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Gynaecology - Early Pregnancy

Michelle M Fynes
MB BCh BAO (Hons) MD (Research) MRCOG DU DipUS
Subspecialty Accredited Urogynaecologist RCOG (2003) and RANZCOG (2002)
CCST Obstetrics and Gynaecology (2003)
Specialist Complex Peri-partum Childbirth Injury and
Paediatric Adolescent and Forensic Gynaecology
Key Points are to understand

• Support and information giving

• Role of early pregnancy assessment units (EPAU)
• Symptoms and signs of ectopic pregnancy and initial assessment
• Using ultrasound for diagnosis
• Human chorionic gonadotrophin measurements in women with pregnancy of unknown location
• Expectant management
• Surgical management
• Performing laparoscopy
• Salpingectomy and salpingotomy

CG154 – NICE Guidance

Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: Diagnosis
and initial management in early pregnancy of
ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage

December 2012
Support and information giving
Throughout a woman's care, give her and (with agreement)
her partner specific evidence-based information in a variety
of formats. This should include (as appropriate):

When and how seek help if existing symptoms worsen/new symptoms

develop, including a 24-hour contact telephone number.

What to expect during the time she is waiting for an ultrasound scan.

What to expect during the course of her care (including expectant

management), such as the potential length and extent of pain and/or
bleeding, and possible side effects. This information should be tailored to
the care she receives.

Information about post-operative care (for women undergoing surgery).

What to expect during the recovery period – for example, when it is

possible to resume sexual activity and/or try to conceive again, and what
to do if she becomes pregnant again. This information should be tailored
to the care she receives.

Information about the likely impact of her treatment on future fertility.

Where to access support and counselling services, including leaflets, web

addresses and helpline numbers for support organisations.

Ensure that sufficient time is available to discuss these issues with

women during the course of their care and arrange an additional
appointment if more time is needed.
Early Pregnancy Assessment Unit - EPAU
First EPAU 20 years ago now almost 150 UK
Considerable variation between centres in access to services and levels of care provided
Little good quality research on effectiveness EPAU in improving physical and emotional health

A National Audit of EPAU required

Outcomes would include time of attendance, length of stay, admission rates, time to
treatment and women's experience.
Evaluation should be structured to allow for comparisons between different models of care.
Comparative outcome data collected would be used to conduct an analysis of the cost
effectiveness of early pregnancy assessment units compared with other models of care.

Regional services organised so EPAU available 7 days a week for women with early
pregnancy complications, where scanning carried out and decisions about management made.

During clinical assessment of women of reproductive age, be aware that:

They may be pregnant, offer a pregnancy test even if symptoms are non-specific
Symptoms and signs ectopic pregnancy can resemble other conditions eg. GI upset, UTI
All healthcare professionals caring for women reproductive age access to pregnancy tests.

Using ultrasound for diagnosis

TVUS available- identify location of pregnancy and whether there is fetal pole and FH .
Scanning interval ideal unclear – 14 days optimal (varies on service provision)

hCG measurements in PUL

Women with PUL could have an ectopic pregnancy until the location is determined.
Early pregnancy

• Early pregnancy bleeding

• Miscarriage
• Recurrent miscarriage
• Pregnancy of unknown location (PUL)
• Ectopic pregnancy
• Trophoblastic disease
• Hyperemesis gravidarum
• Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)
• Acute abdomen early pregnancy
• Urinary sepsis
• Vaginal discharge/PID
• Bartholin’s Cyst/Abscess
• The abnormal cervical smear ?
• Female genital mutilation (FGM)
Beta hCG

Beta hCG glycoprotein from placental trophoblast cells by

day 8th post conception.

Immunologic Pregnancy Test indirect agglutination test for hCG

in urine; cross-reaction with other hormones or medications
possible. Becomes positive at 5 weeks MA

Advantages: readily available, easily + rapidly performed

Disadvantages: false-positive + false-negative results

RIA: Variations of lab values of up to 50% can occur among different

a. slide: 400–15,000 mIU/mL (2-minute test time)
6–15% between-run precision
b. test tube: 1,000–3,000 mIU/mL (2-hour test time)
Advantages: specific for hCG, sensitive
Disadvantages: requires specialized lab + 3–24 hours for completion
Radioimmunoassay (RIA) pregnancy test measures beta subunit
serum hCG Sensitivity at 1–2 mIU/mL. Serum β-hCG positive 3
weeks MA 7–10 days after conception. Sensitivity:
qualitative: 25–30 mIU/mL (3 hours test time)
Standards: quantitative: 3–4 mIU/mL (24 hours test time)
(1) Second International Standard (SIS)
(2) International Reference Preparation (IRP) Rise:
(3) Third International Standard (TIS) >66% increase β-hCG level by 48 hrs 86% NORMAL pregnancies
1 mIU/mL (SIS) = 2 mIU/mL (IRP) = 2 mIU/mL (TIS) <66% increase β-hCG level by 48 hrs 87% ECTOPIC pregnancies
1 ng/mL = 5–6 mIU/mL (SIS)== 10–12 mIU/mL (IRP or TIS) β-hCG levels double every 2–3 days first 60 days of pregnancy
Anatomy of gestation
Gestational Sac (GS)
Choriodecidua Arises from blastocyst, implants into secretory endometrium 6–9
days after ovulation (20–23 days of MA), surrounded by echogenic
Chorion - trophoblast + fetal mesenchyme with villous stems trophoblast
protruding into decidua; provides nutrition for developing embryo GS measures 0.1 mm at time of implantation
a. chorion frondosum- part adjacent to decidua basalis, forms
primordial placenta Intradecidual sign (earliest sign)
b. chorion laeve- smooth portion of chorion with atrophied villi Intrauterine fluid collection corresponds to GS embedded within
c. chorionic plate - amnion membrane covers chorionic plate decidua (48% sensitive, 66% specific, 45% accurate) at <5 weeks GA
Double decidual sac sign (DDS)
β-hCG (IRP) US Landmarks Gestational Age >5 weeks GA 2 concentric hyperechoic rings surround portion of GS:
Outer echogenic ring (decidua parietalis)
1,000 mIU/mL gestational sac 32 d (4.5 weeks) Interposed hypoechoic line (apposed endometrial walls)
7,200 mIU/mL yolk sac 36 d (5.0 weeks) Inner echogenic ring (decidua capsularis)
10,800 mIU/mL embryo FH 40 d (6.0 weeks) DDS present with a mean sac diameter of 10 mm (= 40 days GA)

Double decidual sac sign correlates with presence pregnancy in 98%

Decidua • GS surrounded by endometrial thickening >12 mm
a. decidua basalis- between chorion frondosum/myometrium • Continuous hyperechoic inner rim >2 mm thick
b. decidua capsularis- portion protruding uterine cavity • Spherical / ovoid shape without angulations
c. decidua parietalis/decidua vera lines uterine cavity elsewhere Mean sac diameter grows 1.13 (range 0.71–1.75) mm/day

"double decidual sac" (R) inner echogenic ring GS . Outer ring

3-mm gestational sign (white arrow) within decidua. basal layer decidua. Yolk sac seen in the GS. The embryo is
Echogenic line (black arrow) uterine cavity. not shown.
Early pregnancy structures – Gestational Sac (GS) and Yolk Sac (YS)
Gestational Sac (GS) Secondary Yolk Sac (YS)
Linear growth:
10 mm by 5th week MA
60 mm by 12th week MA Round sonolucent outside amniotic cavity within chorionic sac connected to
Fills chorionic cavity by 11th–12th weeks MA umbilicus via a narrow stalk; formed by proliferation of endodermal cells; part
of YS is incorporated into fetal gut; the rest persists as a sac connected to the
Visualization of Gestational Sac fetus by the vitelline duct
TVUS earliest seen sac diameter of 2–3 mm
Time of formation YS: at around 28 days MA
GS versus β-hCG LEVEL : Mean size YS:
TAS: 100% with β-hCG levels of >1,800 IU/L
1.0 mm by 4.7 weeks MA;
20% with β-hCG levels of <500 IU/L 2.0 mm by 5.6 weeks MA;
80% with β-hCG levels of 500–1,000 IU/L 3.0 mm by 7.1 weeks MA;
100% with β-hCG levels of >1,000 IU/L 4.0 (2.2–5.3) mm by 10 weeks MA;
YS disappears around 12 weeks MA
B. GS visualisation versus MA
It is the first visible structure within gestational sac
5.0 ± 1 weeks = 10 mm
5.5 ± 1 weeks = 13 mm Definite visualization YS on TVUS at 5.5 weeks MA
6.0 ± 1 weeks = 17 mm
6.5 ± 1 week = 20 mm

Yolk sac and placenta vascularization 8 wks CRL 15–22mm

Embryonic development
Visualisation Embryo versus Gestational Sac (GS)
TAS - 100% visualization GS ≥27 mm
1. Pre-embryonic period: 2nd–4th week MA
TVUS - 100% visualization GS ≥12 mm
2. Trilaminar embryonic disk: 5th week MA
3. Embryonic period: 6–10th week MA
TVUS not necessary if GS >27 mm TAS with no embryo
4. Physiologic umbilical hernia: 8–12th week MA
Failed pregnancy: embryo not seen with mean GS size ≥18 mm
5. Fetal period: begins 11th week MA
Cardiac Activity of Embryo; FH seen at CRL of 1.5–3 mm (22 days GA/36 days MA)

Embryo: FH at TVUS FH at TAS FH Rate

Mean growth CRL: 0.7 mm/day.
1.5 mm every 2 days; curvilinear growth. 46 days GA 55 days GA 5-6 wks GA - 101 bpm
Mean 7mm/ 6.3 weeks MA mean sac size 16 mm mean sac size 25 mm 8-9 wks GA - 143 bpm
Mean 50mm/12.0 weeks MA
First seen TVUS: 5.4 weeks MA (CRL of 1.2 mm) CRL ≥ 5 mm/ 6.2 wks
Ultrasound Milestones
GS w/o embryo or yolk sac - 5 weeks Amnionic Membrane - Curvilinear echogenic line in chorionic sac; fills chorionic
GS + yolk sac w/o embryo - 5.5 weeks cavity by 11–12 weeks MA; Fuses with chorionic membrane 16 weeks MA to form
Heartbeat ± embryo <5 mm - 6.0 weeks chorionic plate Incomplete fusion with chorion frequent (DDx: subchorionic
Accuracy: ± 0.5 week haemorrhage, twin abortion, coexistent with limb-body wall complex)

1 2 3 4
TVUS – First trimester

TVUS - Empty GS, misshapen

sac measures 31 mm diameter.
Both yolk sac/ embryo should
be seen at this size. GS
keyhole-shape rather than
round. Choriodecidual reaction Subchorionic Hemorrhage- clotted blood
thin weakly echogenic (arrow) in the uterine cavity.
(anembryonic pregnancy)

