintenance of Fuel Injection Valve 4.2
DK-20e
Tightening nut D Gasket
5-4.2 Inspecting and Maintenance of
Fuel Injection Valve Inlet connector C

Since the conditions of the fuel injection valve O-ring


substantially affect the performance of engine
operation, be minded to periodically inspect it and Bolt F
conduct the maintenance.
However, in case that remarkable changes have
been found in the maximum combustion pressure, P
exhaust temperature, exhaust color, and so on, be
minded to conduct immediate inspection and main-
tenance, regardless of the standard inspection and Circular gasket G
maintenance period.
Fuel injection valve A
Since the items mentioned in this section
will be the parts to which NOx Technical Code
shall be applied, when replaacing any of these
parts, be sure to use the parts provided with Bolt E
the identification marks.
( :0-3 "Engine Conforming to NOx
Technical Code") High-pressure fuel
coupling B

(1) Replacing Consumables, Implements, and


Measuring Instruments
)
a Replacing Consumables ( :"Parts List")
View "P"
① Circular gasket 3-21.1.1 No.507 (5DK)
3-24.1.1 No.507 (6,8DK)
② Gasket 3-21.2 No.218 (5DK)
3-24.2 No.218 (6,8DK) 5
③ O-ring 3-21.1.2 No.12 (5DK)
3-24.1.2 No.12 (6,8DK)
④ O-ring 3-21.2 or 21.3 No.603 (5DK) Fuel Injection Device
3-24.2 or 24.3 No.603 (6,8DK)
⑤ O-ring 3-21.2 No.604 (5DK)
3-24.2 No.604 (6,8DK)
⑥ O-ring 3-21.1.1 No.505 (5DK)
3-24.1.1 No.505 (6,8DK)
b) Implements and Measuring Instruments
① General tools and measuring instruments
( :Final Documents)
② Nozzle holder extracting implement
③ Fuel oil injection testing device
④ Nozzle cleaning implement Nozzle Holder Extracting Procedure

(2) Extracting Fuel Oil Injection Valve


Extraction of the fuel oil injection valve can be
conducted on the following procedure: 1)Be careful so that the circular packing G
may not be left behind in the cylinder head.
2)After removing the high-pressure fuel cou-
<Extracting Procedure> pling and fuel injection valve, be minded to
i ) Remove the cylinder head and heat box cover place the cover both on the coupling part of
(upper side only).
the fuel oil injection pump and on the inser-
tion part of the cylinder head.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
4.2 Inspecting and Maintenance of Fuel Injection Valve
DK-20e

ii) Close the valve of the nozzle cooling water (or


Special gasket
oil) pipe system. (In case of heavy fuel oil spec-
ifications.) Sash PT3/8

iii) Loosen the bolts E and F , and remove the


high-pressure fuel coupling (block) B . High-pressure
hose
iv) Remove the inlet connector C . Tester side
v) Remove the tightening nut D using a box
wrench.
vi) Extract the fuel oil injection valve A using a
fuel oil injection extracting implement 2 .
vii) Remove the circular gasket G .
Nozzle holder sash

(3) Injection Test Nozzle holder side


Conduct a fuel injection test of the fuel injection
valve, to check if the opening pressure and the Nozzle holder sash
spraying conditions of the fuel injection valve is in Injection Test Procedure
proper and normal state.
Conduct the fuel injection test using the fuel
injection test device installed to the engine.
a) Inspecting Valve Opening Pressure
Cap nut H Screw driver
i ) Install the fuel injection valve on the injection
test device, after removing the carbon stuck on
the tip of the injection valve, and cleaning the Adjusting nut I
tip.
ii) Connect the test pump and the fuel injection
Lock nut
valve using a high-pressure hose for testing.
iii) Quickly operate the test pump lever several
times, and drain the air until the valve starts
injection of the fuel as the pressure indicating
scale swings.
iv) Slowly turn the test pump lever (once every
second, or so), check the pressure reading
(the pressure, that has once increased gradu-
ally, suddenly starting to decrease due to
opening of the valve). Pressure Adjusting Procedure

Normal pressure: 27.4 ~ 29.4 MPa


{280 ~ 300 kgf/cm2}
Setting pressure : 29.4MPa {300 kgf/cm}
b) Adjusting Valve Opening Pressure Be minded to set the pressure of the fuel
When reassembling the fuel injection valve injection valve at a rather higher level, taking
after conducting the maintenance work by extract- into concideration the initial working adjust-
ing the valve out of the engine, and when the noz- ment, in case that a new injection valve is
zle is replaced with a new one, adjust the valve introduced.
pressure on the following procedure. -------30.4 MPa {310 kgf/cm2}

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Inspecting and Maintenance of Fuel Injection Valve 4.2
DK-20e

Needle valve
Since the items mentioned in this section
will be the parts to which engine setting value
specified in NOx Technical Code shall be con- Fuel
firmed, do not make any change that may
deviate from the setting values.
Blank
( :0-3 "Engine Conforming to NOx Technical Code") Nozzle paper

<Valve Opening Pressure Adjustment


Procedure> Normal Injection
i ) Remove the cap nut H .
ii) Loosen the lock nut J for the adjusting
screw I .
iii) Adjust the pressure to the specified pressure
by turning the adjusting screw using a screw-
driver, while conducting the injection of the fuel
oil, as in the same procedure as in case of the
(A) Clogged nozzle (B) Improper (C) Droopy nozzle
fuel oil injection test. needle valve action
 Screwing-in adjusting screw −−−−−− High Abnormal Injection
 Turning-back of adjusting screw −−− Low
iv) Tighten the lock nut J .

c) Inspecting Fuel Oil Injection


Inspect the fuel oil injecting conditions on the
following procedure:
5
i ) Quickly operate the test pump lever several Cap nut H
times (2 to 3 times every second), and inspect
the fuel oil injecting conditions. (Let the fuel oil Lock nut J
injected against a blank paper so that the con-
ditions can be better inspected.)
 Check if the cutting-off of injection is good or
not. --- Injection sound Adjusting screw I
 Check if injection is made in clear spray, not Holder K
being in spray of bar pattern injection, nor
dripping down.
ii) Check if there is no dripping-down of fuel oil Spring N
from the tip of the nozzle after the injection Inlet connector C Push rod
test.
Spacer P

Be minded not to approach your face or Knock pin Q


hands near the fuel spray during testing.
If the high-pressure fuel has hit your face or Retaining nut M
Spray lubricating agent
hands, it will cause injuries. (Molykote U Paste) Nozzle L

Fuel Injection Valve (A)

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
4.2 Inspecting and Maintenance of Fuel Injection Valve
DK-20e

(4) Disassembling and Inspecting Nozzle


In case that a remarkable decrease of the valve
Retaining nut M Hammer
opening pressure, faulty injection of fuel oil, or
dripping-down of fuel oil after injection is found as
the results of the fuel injection test, conduct disas- Nozzle L
sembling, cleaning, and inspection on the following Patch
procedure:

a) Disassembling the Nozzle


i ) Remove the cap nut H .
ii) Loosen the adjusting nut I .
iii) Fix the holder housing K in a vise, and loosen
Vise
the retaining nut M
iv) Extract the needle valve out of the Nozzle L .
v) Extract the nozzle out of the retaining nut by Extracting
Holder housing K needle valve
striking with a hammer, while placing a pipe-
type patch on the nozzle so as not to damage
the injection hole of nozzle.

Nozzle cleaning
If the retaining nut is turned while the implement
adjusting nut is still tightened, it will damage
the nozzle or nozzle holder parts.
In case that heavy fuel oil is used, the
retaining nut and nozzle may be stuck togeth-
er with carbon accumulated on them.
If the nut is loosened in this state, the noz-
zle will turn together with the nut, and may
damage the nozzle, or the knock pin of spac- Nozzle Cleaning Procedure
er, and therefore first lubricate the nut with
gas oil, and then carefully loosen the nut by
striking the nozzle with a hammer, while plac-
ing a patch on the nozzle.

b) Inspecting Nozzle
i ) Clean the nozzle nut and needle valve with gas Since the nozzle and needle valve is a pair
oil. functioning together, be minded not to replace
ii) Clean the nozzle hole using a nozzle cleaning either of them separately.
implement. Do not try to reuse a faulty nozzle by wrap-
iii) Push in and push out the needle valve with ping, but be sure to replace it with a new one.
your hand, and check the movement.
 Check if the movement is smooth or not.
 Check if the movement is too loose.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Inspecting and Maintenance of Fuel Injection Valve 4.2
DK-20e

(5) Assembling Fuel Oil Injection Valve iv) Attach the holder tightening nut D, and evenly
Assemble the fuel oil injection valve in the tighten with the specified torque.
reverse order of the disassembling procedure.
i ) Clean each of the disassembled parts with Specified torque: 59 N.m { 6 kgf.m }
clean gas oil, and insert each of them back
into the holder housing K .
v) Screw in the inlet connector with hand, and
ii) Put the spacer P and the knock pin Q of noz- tighten it with the specified torque.
zle together, and install them into the holder
housing.
Specified torque: 88 ~ 98 N.m
iii) Apply the lubricating agent (Molykote U paste)
on the holder housing thread, the seating face { 9 ~ 10 kgf.m }
of the retaining nut M , and the outer periphery
of the nozzle, and screw the retaining nut into vi) Attach the high-pressure fuel coupling and O-
the holder housing by your hand. rings on the cylinder head side and fuel injec-
iv) Loosen the adjusting nut I . tion pipe side, tighten the high-pressure fuel
v) Tighten the retaining nut with the specified coupling tightening bolt E and F with the speci-
torque. fied torque.

