You are on page 1of 7

CHAPTER 7—BEAMS 265

Beam Example 7: Precast concrete beam


Design and detail an interior, simply supported precast beam supporting factored concentrated forces of 15 kip located at 4ft
6 in. from each end and a continuously distributed factored force of 4.6 kip/ft. The beam is supported on a 6 in. ledge.

Beams
Given:

Material properties—
fcƍ SVL QRUPDOZHLJKWFRQFUHWH
Ȝ 
fy = 60,000 psi

Load—
Pu1 = 15.0 kip at 4 ft 6 in. from each support
wu = 4.6 kip/ft Fig. E7.1—Simply supported precast concrete beam.
Span length: 18 ft
Beam width: 14 in.
Bearing at support: 6 in.
Bearing at concentrated load: 10 in.

ACI 318-14 Discussion Calculation


Step 1: Material requirements
9.2.1.1 The mixture proportion must satisfy
atisfy the durability specif
By specifying that the concrete mixture shall be in
requirements of Chapter 19 (ACI 318-14)
318 and accordance with ACI 301-10 and providing the expo-
quirem
structural strength requirements. The designer lasses, Chapter
sure classes, Chapte 19 (ACI 318-14) requirements
rabil classes. Please refer to
determines the durability VDWLV
DUHVDWLV¿HG
Chapter 3 of thiss Ha
Handbookok for an in-depth
in-d discus
discus-
gor and
sion of the categories nd classes. B ed oon durability
Based bility and strength requirements, and
ex erien with local
experience l l mi i
mixtures, the compressive
IH VSHFL¿FDWLRQWKD LVFR
$&,LVDUHIHUHQFHVSHFL¿FDWLRQWKDWLVFRRUGL- VWU QJWK FUHWHLVVS
VWUHQJWKRIFRQFUHWHLVVSHFL¿HGDWGD\VWREHDW
nated with ACI 31 CI encourages referencing
318. ACI re rencing le t 40
least 4000 psi.
¿F V
LQWRMREVSHFL¿FDWLRQV

There are several mixture options within ACI


hich the
301, such as admixtures and pozzolans, which
designer can require, permit, or review if suggested
by the contractor.
Step 2: Beam geometry
Beam depth
9.3.1.1 Since beam resists concentrated loads, the beam
depth limits in Table 9.3.1.1 of ACI 318-14 cannot
be used. Assume 22 in. deep beam with

American Concrete Institute – Copyrighted © Material – www.concrete.org


266 THE REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK—SP-17(14)

Step 3: Analysis
The beam is simply supported and the loads are
symmetrical. Therefore, the maximum shear and
moment are located at supports and midspan,
respectively.

Fig. E7.2—Shear and moment diagrams.


wu (A) (4.6 kip/ft)(18 ft)
Vu , max = + ( Pu ) Vu , max = + (15 kip) = 56.4 kip
2 2
wu (A) 2 (4.6 kip/ft)(18 ft) 2
M u , max = + ( Pu )( x1 ) M u , max = + (15 kip)(4.5 ft) = 254 ft-kip
8 8

Step 4: Bearing
16.2.6.2 The minimum seating length th of the precast beam
on the wall ledge is thee greate
greater of:
Ɛn/180 and 3 in. Ɛn/180
80 = (18 ft)(12 iin./ft)/180
n /ft
/f = 1.2 in. < 3 in.
vide 6 in.,
Provided therefor OK.
n., therefore

Bearing strength
h
22.8.3.2 Check bearing str
strength concentrated
h at seat and con entra
load:

f
The supporting surface (ledge) is wider on three of
the four sides. Therefore, condition (c) applies:

0.85fcƍA1 00.85(4000 psi)(14 in.)(6 in.)/1000 = 285.6 kip


285.6 kip >> 56.4 kip OK

A 10 in. wide beam rests on the precast beam: 0.85(4000 psi)(14 in.)(10 in.)/1000=476 kip>>15 kip
OK

American Concrete Institute – Copyrighted © Material – www.concrete.org


CHAPTER 7—BEAMS 267

Step 5: Moment design


9.3.3.1 The Code does not permit a beam to be designed

Beams
with steel strain less than 0.004 in./in at nominal
strength. The intent is to ensure ductile behavior.

In most reinforced beams, such as this example,


reinforcing bar strain is not a controlling issue.

21.2.1(a) The design assumption is the beams will be


tensioned controlled, ࢥ = 0.9. This assumption will
be checked later.