TVUS - 3 decidua layers. Amniotic sac and embryo visible

TVUS-pseudogestational Sac of EP
elsewhere in GS. Placenta (P) forms from decidua basalis/chorion
(oblong fluid collection arrow),
frondosum at implantation site of blastocyst. Decidua capsularis (c) Dead Embryo–Calcified Yolk Sac. 6.3-week No defined echogenic rim
covers part GS protruding into uterine cavity (u). Decidua vera (v) (cursors) CRL = 5.8 mm no FH. (choriodecidual reaction). No DDS.
lines rest (u). U contains a small amount of blood. The chorion very Yolk sac (arrow) is calcified. Calcification Small EP was found in right adnexa
thin membrane defined by sharp fluid-tissue interface (arrow) of GS. associated with embryonic demise.
TVUS (8-12) weeks first trimester

Embryo at 8+5 weeks CRL 20 mm. Sagittal

section vascularization and the umbilical cord.
Image of a 12 week fetus

Embryo 9+4 weeks (CRL 28 mm). Sagittal section Above -Embryo at 9+4 weeks (crown–rump length
Embryo at 10 weeks (CRL 32 mm). relative large head. Cavities of the diencephalon 28 mm). Longitudinal section demonstrating the
Section through abdomen - umbilical (Di), mesencephalon (Mes), rhombencephalon (Rh). physiological midgut herniation present as a large
cord. Arrows show the extent of Arrow -genital tubercle, not possible to hyperechogenic mass.
physiological midgut herniation differentiate male /female yet Below – 3D image fetus at 12 weeks
Early Pregnancy Bleeding and Miscarriage
Early pregnancy bleeding and Miscarriage

WHO – Miscarriage: Expulsion of an embryo <20 weeks or fetus <500grms

• Physiological event (I in 4 pregnancies miscarry)
• Pathological ? (haemorrhage, Ectopic, recurrent MC 1% couples )
• Personal

• Physical - pain bleeding
• Psychological symptoms of fear and loss

Sequelae Terms miscarriage/abortion

• Medical investigations Complete
• Clinical follow-up Incomplete
• Possibility surgery Inevitable
Infected (septic)
• Personal loss
• Grief
• Impact on partner and family
Early Pregnancy Bleeding

• Early pregnancy bleeding is very common (implantation Referral to EPAU

bleed, ectropion, spotting) not always indicative Pain
miscarriage or pathology • Pregnancy > 6 weeks gestation or uncertain gestation.
• Pain – attributed ‘round ligament stretch’, CL cyst or
threatened miscarriage or ectopic Management
• Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage have an adverse Expectant management < 6 weeks gestation who are bleeding
effect on the quality of life of many women. but not in pain. Repeat urine pregnancy test >7–10 days return
• 20% of pregnancies miscarry EPAU if positive.
• Miscarriages can cause considerable distress. Negative pregnancy test means pregnancy has miscarried.
• Early pregnancy loss accounts for >50,000 UK Return EPAU if their symptoms continue or worsen.
admissions per annum Offer TVUS
• EP rate 11/1000 pregnancies, maternal mortality
0.2/1000 estimated EP Role Ultrasound
• 2/3 deaths are associated with substandard care. TVUS Gold standard
• Women who do not access medical help readily (such TVUS - GS, Fetal pole and FH evaluation
as women who are recent migrants, asylum seekers,
refugees, or women who have difficulty reading or Consider TAS other pathology (eg. Fibroids, ovarian cyst)
speaking English) are particularly vulnerable. TVUS <100% accurate diagnosis MC early gestational ages.

Guidelines TVUS/TAS
Mean GS diameter < 25.0 mm or fetal pole CRL <7.0mm, no FH
Do second scan 7 days (14 days if TAS)
Mean GS> 25.0 mm or CRL>7.0mm TVUS no FH
Get second opinion on viability and/or second scan >7 days
after first before making a diagnosis. TAS 14 days
Management of miscarriage
Medical management – Missed or Incomplete
Threatened miscarriage Indications
Patient choice
Vaginal bleeding and confirmed IUP with FH: Failed EM (eg. Bleeding >14 days)

Bleeding gets worse, or persists > 14 days, return EPAU Therapeutic agent
Bleeding stops, start or continue routine ANC
RU486 (Mifepristone) not used
Expectant management (EM) PV misoprostol missed or incomplete miscarriage.
Oral administration acceptable alternative .
Use EM 7–14 days as first-line strategy for confirmed diagnosis
miscarriage. Missed miscarriage, single dose of 800ug misoprostol
Bleeding not started >24 hours contact EPAU
Explore other management options other than EM if - Consider options

 Risk haemorrhage (eg. Late T1) Incomplete miscarriage, single dose of 600 micrograms of
 Previous adverse / traumatic pregnancy experience (eg. misoprostol.
stillbirth, MC or APH) 800 micrograms can be used to align protocols for missed and
 > risk from haemorrhage (eg. Coagulopathy, unable to have incomplete MC
blood transfusion)
 Evidence of infection.

Offer repeat TVUS if after a period EM the bleeding and pain: Inform all women whether expectant or medical management
what to expect throughout the process,
Have not started  Length and extent of bleeding
Persisting and/or increasing  Potential side effects of treatment - pain, diarrhoea and
Discuss all treatment options ( eg. continued EM or medical)
 Offer pain relief and anti-emetics as needed.
 Advise to do urine pregnancy test at 3 weeks
 If (+ve) return for follow-up exclude molar or ectopic
 Experience worsening symptoms, return earlier to EPAU
Management Miscarriage

Expectant management

Expectant management 7–14 days as first-line strategy where

diagnosis of miscarriage confirmed. Communication breaking bad news

Explore other options if: Healthcare professionals providing care should be

aware that early pregnancy complications can cause
• Increased risk of haemorrhage (eg. late first trimester) significant distress for some women and their
• Previous adverse and/or traumatic experience partners. Training in how to communicate
associated with pregnancy (eg. stillbirth, MC or APH) sensitively and breaking bad news.
• Adverse risk from effects haemorrhage (eg.
Coagulopathies, unable to have blood transfusion)
Non-clinical staff such as receptionists working in
• Evidence of infection.
settings where early pregnancy care is provided
should also be given training
Surgical management
Throughout a woman's care, give her and (with
Where clinically appropriate, offer women needing ERPC: agreement) her partner specific evidence-based
• Manual vacuum aspiration under LA in OPD information in a variety of formats.
• Surgical management in a theatre under GA
When and how to seek help if help (24 hour
contact number)

Evidence based information leaflets

Counselling services if required/ pregnancy loss
clinic/websites/support groups

After early pregnancy loss, offer follow-up

appointment healthcare professional of her choice.
Anti-D rhesus prophylaxis

• Pregnancy related immuno-prophylaxis anti-D immunoglobulin began UK in 1969.

• Programme astounding success: deaths due to RhD alloimmunisation
• 46/100 000 births (1969) to 1.6/100 000 (1990).
• Give before 72 hours
• Ideally, administer to deltoid muscle.
• Bleeding disorder give anti-D Ig via the subcutaneous or IV
• Administered dose of 250 iu up to 19+6 weeks 500 iu thereafter.
• Check size of FMH (Kleihauer)> 20+0 gestation

Anti-D Ig should be given to -

• All non-sensitised RhD (-ve) spontaneous complete or incomplete MC > 12+0 weeks .
• Anti-D Ig not required spontaneous MC <12+0 weeks
• All anti-D Ig non-sensitised RhD (-ve) surgical evacuation of the uterus ERPC, MTOP, EP.
• Allo-immunisation reported after EP and 25% ruptured tubal EP

But not to those with -

Sole medical management for EP or MC, threatened miscarriage, complete miscarriage or PUL

Rhesus D Prophylaxis, The Use of Anti-D Immunoglobulin for RCOG (Green-top 22) 2011
Second Trimester Miscarriage (14-20 weeks)

Fetus formed by 12 weeks (Fetal length)

14 weeks - 12 cms
16 weeks – 16-18 cms
18 weeks - 20 cms

Baby is identifiable and large enough, mother may feel

she wants to spend time holding the fetus after the miscarriage. This is
a very personal choice.

Full PM (fetus and placenta)
TORCH Support services
Some units have a dedicated
specialist midwife/nurse
Perinatal Pathology trained in bereavement
Normally cremate fetus
Counselling support
Pastoral care – service (parents wishes)
They can liaise with perinatal
Follow-up appointment
pathology, gynaecologist, EPAU
and pastoral services on the
Risks mothers behalf.
Pregnancy of unknown location (PUL)
Pregnancy of Unknown Location (PUL)

Pregnancy site not seen in 8–31% EPAU scans.
Sonographer’s experience influences PUL rate.

Initial assessment Other markers

Positive pregnancy test
No evidence pregnancy TVUS
Clinical assessment and serum hCG • Tri-laminar endometrial stripe pattern, specific (94%) EP but
Serum progesterone useful adjunct in PUL low sensitivity (38%).
• TVUS colour Doppler no increase detection rates EP vs 2D US
Discriminatory Zone
Combine both hCG and TVUS using a The discriminatory level for each test should be set by each
discriminatory zone institution based on the
Level of hCG > at which gestational sac of IUP should be visible
at TVUS with sensitivity approaching 100%. • hCG assay techniques in use
• quality of ultrasound equipment and operator experience.
Value ranges hCG 1000–2400 iu/l
Multiple pregnancies, hCG levels a little higher Progesterone
requires extra 2-3 days for sacs to be visible.
Consider possibility heterotopic pregnancy • Serum progesterone levels are elevated in early pregnancy
hCG > than discriminatory level but no IUP indicating the viability of the corpus luteum, and change little
PUL steps taken to exclude ectopic. during the first 8–10 weeks of gestation, but decrease if the
pregnancy fails.
PPV discriminatory zone alone for ectopic 18.2%. • Serum progesterone 20 nmol/l predicts failing early
Diagnosis ectopic based on an extra-uterine sac pregnancy with a PPV 95%
and indirect signs complex adnexal mass, echogenic fluid, • Levels 25 nmol/l are likely to indicate ectopic, some ectopics
Rather than failure to demonstrate IUP lower levels but 15% EP resolve spontaneously.
USS signs as described PPV ectopic 93.5–100% • Levels 60 nmol/l are strongly associated with IUP
Clinical outcomes of PUL

• failing PUL
• intrauterine pregnancy
• ectopic pregnancy
• persisting PUL.
44-69% failing PUL resolve spontaneously
Never seen (intra- or extrauterine) on TVUS
Serum progesterone be 20 nmol/l presentation
Serial serum hCG levels will fall.

30-70% early IUP to small to see TVUS

75% of these are viable on follow-up.