Specified torque: 34 ~ 45 N.m


Specified torque: 196 ~ 226 N.m
{ 20 ~ 23 kgf.m } { 3.5 ~ 4.5 kgf.m }

Be careful not to tighten the retaining nut


with the torque over the specified value, since
it may cause the sticking of the needle valve
5
of the nozzle.

vi) Set the fuel oil injection valve on the inspection


test device, and adjust the valve opening
pressure.
( : 5-4.2 (3) "Fuel Injection Test")

(6) Mounting Fuel Oil Injection Valve


Mount the fuel injection valve to the cylinder
head in the reverse order of the extracting proce-
dures.
i ) Apply heat-resistant agent on the O-rings, and
attach them to the holder housing K .
ii) Apply heat-resistant agent on the circular gas-
ket, and attach it to the holder housing.
iii) Insert that fuel oil injection valve into the noz-
zle holder guide hole, after confirming that the
old gasket is not left behind in the guide hole.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
4.3 DK-20e Cleaning Filters
5-4.3 Cleaning Filters ii) Turn the selector cock handle A (usually, set
Fuel oil filter and lubricating oil filter have very to "Used on both sides (P)" position ) to the
o
important roles, i.e., removing foreign matters or "Blow-off" position (about 60 ), and quickly
sludge in oil and keeping the oil clean, and main- conduct the operation to return the handle to
taining the normal operation of the various parts of the previous position (within 0.5 - 1 sec.)
engine. Therfore, it is important to periodically
overhaul and clean, so that filtering capabilities iii) Repeat this operation 2 - 3 times.
can be maintained. iv) Conduct the above same procedure on the
A notch-wire duplex cleaning filter and a Y-type other side.
filter are used for the fuel, and an automatic back- v) Close the drain cock.
wash cleaning filter and a centrifugal bypass filter
are used for the lubricating oil.
Air vent valve Spring K
( : Seperately provided "Engine
Specification")
(1) Notch-Wire Duplex Type Filter (Fuel oil)
The notch-wire duplex type filter is normally
used as both-side-parallel application.
Since both the fuel oil pressure and lubricating
oil pressure decreases if the filter has been fouled, Filter case
be minded to periodically conduct blow-off clean-
Handle A
ing. In case that the oil pressure does not
increase even after the blow-off cleaning has been
conducted, overhaul the filter and then clean it.

a) Replacing Consumables
For fuel oil 32PED ( :"Parts List") Rugging
① O-ring 4-2.3 No.106
Drain valve
TypeB Filter
② Gasket 4-2.3 No.152 Notch-Wire
③ Gasket 4-2.3 No.189 (6,8DK) Notch-Wire Type Filter
No. 190 (5DK)
④ Gasket 4-2.3 No.199 Filters used on both sides "P
P"
⑤ Gasket 4-2.3 No. 266

b) Blow-Off Cleaning 90q 90q


Blow-off on Blow-off on
In case of blow-off cleaning, deposits can be left filter "Q
Q" 60q 60q right filter "Q
Q"
removed by reversely flowing the fluid through the
element on one side, and this type of cleaning
Left filter Right filter
has no cleaning effect when the element is sub- shut off shut off
stantially clogged, and therefore be minded to Handle A
conduct the blow-off cleaning in an earlier state,
C1 Blow-off
while the fouled degree of filter is still light. (The C1
C1
cleaning should be conducted at least once a C3
C3
C3
week.)
E1 E2 E1 E2 E1 E2
<Blow-Off Cleaning Procedure>
i ) Open the drain cock B at the bottom part of fil-
ter. At this time, be careful so that waste oil C2 C2 C2
When both filters Blow-off on One side shut off
may not scatter or overflow out of the drain are used right filter
cock. E1,E2࡮࡮࡮Right and left elements
C1࡮࡮࡮Selector cock inlet hole Interlock
C2࡮࡮࡮Selector cock outlet hole
C3࡮࡮࡮Selector cock blow-off and draining hole

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Cleaning Filters DK-20e 4.3

Conduct the blow-off cleaning quickly.


Further, do not place the lever on the middle
position, but quickly move to the specified
position (Notch bar position).
If too much time has been taken in blow-off Air vent valve D
cleaning and switching the lever positions, the Cap nut L
pressure will decrease, and may activate the
Element F
alarm or emergency stop. Tightening E
nut
c) Overhaul and Cleaning of Filters
Be minded to conduct the overhaul and clean-
ing of filters when the engine is stopped, as far as
possible. Gasket I
In case that the overhaul and cleaning is per-
formed during the operation of engine, first con- Case C
Gasket J
duct the blowing-off cleaning on the oppsite side,
and then perform the overhaul and cleaning while
the engine is in an idle operation or is under a
low-load operation.
Housing G

When using the heavy fuel oil, the fuel oil is


heated up and consequently the filter and the Air vent pipe M Handle A
Drain valve B
piping are extremely hot. Therefore, when han-
dling the filter, be sure to wear the safety
gloves, and be cautious so that the high-tem- Handle A Notch bar H Cock O
perature oil may not splash on the skin or
clothes.

<Overhaul and Cleaning of Filters>


i ) Turn the selector handle A to the "Close" posi-
o
tion (R) (90 ) on the side to be overhauled.
In Out
ii) Open the drain valve B , loosen the air vent
valve D at the top of the Case C , and dis- Handle N
charge oil.
iii) Remove the cap nut L and the air vent Filter Overhaul Procedure
valve D . Remove the air vent pipe M .
iv) Loosen the tightening nut E . Remove the
case C . Pull out the element F .
iii) Attach the (new) packings on the upper end
v) Clean the element with washing oil or gas oil,
and conduct blow-off cleaning from the inside. and on the lower end of the air vent pipe M .
Mount the cap nut L and the air vent valve D .
vi) Clean each of the parts overhauled, and clean
the grooves for case gasket of the filter hous- Tighten the cap nut L .
ing G . iv) Close the drain cock B .
v) Shift the handle A to "Blow-off" position.
<Assembly and Restoration>
vi) When the filter is overhauled and cleaned
i ) Attach the gasket I to the element F , and
while the engine is stopped, conduct priming
attach the gasket J to the filter housing D .
and fill the case with oil.
ii) Put the spring K on the element, and place the
vii) Close the air vent valve D , after oil has been let
case C on the top of the spring, and screw the
overflow and air bubbles have completely van-
nut E into the case while holding the case with
ished from the oil flowing out of the air vent pipe.
your hand.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
4.3 DK-20e Cleaning Filters

viii) Return the handle to "Both sides used (P)"


position.
ix) Check if there is any oil leakage from the gas- Hydraulic Motor
ket sections.

After you make a blow-off operation or open


the component, check that the plug H is in Back-Wash
place on the switching cock O . Nozzle
If the plug H is not in place, the handle may
be turned by vibration during operation, caus- Outlet
ing an accidental spillover of the oil.

1) Check conditions of the sludge collected on Inlet


the element.
2) When the element is damaged, or when the
element is excessively fouled and clogging [Filtration Phase] [Back-Flushing Phase]
cannot be removed even by cleaning, Drain
replace the element with a new one. Auto Back-Wash Filter
3) Since the gasket and O-ring are easily be dam-
aged, be very careful in handling these parts.
Particulaly, the heavy fuel oil filter tends to be
deteriorated in high-temperature conditions,
and therfore be mined to replace the filter (3) Centrifugation bypass filter (Lubricating oil)
every time the overhaul is conducted. ・The centrifugal bypass filter has a rotor that is
rotated by the reactive force generated when
the rubricating oil is injected from the nozzle of
(2) Automatic Back-Wash Filter (Lubricating oil) the internal rotor. The centrifugal force of this
The lubricating oil filter adopted for the engine is rotation is used to collect the sludge to the
the automatic backwashing type. internal wall of the rotor.
The filter element will catch the sludge, and the ・The valve at the filter intake must be open to
backwashing nozzle driven by the hydraulic motor the full for all the time during engine operation.
will rotate to sequentially backwash the internal Close the valve when you clean the filter or
parts by continuously flowing back the filtrated when any trouble occurs to the filter (at the
clean lubricant oil. occurrence of abnormal sounds and/or
For a detailed description of the filter handling abnormal vibration).
method, refer to the separate document. ・When the sludge deposits and the rotor is
under heavy load, its rotational speed may
( :"Operation and Maintenance Manual for
decrease, and/or its rotation stops, which
Lubricant Oil Automatic Backwashing Filter".
makes it impossible to collect the sludge.
Therefore, clean the sludge approximately
evely 100 to 250 hours. (The amount of sludge
While you open the lubricating oil filter for
generation depends on the use conditions of
cleaning, if you find any metal dust, investi-
the engine. You must check how much sludge
gate the cause. Take necessary measures.
is collected to adjust the intervals of cleaning.)

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Cleaning Filters DK-20e 4.3

Tightening nut: rotor cover 3


Mounting nut: case cover 1
Clean the bypass filter only when the engine
is not in operation. Case cover 2
It is dangerous to disassemble the bypass filter Rotor cover 4
during operation because the mist gas gushes.

a) Disassembling and cleaning


O-ring
Disassemble and clean the rotor as instructed below.
Rotor body 5
i) Loosen the mounting nut① from the case
cover. Remove the case cover②. Spindle
ii) Remove the rotor assembly. Case body 6
iii) Use a vice or the like to fasten the nozzle part
of the rotor assembly.

Use caution not to damage the nozzle or Grove


the spindle bearing part when fastening the valve
nozzle part of the rotor assembly.
Oil inlet
iv) Loosen the rotor cover tightening nut③. Oil outlet
Remove the rotor cover④.
Centrifugal By-pass Filter
v) Use a spatula or the like to remove the sludge
depositing on the rotor cover④ and in the rotor
body⑤. 5
vi) Use cleaning oil or the like to clean the rotor (4) Y-Type Filter (Fuel oil)
cover④ and the rotor body⑤. a) Overhaoul and Cleaning
vii) Pour some cleaning oil in the rotor body⑤. i ) Remove the plug.
See how the cleaning oil flows out of the nozzle ii) Remove the strainer.
to check whether the rotor is clogged. iii) Clean the strainer with washing oil gas oil.

Remove all the sludge. If any of the sludge b) Mounting


remains, unbalanced rotation occurs to cause When mounting the Y-type filter, be minded to
vibration, which may damage the bearing. mount it with the plug side facing downward, so
that sludge may be accumulated in the strainer.
vii) Check that there is no damage on the case
cover② or on the bearing of the case body⑥.
Inlet Outlet
b) Assembly and recovery
Assemble the filter in the inverse order of disas-
sembly.

