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Fairfax County Public Schools

Internal Security Review


Recommendations
June 18, 2018
Table of Contents
Scope ........................................................................................................................................ 1
Background .............................................................................................................................. 1
Best Practices ................................................................................................................ 1
FCPS Practices ........................................................................................................................ 2
Electronic Door Access .................................................................................................. 2
ID Badges and Background Checks ............................................................................... 2
Security Presence in Schools ......................................................................................... 2
Crisis Teams .................................................................................................................. 2
Emergency Management................................................................................................ 4
Training for Preparedness .............................................................................................. 6
Drills ............................................................................................................................... 9
Mental Health Supports for Students ..................................................................................... 9
Threat Assessments ....................................................................................................... 9
Partnerships for Mental Health Supports .......................................................................10
Focus Areas for Recommendations ......................................................................................11
Training .........................................................................................................................11
Physical and Technical Security ....................................................................................11
Human Capital...............................................................................................................11
Mental Health ................................................................................................................11
Methodology............................................................................................................................11
Stakeholder Input ....................................................................................................................12
Recommendations ..................................................................................................................13
Training Recommendations ...........................................................................................13
1. Further train and engage students and staff during lockdown drills. ................13
2. Reinforce proper electronic door access .........................................................13
3. Conduct tabletop exercises annually ...............................................................14
4. Require annual safety and security training. ....................................................14
5. Require principals to include a safety and security briefing .............................15
6. Review and evaluate the school based threat assessment process ................15
7. Continue compliance.......................................................................................15
8. Increase communication and collaboration with principals ..............................16
9. Increase communication with school communities ..........................................16
Physical and Technical Security Recommendations ......................................................17
1. Upgrade interior classroom door locks ............................................................17
2. Update and install exterior and interior cameras (CCTV) systemwide .............17
Human Capital Recommendations ................................................................................18
1. Add eight training positions .............................................................................18
2. Add two specialist positions to install and monitor CCTV systemwide .............18
Mental Health Recommendations ..................................................................................19
1. Increase staffing by eighteen mental health specialists ...................................19
Summary of Recommendations with Costing ......................................................................20
Considerations Reviewed but Not Recommended ...............................................................21
Physical and Technical Security Considerations............................................................21
1. Install security film ...........................................................................................21
2. Initiate a magnetometer program ....................................................................21
3. Enhance Visitor Management System ............................................................21
4. Require student identification badges .............................................................21
5. Additional physical and technology security systems ......................................22
6. Utilize door barricade devices .........................................................................22
7. Change fire alarm protocols ............................................................................22
Human Capital Considerations ......................................................................................23
1. Staff Elementary Schools with a security presence. ........................................23
2. Consider arming school security personnel .....................................................23
3. Increase OSS personnel .................................................................................23
4. Reorganize OSS to better manage safety and security programs ...................23
5. Convert six OSS temporary positions to FTE ..................................................24
6. Increase school based security personnel at middle and high schools ............24
7. Reassign school based Safety and Security personnel under OSS.................24
Summary of Considerations Reviewed but Not Recommended with Costing ...................25
Scope
On February 19, 2018, as a result of the Parkland, Florida, school shooting, the School Board
requested that Superintendent Scott S. Brabrand conduct an internal review of Fairfax County
Public School’s (FCPS) current emergency management programs, practices, policies and
protocols. The Office of Safety and Security (OSS) conducted this review, concentrating on
security programs that are designed to mitigate threats of intentional harm. FCPS currently
deploys a full suite of security programs that are considered best practice by the Virginia
Department of Criminal Justice Services’ (DCJS) Center for School and Campus Safety as well
as security industry professionals who address school security. FCPS’ suite of security
programs is so robust that initial guidance from OSS includes continuing compliance with the
current security protocols while remaining vigilant in all areas of safety and security. Although
FCPS’ current security programs are effective, opportunities for improvement were identified
through internal review and stakeholder feedback. These opportunities have been categorized
into the following three areas: training, physical and technical security, and human capital. This
report contains recommendations for improvements to FCPS’ fundamental current security
practices. Additional information on other options that were considered but not currently
recommended is included.

Background
FCPS has been cited as a national model of school emergency preparedness by the U.S.
Department of Education, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, and the America
Prepared Campaign. FCPS’ current programs, practices, policies and protocols are followed in
each school in the division. The Office of Safety and Security partners with principals to ensure
that proper safety measures are in place.

Best Practices
The National Center for Education Statistics’ Survey on Crime and Safety reports that the most
common types of security measures are locked buildings, ID badges for staff, video cameras,
and front door access notification systems. Seventy percent of middle and high school students
attend a school with at least one security guard or police officer. While these deterrents are best
practice, research has shown that the most effective way to ensure a safe school is to have a
positive school climate where students know school rules and the consequences for breaking
them.