8-42% prevalence early ectopic in a PUL

Population. Lower rates 8–14%, in specialist scan units

2% Persisting PULs serum hCG levels fail to decline, no

evidence of GTD. PUL not identified using TVUS or laparoscopy.
serum hCG low (500 iu/l) and plateau (doubling time >7 days)
PUL – Clinical Algorithms
Symptoms/no symptoms
1. Pain
2. Bleeding
3. Nausea

May have
1. Discharge (physiological/infection)
2. Urinary symptoms (pregnancy or

History – very important

1. Ectopic
3. CS
4. Pelvic surgery (eg. appendicitis)
5. Endometriosis
6. ART (eg. IVF, GIFT, ICSE)

1. Urinary pregnancy test (+ve)
2. Serum HCG level (static or serial)
3. TVUS ‘empty uterus’ or sac only

Other tests
1. Serum progesterone
Ectopic Pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy
Incidence and risks
• 13 Maternal Deaths UK ectopic pregnancy 1997–99.
• Ectopic incidence 11.1/1000 pregnancies
• Laparoscopic management superior haemodynamically stable
• Collapse – most expedient method employed
• Salpingectomy not salpingotomy (healthy contralateral tube)
• Laparoscopic salpingotomy considered as the primary
treatment tubal pregnancy contralateral tubal disease and
desire for future fertility.
• Outcome study IUP rate salpingotomy 49% versus
salpingectomy 27% where contralateral tubal disease
• Salpingotomy - Increased risk further ectopic, persistent
trophoblast in tube, may still need IVF

1. Ruptured ectopic
2. Risks surgery
3. Cornual ectopic
Ovarian ectopic Heterotopic pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy

Evidenced based
Clinical Algorithms

Service provision and training

• All NHS trusts should provide an EPAU with direct
access for GP’s and A&E.
Facilities for management suspected ectopic
pregnancy should include: Ideally, EPAU sited in a dedicated area, appropriate staffing,
• Diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms available daily, at least during working week.
• Transvaginal ultrasound • Clinicians undertaking the surgical management of
ectopic pregnancy must have received appropriate
• Serum hCG estimations. training.
• Laparoscopic surgery requires appropriate equipment
Options for managing ectopic pregnancy and trained theatre staff.
1. Laparoscopy • Should be trained open and laparosocpic
2. Open mini laparotomy • Retrospective studies laparoscopic ectopic management
3. Medical (methotrexate) low rate intraoperative /postoperative complications
surgery can safely be undertaken by appropriately
4. Expectant?
trained registrars
• Non-sensitised Rh-ve confirmed or suspected ectopic
give anti-D immunoglobulin (250iu).
• Audit clinical data regularly
• Training modules ATSM/Fellowship/Subspeciality
Management options for Ectopic Pregnancy (EP)
Medical therapy offered first line
Advise those choosing methotrexate risk of
Unruptured pregnancy, no FH
Adnexal mass <35mm needing further intervention is increased and may
No evidence IUP, no blood POD need to be urgently admitted if condition
No significant pain deteriorates.
Serum hCG <1500iu/l
Salpingotomy up to 1 in 5 may need further
Surgical therapy treatment eg. methotrexate and/or a
Unable return follow-up after methotrexate
EP significant pain Salpingotomy, 1 serum hCG 7 days post surgery
Adnexal mass > 35 mm If still +ve then 1 serum hCG per week until -ve.
EP with visible FH on US
Serum hCG level of>5000 IU/litre.
Salpingectomy urine hCG test after 3 weeks.
Medical or Surgical Return for assessment if test is positive.
Serum hCG 1500-5000 IU/litre

Able to return for follow-up and meet all of the

following criteria:
No significant pain
Unruptured EP
Adnexal mass <35 mm
Medical management Ectopic
Medical therapy offered as first line treatment to suitable
women, units should have treatment and follow-up Suitability for methotrexate therapy
protocols for the use of methotrexate. • Unruptured pregnancy, no FH ,adnexal mass <35mm
• No evidence IUP, no blood POD
• Many ectopics follow a relatively chronic course. • No significant pain
• TVUS & hCG permits confident diagnosis ectopic pregnancy • Serum hCG <1500iu/l
• Previously laparoscopy often used to diagnose ectopic OPD therapy with single-dose methotrexate is associated with
saving treatment costs.
• IM methotrexate (single dose) calculated by body surface
area (50 mg/m2), usually 75- 90 mg.
• Serum hCG day 4 and 7 and 2nd dose if hCG levels fall by < • Direct costs < half those associated with laparoscopy.
15% day 4-7. 14% need > one dose methotrexate • Indirect costs less with women/ carers losing work time
• <10% require surgical intervention. • No cost saving serum hCG >1500 iu/l due to need for more
treatment and prolonged follow-up.

Clear information (preferably written) re need for further Day 0 -Serum hCG, FBC, U&E, LFT’s, G&S
treatment and adverse effects following treatment should Day 1 - Serum hCG, IM methotrexate 50 mg/m2
be able to return for assessment any time during follow-up. Day 4 - Serum hCG
Day 7 - hCG, U&E, LFT’s . 2nd dose methotrexate
if hCG decrease <15% on D4–7. hCG >15% repeat
• 75% experience abdominal pain following treatment.
hCG weekly until <10 iu
• Occasional conjunctivitis, stomatitis, gastrointestinal upset.
• Differentiating ‘separation pain’ (tubal abortion) from
‘rupture pain’ can be difficult. Mechanism of action of Methotrexate
• Small % need to be admitted for observation, TVUS and
assessment following methotrexate therapy.
• Avoid sex, maintain ample fluid intake, use reliable
contraception for 3mths possible teratogenic risk.
Ectopic pregnancy
Consent Form Laparoscopy
Frequent risks
Intended benefits • Inability identify cause for presenting complaint
• Remove ectopic pregnancy if confirmed by laparoscopy. • Bruising
• Obesity, significant pathology, previous surgery, pre-existing • Shoulder-tip pain
medical conditions quoted risks for serious or frequent
complications increased. • Wound gaping or wound infection
• Persistent trophoblastic tissue, when salpingotomy
Serious risks include performed (4–8 in 100) -8.1–8.3% laparoscopic salpingotomy
• Damage bowel, bladder, uterus, blood vessels requiring and 3.9–4.1% open salpingotomy. Factors that may increase
immediate laparosocpic /open repair risk of persistent trophoblast; high pre-op hCG levels (>3000
• 15% of bowel injuries may not be diagnosed at laparoscopy iu/l), rapid pre-op rise hCG, presence active tubal bleeding.
• Failure to gain entry to abdomen cavity requiring laparotomy • Hernia at site of entry.
• Risk of serious complications from diagnostic laparoscopy is Any extra procedures which may become necessary during the
approximately two in 1000
• 3-8 /100 000 undergoing laparoscopy die as a result of
complications(very rare). • Laparotomy.
• Salpingectomy.
• Repair of damage to bowel, bladder, uterus or blood vessels.
• Blood transfusion.
• Oophorectomy.
Other investigations
Serum tests – Viable intra-uterine pregnancy (VIP), Ectopic Pregnancy (EP), Spontaneous Abortion (SA)
Activin enhances FSH synthesis and secretion regulates menses cycle Also roles in cell proliferation. Conversely inhibin down
regulates FSH synthesis and inhibits FSH secretion. 17OH progesterone secreted by Corpus Luteum early pregnancy to
maintain. Activin A, Inhibin A and 17OH Progesterone serum markers measured as an adjunct to evaluate PUL possible EP.

Box plot - measure hCG IU/l, progesterone ng/ml, activin A ng/ml

in patients with VIP, SA, and EP. Boxes represent quartiles;
whiskers represent upper/lower hinge
(± 1.5 × IQR of lower or upper quartile).

ROC’s analysis of serum hCG, progesterone, and activin A for prediction

EP. Cutoffs chosen based on optimal sensitivity and specificity.
MRI 96% accurate for detecting hCG = 0.736 [0.679–0.793]; progesterone = 0.660 [0.597–0.723];
ectopic pregnancy high sensitivity to activin A = 0.627 [0.560–0.693]; Multi-marker = 0.752 [0.695–0.810].
fresh haematoma.
Special circumstances

1. Ectopic caesarean section scar – Increasing incidence repeat CS. Medical management
methotrexate IM or direct injection under US guidance into sac.
2. Cornual pregnancy – 4/11 (200-2002) ectopic deaths were due to cornual ectopic
rupture. Treatment surgical resection (laparoscopic, open, hysteroscopic) highly vascular
area, may necessitate hysterectomy. Increased risk of uterine rupture in a future
pregnancy. Methotrexate minimises haemorrhage and preserves the uterus for future
pregnancies, treatment suitable in EPAU with clear guidelines on treatment.
3. Ovarian ectopic -0.15-3% of ectopics occur in the ovary (1:3,000-1:7,000 deliveries).
Mature egg not expelled /picked up from. Sperm enters and fertilizes giving intra-
follicular pregnancy. Egg cell fertilized outside ovary could also implant on the ovarian
surface, aided by eg.endometriosis. Rarely go >4 weeks; very rarely pregnancy finds a
sufficient foothold outside ovary to continue as abdominal pregnancy.
4. Heterotopic pregnancy - 0.6-2.5:10,000 pregnancies. Increase incidence with ovulation
induction, IVF and GIFT. Treat ectopic pregnancy laparoscopic. Risk miscarriage.
5. Abdominal pregnancy - 1% of ectopics or about 10 /100,000 pregnancies. Risk factors
similar to ectopic. The maternal mortality 5/1,000 cases (x7 that for ectopics).
Implantation sites include peritoneum outside uterus, POD, Omentum, Bowel.
Placenta may be attached to several organs including tube and ovary. Rare other sites
have been hepatic pregnancy or splenic pregnancy.
From Left to Right –
Caesarean section scar (heterotopic)
Cornual pregnancy (US and laparoscopy)
Ovarian ectopic
Heterotopic pregnancy
Abdominal pregnancy
The Investigation and Treatment of
Couples with Recurrent First-trimester
and Second-trimester Miscarriage
Green-top Guideline No. 17 - April 2011
Recurrent Miscarriage (RM) and risk factors

Spontaneous loss before fetus viable <24 weeks
RM 3 or > consecutive pregnancies (1% couples)
1–2% of T2 pregnancies miscarry <24 weeks Antiphospholipid syndrome APAS - treatable cause RM.
Association APA – LAC, ACA and anti-B2 glycoprotein-I antibodies
Risk factors with adverse pregnancy outcome or vascular thrombosis

Epidemiological factors Adverse pregnancy outcomes include:

Maternal age : 12–19 years, 13%; 35–39 3 or > MC consecutive and <10 weeks
years,25%; 40–44 years,51%; and ≥45 years,93%.
1 or > morphologically normal fetal loss >10th week
Advanced paternal age (>40)
Risk MC > after successive losses > 40% with 3 1 or > preterm births <34th week due to placental disease.
consecutive MC worse with increasing age (>35).
APA - cause pregnancy morbidity by inhibit trophoblastic function and
Smoking and caffeine increase risk spontaneous differentiation, activation complement pathways at materno–fetal
MC dose-dependent. interface with local inflammatory response.
Alcohol is toxic to the embryo Later pregnancy, thrombosis utero-placental vessels reversed with
Working VDU does not increase risk heparin.
Anaesthetic gases theatre workers conflicting risk APA present in 15% of women with RM.
Obesity > risk sporadic and recurrent MC Live birth rate with no pharmacological intervention is only 10%.
Recurrent Miscarriage (RM) and risk factors

Genetic factors

Parental chromosomal rearrangements

2–5% of couples RM one carries a balanced
structural chromosomal anomaly: most often balanced reciprocal or
Robertsonian translocation. phenotypically normal, their pregnancies are
at risk of miscarriage or live birth multiple congenital anomalies or
mental disability

Embryonic chromosomal abnormalities

RM chromosomal abnormalities embryo account 30–57%
Risk chromosomal abnormalities embryo increases > maternal age.