Before assembling the case cover②, check


that the rotor assembly rotates smoothly. Plug
Strainer

Disassembling Y-type Filter

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
4.3 DK-20e Cleaning Filters

(5) Air filter (Starting air 5DK) (2) Carefully check the air strainer screen. If it
The air strainer has a critical role in removing is clogged heavily or damaged, replace it
foreign matters in starting air and drain to ensure with a new one.
normal operations of the pressure regulator, start-
ing valve and air motor. Therefore, it is important d. Assembly
to periodically overhaul and clean it to prevent Assemble the air strainer in reverse order
deterioration in filtering ability. from its disassembly.
(1) Screw the air strainer (c) in the strainer
block (D), and tighten the air strainer.
Since contamination may be left in the pip-
ing at the start of operation, overhaul the
strainer every week for one month after the Make sure that the threaded portions of the
start of the engine. After a lapse of this one strainer block (D) and the strainer (C) are free
month, if contamination is not discharged, from contamination.
overhaul it once a month.
(2) Fit the flushing filter (F).
The air strainer incorporates a flushing filter so (3) Fit the O-ring (E) (new) onto the strainer
that the filter can catch foreign matters in the cover (A), and apply grease thin.
pipeline at the early stages of operation. (4) Fit the strainer cover (A).
When all the foreign matters are eliminated, the (5) At the start of the engine, check for air leak
flushing filter can be removed. It is, however, rec- from joints.
ommended that the filter should be continuously
used without removal for the reason of equipment
protection.

If the flushing filter is clogged, the starting


performance will be deteriorated. In this case, Starting
solenoid valve
remove the filter and replace it with a new one.
Starting valve

Pressure
a.Replacing Consumables ( :"Parts List") regurator
1. O-ring (E) 2-2.3 No. 604
2. Flushing filter (F) 2-2.3 No. 47
Gauge
b. Overhauling

O-ring (E)
Make sure that the main valve for the sup-
plied high-pressure air is closed. Cover (A)

Remove the air strainer in accordance with Strainer (C)


the following procedures.
(1) Remove the bolts (B), and remove the Flushing
strainer cover (A). filter (F)
Block; strainer
(2) Remove the flushing filter (F).
Bolt (B)
(3) Loosen the strainer (C) holding the hexago-
nal part with a spanner, and draw it out.

c. Inspection, cleaning and maintenance


(1) The removed parts are stained with rust and
mud. Clean them with clean wash oil or gas Air Strainer
oil, and blow air over them.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Cleaning Turbocharger Blower DK-20e 4.4

5-4.4 Cleaning Turbocharger Blower (4) Cleaning Method


Cleaning of the turbocharger blower can be
If the fouled degree of the turbocharger blower
made using the cleaning device that is supplied
has progressed, the efficiency of the turbocharger
together with the engine.
will decrease and the operating performance of
engine will be worsened. Particularly when heavy i ) Pour cleaning liquid into the blower syringe A .
fuel oil is used, the turbocharger blower tends to ii) Connect the syringe socket to the filling pipe
be fouled in faster degree, and therefore be mind- B that is connected the turbocharger inlet side.
ed to conduct blow-off cleaning and restrain the iii) Fully open the drain cock of the air intake duct.
progress of fouling. iv) Operate the syringe to inject cleaning liquid.
(1) Interval of Cleaning v) When 3 to 5 minutes has passed after the
Clean the blower when intake air pressure has injection of cleaning liquid, inject fresh water of
decreased 10% at the same load, or at least the same amount on the same procedure.
every 150 to 200 hours of operation. [Injection Amount and Injecting Time]
(2) Load during Cleaning
Make sure that the engine shall be operated Type of Injection Injection
under the load of 75% (In case of "MET", Intake air turbocharger amount (cc) time (sec)
pressure is 0.03~0.07 MPa) or higher, and contin-
ue the loaded operation for 1 hour or more after MET 18SRC 250 20 ~ 40
cleaning.
48
(3) Cleaning Liquid TPS 400 4 ~ 10
Be sure to use the specified cleaning liquid. In 52
case that the specified cleaning liquid is not avail-
able, use fresh water. (Note that cleaning effect
vi)) In case that there is no change in intake air
is inferior with fresh water.)
pressure before and after the cleaning, repeat
cleaning after 10 minutes.
5
Be minded never to use gas oil or any other  In case that intake air pressure does not
flammable liquid for cleaning, since these liq- change over when the cleaning is repeatedly
uids will be the cause of fire. conducted, conduct the overhaul and clean-
ing of the whole of turbocharger.
Connect here ( :Separately provided "Turbocharger
Syringe A
Instruction Manual")

Socket The turbocharger is at a high-temperature


during operation and just after the engine is
Plug B stopped. If you touch it with bare hands dur-
Vinyl hose ing cleaning, you may burn your hands. Wear
safety gloves without fail.
air

Pipe
air

Hose band

㪤㪜㪫 Turbocharger 㪫㪧㪪

Turbocharger Blower Cleaning Procedure

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
4.5 DK-20e Cleaning Turbocharger Turbine

5-4.5 Cleaning Turbocharger Turbine sure reaches the specified value while observ-
ing the pressure gauge (C), and feed water for
15 to 30 seconds.
(vi) Perform cleaning three times. Repeat clean-
The turbocharger is at a high-temperature ing at the interval shown in the following table.
during operation and just after the engine is (vii) After the completion of cleaning, close the valve (B).
stopped. If you touch it with bare hands dur- (viii) Close the valve of the cleaning nozzle (A).
ing cleaning, you may burn your hands. Wear (ix) Disconnect the rubber hose (D).
safety gloves without fail. (x) Loosen the lock nut of the cleaning nozzle,
and open the valve to drain clean water from
<Turbocharger type "TPS" (pouring water the cleaning pipe.
washing)> (xi) Close the valve, and secure it with the lock nut.
As the pouring water washing method of the (xii) Run the supercharger under constant load for
supercharger, fresh water is sprayed in front of more than 10 minutes until it completely dries.
the turbine from the pouring water nozzle on the (xiii) After the completion of cleaning, if the per-
supercharger. Thus, the extraneous matter is formance values of exhaust temperature, air
removed through the difference of the cooled tur- supply pressure and supercharger speed are
bine nozzle eith fresh water, turbine blade and unchanged, repeat the above steps. If no
changes are observed after the steps are
the thermal expansion extraneous matter.
repeated several times, it is necessary to
overhaul the supercharger.
(1) Washing interval
After the accumulation is thick, this cleaning is Supercharger type Interval time (minutes)
not effective any more. Actuate this cleaning
about every 200 hours in initial days. Aster this TPS48 3
period, actuate this cleaning every 50 to 200 TPS52 3
hours depending on the condition of degradation
in performance-related measurements such as ( :"Operating Manual for Supercharger")
exhaust temperature, intake pressure, and super
charger's rotational speed.
(2) Load during washing T/C Cleaning pipe Detail of Cleaning Nozzle (A)
Apply the washing at such a load as the
exhaust temperature of the turbocharger intlet is
o
400 to 450 C. Asthe exhaust temperature is Valve
lower, the washing effect decreases. As it is high-
er, the turbine nozzle or similar part may be dam-
aged.
Lock nut
Take special care for the exhaust temperature.

(3) Fresh water for washing Connecting


As the fresh water for washing, use the fresh Frash water
water which does not include any additives. Rubber hose (D)
Hose connection
Never use any seawater.
Cleaning nozzle (A)
(4) Washing method Hose connection
(i) Connect the water feed hose (E) to the pres- Pressure gauge (C)
sure gauge unit.
Valve (B)
(ii) Connect the water feed hose (D) to the cleaning
nozzle (A) on the supercharger cleaning pipe.
(iii) Open the valve (B) to fill the hose to the clean- Rubber hose (E)
ing nozzle (A) with water, and close the valve.
(iv) Loosen the lock nut of the cleaning nozzle Rubber hose (D) Frash water
(A), return the screw of the nozzle valve with a Pressure gauge unit
spanner, and fully open the valve.
(v) Slowly open the valve (B) until the water pres- Cleaning of the Turbocharger Turbine (TPS)

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Cleaning Turbocharger Turbine DK-20e 4.5

< In case of Turbocharger Model "MET" 1 minutes.


(Cleaning solid matter) > ii) Close the valve (A), and close the valve (B).
If staining of the turbocharger turbine side pro- iii) Fill the specified use amount of vegetable solid
gresses, engine performance will be worsened due
to decrease of the efficiency as in the case of the cleaning agent into the tank, and securely tight-
blower side. Particularly, it tends to be more en the cap of the tank.
stained in'case of heavy fuel oil specification, peri- iv) Open the valve (A) and (B) in this order, and
odically clean the turbine side, and restrain the charge the cleaning agent with air pressure.
progress of staining.
v) Close the valve (B) and (A) in this order.
When cleaning the solid matter in the turbine,
charge vegetable solid particle in front of the tur-
bine, and remove the adhered matters on the tur- b) Repeated cleaning
bine nozzle or turbine rotor blade by the impact i) In case that a sudden change, such as surging,
force produced by the vegetable solid particle has occurred in the engine when charging the
accelerated by the exhaust gas. cleaning agent, try the cleaning by using a half
(1) Interval of Cleaning of the specified use amount of solid cleaning
Conduct the cleaning with the interval of 200 to agent for single time cleaning, and perform the
250 hours in the initial stage, since the effect of cleaning after confirming that there is no more
cleaning will be lost if the layers of the accumulat- sudden change in the engine.
ed matters have become thick.
Afterwards, make this method as the standard.
As for the cleaning interval after the initial clean-
ing, properly increase or decrease depending on ii) After finishing the cleaning, repeat the above
the factors such as the exhaust temperature, the procedure of Item a), if no particular change
intake air pressure, and the degree of performance is not found in the performance values such as
decrease of the turbocharger rotation speed. the exhaust temperature, intake air pressure,
(2) Load during Cleaning and turbocharger rotation speed. In case that
Perform cleaning by making the load of engine any change is not found even after the cleaning
to be 75 to 85% as the standard. Although it is has been repeated, it is necessary to perform
possible to perform cleaning at a low load of the overhaul and cleaning.
around 50%, cleaning liquid may sometime be
accumulated at the gas outlet casing, and there-
fore avoid the cleaning of such a low load as far as
Various purpose air
0.4-0.5MPa Tank
5
possible. {4-5kgf/cm2}
Intake air pressure when cleaning is performed
is as shown in the following table, and therefore in
case that the normal load value is higher than
these, decrease the load.
(A)
[Intake air pressure and Exhaust Temperature]
(B)
Turbocharger Intake air Turbocharger inlet
model pressure exhaust temperature
MET18SRC 0.1~0.15 MPa 510 oC or less

(3) Cleaning Liquid


Use the specified cleaning liquid as shown
below.
 Husk of walnut: Diameter of grain: 1.7 to 2.4 Turbine Rotor Blade Cleaning Procedure
mm {Marine grid #10)
 Grain (rice, wheat, etc): Diameter of grain: [Specified use amount of solid cleaning agent]
1.7 to 2,4 mm
 Close the drain hole of the turbocharger Turbocharger model Specified use amount
gas outlet casing while cleaning.
MET18SCR 0.05 ~ 0.1 /1
(4) Cleaning Method
a) Procedure for one time cleaning
i) After opening the valve (B), open the valve (A) ( :"Instruction Nmanual of Turbocharger")
and cool the equipment by passing air for 0.5 to

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
4.6 DK-20e Measuring Crankshaft Deflection

5-4.6 Measuring Crankshaft Deflection iii) Install the deflection gauge.