20.6.1.3.3 Determine the effective depth assuming No. 8 bars


and 1.0 in. cover. For precast concrete beam, the
minimum cover is the greater of 5/8 in. and db and
need not exceed 1.5 in. Use db = 1 in. cover

2QHURZRIUHLQIRUFHPHQW
d = h – cover – dtie – db/2 d = 22 in. – 1.0 in. – 0.375 in. – 1.0 in. /2 = 20.1 in.,
say, 20 in.
22.2.2.1 The concrete compressive strain at nominal
moment strength is calculated at:
İcu = 0.003

22.2.2.2 WKRI
7KHWHQVLOHVWUHQJWKRIFRQFUHWHLQÀH[XUHLVDYDUL-
able property andd is about 10 to 15 per
percent off the
ess strength.
concrete compressive rength. ACI 31318 neglects
nsi strength
the concrete tensile ength to calculat
calculate nomi
nominal
strength.

uiv
Determine the equivalent concrete com ssive
compressive
stress at nominal strength:

22.2.2.3 The concrete compressive stress distribution is


inelastic at high stress. The Code permits any
stress distribution to be assumed in design if shown
to result in predictions of ultimate strength in
reasonable agreement with the results of compre-
hensive tests. Rather than tests, the Code allows
the use of an equivalent rectangular compressive
22.2.2.4.1 stress distribution of 0.85fcƍZLWKDGHSWKRI
22.2.2.4.3 a = ȕ1c, where ȕ1 is a function of concrete compres-
sive strength and is obtained from Table 22.2.2.4.3.

22.2.1.1 For fcƍ”SVL ȕ1 = 0.85

Find the equivalent concrete compressive depth a


by equating the compression force to the tension
force within the beam cross section:
C= T
0.85fcƍba = Asfy 0.85(4000 psi)(b)(a)=As (60,000 psi)

As (60, 000 psi)


For moment at midspan: b = 14 in. a = = 1.26 As
0.85(4000 psi)(14 in.)

American Concrete Institute – Copyrighted © Material – www.concrete.org


268 THE REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK—SP-17(14)

9.5.1.1 The beam’s design strength must be at least the


required strength at each section along its length:
ࢥMn•Mu
ࢥVn•9u

Calculate the required reinforcement area:


⎛ a⎞ ⎛ 1.26 As ⎞
φM n ≥ M u = φAs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ (254 ft-kip)(12) = (0.9)(60 ksi)As ⎜ 20 in. −
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎟⎠
A No. 8 bar has a db = 1.0 in. and an As = 0.79 in.2 As, req’d = 3.1 in.2 Use four No. 8
As, prov = 3.16 in.2 > As, req’d = 3.1 in.2 OK

Per Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook Design


Aid – Analysis Tables, which can be downloaded
from: https://www.concrete.org/store/productdetail.
aspx?ItemID=SP1714DA, four No. 8 bars require a
minimum of 11.5 in. wide beam. Therefore, 14 in.
width is adequate.

Check if the calculated strain exceeds 0.004 in./in.


(tension controlled).
As f y a
9.3.3.1 a= and c = 6 s = ((1.26)(4)(0.79 in.2) = 3.98 in.
a = 1.26A
0.85 f c′b β1 /0.85 = 3.98 in./0.85
c = a/0.85 0.8 = 4.68 in.
ZKHUHȕ1 = 0.85
ε cu 0.003
0
εt = (d − c) εt = 20 in. − 4.
(20 4.68 in.) = 0.01
c 4. in.
4.68
Therefore, mption of using ࢥ = 0.9 is correct.
refo assumption

Fig. E7.3––Strain distribution across beam section.

American Concrete Institute – Copyrighted © Material – www.concrete.org


CHAPTER 7—BEAMS 269

Minimum reinforcement
The provided reinforcement must be at least the
9.6.1.1 minimum required reinforcement at every section

Beams
9.6.1.2 along the length of the beam.
3 f c′ 3 4000 psi
As , min = bw d As , min = (14 in.)(20 in.) = 0.89 in.2
fy 60, 000 psi

200 200
As , min = bw d As , min = (14 in.)(20 in.) = 0.93 in.2 Controls
fy 60,000 psi
As,prov = 3.16 in.2 > As,min = 0.93 in.2 OK

Required positive moment reinforcement areas exceed


the minimum required reinforcement area at all
positive moment locations.
Top reinforcement
While not required by Code, top bars are needed
to stabilize the beam’s stirrups. Use two No. 5
continuous bars.
Step 6: Shear design
Shear strength
21.2.1(b) tor:
Shear strength reduction factor: ࢥshearr = 0.7
0.75

9.5.1.1 ࢥVn•Vu

9.5.3.1 Vn = Vc + Vs
22.5.1.1

9.4.3.2 Because conditions


ion (a),, (b), and (c) of 9.4.3.2
4.3.2 are
LJQ DUIRUFHLVWDNHQ WGLVWDQFH
VDWLV¿HGWKHGHVLJQVKHDUIRUFHLVWDNHQDWGLVWDQFH
d from the face of th
the supportt (F
(Fig. E7.4).