Anatomical factors

Congenital uterine malformations

Prevalence and reproductive implications uterine anomalies in general
population unknown
RM uterine anomalies in 1.8% and 37.6% RM.
Higher in T2 MC ?related weak cervix (associated with malformation).
Arcuate uteri tend miscarry T2 and septate uteri T1.

Cervical weakness
Cervical weakness recognised cause T2 MC diagnosis is clinical .
History T2 MC preceded by PSROM or painless cervical dilatation.
Recurrent Miscarriage (RM) and risk factors

Endocrine factors
Disorders DM and thyroid disease associated with MC
High HbA1c levels in T1 are risk for MC and fetal anomaly
Well-controlled DM not a risk factor for RM
Nor is treated thyroid dysfunction.
Prevalence DM and thyroid dysfunction in RM similar to general population.

Immune factors
No evidence HLA incompatibility in partners, absence of maternal leucocytotoxic
antibodies or absence of maternal blocking antibodies.
NK cells are not a marker of events at maternal–fetal interface.
These tests should not be routine investigations for couples with RM.

Infective agents
Severe infection with bacteraemia or viraemia can cause MC.
Role in RM not proven. TORCH screening should be abandoned.

BV in T1 risk factor 2nd T MC and preterm delivery not associated T1 MC . Oral

clindamycin for BV significantly reduces T2 MC and preterm birth.

Inherited thrombophilic defects

Inherited/acquired; activated protein C resistance (factor V Leiden mutation),
deficient protein C/S, antithrombin III, hyperhomocysteinaemia, prothrombin
gene mutation cause systemic thrombosis.

May cause RM or late pregnancy complications.

Presumed mechanism is thrombosis uteroplacental circulation.
Recommended treatment for couples with RM in the first
and second trimester?

Offer referral to a specialist clinic – psychological support EPAU

Antiphospholipid antibodies (APAS)

RM first-trimester screen before pregnancy for APAS. Mandatory to have 2 positive tests 12
weeks apart for either LAC, ACA of IGG or IGM medium/high titre (> 40 g/l or ml/l)

Consider low-dose aspirin plus heparin to prevent further MC.

These pregnancies remain at high risk of complications during all three trimesters, including
repeated miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and preterm birth; careful antenatal
Neither corticosteroids nor intravenous immunoglobulin therapy improve the live birth rate. May
provoke maternal and fetal morbidity.

Cytogenetic analysis POC 3rd and subsequent MC.
Parental karyotyping couples with RM where POC report unbalanced structural chromosome
Genetic factors - Abnormal parental karyotype refer clinical geneticist.
Counselling offers prognosis for future risk with an unbalanced chromosome complement/
opportunity familial chromosome studies.
Options in couples with this issue include -natural pregnancy +/-prenatal testing, gamete
donation and adoption.

Pre-implantation genetic screen at IVF with unexplained RM doesn’t improve live birth rates.
Recommended investigations and treatment for couples with RM in the first
and second trimester?

Anatomical factors

Congenital uterine malformations

TVUS assess uterine anatomy.
Suspect anomalies further tests - hysteroscopy, laparoscopy or 3D TAS/TVUS.
No evidence effect uterine septum resection to prevent recurrent MC.

Cervical weakness and cervical cerclage

Hazards related cerclage and risk of stimulating uterine contractions .
Indicated history 2nd trimester MC and suspected cervical weakness
Serial USS- History 2nd TMC with cervical factors, TVUS<25mm cervix length <24 weeks offer
Recurrent Miscarriage - Endocrine Thrombophillic Factors ?

Endocrine factors

Progesterone - necessary successful implantation and maintenance of

pregnancy. No effect progesterone therapy in pregnancy to prevent MC in
women with RM.

hCG - No evidence hCG supplementation in pregnancy prevents MC.

PCOS - No evidence metformin in pregnancy prevents MC in those with

recurrent MC. PCOS risk MC attributed to insulin resistance/ hyperinsulinaemia.
Metformin insulin-sensitising agent. LH hypersecretion, also feature PCOS, risk
factor MC. Suppression LH no effect on pregnancy outcome.

Immunotherapy - Paternal cell immunisation, third-party donor leucocytes,

trophoblast membranes and IV immunoglobulin unexplained recurrent MC does
not improve the live birth rate.

Inherited thrombophilias - Insufficient evidence heparin in pregnancy prevents

recurrent first-trimester MC with inherited thrombophilia.
Heparin therapy pregnancy may improve live birth rate for 2nd trimester MC
associated inherited thrombophilias.
Inherited thrombophilia > risk DVT need prophylaxis eg. enoxaparin
Unexplained recurrent miscarriage

1. 40-50% women with RM have unexplained cause

2. Excellent prognosis for future pregnancy outcome without

pharmacological intervention

3. Offer supportive care dedicated EPAU.

4. Supportive care 75% live birth rate (< age and > number MC).

5. Aspirin and or heparin (2xRCT’s) no improved live birth rate.

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
• GTD group of disorders spanning complete and
• partial molar pregnancies, malignant conditions of
invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and very rare placental
site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT).
• There are reports of neoplastic transformation of
atypical placental site nodules to placental site
trophoblastic tumour.
• GTD, GTN (neoplasia) most commonly defined as
persistent elevation of βhCG.

• Describe the presentation, management, treatment and
follow-up GTD
• Advice on future pregnancy outcomes and the use of
Transvaginal sonography without (A)
and with (B) color Doppler imaging in a
case of GTD with vascular lakes (arrows)
and deep myometrial invasion.
GTD – Complete (CM) and Partial (PM) Moles

Molar pregnancies Presentation and Diagnosis

Complete (CM) • Irregular bleeding, hyperemesis, excessive
• Complete moles are diploid and androgenic with no • uterine enlargement and early failed pregnancy.
fetal tissue.
• Rarer hyperthyroidism, early onset PET, abdominal
• 75–80% arise due to duplication single sperm and 20- distension due to theca lutein cysts.
25% dispermic fertilisation of an ‘empty’ ovum.
• Very rarely acute respiratory failure or neurological
• Partial moles (PM) symptoms such as seizures; due to metastatic disease.
• 90% triploid , two sets of paternal and one set
maternal haploid genes.
• Almost all PM’s, due to dispermic fertilisation of an
ovum. Investigations
• 10% PM tetraploid or mosaic conceptions. US pre ERPC
• PM has evidence of fetal tissue or fetal red blood cells. HCG levels
• GTD- Hhydatidiform mole, invasive mole, Histological examination POC
choriocarcinoma, placental-site trophoblastic tumour is
a rare event • Routine US reduced mean gestation Diagnosis -16
(1965–75) to 12 weeks (1988–93).
Incidence • Majority histologically proven CM’s associated with US
• UK incidence 1/714 live births - Ethnic variation UK- diagnosis missed miscarriage or anembryonic
Asian 1/387 vs non-Asian 1/752 live births. pregnancy.3,4 In one study, the accuracy of pre-
• Incidence after live birth is 1/50 000. evacuation diagnosis of
• UK, effective registration and treatment programme – • CM 56% detection rate at US pre ERPC and histology
cure rate (98–100%) and low (5–8%) chemotherapy • PM US more complex; multiple soft markers -cystic
rates. placental spaces, ratio of transverse:AP dimensions
gestation sac >1.5
• HCG levels > 2 MOM’s for gestational age
Management molar pregnancy
What is the best method Medical or surgical of
evacuating a molar CM or PM pregnancy?

• Suction ERPC- CM and PM. Except PM if size fetal parts prohibit.

• Medical (RU486/Misoprostol) may be safe for PM avoid for CM. Urine HCG
at 3 weeks if POC not sent for histology.

• Anti-D prophylaxis for PM but not CM poor vascularisation of the chorionic

villi and absence of the anti-D antigen in CM.

• Oxytocics- may embolise or disseminate trophoblast in venous system.

• Management moles with RU486 and misoprostol Ltd. avoided with CM as >
sensitivity uterus to PG’s.
• Preparation cervix ERPC safe no > risk chemotherapy.

• Excessive vaginal bleeding may occur with CM senior surgeon directly

supervising ERPC. Larger uterine size > risk bleeding and persistent GTD

• Oxytocic infusion before ERPC or before complete not recommended. If

needed weigh need versus risk tumour embolisation.

• CM higher risk chemotherapy treatment persistent GTD, PM risk low 0.5%.

Histopathology – Role US, serial HCG, GTD reference centre
Should all POC from miscarriages be
examined histologically? Who should be followed up ?
• Histological assessment POC from medical/surgical management of
failed pregnancies recommended to exclude GTN (missed
miscarriage, blighted ovum, no fetal parts seen).
• Ploidy status and immunohistochemistry staining for P57 may help
differentiate PM and CM. Persisting gynaecological symptoms after
evacuation molar pregnancy, consult GTD
STOP screening centre prior to second ERPC
• No if fetal parts seen on prior US.
• Risk GTN after STOP 1/20 000.
• Serial hCG and US, may be role second ERPC hCG <5000 Iu/L.
• Failure to diagnose GTD at STOP adverse outcomes and higher risk
life threatening complications, surgical
Who should be investigated for persistent GTN
• intervention, hysterectomy and multi-agent chemotherapy.
after a non-molar pregnancy?
• RCOG - US prior TOP to exclude non-viable and molar pregnancies.
• No indication routine histology for POC.
• Persistent vaginal bleeding after a pregnancy event risk of
• Urine pregnancy test performed all with persistent or
irregular bleeding.
• Symptoms from metastatic disease, such as dyspnoea or
abnormal neurology, can occur very rarely.
• Several case series have shown that vaginal bleeding is the
most common presenting symptom of
• GTN diagnosed after miscarriage, therapeutic termination of
pregnancy or postpartum. The prognosis for women with
GTN after non-molar pregnancies may be worse, in part
owing to
• delay in diagnosis or advanced disease, such as liver or CNS
disease, at presentation
How is twin pregnancy of a fetus and coexistent molar
pregnancy managed?

Types affected pregnancies

Combined molar and viable pregnancy
Twin pregnancy viable fetus and mole

• Increased risk perinatal morbidity and outcome GTN.

• Prenatal invasive testing fetal karyotype considered if

unclear if CM with coexisting normal twin or a PM

• Also consider testing karyotype abnormal placenta eg.