Installation position shall be approximately on
the identical line with the outer diameter of the
journal, and shall be on the intersecting point
on the center line of the crank arm.
If the crankshaft deflection exceeds its limit,
the stress to be applied to the crankshaft will iv) Set the reading on the gauge scale to +20 at
become excessive, and it will result in the the position "B" in the Figure. (To make clear
breakage of crankshaft if the excess of deflec- the positive and negative directions.)
tion is too large. v) Slowly conduct turning of the engine in the nor-
Therefore, adjust the crankshaft deflection mal direction of rotation, and measure the
to a proper value when being installed, and reading on the scale when the crankshaft is at
periodically measure the deflection, so that it the angle of "B", "C", "D", "E", and "A" respec-
can be corrected whenever it is over the limit tively, of which data shall be recorded.
value.

(1) Replacing Consumables and Measuring


Instruments
a) Replacing Consumables ( :"Parts List")
① O-ring (frame side cover)
3-3.1、3-3.2 No.24

165
100
b) Implements and Measuring Instruments
① General tools
( :"Implement List" in the final documents)
② Deflection gauge
③ Mirror

(2) Conditions for Measuring Deflection


a) Deflection of the crankshaft varies according to
the temperature. Be sure to measure it when
the engine is in cold state.
b) Before measurement, push the contact piece
of the deflection gauge with a finger, and con-
firm that both the contact piece and dial
gauge return to the original positions
correctly.
c) In case of the marine engine, since the deflec-
tion varies according to the loaded cargo con-
ditions, be minded to record the conditions of
loaded cargo, draft, temperature, and so on,
at the same time.

(3) Measuring Deflection


<Measurement procedure>
i ) Open the turning plug, and perform turning the
crankshaft.
o
Deflection Gauge Mounting Position
ii) Place the crank pin at the point of 30 (position
"B") past the bottom dead center.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Measuring Crankshaft Deflection DK-20e 4.6

(4) Calculating Deflection (d)


Calculate the deflection values as based on the
measured values and in accordance with the fol-
lowing formula, and record the calculated values:
A+B
 Vertical (V) deflection: dV = D - 30 O


 Horizontal (H) deflection: dH = C - E
 Positive/negative deflection: Open down-

C D E
ward (+), closing downward (-)
B Top dead center
A
A, B, C, D, and E represent the measured val-
ues respectively at each corresponding position Deflection Measuring Position
shown in the figure on the right.

(5) Correction Limit for Deflection


a) The correction limit shall apply to whichever is
larger of dV and dH as shown in the following Seen from flywheel side
table. O O
A 30 30 B
(Unit : mm)

Adjusted value Allowable limit Direction


E C
(One-side bearing
In case of direct

0.03 or less 0.08


connection :
generator)

1
10,000
x stroke
2.8
10,000
x stroke D (Top dead center) 5
(Both-side bearing
In case of direct

0.03 or less 0.08


connection :

Dial Gauge Reading


generator)

1 2.8
x stroke x stroke
10,000 10,000
connection with
In case of direct

0.09 or less 0.12


coupling:
flexible

3 4
x stroke x stroke
10,000 10,000

b) Deflection varies depending on the connection


method (direct connection or flexible coupling)
between the crankshaft and drive equipment,
however, usually, the deflection becomes The deflection of the crankshaft shall be
maximum at the crank throw that is closest to represented by the value when the engine is
the flywheel. cold, and since the values measured when the
engine is warm sometimes differ significantly
Adjust the drive equipment using the adjust-
depending on the measurement conditions, be
ing shim or chock liner, so that the deflection
minded not to use the value measured when
falls within the limited values as shown in the
the engine is warm as standard.
above table.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
4.6 DK-20e Measuring Crankshaft Deflection

<Reference>
Deflection in warm condition
The deflection in the warm conditions generally There is a possibility that the measurement
tends to vary as compared to the values in the results of the deflection in the warm conditions
cold conditions. differ from the real value due to the reasons that
This is because the temperature increase of the the engine temperature may suddenly increase
engine base is larger than the temperature after the engine is stopped, and due to the effects
increase of the generator to be directly connect- of the thermal expansion owing to the tempera-
ed, so that the crankshaft core relatively increas- ture difference of the crankshaft. Be careful of
es, the deflection varies towar direction this fact.
(downward closing), and thereby the difference
manifests itself as the deflection difference
between the cold and warm conditions.
Like this, the deflection difference between the
cold and warm conditions differs depending on
the bearing dimensions and temperature differ-
ence of the engine and generator, so that the
adjustment is impossible, and it will be the value
unique to the generating device.
Please refer to the adjusted value of the opera-
tion certificate of authority factory.
The measured value of the deflection value in
the warm conditions varies according to the tem-
perature, and the different values tend to be
obtained every time the measurement is conduct-
ed, however, based on the actual measurement
results of our company, the value is approximate-
ly 4/10,000 x stroke and within the range of
(downward closing).

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Inspection and Maintenance
5
ITEM
Inspection and Replacing Protective Zinc DK-20e 4.7

5-4.7 Inspecting and Replacing reduced more than 50% (20% by dimension)
Protective Zinc as compared the original shape.
iii) On the contrary, in case that the protective
In case that sea water is used as the cooling
zinc is rarely worn out, the following failures
water in the cooleig system, a protective zinc is
may be suspected:
provided in each cooler.
 Faulty condition on the mounting surface
Conduct periodical inspection and replacement
 purity failure of zinc
of the parts on the following procedure:

(1) Replacing Consumables, Implements and


b) Replacement and mounting
Measuring Instruments
i ) Remove the rust or scale from the mounting
a) Replacing Consumables surfaces of the protective zinc and the mounted
Lubricating cooler( :"Parts List") flange to expose the metallic surface, and
① Gasket 4-3.3.2 No.64 securely mount the protective zinc to the flange
in such a way that the both parts are closely in
② Protective zinc 4-3.3.2 No.65 contact each other.
Air cooler( :"Parts List") ii) In case that the protective zinc is reused,
③ Gasket DH29, 39 3-32.4 No.14, 77 shave scale off the surface of the protective
④ Gasket DH52, 73 3-32.5 No.101, 102 zinc and expose the zinc surface.

⑤ Protective zinc DH29, 39 3-32.4 No.24, 75


⑥ Protective zinc DH52, 73 3-32.5 No.33, 34
b) Implements and Measuring Instruments


① General tools
:"Implements List" in the final docu-
5
ments)

(2) Locations of Protective Zinc and Inspection


Interval Location of Protective Zinc for
 Front and rear covers for lubricating cooler --- Lubricating Oil Cooler
----Every 3 months
 Front and rear covers for air cooler-----Every
6 months

Efficiency of the protective zinc substantially


varies depending on the purity. Therfore, be "P" "Q"
minded to use the genuine parts supplied by
Daihatsu Diesel Manufacturing. Co., Ltd.

(3) Inspection and Replacement


a) Inspection
i ) Remove the mounting flange for protective
zinc.
View "P" View "Q"
ii) Replace the protective zinc of which volume is
Location of Protective Zinc for Air Cooler

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
6 Control of Fuel Oil, Lubricating Oil, and Cooling Water
ITEM
1.1 DK-20e Selecting Fuel Oil

6-1 Fuel Oil Characteristics and Control

How well the fuel oil characteristics is controlled will greatly affect the smooth operation of engine,
maintenance intervals, as well as the working life of various parts.
When supplying the fuel oil, it is required not only to confirm the characteristics referring to the char-
acteristics analysis table, but also to conduct the control of the oil in accordance with each characteris-
tics.
Particularly when using heavy fuel oil, conduct the preprocessing of fuel oil, the control of viscosity
(temperature), and the control of lubricating oil without fail, so that troubles arising from fuel oil can be
prevented.

6-1.1 Selecting Fuel Oil


The standard characteristics of the fuel oil appli- Therefore, be minded to check the charac-
cable to this engine is as shown in a separate teristics analysis values of the fuel oils after
table. each delivery, and try to avoid using the fuel oil
of which characteristics is excessively different
( :Table 6-1.1 "Standard Fuel Oil from those shown in the standard characteris-
Characteristics") tics table.
Commercially available fuel oils are consider-
ably different in the characteristics, and even the
same type of the fuel oil may show a greatly dif-
ferent characteristics depending on the location
and period of supply.
Check the characteristics analysis values of
the fuel oils, and avoid using the fuel oil that
exceeds limit value.

1) The engine specification varies depending Bottoms oils resulting from operation by FCC
on the types of the fuel oil to be used. Be method (catalytic cracking method) are often
minded to confirm the type of the fuel oil mixed in fuel oils recently.
referring to the specification of engine, and The mixed oils, such as this, contain rigid
do not use the oil of which grade is lower alumina silica (catalyst particles), and will
than that shown in the specification. cause abnormal wear of the various parts of
engine, particularly the parts of the fuel injec-
In case that the fuel oil of lower grade is tion system.
used, troubles may be incurred on the oper- Remove the solid particles by fully utilizing
ation of engine, due to the faulty combus- the existing fuel oil pretreatment equipment,
tion, troubles on the fuel oil system equip- and by intensifying the cleaning of fuel oil.
ment, premature wearing of the parts, and In case that the removal of the solid particles
so on. cannot sufficiently be made with the existing
2) Before mixing different kinds of fuel oil, fuel oil pretreatment equipment, the reinforce-
check the affinity by using a small amount ment of the cleaning equipment will be
of sample. If mixed oil has low affinity, a required, and when such reinforcement is not
possible, it may be required to change the cur-
large amount of sludge will form, which may
rent fuel oil to the oil of a better quality.
be harmful to the operation..