Fig. E7.4—S
E7.4—Shear at the critical section.

Vu = (56.4 kip) – (4.6 kip/ft)(20 in./12)=48.7 kip

22.5.5.1 Vc = 2 f c ′bw d Vc = (2)( 4000 psi)(14 in.)(20 in.) = 35.4 kip

Check if ࢥVc•Vu ࢥVc = (0.75)(35.4 kip) = 26.6 kip < Vu = 48.7 kip NG
Therefore, shear reinforcement is required.
Determine required Vu on each side of Pu
/HIWRIPu: VXƐ = Vu – wux1 VXƐ = 56.4 kip – (4.6 kip/ft)(4.5 ft) = 35.7 kip
Right of Pu: Vu,r = Vu – wux1 – Pu Vu,r = 56.4 kip – (4.6 kip/ft)(4.5 ft) –15 kip = 20.7 kip
22.5.1.2 Prior to calculating shear reinforcement, check
if the cross-sectional dimensions satisfy Eq.
(22.5.1.2):

Vu ≤ φ(Vc + 8 f c ′bw d ) Vu ≤ φ(35.4 kip + 8( 4000 psi)(14 in.)(20 in.)) = 132.8 kip
OK
Section dimensions are satisfactory.

American Concrete Institute – Copyrighted © Material – www.concrete.org


270 THE REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN HANDBOOK—SP-17(14)

Shear reinforcement
9.5.3 Transverse reinforcement satisfying equation
22.5.10.1 22.5.10.1 is required at each section where Vu > ࢥVc

22.5.10.5.3 ࢥVs•Vu±ࢥVc ࢥVs• .7 kip) – (26.6 kip) = 22.1 kip


φAv f yt d
where φVs = Assume a No. 3 bar, two legged stirrup
s
(0.75)(2)(0.11 in.2 )(60,000 psi)(20 in.)
22.1 kip =
s
s = 8.9 in.

22.5.10.5.6 Calculate maximum allowable stirrup spacing:


22.1 kip
First, does the required transverse reinforcement Vs = = 29.5 kip
value exceed the threshold value? 0.75

Vs ≤ 4 f c′bw d ? 4 f c′bw d = 4( 4000 psi)(14 in.)(20 in.) = 71 kip

Vs = 29.5 kip < 4 f c′bw d = 71 kip OK

Because the required shear strength is below the


rup spacing is the
threshold value, the maximum stirrup
lesser of d/2 and 24 in. dd/2 = 20 in./
in./2 = 10 in.
d = 10 in., therefore, OK
Use s = 7 in. < d/2

9.7.6.2.2 It is unnecessary to use


u No. 3 stirrups at 7 in. on
center over the ful th of the beam.
full length
Since the maximum
mu spacing
acing is 10 in., ddetermine
termine the
value of:
(0.75)(2)(0.11 in.2 )(60 ksi)(20 in.)
(0.75)
ࢥVn ࢥVcࢥVs φVn = 2 ip +
26.6 kip
with s = 10 in. 10 in.
ࢥVn = 46.4 kip
Determine distance x from face of support to point
at which
56.4 kip − 46.4 kip
Vu = 46.4 kip x= = 2.2 ft
4.6 kip/ft
Determine distance Ɛv1, beyond x1 at which stirrups
are not required.
20.7 kip − 26.6 kip / 2
Find Ɛv1 = (Vu@x1 – ࢥVc/2)/wu A v1 = = 1.6 ft, say, 2 ft
4.6 kip/ft

Compute x1 + Ɛv1 x1 + Ɛv1 = 4.5 ft + 2 ft = 6.5 ft = 78 in.

American Concrete Institute – Copyrighted © Material – www.concrete.org


CHAPTER 7—BEAMS 271

Conclude:
use s = 7 in. until ࢥVu < 44.5 kip and From face of support use 3 in. space then
use s = 10 in. until ࢥVu < 0.5ࢥVc Five spaces at 7 in. on center (35 in.) and

Beams
Five spaces at 10 in. on center (3 in.+ 35 in.+ 50 in.) =
88 in. > 78 in. OK
The beam middle section of length:
(18 ft)(12) – 2(88 in.) = 40 in.
does not require shear reinforcement.

However, extend No. 3 stirrups over the remaining


length of 40 in. at 10 in. on center as good practice.

Note: It is also good practice to add stirrups near a


concentrated load. Place six No. 3 stirrups at 4 in.
centered on each concentrated load.

American Concrete Institute – Copyrighted © Material – www.concrete.org