Suspected mesenchymal hyperplasia.

• Normal pregnancy and co-existing CM outcome is poor,

25% live birth rate. Early fetal loss 40%, PTD 36%
• PET risk varies as high as 5-20%

• > risk maternal death many studies and persistent GTN.

• Successful use of GTD screening and reference centres in
the UK. The risk GTN after such a twin pregnancy and
outcome after chemotherapy is unaffected
Which women should be registered
GTD screening centres?
GTD cases - written information about
condition, need for referral and follow-up
to a GTD screening and reference centre

• CM
• PM
• Twin pregnancy with CM/PM
• Limited Macro or Micro molar change suggesting possible partial or
early complete molar change
• Choriocarcinoma
• Placental-site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT)
• Atypical placental site nodules: nuclear atypia trophoblast, areas
necrosis, calcification and > proliferation (Ki67 immuno reactivity within
nodule). % may transform to PSTT.

Registration of GTD cases is a minimum standard of care.

Achieved by postal form or online.
Charing X centre established by DoH 1973 has treated > 2500 GTD
UK/overseas. The largest experience of this disease worldwide. Best data,
research and cure rates for GTD, lowest rate chemotherapy required.

Follow-up serial hCG levels - blood or urine by the reference centre. UK

programme - High cure (98–100%) and low (5–8%) chemotherapy rates.
Management GTD? Treatment persistent GTD/GTN

• Women with GTN may be treated either with single-agent

or multi-agent chemotherapy for GTN.
Follow-up after diagnosis and initial treatment • Treatment used is based on the FIGO 2000 scoring system
for GTN following assessment at the treatment centre.
• hCG normal by 56 days of pregnancy event - follow up for 6 months
• The need for chemotherapy following a complete mole is 15%
from date uterine evacuation.
and 0.5 % after a partial mole. The
• hCG abnormal 56 days follow-up for 6 months from normal hCG level.
• development of postpartum GTN requiring chemotherapy
• All notify screening centre end of any future pregnancy, whatever occurs at a rate of 1/50 000 births.
outcome. Measure hCG for 6-8 weeks to exclude GTD
• Women are assessed before chemotherapy using the FIGO
• When hCG normalised risk GTN is very low. 2000 scoring system (Table 1).
• GTN can occur after any subsequent pregnancy event, even if normal • Scores ≤ 6 low risk treated by single-agent IM methotrexate
pregnancy in between . alternate daily with Folinic acid x 1 week then 6 rest days.
• Scores ≥ 7 high risk treated with IV multi-agent chemo,
includes combination - methotrexate, dactinomycin,
etoposide, cyclophosphamide and vincristine.
• Treatment continued, until hCG level normal and then for a
further 6 weeks.
• Cure rate score ≤ 6 is 100%; score ≥ 7 95%.
• PSTT variant of GTN may be treated with surgery less
sensitive to chemotherapy.
GTD – Contraception, Conception Future Risk
Is HRT safe to use after GTD? Future conception and risk ?
• No conception for 1 year after completes treatment GTN.
• HRT may be used safely hCG levels normal. • Risk molar pregnancy is low (1/80): > 98% pregnancies
following mole will not have further mole
Safe contraception after GTD and when can it be • No> risk of obstetric complications.
• Further molar does occur, 68–80% same histology type.
commenced? • Conception <12 months after chemotherapy, > risk
• Use barrier methods until hCG levels normal. miscarriage (>again with multi-agents)
• Congenital anomaly rate low 1.8%
• Once normal COCP pill may be used. • Rate stillbirth > normal population 18.6/1000 births
• OCP started before diagnosis GTD can remain on OCP
low increase risk of GTN.
Long-term outcome treated GTN?
• IUD not be used until hCG normal - risk of uterine Menopause age single-agent advanced by 1 year and 3 years
perforation. with multi-agent chemotherapy.
• Two RCT’s RR 1.19developing GTN on COCP
Multi-agent chemo >RR other CA specifically etoposide
• RR 16.6 AML
• RR 4.6 colon cancer,
• RR 3.4 melanoma
• RR 5.79 for breast cancer at >25yrs surviving GTN
Combination chemo <6 months no >RR secondary CA’s

RCOG- Green-top guideline 38

Pregnancy with and IUD in place

Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare of the

RCOG guidance on IUD 2007.

• Most pregnancies with IUD in situ IUP.

• Ectopic pregnancy (6% these cases) must be
• Miscarriage frequent complication of pregnancy
with an IUD. 50% -60% IUP if IUD not removed
against background rate of 13%.
• Increased risks of second-trimester MC, preterm
delivery and infection if IUD left in situ
• Removal reduces adverse outcomes with a small
risk of miscarriage
• Threads are visible, or can easily be retrieved from
endocervical canal, remove IUD up to 12 weeks
• 50% IUD with IUP are malpositioned
• Unsure TVUS.
• Plain film abdomen/pelvis if TVUS (-ve)
NVP – Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy
Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Nausea Vomiting of Pregnancy
80% of pregnancies experience some degree of NVP
30% of these have severe symptoms Adverse effects NVP
90% resolved by week 16
30% working women need time off NVP
Or cannot carry out household duties or
Of these with NVP symptoms (hours) per pregnancy : parenting activities satisfactorily.
20% have 100–300 hours
10% have 300–700 hours 15-37 per year TOP for NVP

0.3–1.5% (mean 1%) severe NVP hospital admission rehydration/ Terminology

correction electrolyte imbalance (Hyperemesis Gravidarum) Morning sickness is a misleading
13% have symptoms exclusive mornings
In England for 2006/7, total admissions for Majority, symptoms occur both/after midday.
ICD-10 021 (Hyperemesis Gravidarum) 25,420
More appropriate term, episodic NVP
Treatment early stages prevents serious complications,
includes hospital admission

Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) persistent NVP causes

Weight loss >5% BMI and ketosis.
Severe cases, inadequately or inappropriately treated
Hyperemesis can cause:
1. Wernicke’s encephalopathy
2. Central pontine myelinolysis
3. Maternal death
Hyperemesis Gravidarum. A Neill et al. TOG 2003;5:204–7
4. Risk IUGR.
Nausea Vomiting of Pregnancy

Cochrane review therapy 2010

Pre-emptive treatment Other issues of recommendation and licence

Previous severe NVP +/- hyperemesis gravidarum
80% experience severe NVP again. NHS Clinical Knowledge Summary for NVP states all anti-emetics
Offer anti-emetic therapy as soon as aware of pregnancy (including antihistamines) unlicensed for treatment NVP in UK.
or no later than onset of NVP symptoms.
Significantly better Anti-emetic required in pregnancy, oral promethazine or oral
cyclizine (H1 receptor antagonist antihistamines) may be taken.

Treatment Available without prescription in UK, but information leaflet in

Lifestyle measures the drug packs states: ‘Do not take if you are pregnant unless
Oral treatment when max symptoms with severe effect on they have been recommended by a doctor’.
QoL (usually 2 weeks after onset NVP)
Lack of approved/licensed drug can be associated with
unwarranted preventable adverse health effects of severe NVP
UK - H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine + Pyridoxine Many may not receive appropriate treatment because
Avomine© (promethazine teoclate) Misinformation/misconception related to teratogenic risk.
25 mg (up to 100 mg daily) or
Cyclizine 50 mg (up to 150 mg daily) plus, Concerns possible toxicity high dose pyridoxine not resolved
and therefore not recommended by NICE in the UK
Pyroxidine 10 mg (up to 40 mg daily).
(Management of Common Symptoms of Pregnancy. Antenatal
Care Guideline. London: NICE; 2008. Chapter 6)
Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Symptoms HG
Hyponatraemia (plasma sodium <120 mmol/l) - Lethargy, seizures and
Nausea respiratory arrest. Both severe hyponatraemia and rapid reversal Central
Vomiting pontine myelinolysis. Spastic quadraparesis, pseudobulbar palsy, LOC
Weight loss occur
Ptyalism (inability to swallow saliva) and spitting Other vitamin deficiencies occur -
Cyanocobalamin (B12) and pyridoxine (B6)
Signs causing anaemia and peripheral neuropathy.
Tachycardia Fetal - IUGR
Postural hypotension
Ketosis General Management
Rest, small CHO meals when symptoms least
Complications severe and carbonated drinks
Mallory–Weiss tears
Loss 10–20% body weight- muscle wasting, Prolonged dehydration or bed rest should
weakness. receive thromboprophylaxis (e.g. enoxaparin
40 mg/daily) and TEDS
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency - Wernicke’s Admission and rehydration
Syndrome characterised by diplopia, abnormal
ocular movements, ataxia and confusion. If thiamine
is deficient, IV dextrose/ glucose may
precipitate Wernicke’s encephalopathy.
Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Management HG – Admission to Hospital
Differential diagnosis of Hyperemesis Gravidarum Stop drugs that cause NV (eg. Fe temporarily)

Infection – UTI IV fluids

Hepatitis NACL (0.9%,/150 mmol/l Na) or Hartmann’s (131 mmol/l Na).
Drug induced (eg. Iron supplementation) Add KCL to each bag.
Avoid dextrose saline not enough Na
May cause Wernicke’s encephalopathy
Metabolic Thyrotoxicosis Titrate regimen against daily U&E
Diabetic ketoacidosis Thiamine 25–50 mg TDS/IV infused 30–60
Uraemia Mins, repeat weekly.
Addison’s disease
Gastrointestinal Appendicitis SS-5HT3 receptor antagonist (Ondansetron)
Cholecystitis effective in some with HG.
Small bowel obstruction Routine prescribing not recommended.
Histamine receptor blockers (ranitidine)/
PPI omeprazole used with success.

Treatment Psychological support

Cyclizine 50mg TDS PO IM IV Day-care management of HG
Promethazine 25 mg OD nocte
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) may be useful for severe
Prochlorperazine 5mg TDS PO PR 12.5 IM TDS nausea, less effective preventing vomiting.
Metoclopramide 10 mg TDS PO IM SC
Steroid therapy may give rapid improvement
Domperidone 10 mg QDS PO 30–60mg QDS PR
Hydrocortisone 100mg BD then
Chlorpromazine 10–25mg TDS PO 25 mg TDS IM 40 mg prednisolone OD - 10 mg OD x 20 weeks.
Ovarian Hyper-Stimulation Syndrome (OHSS)
Ovarian Hyper-Stimulation Syndrome (OHSS)

A. OHSS characterized by multiple luteinized cysts in the ovaries with enlargement and
secondary complications.
B. Central feature OHSS - vascular hyper permeability shift of fluids into the third space;

C. hCG causes ovary to luteinize with, large amounts oestrogens, progesterone + local
cytokines released.
D. VEGF is a key substance induces vascular hyper permeability (capillaries "leaky“) and shift
of fluids from the intravascular space into the abdominal and pleural cavity.