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Control of Fuel Oil, Lubricating Oil, and Cooling Water 6
ITEM
Fuel Oil Characteristics and Control DK-20e 1.2

6-1.2 Fuel Oil Characteristics and Control


(1) Heavy Fuel Oil In case that a viscosity controller (automatic
Since heavy fuel oil contains more carbon viscosity regulator) is installed on the engine,
residue and impurities, and is higher in its viscosi- control the fuel oil viscosity to its proper value
ty as compared to diesel fuel oil, heavy fuel oil according to the attached instruction manual.
cannot be used as the fuel oil for diesel engine,
when it is in the state of bunker fuel oil. ( :Fig. 6-1.1 "Fuel Oil Viscosity/Temperature
Therefore, it will be a prerequisite to use heavy Curve")
fuel oil that the oil must properly be preprocessed
before being supplied to engine (including the
removal of impurities by cleaning, and the assur-
ance of proper viscosity by heating).
* Proper viscosity for fuel oil (engine inlet)
Kinematic viscosity: 14 ± 1.5 mm2/S
a) Cleaning Fuel Oil If the temperature control of fuel oil is
Water, and solid contents such as vanadium, improper, and the fuel oil with high viscosity
sodium, alumina, and silica, contained in heavy has been supplied to engine, it will not only
fuel oil accelerate the corrosion and wear of the incur faulty combustion, but also will result in
various parts of fuel injection system and fuel the accidents such as the clogged or dam-
combustion chamber system, substantially aged fuel oil filter, and the breakage of fuel
affecting and reducing the working life of these injection system parts.
parts.
For the purpose of removing such impurities,
the fuel oil preprocessing equipment, such as (2) Diesel Fuel Oil
the centrifugal separator and precision filters, are a) Water tends to extract and separate out of
installed. diesel fuel oil, and further diesel fuel oil tends
Since these equipment will not exhibit the effi- to generate a large amount of sludge when
ciencies unless each equipment is properly han- mixed with the oil of different base oil.
dled, be minded to operate each equipment in Daily conduct the draining-off of the precipi-
accordance with the corresponding instruction tation tank and setting tank, so that water or
manual. sludge does not flow into the engine.
( :Instruction Manual" for each equipment") To remove water or sludge, the centrifugal
6
separator is an effective device.

Since waste fuel or sludge will be the causes


b) Diesel fuel oil, that has been cut back by
of environmental contamination or pollution, be using the gas oil refined by FCC method,
sure to entrust the treatment of these to the may incur faulty start or ignition, and this ten-
authorized waste disposal company, not dency is particularly obvious in case of low
sulfur diesel oil for land vehicles, due to its
directly handling or disposing these matters on
low cetane number, if the environmental con-
your own. ditions, such as ambient temperature or
water temperature, are unfavorable.
In such a case, special measures will be
b) Heating Fuel Oil become necessary to improve starting capa-
Since the viscosity of heavy fuel oil is very bility and combustibility of engine, and in
high, it is required to heat the oil, so that a proper such occasions, contact our company for
viscosity for fuel injection can be obtained. consultation.
Since the heating temperature varies depend-
ing on the viscosity of fuel oil, heat the oil and
obtain the proper viscosity, by referring to the
fuel oil viscosity temperature curve on a separate
page as a standard.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
6 Control of Fuel Oil, Lubricating Oil, and Cooling Water
ITEM
1.2 DK-20e Fuel Oil Characteristics and Control

(3) Gas Oil (4) Kerosene Oil


Although gas oil does not contain few impuri- As a countermeasures to prevent air pollution,
ties, it may cause problems on ignition when the there may a case in which kerosene oil may be
gas oil is refined by FCC method, just like the used.
case with diesel fuel oil, and therefore be minded Since kerosene oil is further lower in its cetane
to pay particular attentions to the cetane number number and is lower in its viscosity than gas oil, it
of gas oil. is required to carry out a special arrangement on
the engine, and therefore contact our company
Further, since gas oil is low in its viscosity and
for consultation before using the oil.
is inferior in its lubricity, it may cause abnormal
wear on the sliding parts of fuel oil injection sys-
tem, and therefore be minded to conduct the
inspection of the fuel injection pump and fuel
injection valve in the earlier stage than usual.

Table 6-1.1 Fuel Oil Standard Characteristics

General call Diesel fuel oil note 1) Heavy fuel oil note 2)
JIS (K2205 type 1) (K2205 type 2, 3)
Type of fuel oil
ISO-F (DMA) RMA10 RME25 RMG35 RMH55
CIMAC A10 E25 G35 H55
o
Density (15 C) g/cm3 max 0.890 0.975 0.991 0.991 0.991
o o
Kinematic viscosity 100/50 C mm /s 2 max 3.0 ~ (50 C) 10/40 25/180 35/380 55/700
o
Flash point C min 60 60 60 60 60
o
Pour point C max 0 6 30 30 30
Carbon residue wt % max 0.2 10 15 18 22
Ash wt % max 0.01 0.1 0.10 0.15 0.20
Water vol % max 0.1 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0
Sulfer wt % max 1.5 3.5 5.0 5.0 5.0
Vanadium mg/mg max 150 200 300 600
Sodium mg/mg max 50 50 50 50
Aluminum + silica mg/mg max 80 80 80 80
note 3)
Cetane number min 40
CCAI value note 4)
max 850 850 850 850

Notes : 1) Since there are a wide range of the standard values for diesel fuel characteristics, the recommended
values are shown in the above table.
2) heavy fuel oil characteristics represent the values of "Residual marine fuel oil" proposed in CIMAC
(1990).
3) Cetane number represent the calculated values based JIS K 2280-1996.
4) CCAI (Calculated Carbon Aromatic Index) value is calculated by the following formula, and indicates
the reference value for starting capability.
CCAI value = 1000 D -141 Log Log (VK + C) - 81
D: Density g/cm3 (15 oC), VK: Viscosity cSt (50 oC), C: Constant (0.85 for heavy fuel oil)

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Control of Fuel Oil, Lubricating Oil, and Cooling Water 6
ITEM
Fuel Oil Characteristics and Control DK-20e 1.2

Table 6-1.2 Standards for Clean fuel Oil

Component Standards

Water 0.2 vol. % or less

Solid Content 50 mg/kg or less


particles
Size 5 m or less

Vanadium combines with sodium and so


forth and makes an alloy, which is highly corro-
sive and advances high temperature corrosion
(vanadium attack).
Moreover, moisture advances corrosion on
components in the fuel injection system. When,
in particular, seawater intrudes, such corrosion
accelerates because the above-mentioned
high temperature corrosion also occurs. You
must use the fuel oil cleaning device and try to
remove seawater and solid substance as
much as you can.
6

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
6 Fuel Oil, Lubricating Oil, and Cooling Water
ITEM
1.2 DK-20e Fuel Oil Viscosity-Temperature Curve

1000F 500C
9000
7000 Trace 1 Gas oil
curve 3 mm2/s @500C

5000 " 2 MDF 6.2 " "


4000 Rw#1
" 3 TFO 30 " "
3000 11 4 60
10000
" " " "
2000 10 " 5 " 80 " "
1500 6 120
(

" " " "


9
mm2 / S

5000
" 7 " 180 " "
1000
800 8 8 280
" " " "
)

600 7 " 9 MFO 380 " "


Kinematic Visconsity

500 2000
" 10 " 500 " "
400 1500
6 11 700
300
250 1000
5
200
150 4 500

100
80
3
60
50 200
40
30
25 100
20

14 15 65

10 2 50
8
6 40
5
1
4
3

2 30
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

Temperature ( 0 C)

Fig. 6-1.1Fuel Oil Viscosity / Temperature Curve

Example) We find the temperature, under which heavy fuel oil of 380mm2/s can be heated, so as to obtain
the proper viscosity of 14mm2/S at the engine inlet.
To find this temperature, tracing the curve No. 9 downward, and from the point that intersects
kinematic viscosity 14mm2/S, goes down vertically to obtain 130℃.
Note: 1. The viscosity temperature characteristics of fuel oil may slightly differ depending on the original
place of production or its refining process, and therefore confirm the viscosity with a viscome-
ter, and determine the proper value when actually operating the engine.
2. Kinematic viscosity 1mm2/S = 1 cSt

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Control of Fuel Oil, Lubricating Oil, and Cooling Water 6
ITEM
Selection and Control of Lubricating Oil DK-20e 2.1,2.2

6-2 Lubricating Oil Control

Lubricating oil only plays an extremely important roles for engine, not only lubricating the sliding parts
but also cooling the various parts, ensuring air tightness, acting as a detergent-dispersant, or acting as
a neutralizing acids.
For the purpose of maintaining the engine in proper conditions and assuring the smooth operation, it
is indispensable to select suitable lubricating oil brands taking into consideration the use purpose of
engine, the fuel oil to be used, the load to be connected, etc., and to conduct an appropriate control of
the lubricating oil.

6-2.1 Selecting of Lubricating Oil 6-2.2 Control of Lubricating Oil


(1) Engine system oil (1) Cleaning of Lubricating Oil
As the system oil for engine, high-grade lubri- Since fine dust or combustion residue from the
cating oil (CD of API service category, or higher) combustion chamber enter and mix in the lubricat-
for diesel engine shall be used. ing oil, a centrifugal separator is installed to the
Select the lubricating oil of the suitable grade, engine, to eliminate such foreign matters, in addi-
according to the quality of the fuel oil to be used. tion to the filters attached to engine. Use such
The recommended lubricating brands as shown in equipment in correct manner, referring to the
a separate table. instruction manual of each manufacturer.
( : Table 6-2.1 "Recommended Lubricating
Oil Brands")
Do not conduct cleaning by injecting water
into lubricating oil.
Be minded to use the lubricating oil of the Mixing water into lubricating oil will cause
same brand, not mixing the lubricating oil with degradation of the lubricating oil, such as the
the oil of any other brand. emulsification of oil, the decrease of total base
number, and the increase of insoluble sub-
6
If the lubricating oil is mixed with the oil of
different brand, the additives contained in the stances.
both oils react for each other, and this may
result in the degradation of the lubricating oil.
(2) Control of Lubricating Oil Characteristics
Periodically conduct the sampling and analysis
of lubricating oil (every 500 hours), and in case
(2) Lubricating Oils for Other Equipment that the analyzed value of the lubricating oil char-
In case that separate lubricating system is acteristics has reached the control standard
employed apart from the engine lubricating sys- value, immediately consult the lubrication oil man-
tem, as in the case of the governor, air motor, tur- ufacturer, so that the replacement or makeup can
bocharger,generator,reduction gea, etc., be mind- be carried out.
ed to refer to the instruction manual of each
( : Table 6-2.2 "Lubricating Oil Control
equipment.
Standards")
( : "Instruction Manual of each equipment")