E. Supraphysiologic levels of VEGF from many follicles under prolonged effect of hCG is key
to OHSS. As fluid ↑in the third space it forms ascites, pleural effusion, intra-vascular
hypovolemia and risk of respiratory, circulatory with arterial thromboembolism (blood is
now thicker), and renal problems. Patients who are pregnant sustain ovarian luteinization
process through production of hCG.

F. ↓OHSS requires interrupting pathological sequence- avoid use hCG (e.g. use GnRH
agonist). ↓pregnancy rates if a fresh non-donor embryo transfer attempted (due to a luteal
phase defect) but GnRH agonist trigger effective oocyte donors and embryo banking
(cryopreservation) cycles.

1. OHSS is associated with hCG injection at IVF used to
induce final maturation and/or trigger oocyte release.
2. Risk increased > doses of hCG after ovulation and if
the procedure results in pregnancy.[1]
3. Use GnRH agonist instead of hCG inducing oocyte
maturation and/or release results in an elimination
risk OHSS but a decrease delivery live baby rate x6%.
OHSS- Epidemiology and Classification

Mild - abdominal bloating , nausea, diarrhea, slight weight gain.

Moderate - excessive weight gain (>1kg per day), increased girth,

vomiting, diarrhoea, dark urine, less urine, excess thirst, skin
and/or hair dry (+ mild symptoms).
Severe - bloating above waist, dyspnoea, pleural effusion, urine
dark or anuric, calf/chest pain, ascites and abdominal pains (+ mild
and moderate symptoms).
1. Sporadic OHSS rare ? genetic component.
Clomifene citrate may cause OHSS Mild OHSS - ovaries enlarged (5–12 cm)[3] +/- ascites, abdominal
pain,[3] nausea,[3] and diarrhea.[3]
2. Most OHSS follows gonadotropin therapy (FSH)
Severe OHSS - hemoconcentration, thrombosis, oliguria, pleural
e.g. Pergonal and hCG (induce final oocyte effusion, and respiratory distress.
maturation and/or trigger oocyte release) usually
with IVF. Clinical Criteria
3. Factors influencing OHSS rate- patient,
management + surveillance. Severe OHSS -USS > ovary size, ascites, hematocrit > 45%, WBC >
4. 5% OHSS - moderate to severe risks- young age, > 15, urine<30ml/hr, creatinine 1.0-1.5 mg/dl, creatinine clearance >
number ovarian follicles stimulated, very high 50 ml/min, abnormal LFT’s, anasarca (extreme generalised
serum estradiol, hCG for final oocyte maturation oedema)[3]
+/_release, continued hCG for luteal support +
pregnancy resulting in more hCG. Critical OHSS – USS very enlarged ovary, tense ascites, hydrothorax,
pericardial effusion, hematocrit > 55%, WBC > 25, oligo-anuria,
5. Mortality is low, but fatal cases are reported. creatinine > 1.6 mg/dl, creatinine clearance < 50 ml/min,
thromboembolism, ARDS.[3]
OHSS - Management
Complications OHSS
1. Ovarian torsion
2. Ovarian rupture
3. Thrombophlebitis
4. Renal insufficiency

Symptoms generally resolve in 1-2 weeks

More severe and persist longer if pregnancy occurs. Prevention
This is due to hCG of pregnancy acting on corpus luteum in the 1. Reduce OHSS risk by monitoring FSH therapy to use judiciously,
ovaries in sustaining the pregnancy before the placenta has fully and withhold hCG if ↑risk.
Severe OHSS with developing pregnancy the duration does not
exceed the first trimester. 2. Dopamine agonist prophylaxis: meta-analysis concludes
cabergoline ↓ incidence, but not severity OHSS, no ↓ Live Birth
Rate (LBR) [4]
Treatment - Depends on severity OHSS
3. OHSS ↓ by coasting during ovarian stimulation for IVF omitting
Mild OHSS – conservative; monitor abdo girth, wgt, discomfort in
hCG for final maturation of follicles. ↓ OHSS in high risk cases (
OPD (until conception or menstruation). With conception mild
0% vs 20%) [5]
OHSS may ↑
4. But LBR ↓38% with coasting vs. 45% LBR for controls.
Moderate OHSS- OPD/inpatient (as above)± bed rest, IV fluids, 5. Also ↓ cumulative LBR 52% vs. 59% [5]. Maybe due to difficulty in
U&E, FBC, LFT’s and USS monitor size ovarian follicles. Strict I+O timing oocyte retrieval with full maturation.
with >1L fluid deficit a cause for concern.
Monitor OHSS resolution by ↓ decrease size follicular cysts
(2 consecutive USS)[6]
Severe OHSS- Aspiration accumulated fluid (ascites or plueral 1. Humaidan P, Kol S et al. GnRH agonist for triggering of final oocyte maturation: time for a change of
practice?. Hum. Reprod Update 2011;17 (4): 510–24.
effusion) from abdominal/pleural cavity. Opioid analgesia for pain. 2. Textbook of Assisted Reproductive Techniques, Laboratory and Clinical Perspectives, edited by David K.
If OHSS within IVF protocol, postpone transfer of the pre-embryos 3.
Gardner, 2001
Youssef MA, van Wely M, Hassan MA, et al. Can dopamine agonists reduce the incidence and severity of
as pregnancy can ↑time to recovery or ↑severity OHSS. OHSS in IVF/ICSI treatment cycles? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 2010:16
(5): 459–66.
OHSS therapy is supportive but may need to be hospitalized for 4. Gera, P.; Tatpati, L. Allemand, M. Wentworth, M. Coddington, C. OHSS: steps to maximize success and
minimize effect for assisted reproductive outcome. Fertility and Sterility 2010;94 (1): 173–178.
pain, paracentesis, and/or intravenous hydration. 5. Horwitz, et al. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: Treatment and Medication. eMedicine Obstetrics and
Gynecology. 11/2008.
Urinary sepsis in pregnancy
Urinary sepsis in pregnancy


1. Urinary tract infection (UTI) more concerning in pregnancy due

to the increased risk of ascending pyelopnephritis

2. Pregnancy-, high progesterone levels, decrease smooth muscle

tone of ureters and bladder, > risk urine reflux.

3. While pregnant women do not have an increased risk of

asymptomatic bacteriuria.

4. If bacteriuria is present they do have a 25-40% risk of a kidney


5. Thus if urine testing shows signs of an infection—even in the

absence of symptoms—treatment is recommended.

6. Cephalexin or nitrofurantoin are typically used because they are

generally considered safe in pregnancy.
WCC -white blood cells seen under a
microscope from a urine sample. 7. UTI during pregnancy may result in premature birth or pre-
Pyuria – pus cells in a mid-stream urine sample eclampsia and renal dysfunction
Pathogenesis and treatment
Common causative organisms:
80–85% E Coli
5-10% Staphylococcus saprophyticus being the

Others causes include:

• Klebsiella
• Proteus
• Pseudomonas
• Enterobacter.
These are uncommon and typically related to abnormalities
urinary system or catheterization.
UTI due to Staphylococcus aureus: typically occur secondary
to blood-borne infections Symptoms- dysuria, frequency, urgency, haematuria, loin pain, fever
Urinalysis- (+ve)urinary nitrites, leukocytes or leukocyte esterase.
Microscopy- RCC, WCC, bacteria.
Urine culture – (+ve) > 103 colony-forming units (CFU) per mL of a typical
urinary tract organism.
Antibiotic sensitivity - can also be tested with these cultures, making them
useful in the selection of antibiotic treatment.

1. Lower urinary tract infection .
2. Ascending upper urinary tract -pyelonephritis.
3. Urine contains significant bacteria but no symptoms- asymptomatic
4. UTI is deemed complicated if it involves
MSU Microscopy - multiple rod- • The upper tract
shaped bacteria shown between • Diabetic
white blood cells indicative of UTI • Immune compromised
• Pregnancy
Anti-microbial therapy
Antibiotic therapy

Oral antibiotics are the treatment of choice for asymptomatic bacteriuria and
cystitis. Appropriate oral regimens include the following:
• Cephalexin 500 mg 4 times daily
• Ampicillin 500 mg 4 times daily
• Nitrofurantoin 100 mg twice daily
• Sulfisoxazole 1 g 4 times daily

Resistance of E coli to ampicillin and amoxicillin is 20-40%;

These agents are no longer considered optimal for treatment UTIs caused by
this organism. Fosfomycin (phosphonic acid derivative) useful treatment
uncomplicated UTIs caused by susceptible strains of E coli and Enterococcus.
Category B agent in pregnancy (ie, fetal risk is not confirmed by human
studies but shown in some animal studies).

Duration therapy
1-, 3-, and 7-day antibiotic courses have been evaluated
10-14 days treatment recommended to eradicate bacteria.
Studies cephalexin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin indicate
single dose as effective as a 3- to 7-day course
But cure rate is only 70%. The data are insufficient to justify abandoning the
more traditional long-term regimens.
E Coli- UTI Complicated UTI
Treatment success
Depends on eradication bacteria rather than duration of therapy. Check renal function
MSU should show negative findings 1-2 weeks after therapy. Consider renal ultrasound
Non-negative MSU culture result indication for a 10-14 day course different 1. Risk hydronephrosis
antibiotic and then suppressive therapy 2. Exclude other pathology e.g. calculus
(eg, nitrofurantoin 50 mg at bedtime) until 6 weeks postpartum. 3. Rarely - cystoscopy
Urinary sepsis in early pregnancy
UTI common in pregnancy
• May result in significant morbidity for the pregnant woman and fetus.
• All women should be screened for bacteriuria at their first prenatal visit
(5%-10%) women will have asymptomatic bacteruria in the 1st trimester
• Failure to treat bacteriuria during pregnancy may result in 25%
experiencing acute pyelonephritis (1).
• Antibiotics effective in clearing bacteriuria [RR 0.25; 95% CI 0.14-0.48]
and ↓risk [RR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.41]. (Cochrane review 2007)
• Antibiotics ↓ risk LBW [RR: 0.66 95% CI: 0.49 to 0.89].
• Maternal infection resulting in sepsis may cause up to 30% of ICU
admissions for obstetrics contributes to 2%-3% of maternal mortalities
• Microbiology of sepsis is distinct in pregnancy; endotoxin-producing G(-)
rods e.g. E. coli common aetiologic agent versus G(+) bacteria common
culprits in non-pregnant patients with sepsis.

Complications pregnancy related pyelonephritis-

1. Preterm labour
2. Transient renal failure
4. Septicemia and shock
5. DIC
Maternal UTI is independently associated with pre-term delivery, pre-
eclampsia, IUGR and CD. Nevertheless, it is not associated with increased
rates of perinatal mortality compared with women without UTI (2).
Reference s–
1. Giltrap et al. UTI during pregnancy.
Those treated for UTI should be followed up closely after treatment up to Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2001 Sep;28(3):581-91
1/3 women may experience recurrence. 2. Mazor-Dray E, Levy A, Schlaeffer F, Sheiner E. Maternal urinary tract infection:
is it independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcome? J Matern Fetal
Neonatal Med. 2009;22(2):124-8.
Treponema Pallidum


Vaginal discharge STI’s and Pregnancy

Normal discharge in pregnancy

Common Changes in Hormones

• Most likely cause of discharge is change in hormones

during menstrual cycle and pregnancy (leucorrhoea).
• When ovulation occurs, vaginal discharge will change.
• Normally, vaginal discharge is thick and sticky when a
woman is not ovulating.
• Ovulation approaches, vaginal discharge changes to a
thin, stretchy film that helps sperm travel to the egg.
• Any change in the vagina's balance of normal bacteria
can affect the smell, colour, or discharge texture.