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
6 Control of Fuel Oil, Lubricating Oil, and Cooling Water
ITEM
2.2 DK-20e Selection of Lubricating Oil

a) Sampling Procedure <Information to be Attached to Sample


i ) Collect samples from such as the air vent pipe Receptacle>>
of the filter during the operation of engine.
If the samples are collected from the drain ① Name of your company and your name
cock, the analyzed value of the characteris- ② Model number of engine
tics may show a different value due to the
mixing of sludge or solid deposits. ③ Engine number
ii) The minimum amount of sampling shall be ④ Data and location of sampling
500 cm 3.
⑤ The amount of time the engine is operated
iii) Attach on the sampling receptacle with the
label indicating the information as shown on ⑥ Lubricating oil brand
the right. ⑦ The total operation time and quantity of
lubricating oil
b) Lubricating Oil Control Standards
⑧ Replenishment record (Data and quantity of
The lubricating oil control standards are as
shown in the Table 6-2.2 below. replenishment)
Of all the lubricating oil control standards, the
total base number and n-pentane insoluble are
particularly important for the purpose of checking
the degradation degree of lubricating oil.
(1) Total Base Number (TBN)
(Total Basic Number)
Table 6-2.2 Total base number represents the quantity of
Lubricating OIl Control Standards (System oil) potassium hydroxide (KOH) that corresponds
to the quantity of acid required to neutralize
Fuel oil used Diesel Heavy the base component contained in 1 g of lubri-
fuel oil fuel oil cating oil, and is indicated by the unit of
Total base
mgKOH/g 3 or more 10 or more mgKOH/g.
number 1) Total base number indicates the lubricating
Total base oil capabilities to prevent the corrosion due to
mgKOH/g 5 or more 15 or more
number 2) sulfuric acid generated from sulfur contained
in fuel oil, and other acids, and further it indi-
Kinematic mm2/S +30% or less / -20%
Viscosity
o
(@ 40 C) or more of new oil cates the capabilities of lubricating oil to clean
and disperse the fouled sections in the engine.
o
Flash point C 180 or higher
(2) Insoluble (= n-pentane soluble)
Water Insoluble is fouling substance that do not
vol. % 0.3 or less
content dissolve in oil, and the main component is soot
n-pentane which is a product of combustion, and calcium
wt. % 2.5 or less 4)
insoluble 3) sulfate which is a neutralized product.
Notes: Since these substances do not dissolve
1) The TBN (Total Base Number) represents the values measured even in n-pentane which is a solvent, n-pen-
according to ASTM D4739, JIS K2501 (Hydrochloric acid method). tane insoluble serves as an index to indicate
2) The TBN (Total Base Number) represents the values measured
according to ASTM D2896, JIS K2501 (Perchloric acid method). the degradation and fouling degree of lubricat-
3) Insoluble represents the values measured according to ing oil.
ASTM D893B.
4) In case that the measure value rapidly increased or exceeded 1.5,
measure toluene insoluble according to the ASTM D893B,
and in case of [ n-pentane insoluble - toluene insoluble ] > 0.5,
replace the lubricating oil.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Control of Fuel Oil, Lubricating Oil, and Cooling Water 6
ITEM
Recommended Lubricating Oil Brands DK-20e 2.2

Table 6-2.1 Recommended Lubricating Oil Brands

Kind of fuel oil Gas oil or Up to 200 Sec. Up to 1500 Sec. Up to 7000 Sec.
Diesel oil R.W. No.1 R.W. No.1 R.W. No.1

Class II Class III Class IV Class V


Supplying or Supplying or Supplying or Supplying or
Name of company
Replacing oil Replacing oil Replacing oil Replacing oil
BP ENERGOL BP ENERGOL BP ENERGOL BP ENERGOL
DL-MP30 IC-HFX203,303 IC-HFX303,304 IC-HFX303,304
BP
CASTROL MLC30 CASTROL CASTROL CASTROL
TLX PLUS203 TLX PLUS303 TLX PLUS303
CHEVRON DELO 1000 Marine DELO 3000 Marine
CHEVRON Oil SAE30 Oil SAE30
TEXACO
CALTEX TARO 20 DP 30 TARO 30 DP 30 TARO 30 DP 30

EXXMAR 12TP30 EXXMAR 30TP30 EXXMAR 30TP30 EXXMAR 30TP30


MOBILGARD 330 MOBILGARD 330 EXXMAR 40TP30
EXXON MOBIL MOBILGARD 312
MOBILGARD 330
MOBILGARD M330 MOBILGARD M330
MOBILGARD M330
MOBILGARD M340 MOBILGARD M340 MOBILGARD M340

GULF VERITAS GULF VERITAS GULF VERITAS


GULF
DPO30 SERECT30 SERECT30

MARBRAX MARBRAX MARBRAX MARBRAX


PETROBRAS
CCD310 CCD320 CCD330 CCD330

ARGINA T30 ARGINA T30


SHELL GADINIA 30 ARGINA S30
ARGINA X30 ARGINA X30
AURELIA XL3030 AURELIA XL3030 AURELIA XL3030
AURELIA XL3040 AURELIA XL3040 AURELIA XL3040
TOTAL DISOLA M3015
AURELIA TI3030
AURELIA TI3040
AURELIA TI3030
AURELIA TI3040
AURELIA TI3030
AURELIA TI3040
6
Note:(1) This table shows lubricating oils classified as SAE30. Be sure to use lubricating oils classified as
SAE40 only when the minimum ambient temperature is 20℃
We recommend that multigrade oil (SAE10W-30 or 5W-30) be used in extremely cold locations
(minimum ambient temperature: 5℃ or less).
(2) Be sure to consult with oil manufacturers before selecting the lubricating oil proper brand that
best suits the fuel oil and operating conditions.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
6 Control of Fuel Oil, Lubricating Oil, and Cooling Water
ITEM
Cooling Fresh Water (Raw Water) and Corrosion
3.1,3.2 DK-20e Prevention Agent

6-3 Cooling Water Characteristics and Control

Always use fresh water as cooling water in the cylinder jacket system and add corrosion prevention
agent to cooling water to maintain cooling effect and prevent corrosion due to scale bonded on the pip-
ing surface.
Improper cooling water control can cause localized heating of the jacket line parts due to corrosion or
scale, resulting in excessive wear on or damage to the jacket line parts.

6-3.1 Cooling Fresh Water (Raw Water) 6-3.2 Corrosion Prevention Agent
As cooling fresh water (raw water), be minded (1). As corrosion prevention agent, we recom-
to use the soft water that meets water quality stan- mend the agent which is nitrous acid type.
dards shown in Table 6-3.1 below, or the water to
(2). Commercially available brands in Japan are
which softening processing has been adminis-
shown in Table 6-3.2.
tered.
When using them, carefully read the manufac-
turer's instruction manual, and properly use
the agent in accordance with the use stan-
dard as well as the control standard.

Table 6-3.1 Fresh Water (Ran Water) Quality Standards

Effect (reference)
Item Standards
Corrosion Scale

o
PH (25 C) 6.5 to 8.5 (neutral)
Tortal hardness
100 mg/kg Max.
(CaCO3 PPM)
Chlorine ion
100 mg/kg Max.
(Concentration:Cl-1)
M-alkalinity (PH4.8) 150 mg/kg Max.
Sulfate ion
100 mg/kg Max.
(Concentration:SO4-2)
Total iron (Fe) 0.3 mg/kg Max.

Silica (SiO2) 50 mg/kg Max.


Ammonium ion
0.05 mg/kg Max.
(Concentration:NH4)
Evaporation residue 400 mg/kg Max.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Control of Fuel Oil, Lubricating Oil, and Cooling Water 6
ITEM
Cooling Fresh Water (Raw Water) and Corrosion
Prevention Agent DK-20e 3.2, 3.3

Table 6-3.2 Brands of Commercially Available Corrosion Prevention Agents

Brand Name Manufacturer Constituent Amount to added (ppm)


DEWT-NC 3,000~4,500
Drew Chemical Corp. (USA) Nitrite
MAXIGARD 20,000~22,000
COOLTREAT 101
Hauseman Marine Chemical (USA) Nitrite 1,250~5,000
COOLTREAT 102
CWT DIESEL 102 VECOM B.V. Nitrite 1,250~5,000

Note: Adjust the amount appropriately in the specified range depending on circumstances.

6-3.3 Control of Cooling Water (2). Controlling Fresh Water with PH Value
Measure the PH value of cooling water once
(1). As cooling water, be minded to use fresh every week, using a PH value, and in case that
water added with corrosion prevention agent, the value has exceed the standard value speci-
from the stage of very first beginning, without fied by the manufacturer, discharge 10 to 20%
fail. of the cooling water to add new water.

(3).Replace the entire amount of cooling water


Corrosion prevention agent is poisonous and
once every year or 2 years.
toxic substance. Therefore, be minded never
to drink the cooling water that is added with
corrosion prevention agent.
Be minded never to directly discharge the
Further, regarding the handling of the cool-
cooling water, which are added with corrosion
ing water added with corrosion prevention
agent, into sea or river, without adequate pro-
agent, be sure to wear the protective gears
such as rubber gloves and masks, so that your
hands or skin do not directly touch the cooling
cessing.
When disposing the cooling water, be sure
6
water. to conduct the water examination, to ensure
that the COD concentration of cooling water is
If the corrosion prevention agent has acci-
diluted to be within the specified value.
dentally touched your skin or entered your
eyes or mouth, immediately wash them with
fresh water sufficiently.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
7 Troubleshooting and Countermeasures
ITEM
1 DK-20e Precautions for Troubleshooting

7.Troubleshooting and Countermeasures

Defect or failure of the engine is caused not only by faulty or improperly adjusted engine parts,
but also by faulty equipment, improper operation and maintenance work, in addition to the cours-
es attributable to fuel oil characteristics. More often than not, each engine problem is caused by
two or more causes that are interrelated. Therefore, it is impossible to provide the descriptions of
the countermeasure for every single defect or failure.
This chapter describes the defects and problems that are frequently found on engines, as well
as the generally probable causes and countermeasures for such defects and problems. If your
engine has a defect or failure that is not described in this section, or if you cannot discover the
causes after inspection, contact our Service Department.