Causes of vaginal discharge

1. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy

2. Vaginal infection (e.g. Bacterial vaginosis (BV),
3. STI’s (e.g. gonorrhea or trichomoniasis)
4. Cervical cancer
5. Douches, scented soaps or bubble bath
6. PID (uncommon>12 weeks)
7. Menopause (eg, vaginal atrophy)
8. Vaginitis, irritation in or around the vagina
Candidiasis (Thrush)

Candida species of fungus, usually Candida Albicans.

Frequently an isolate in vaginal flora but does not usually cause any
symptoms because its growth is kept under control by normal

If the immune system is affected or the vaginal flora altered by

antibiotics then candidiasis may occur and cause:
1. itching
2. irritation
3. redness
4. soreness and swelling of the vagina and vulva
5. thick, creamy discharge but no odour

Because of hormonal changes and relative immune suppression

pregnant women often get thrush, especially during the third trimester
of pregnancy but there is no evidence of harm to the fetus.

Treating thrush during pregnancy

1. No treatment.
2. Topical - anti-fungal- cream or pessary e.g. clotrimazole or a similar
Candida Albicans 3. Oral – e.g. fluconazole. But advice is to avoid in pregnancy
Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

15% pregnant women have BV most are asymptomatic.

BV associated with - Screening
• PPSROM No evidence to screen and treat BV asymptomatic pregnancy
• PTD Screening with previous PTD may be beneficial
Lower genital tract symptoms, intrapartum or postpartum
Risk complications > earlier in pregnancy the condition fever, than test for BV -
occurs. Gram-stain vaginal smear, grades normal, intermediate or BV
• "fishy" odor on wet mount whiff test, add a small
1. Detecting and treating BV<20 weeks reduces PTD amount of KOH (amines released).
2. Treating previous PTD reduces the rate PPSROM and LBW. • Loss of acidity litmus paper pH>4.5
3. Treat symptomatic BV but not asymptomatic or • clue cells on wet mount by placing a drop of NACl. They
unconfirmed BV in the absence of above. give a clue to the discharge epithelial cells coated with
These fulfils Amsel’s clinical criteria.
Whether antimicrobial treatment BV in pregnancy causes
more harm than benefit is unclear do not give antibiotics in
the absence of proven infection.
Pregnancy and
Neisseria gonorrhoea
Gonorrhoea uncommon UK concentrated in large urban areas.
Median age infected women 20 years.
> rates pharyngeal sepsis pregnancy altered sexual behaviour.
• STI’s have increased prevalence pregnancy Higher risk disseminated sepsis
• STI testing include/repeat HIV test 40% co-infected with chlamydia.
Increase risk PPSROM, PTD. LBW
• <25 yrs chlamydia screen
Gonorrhoea increases risk postpartum infection
• Pregnant and STIs EPAU/GUM, treat, screen, partner 50% babies ophthalmia neonatorum
tracing, sexual abstinence treatment, safe sex. NAATs used detect >sensitivity, confirmed by supplementary culture
• TOP women high prevalence/complication rates STIs Guide antibiotic treatment (avoid current issue widespread
• interaction STIs/pregnancy bidirectional antimicrobial resistance) with culture/susceptibility testing
• Physiological changes may alter natural history Swab pharynx/rectum in women with genital gonorrhoea
• Treatment options may be ltd and must be effective to Opthalmia Neonatorum
justify any risk to pregnancy/fetus.

Oro-pharyngeal gonorrhoea

Strawberry spots cervix

HSV 1 and 2
Genital herpes
50% a sero +ve HSV-1
25% HSV-2 antibodies at the start of pregnancy

3–4% sero –ve acquire the virus during pregnancy (1 in 60,000)

This small number primary HSV accounts large % neonatal
Primary HSV late pregnancy > risk of transmission.
Primary HSV in pregnancy – Women within 6 weeks EDD offered CS
T1 miscarriage If in established labour, or decline CS avoided invasive procedures
Preterm birth and LBW. Give IV aciclovir given to mother and neonate.
Recurrent HSV is not associated with these

Neonatal HSV Primary HSV in T1 or T2 anticipate vaginal delivery.

Causes death 31% /chronic disability 83% of survivors.
Transmission risk primary HSV 40–50% Recurrent HSV (Statement RCOG )–
Secondary to maternal viraemia, absent maternal antibodies CS is not indicated recurrent HSV onset of labour.
and extensive cervical involvement.
Risks transmission small.
HSV 2 virus (recurrent) detected in 15% of asymptomatic HSV-2 Mode delivery discussed with mum .
Sero +ve pregnant women at delivery; asymptomatic shedding Invasive procedures avoided.
responsible < 1% neonatal infections due passive
transfer of maternal antibodies.
Aciclovir suppression from 36 weeks (active or prophylactic)

Reduce HSV shedding , lesions at onset labour / need consider CS.

Acyclovir is unlicensed for use in pregnancy but is safe and effective
(400mg BD/TDS).
Latter TDS dose in T3 as altered pharmacokinetics in late pregnancy
Chlamydia Trachomatis

• Complications chlamydia due ascending infection.

• Chlamydia, pre-term birth, PPSROM, LBW, infant
mortality associations usually with primary infection
• 34% primary chlamydia and VD get puerperal
• 50% neonates untreated develop ophthalmia
• 15% neonates chlamydia pneumonitis

Trichomoniasis (T Vaginalis)
Most common non-viral STI causes vulvovaginitis;
10–50% are asymptomatic.
Associated with PTD, LBW, puerperal infection rate unclear
concurrent increase anaerobic bacteria.
Little neonatal morbidity
Test for T. vaginalis by microscopy and/or culture.
NAATs T. vaginalis very sensitive not widely available.
Nitroimidazoles most effective treatment no evidence
teratogenicity with metronidazole pregnancy
90% microbiological cure rate with metronidazole
No protective effect treatment pregnancy outcomes.
Prudent to treat symptomatic women during pregnancy
Test cure recommended if symptoms persist/recur
Anogenital warts

Most common viral STI in the UK
Anogenital warts infection low-risk subtypes HPV usually transient; Pregnant
women > rates detectable HPV DNA due to altered immunity, >rate symptoms,
warts can be extensive, rapidly enlarging.

Neonatal Infection
Vertical transmission HPV occurs in 1 in 80 cases
May cause genital and laryngeal warts in infants.
Rare complication vertical transmission low-risk subtypes recurrent respiratory
papillomatosis 4.3/100 000 cases.
<CS compared to VD but given rare operative delivery would not
normally be advised.

Treatment HPV (Warts) in pregnancy

Does not reduce risk vertical transmission, so no treatment is an option.
Treatment may improve symptoms and limit disease extent
Podophyllotoxin contraindicated because toxicity
Imiquimod insufficient safety data to support use
Treatment ltd. liquid nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid, electrocautery, curettage.
CS consider large warts- may obstruct labour, causing extensive cervical disease.
Syphillis – Treponema pallidum
Up to 45% get Jarisch–Herxheimer reaction
Pathophysiology of syphilis treatment pregnancy - Uterine contractions, PTL
2009-10 UK cases infectious (primary, secondary and early FHR decelerations can occur result of maternal fever.
latent) declined by 14%; Uptake AN syphilis screening 2009 -96% Fetal monitoring for treatment >26 weeks
(0.16% tests +ve). Congenital syphilis low effective antenatal Management supportive, antipyretics, but oral
screening. Treponema pallidum causes syphilis transmitted corticosteroids not indicated
across placenta at any stage of pregnancy.
Monthly serology required monitor treatment response.
Indications further maternal treatment postpartum:
Risk transmission dependent on stage maternal infection and
Presented late pregnancy no previous treatment
duration fetal exposure -
Adequate treatment response not achieved VDRL reactive
Early pregnancy up to 100%
plasma serofast at a titre >1:8
50% PTD and fetal death.
Use of a non-penicillin regimen.
10% late infection will be affected.
Neonates assessed by neonatologist receiving treatment if
Congenital syphilis multi-system infection may result stillbirth, congenital infection.
neonatal death, long-term disability.

Serology test, enzyme immunoassay, +ve result confirmed with
haemagglutination/particle agglutination suphilis assay.
Non-treponemal test, VDRL test or reactive plasma reagin,
quantitative assay monitor disease activity, treatment response.
Delivery < 30 days completion of treatment, then treat
neonate. Penicillin is the treatment of choice - benzathine
benzylpenicillin G
Screening tests, sites, indications and recommended
treatment and follow-up of STIs in pregnancy.

Indications for test

Testing Sites to
Screening/testing recommendations First-line treatment Alternative/additional treatment of cure
technology sample

Chlamydia Inform women <25 years to attend NAAT Endocervix Azithromycin 1 g single dose Erythromycin 500 mg b.d. for 14 days or All pregnant women 5
local National Chlamydia or self- erythromycin 500 mg q.d.s. for 7 days or weeks following
Screening Programme centre (in taken amoxicillin 500 mg t.d.s. for 7 days completion of
England) Women >25 years: Test vulvovagin treatment (6 weeks
if symptoms of infection or baby al swab following azithromycin)
has ophthalmia neonatorum

Gonorrhoea Test if symptoms of infection or Culture or NAAT Endocervix Ceftriaxone 500 mg Amoxicillin 3 g and probenecid 1 g oral In all cases at all
baby has ophthalmia neonatorum plus culture if plus intramuscular single dose single dose (if regional prevalence of affected sites. Three
positive pharynx with azithromycin 1 g stat or penicillin resistance <5%) All should weeks following
and rectum spectinomycin 2 g receive chlamydia treatment completion of
(depending intramuscular single dose treatment
on sexual with azithromycin 1 g stat

If symptoms
Trichomonas Test if symptoms of infection Culture or NAAT if Posterior Metronidazole 400 mg b.d. 7 unresolved
vaginalis available fornix days

Bacterial Test if symptoms of infection Gram stain Amsel’s Lateral Metronidazole 400 mg b.d. 7 Metronidazole 0.75% gel o.d. vaginally If unresolved or
vaginosis criteria vaginal days Intravaginal treatment for 5 days or clindamycin 2% cream o.d. recurrent symptoms
wall recommended for women vaginally for 7 days
who are breastfeeding
Bartholin’s Cysts and Abscess
Bartholin's duct cysts and gland abscesses
Common problems in women of reproductive age.
Located bilaterally at posterior introitus.
Drain through ducts empty into the vestibule at the 4 o'clock and 8 o'clock positions.
Pea-sized glands palpable only if the duct becomes cystic or a gland abscess develops.
Differential diagnosis includes cystic and solid lesions of the vulva
• Epidermal inclusion cyst
• Skene's duct cyst
• Hidradenoma papilliferum
• Lipoma.