7-1 Precautions for Troubleshooting


(1) Take proper measures immediately when you find a defect or problem.
If any of the following defects and failures is found, stop the engine for inspection. Never attempt to
restart the engine until you find the cause, take proper measures, and restore the engine to the nor-
mal operating conditions. Resuming operation without taking proper measures may rapidly aggravate
the defect or failure, resulting in injuries or accidents.
① Activation of protective device: "Alarm", "Emergency Stop"
Overspeed, low lubricating oil pressure, high cooling water temperature, etc.
② Abnormal sounds (specially mechanical sounds), abnormal vibrations
③ Overheating of the engine
④ Abnormal increase of exhaust temperature or maximum explosion pressure, or abnormal decrease of
exhaust temperature or maximum explosion pressure
⑤ Defective parts on or around the engine control (governor, control device), or protective device, 2nd
loosened link, or detachment of link
⑥ Damage to piping or joint bolts (specially fuel and lubricating oil systems)

(2). Inspect, disassemble, and adjust the engine correctly according to the instruction manual. To prevent
accidents, never neglect "Safety Precautions".

(3). Be sure to use the genuine parts of DAIHATSU DIESEL MFG. CO., LTD. or those specified in the
parts list. We will not thereafter guarantee the proper operation of the engine unless such parts are
used.
If you are out of the spare parts for servicing, immediately contact us for replenishment.

Instruments such as tachometers, thermometers, and pressure gauge may provide incorrect
indication even if the engine is running normally.
Inspect the instruments on a daily basis to make sure their indication is correct. Replace any
defects instrument. Always use correct indications as an index for determining the engine con-
ditions.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Troubleshooting and Countermeasures 7
ITEM
When Starting Is Difficult DK-20e 2.1
7-2 Troubleshooting and Countermeasures
7-2.1 When Starting Is Difficult
(1) Direct System

[Phenomenon] [Trouble] [Countermeasures]

Insufficient starting air pressure Intake air.


Leak from main stop/safety valve on air tank Maintenance/Replace.
Faulty air filling unit Repair.
(e.g. compressor)
Insufficient Faulty pressure gauge Repair/Replace.
starting air Defective starting air piping system
"Closed" stop valve Open valve.
Clogged piping Clean.

Defective control system Maintenance/Repair.


Interrupted power supply
Defective automatic control panel
Flywheel Defect/broken wiring of electrical contacts for control
Defective solenoid valve for control
does not
Turning device: ON Turn it "OFF"
rotate Rotation preventive: ON
Faulty starting equipment
Sticking of starting air operating valve Maintenance/Replace.
Engine Improper reducing valve pressure Maintenance/Repair.
does not Rough seat surface on starting air rotary valve Maintenance/Repair.
start
High resistance of moving parts (such as seizure) Maintenance/Repair.
Non-smooth Cylinder liners, Piston
turning Crankshaft
Flywheel Too high lubricating oil viscosity Increase cooling water temperature.
rotates, but Replace with less viscous lubricating oil.
fuel mixture
is not ignited No ignition Low room temperature Increase room temperature.
in all Low cooling water temperature Increase water temperature.
cylinders Degraded fuel oil
Improper properties (ignitability) Use high-grade oil.
Water in fuel oil Separate and eliminate water.
The normal
rotation
speed is not
Air in fuel oil Remove air. 7
reached
Defective fuel injection valve
Faulty nozzle Maintenance/Replacement.
No ignition Improper valve opening pressure Adjust.
in some Defective fuel oil injection pump Maintenance/Replacement.
cylinders .Sticking of rack
.Sticking of plunger
.Faulty delivery/isobaric valve
Improper fuel oil injection timing Adjust within the specified
value
Insufficient compression pressure
䇭䇭 Non-airtight piston ring Maintenance/Replace.
(sticking, wear, damage)
Non-airtight intake/ exhaust valve Maintenance/Replace.
Improper valve end clearance Adjust.
on intake/exhaust valve

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
7 Troubleshooting and Countermeasures
ITEM
2.1 DK-20e When Starting Is Difficult

(2) Air Motor System


[Phenomenon] [Trouble] [Countermeasures]
Insufficient starting air pressure Intake air.
Leak from main stop/ Maintenance/Replace.
safety valve on air tank
Faulty air filling unit Repair.
(e.g. compressor)
Insufficient Faulty pressure gauge Repair/Replace.
starting air Defective starting air piping system
"Closed" stop valve Open valve.
Clogged piping Clean.

Defective control system Maintenance/Repair.


Interrupted power supply
Defective automatic control panel
Flywheel Defect/broken wiring of electrical contacts for control
Defective solenoid valve for control
does not Improper Turning device: ON Turn it "OFF"
rotate air motor Rotation preventive: ON
operation Faulty starting equipment
Sticking of starting air operating valve Maintenance/Replace.
Improper reducing valve pressure Maintenance/Repair.
Sticking of relay valve Maintenance/Repair.
Engine Faulty air motor
does not Sticking of bearings Maintenance/Repair.
start Faulty pinion gear engagement Turning.
of pinion gear

High resistance of moving parts (such as seizure) Maintenance/Repair.


Non-smooth Cylinder liners, Piston
turning Crankshaft
Flywheel Too high lubricating oil viscosity Increase cooling water temperature.
rotates, but Replace with less viscous lubricating oil.
fuel mixture
No ignition Low room temperature Increase room temperature.
is not ignited Low cooling water temperature Increase water temperature.
in all
cylinders Degraded fuel oil
Improper properties (ignitability) Use high-grade oil.
Water in fuel oil Separate and eliminate water.
The normal Air in fuel oil Remove air.
rotation
speed is not Defective fuel injection valve
reached Faulty nozzle Maintenance/Replacement.
No ignition Improper valve opening pressure Adjust.
in some Defective fuel oil injection pump Maintenance/Replacement.
cylinders .Sticking of rack
.Sticking of plunger
.Faulty delivery/isobaric valve
Improper fuel oil injection timing Adjust within the specified
value
Insufficient compression pressure
䇭䇭 Non-airtight piston ring Maintenance/Replace.
(sticking, wear, damage)
Non-airtight intake/ exhaust valve Maintenance/Replace.
Improper valve end clearance Adjust.
on intake/exhaust valve

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Troubleshooting and Countermeasures 7
ITEM
When Engine Revolution is Not Smooth / Insufficient Output DK-20e 2.2,2.3

7-2.2 When Engine Revolution is Not Smooth


[Phenomenon] [Trouble] [Countermeasures]
Defective fuel control system
ųų Defective governor Maintenance/Repair.
‫ ޓޓ‬Control link is caught or shaky Maintenance/Repair.

Defective fuel oil supply system


‫ ޓޓ‬Insufficient supply pressure Maintenance/Repair.
(defective relief valve and pump)
Irregular Clogged fuel oil filter Clean
revolution Improper viscosity of fuel oil (heavy fuel oil) Adjust heating temperature properly.
of engine ‫ ޓޓ‬Water in fuel oil Separate and eliminate water.
Air in fuel oil Remove air.

Defective fuel oil injection valve


ųų Faulty nozzle Maintenance/Repair.
Uneven ųų Improper valve opening pressure Adjust.
combustion Defective fuel oil injection pump ųų Maintenance/Replair.
between . Sticking of rack
cylinders . Sticking of plunger
.Variations in exhaust . Faulty delivery/isobaric valve
Inproper fuel injection timing Adjust within the rated value.
temperature and
Insufficient compression pressure
combustion pressure ųų Non-airtight piston ring Maintenance/Repair .
(sticking, wear, damage)
Non-airtight intake/exhaust valve Maintenance/Repair.
ųų Improper valve end clearance Adjust.
on intake/exhaust valve
7-2.3 Insufficient Output
[Phenomenon] [Trouble] [Countermeasures]
Cannot
insert the Defective fuel control system
rack 䇭䇭Defective governor Maintenance/Repair
䇭䇭Control link is caught or shaky Maintenance/Repair
7
High
Overload (excessive torque) Reduce load.
exhaust
temperatur High resistance on moving parts Maintenance/Repair.
(e.g. seizing)
䇭䇭Cylinder liners, piston
Insufficient 䇭䇭Crankshaft
Excessive
Output reading on Insufficient fuel oil supply pressure
.The engine rack scale
Low 䇭䇭Defective fuel oil relief valve Maintenance/Repair.
cannot run exhaust 䇭䇭Defective fuel oil feed pump Maintenance/Repair.
with full temperatur
load. 䇭䇭
Clogged fuel oil filter Clean.
.Rotation Water in fuel oil Separate and eliminate water
speed does Air in fuel oil Remove air.
not go up.
Uneven
combustion (䇭䇭䇭 :7-2.2䋩
between

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
7 Troubleshooting and Countermeasures
ITEM
When Exhaust Gas Temperature or
2.4 DK-20e Maximum Combustion Pressure is Abnormal

7-2.4 When Exhaust Gas Temperature (Te) or Maximaum Combustion Pressure is Abnormal
[Phenomenon] [Trouble] [Countermeasures]
High
High reading Overload (excessive torque) Reduce load.
Te & Pmax on pump
Large resistance on moving parts (e.g. seizure) Maintenance/Modify.
rack scale
Cylinder Liner, Piston
Crankshaft
All
cylinder Improper fuel oi properties Use high quality fuel oil.
are
Improper fuel oil viscosity (heavy fuel oil) Adapt the viscosity.
abnormal
Fouled turbocharger
Clogging pre-filter Clean
High Te, Low Fouled blower side Clean
low Pmax intake air Fouled turbine side Clean
pressure
Clogged fins for air cooler Clean.
Clogged exhaust outlet (exhaust manifold too much resistance) Clean.
Negative pressure in engine room Improve the ventilation.
When Foulty air cooler
exhaust gas High
Fouled and clogged fins Clean.
temperature intake air
High cooling water temperature Adjust.
or, maximaum temperature
Insufficient cooling water quantity Adjust.
combusion
pressure is High intake air temperature Improve ventilation.
abnormal High
High reading Excessively large fuel injection
Te & Pmax on pump
Incorrect adjustment of the injection pump rack Adjust.
rack
Sticking of rack Effect maintenance/repair.