1. Preserve the gland and its function if possible.
2. Office-based procedures include insertion of a Word catheter for a duct cyst or gland abscess.
3. Marsupialization of a cyst; marsupialization should not be used to treat a gland abscess.
4. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is warranted only when cellulitis is present.
5. Excisional biopsy is reserved for use in ruling out adenocarcinoma in menopausal or perimenopausal
women with an irregular, nodular Bartholin's gland mass.
Other Gynaecology Pathology
Adnexal and Uterine Masses
Adnexal masses in pregnancy – 0.4% prevalence at ultrasound
Acute abdomen in pregnancy

Adnexal torsion. Coronal T2-weighted SSFSE image reveals an enlarged

right ovary (arrow) containing multiple peripherally located follicles.
This pregnant patient at 18 weeks of gestation had acute-onset right
lower quadrant pain, and surgery confirmed the ovarian torsion.

Red degeneration of leiomyoma. Coronal T2-weighted SSFSE

image shows a large exophytic fibroid superior to the gravid
uterus with a central area of high intensity on the T2-weighted
image (arrow), representing hemorrhagic necrosis. The patient's
pain subsided with expectant therapy.

Hemorrhagic cyst. (A) Axial T1-weighted FSE image shows a right

ovarian cystic lesion (arrow) with bright signal. (B) The signal of the
lesion (arrow) is not suppressed on the fat-saturated T2-weighted FSE
image, consistent with a hemorrhagic cyst.
Rectus sheath hematoma. (A) Axial T1-weighted GRE image
demonstrates a thickened left rectus muscle (arrow) containing
linear increased signal intensity. (B) Fat-saturated T2-weighted FSE
bright signal left rectus muscle (arrow) hematoma
Adnexal Mass Emergencies
Isolated tubal torsion. (A) Color Doppler image shows a swirling appearance
of the vascular pedicle (arrows) and a dilated right Fallopian tube
(arrowheads) with findings concerning for tubal torsion. (B) Corresponding
laparoscopic intraoperative image demonstrates the torsed Fallopian tube.
Detorsion of the Fallopian tube with fenestration of the dilated end
(fimbriaplasty) was performed as the tube and ovary appeared viable

Paraovarian cyst with torsion. Midsagittal US scan through the bladder (B)
shows an enlarged, heterogeneous ovary (arrowheads) and an adjacent cyst
(C). No flow could be elicited on color Doppler interrogation. On surgery it
proved to be adnexal torsion related to a paraovarian cyst leading to
ipsilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
Adnexal masses in pregnancy ?

Guideline: The Society of American

Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic
Surgeons (2011):
• Laparoscopy is safe and effective • Miscarriage
treatment in gravid patients with • Obstetric complications, including LBW,
symptomatic ovarian cystic masses. preterm delivery, use of tocolytics for
• Observation for all asymptomatic cystic preterm labor, low Apgar score, and fetal
lesions if US not concerning for anomaly.
malignancy and tumor markers normal. • These risks deemed acceptable in case series.
• Observe acceptable cystic lesions <6 cm
Evidence level IV
1. Azuar AS. Bouillet-Dejou L et al. Laparoscopy during pregnancy: experience of the French
university hospital of Clermont-Ferrand. Obstetrique & Fertilite. 2009;37(7-8):598-603
2. Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Laparoscopic surgery for presumed benign ovarian tumor
during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.:
CD005459. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005459.
3. Ko ML. Lai TH. Chen SC. Laparoscopic management of complicated adnexal masses in the first
trimester of pregnancy. Fertility & Sterility. 2009;092(1):283-7, 2009
4. Koo YJ. Lee JE. Lim KT et al. A 10-year experience of laparoscopic surgery for adnexal masses
during pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol & Obstet. 2011;113(1):36-9.
5. Guidelines for diagnosis , treatment and use of laparoscopy for surgical problems during
pregnancy. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES); 2011
Ovarian mass at Caesarean section ?

No studies comparing removal of incidentally found adnexal

masses at caesarean section with later removal . Series by
Hobeika et al 2008 -

• Reviewed histopathology of 43 adnexal masses

incidentally diagnosed and excised during CS –
• Mature cystic teratomas (34.9%)
• Mucinous cystadenomas (16.3%)
• Serous cysts/cystadenomas (14.0%)
• Endometriomas (11.6%)
• Luteomas (7%)
• Paraovarian cysts (4.7%)
• Corpus luteum cyst (2.3%)
• Fibroma (2.3%)
• Inclusion cyst (2.3%)
• Serous-mucinous cyst (2.3%) References:
• Borderline serous cystadenoma (2.3%). 1. Ahram J. Lakoff K. Miller R. Serous cystadenocarcinoma as incidental finding
during a repeat cesarean section. AmJOG. 1985;153(1):78-9.
Lesions rare and mostly benign, but found the case of 2. Ansell J. Bolton L. Spontaneous rupture of an ovarian teratoma discovered
borderline tumor alarming. during an emergency Caesarean section. JOG 2006;26(6):574-5.
3. El-Ghobashy A. Ohadike C. Wilkinson N. Lane G. Campbell JD. Recurrent
urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma presenting as bilateral ovarian tumors on
cesarean delivery. Int J of Gynecol Cancer 2009;19(9):1539-41.
4. Engin-Ustun Y. Ustun Y. Dogan K. Meydanh MM. Ovarian carcinoma as an
incidental finding during cesarean section in a preeclamptic woman: case
report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2007;28(5):423-4.
5. Hobeika EM. Usta IM. Ghazeeri GS. Mehio G. Nassar AH. Histopathology of
adnexal masses incidentally diagnosed during cesarean delivery. EJOG and
Reprod Biol 2008;140(1):124-5.
Leiomyomata - Fibroids

Impact on fertility and pregnancy

• Torsion
• Red degeneration - pain
• Subfertility
• Miscarriage
• Malpresentation
• Pre-term delivery
• Pressure symptoms/abdominal
• Urinary urge frequency symptoms
• Ureteric obstruction/renal
Recurrent miscarriage

Sub-mucosal fibroids
• Hysteroscopy and Trans-Cervical-
Resection-Fibroid (TCRF)
May impact on recurrent miscarriage
and suitable for resection
• Treatment recurrent miscarriage
• Pre-treatment with IVF
Fibroids and pregnancy
Other pregnancy related
1. Miscarriage (2nd trimester)
2. Torsion
3. Mal-presentation
4. Pre-term delivery
5. Obstructed labour
6. Fibroid avulsion and delivery
7. Life-threatening haemorrhage
Special circumstances or dilemmas
in early pregnancy
The abnormal cervical smear in pregnancy ?
Cervical Screening in the UK and cancer prevention
Based on slide based cytology screening > 50 years
Vaccination for HPV now primary prevention combined with screening.
Age- England >25, Scotland & Wales >20 years (interval 3-5 years - 65yrs)

Population coverage - 81.2% in 2003 (dipped to 78.9% in 2008/09).

Cost - Cervical screening including the cost of treating cervical abnormalities
estimated at £175 million a year in England.
Pregnancy and cervical smear tests
Method - Liquid-based cytology (LBC)
< inadequate smear s reduced by 80% • Wait 3/12 post delivery to routinely
Faster processing- >costs per slide but overall LBC > cost effectiveness
screen cervical cytology
Role of HPV testing in the NHS Cervical Screening Programme • Mild dyskaryosis changes, asymptomatic
Identify small % cases of high-grade CIN in the large number with borderline and pregnant wait 3/12 post delivery
High -ve predictive value of testing HPV for this. • Mild dyskaryosis changes, symptomatic,
Impact of prophylactic vaccines on screening
HPV vaccines effective against HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 (Gardisil ) & 16, 18 (Cevarix) • Moderate/Severe dyskaryosis –
>70% cervical cancers HPV 16,18 colposcopy +/- biopsies or LLETZ
>90% ano-genital warts HPV 6,11
Impact vaccines > females not infected with the vaccine’s HPV types. • CIS or early invasive? Wait or surgery ?
Primarily aimed at 12-13 years Management on a case by case basis
 90% efficacy in prevention of type 16–18-related CIN2+ in such women
 90% efficacy in the prevention of anogenital warts.
Both vaccines exhibit cross-protection against type 31-related CIN2+ (Gardisil) Reference - P Sasieni, J Adams and J Cuzick, Benefits of cervical
and against types 33 and 45 (Cervirax). screening at different ages: evidence from the UK audit of
Vaccines are safe, well tolerated, no evidence of teratogenicity. screening histories, British Journal of Cancer, July 2003
Cervical assessment in pregnancy

The key points for management of patients are:

• Repeat smear for most women with a low grade squamous abnormality
• No treatment necessary for women with biopsy proven CIN-1
• Colposcopic assessment for all women with atypical glandular abnormalities
• HPV DNA testing as test of cure following treatment of CIN-2/3 In Pregnancy - eversion endo-
cervix exposed to oestrogen
Female genital mutilation-pregnancy issues?
THE LAW -Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Act 2003
It replaces the 1985 Act. Offence for the 1st time for UK
nationals/residents to carry out FGM abroad, aid, abet, counsel or
procure FGM abroad, even in countries where the practice is legal.
RCOG Green-top Guideline
No. 53; May 2009

Acute complications FGM

1. Death
2. Severe pain
3. Localised infection, abscess & septicaemia
4. Tetanus
5. Haemorrhage
6. Acute retention of urine
7. Hepatitis and HIV

Late complications and consequences FGM

1. Dyspareunia or apareunia
2. Sexual dysfunction with anorgasmia
3. Chronic pain
4. Keloid scar formation
5. Dysmenorrhoea (including haematocolpos)
WHO Classification FGM
I. Partial/total removal clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy) 6. Incontinence, vodiidng difficulty fistula, urinary
II. Partial /total removal clitoris, labia minora, +/- excision labia majora sepsis
III.Narrowing vaginal orifice, creation covering seal cutting and 7. Vaginal lacerations during sex/rape
appositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora +/- excision 8. PTSD
clitoris (infibulation) 9. Difficulty in gynaecological exam, cervical screening,
IV. All other harmful procedures to female genitalia for non-medical evacuation uterus e.g. abortion, vaginal delivery
purposes, e.g. pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterising
FGM in Pregnancy- De-infundibulation?
• Specialist Midwife and Obstetrician nominated if high
numbers FGM cases
• Identify at booking visit & screen problems
• Assess likely impact on labour and delivery
• > Incidence urinary sepsis with some types (screen
• Reversal FGM < 20 weeks gestation (LA)
• If > 20 weeks reverse in active labour
Any questions?