Defective fuel injection valve


Faulty nozzle Effect maintenance/replacement.
Improper valve opening pressure Adjust.
High Te, Defective fuel injection pump Effect maintenance/replacement.
low Pmax Sticking of rack
Sticking of plunger
Some Faulty delivery/isobaric valve
cylinder Improper fuel injection timing Adjust within the rated value.
are Insufficient compression pressure
abnormal Non-airtight piston rings Maintenance/replace.
(Sticking, wear, damage)
Non-airtight intake/exhaust valve Maintenance/replace.
Improper valve clearance (intake/exhaust) Adjust.
Defective fuel injection valve
Faulty nozzle Maintenance/replace.
Improper valve opening pressure Adjust.
Low
Note: Always check that Defective fuel oil injection pump Maintenance/replace.
Te & Pmax
thermameters are Sticking of rack
not faulty and that Sticking of plunger
the indicator valve Faulty delivery/isobaric valve
is not clogged.
Leakage from the fuel injection system Repair.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Troubleshooting and Countermeasures 7
ITEM
When Exhaust Gas Shows Abnormal Color DK-20e 2.5

7-2.5 When Exhaust Gas Shows Abnormal Color


[Phenomenon] [Trouble] [Countermeasures]
Engine not warmed up Warm up engine.
Low cooling water temperature Increase water temperature.
Excessive amount of lubricating oil
drawn up to the top part of piston
䇭䇭Wear or sticking of piston ring or oil ring Maintenance/Replace.
䇭䇭Wear of cylinder liners Maintenance/Replace.

Low air
supply Low room temperature Adjust cooling water
temperature and quantity in air cooler.
Low cooling water temperature
Blue or
white Defective fuel injection valve
䇭䇭Faulty nozzle Maintenance/Replace.
䇭䇭Improper opening pressure valve Adjust.

Defective fuel oil injection pump 䇭䇭 Maintenance/Replace.


䇭䇭䊶Sticking of rack
䊶Sticking of plunger
䇭䇭䊶Faulty delivery/isobaric valve

When Degraded fuel oil


exhaust 䇭䇭Improper properties (ignitability) Use high quality fuel oil.
gas shows
䇭䇭Water in fuel oil Separate and eliminate water.
abnormal
Air in fuel oil Remove air.
color

Insufficient compression pressure


䇭䇭Non-airtight piston ring Maintenance/Replace.
䇭䇭(slicking, wear, damage)
䇭䇭Non-airtight intake/exhaust valve Maintenance/Replace.
䇭䇭Improper valve end clearance Adjust.
on intake/exhaust valve

Black or Low load operation for long hours Increase load.


dark gray (fouled combustion chamber/exhaust system)

Fouled turbocharger
7
䇭䇭Clogged pre-filter Clean.
䇭䇭Fouled blower side Clean.
Fouled turbine side Clean.

Faulty air cooler


Fouled/clogged fin Clean.
䇭䇭High cooling water temperature Adjust.
䇭䇭Insufficient cooling water quantity Adjust.

High intake air temperature Improve ventilation.


Negative pressure in engine room
Overload (torque-rich) Reduce load.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
7 Troubleshooting and Countermeasures
ITEM
2.6 DK-20e Abnormal Noise / Abnormal Vibration

7-2.6 Abnormal Noise/Abnormal Vibration


[Phenomenon] [Trouble] [Countermeasures]

Knocking Abnormal combustion


䇭䇭Overcooling of engine Warm up engine.
䇭䇭Defective fuel oil injection pump Maintenance/Replace.
Pressure 䇭䇭Faulty spraying by fuel oil injection nozzle Maintenance/Replace.
released
䇭䇭Improper fuel oil properties Use high-grade oil.
from
Faulty cylinder safety valve
cylinder
safety valve 䇭䇭䊶Sticking of valve
䊶Slack spring

Improper load conditions Change the load properly.


䇭䇭䊶Over load (Excessive torque)
䊶Abrupt change in load
Abnormal Turbocharger 䇭䇭䊶Excessive load connected or disconnected
noise surging Defective turbocharger
䇭䇭Fouled blower side Clean.
Fouled turbine side Clean.
䇭䇭Deformed or damaged parts Replace.
䇭䇭(Diffuser, turbine nozzle, turbine rotor)

Mechanical Clogged exhaust manifold Clean.


sounds Clogged or fouled air cooler Clean.
Defective fuel oil injection pump 䇭䇭 Maintenance/Replace.

Loose mounting bolts Tighten bolts.


Abnormal Loose bolts on holding moving parts Tighten bolts.
vibration Excessively worn cylinder liners (seizing) Maintenance/Replacement.
Excessive intake and exhaust valve end clearance Adjust.
Increase in gear backlash Adjust/Repair.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Troubleshooting and Countermeasures 7
ITEM
When Engine Stops Suddenly DK-20e 2.7

7-2.7 When Engine Stop Suddenly


[Phenomenon] [Trouble] [Countermeasures]
Overload (torque-rich) ( :7-2.9)

Low lubricating oil pressure ( :7-2.10)


Protective
device Abnormal cooling water temperature ( :7-2.13)
activated Defective control power system Repair.
Defective fuel oil shutdown device Repair.

Seizing of or damage to moving parts


Turning 䇭䇭Piston Repair.
is not 䇭䇭Crankshaft Repair.
䇭䇭Timing gear Repair.
smooth or
䇭䇭Camshaft Repair.
impossible
Defective drive equipment Repair.
When
.Generator
Engine stops .Reduction gear, propeller shaft system
suddenly .Others

Defective fuel oil supply system


䇭䇭No oil in oil tank Supply.
Clogged fuel oil filter Clean.
Defective fuel oil relief valve Repair.
Defective supply pump Repair.
䇭䇭Air in oil Remove air.
䇭䇭Improper viscosity of fuel oil (heavy fuel oil) Reduce viscosity.
Normal
turning Defective speed regulator system
䇭䇭Defective governor Repair.
䇭䇭Control link has come off or is caught Repair.
Defective fuel oil injection pump Maintenance/Replace.
䊶Sticking of rack
䊶Sticking of plunger
䊶Faulty delivery/isobaric valve

7
Defective fuel oil injection valve
䇭䇭Faulty nozzle Adjust/Replace.
䇭䇭Improper valve opening pressure Adjust.
Leakage from fuel oil high-pressure block Repair/Replace.
Slided fuel cam Adjust/Maintenance.

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
7 Troubleshooting and Countermeasures
ITEM
2.8,2.9 DK-20e Unable Stop Engine / Overspeed

7-2.8 Unable to Stop Engine / 7-2.9 Overspeed

[Phenomenon] [Trouble] [Countermeasures]


Defective speed regulator system
Defective governor Repair.
Unable to
Control link has come off or is caught Maintenance/Repair.
stop engine

Sticking of fuel oil injection pump rack 䇭䇭 Maintenance/Repair.

Defective control power system Maintenance/Repair.


Defective automatic control panel
Faulty/disconnected contacts
Overspeed Defective solenoid valve
Defective speed detector
䊶Activation of
protective device
Defective fuel oil shutdown system
䇭䇭 Defective fuel shutdown device Maintenance/Repair.
䇭䇭 Defective speed detector Maintenance/Repair.
䇭䇭 Insufficient control air pressure Maintenance/Repair.
.Clogged piping/filter
.Drop in pressure

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Troubleshooting and Countermeasures 7
ITEM
Low Lubricating oil Pressure / High Lubricating Oil Temperature DK-20e 2.10, 2.11
7-2.10 Low Lubricating Oil Pressure
[Phenomena] [Troubles] [Countermeasures]
Low lubricating oil level in tanks Replanish
(below the lower limit) lubricating oil.
Improper oil viscosity Replace.
Pressure dose
Clogged lubricating oil filter (Lub. oil pump suction side) Clean
not reach the
specified level Air sucked from inlet side Maintenance/Repair
during startup ࡮Damaged piping
࡮Non-airtight joint
Leak from or damage to oil piping (discharge side) Maintenance/Repair
Low Defective lubricating oil pump Maintenance/Repair
lubricating ࡮Stiking of safety valve, broken spring
oil ࡮Wear of pump gear
pressure ࡮Wear of bearings
Defective relief valve Maintenance/Repair
Damaged cooling water piping in lubricating oil cooler Repair
Clogged lubricating oil filter (Auto back-wash dysfunction) Clean
Wear of bearings Maintenance/Repair
Drop in High
pressure lubricating
during oil ( : 7-2.11)
operation temperature

7-2.11 High Lubricating Oil Temperature

[Phenomena] [Troubles] [Countermeasures]


Fouled lubricating oil cooler Clean.
Defective lubricating oil temperature control valve Maintenance/Repair
࡮Damaged pellet
࡮Sticking of valve
7
Insufficient cooling water quantity
High Defective cooling water pump Maintenance/Repair
lubricating (e.g. damaged/worn impeller
oil Clogged filter/cooling water piping Clean.
pressure
Improperty regulated water quantity Adjust.
Over load Adjust the load.
Less airtight cylinders Maintenance/Repair
࡮Wear and sticking of piston ring
࡮Wear of ccylinder liners
Seizing of bearings Maintenance/Repair
CHAPTER
7 Troubleshooting and Countermeasures
ITEM
Low Cooling Water Pressure ( Jacket Line )/
2.12,2.13 DK-20e High Cooling Water Temperature ( Jacket Line )

7-2.12 Low Cooling Water Pressure (Jacket Line)


[Phenomenon] [Trouble] [Countermeasures]
Large temperature Insufficient cooling water quantity
difference between Defective cooling water pump (damaged/worn impeller) Maintenance/Repair.
inlet and outlet
䇭䇭Clogged filter/cooling water quantity Clean.
Low cooling 䇭䇭Improperly regulated water quantity Adjust.
water Defective cooling water thermostat valve Maintenance/Repair
䇭䇭Defective cooling water temperature control valne Maintenance/Repair
pressure
Air in cooling water system Remove air
Small temperature
difference between Excessively large cooling water quantity Remove air
inlet and outlet 䇭䇭Improperly regulated water quantity Adjustment
Defective cooling water thermostat valve Maintenance/Repair

7-2.13 High Cooling Water Temperature (Jacket Line)


[Phenomenon] [Trouble] [Countermeasures]
Air in cooling water system Remove air.
Fouled fresh water cooler Clean.
High cooling water temperature in cooler system Adjust.
High at Insufficient cooling water quantity
cylinder 䇭䇭Defective cooling water pump Maintenance / Repair.
collective 䇭䇭(e.g. damaged/worn impeller)
High outlet
䇭䇭Clogged filter/cooling water piping Clean.
cooling 䇭䇭Improperly regulated water quantity Adjust.
water Defective cooling water temperature control valve Maintenance / Repair.
temperatur
Overload Adjust load.
High at
some Overheating of cylinder
cylinders 䇭䇭Clogged cooling water channel Clean.
䇭䇭Seizing of piston and cylinder liners Repair.

High exhaust
䋨 䇭䇭䇭 䋺7-2.4䋩
temperature

DK-20e Z 10-10
CHAPTER
Troubleshooting and Countermeasures 7
ITEM
Memo DK-20e