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FCPS Practices
Electronic Door Access
Every FCPS school is equipped with an electronic door access system, which requires guests to
ring a buzzer to gain access to the school. Newer schools are designed so that visitors to the
school must walk through the front office in order to enter the building.

ID Badges and Background Checks


Staff and FCPS contractors are required to wear identification badges. Background checks are
conducted on all staff, substitutes, contractors and volunteers.

Security Presence in Schools


Other than school staff, elementary schools do not have permanent security staffing. Security
training is provided by OSS as required by FCPS regulations. School security provides a routine
patrol presence.

All middle and high schools are staffed with a school resource officer. In addition, middle
schools are staffed with one or two safety and security assistants, depending on student
numbers and programs. High schools are staffed with one safety and security specialist and
four safety and security assistants.

Crisis Teams
Each school principal, in consultation with staff members, is required to develop a Crisis
Management Plan by September 30 of each year for review by the Office of Safety and Security
(OSS). Within that plan, each principal must designate staff members for a crisis management
team (CMT), which should consist of an immediately accessible core group of school personnel
who have the knowledge and skills to deal with an emergency situation. A crisis team should
consist of the following roles:

Incident Supervisor: The highest level executive in the school who provides leadership
for the development and execution of the Crisis Management Security Plan. Duties
include: verifying a crisis is occurring and initiating the activation of the CMT; and
establishing a command post. Relinquishes overall incident leadership role to fire
officials during a fire/hazardous materials incident and/or to the ranking law enforcement
officer following a criminal act. May assume leadership role within a unified command
structure with responding agencies. Provides notifications to applicable Leadership
Team member(s) or department(s).

Police/Fire Liaison: Provides information to local emergency management. Duties


include maintaining contact with police/fire operations. During some incidents, the
incident supervisor can accomplish this liaison assignment; however, a large incident
should have someone whose sole responsibility is to act as a liaison.

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Off-Site Evacuation Coordinator: Organizes use of off-site location to include: selecting
evacuation routes; planning the safe movement of students; assisting with student
accounting once they are moved; and planning for the movement of special needs
students and staff. Coordinates with Incident Supervisor, Transportation, Student
Accounting and Parent Reunion Organizer to manage the moving and parent
reunification process.

Parent Reunion Organizer: Organizes, manages, and coordinates the safe and orderly
release of students to their parents/guardians during a school emergency. Duties
include: establishing a pre-identified location where parents can wait to be reunited with
their children; answering procedural questions; calming anxious parents; and providing
information concerning the emergency. Coordinates with Incident Supervisor and
Information Media Representative concerning the notification of parents and release of
information to parents. Also coordinates with Police/Fire Liaison and Student
Accounting, as necessary.

Counselor: Plans, organizes, and provides crisis intervention and prevention counseling.
Duties include: coordinating post-event counseling programs to help students, parents,
faculty, and the community to recover from an incident; and coordinating professional
community services, when required.

Communications Officer/Recorder: Organizes and manages communications. Duties


include: confirming 911 has been called; documenting events, including decisions and
actions with time annotations; ordering resources and providing informational updates as
directed by the Incident Supervisor. Assists Incident Supervisor with monitoring
communication devices.

Information/Media Liaison: Controls the flow of information. Duties include: establishing


a media staging area; ensuring media does not gain access to student or faculty;
providing school staff with necessary information about the incident. Assists Office of
Communications and Community Relations staff as directed.

Transportation/Go-Kit Liaison: Oversees evacuation procedures. Duties include:


organizing, managing and coordinating off-site evacuation transportation services;
managing and coordinating student dismissals with transportation; and controlling Go-
Kits, which contain supplies for a school evacuation. Coordinates with Off-site
Evacuation Organizer and Incident Supervisor.

Student Monitor: Tracks students. Duties include: ensuring that teachers have an
accurate accounting of students; and coordinating efforts to account for missing and
extra students. Coordinates with Incident Supervisor and Parent Reunion Organizer as
necessary.

School Site Security Officer: Assesses crisis and evaluates student and staff safety.
Initiates protective security measures to separate students and staff from threat, if

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necessary. Assists students and staff and maintains safety, order and discipline.
Prohibits media contact with students.

The school-based Crisis Management Team (CMT) should conduct hazard vulnerability and risk
assessments to determine the strengths and weaknesses of their individual building and
grounds; the school’s social, emotional, and cultural climate; community and staff resources;
and the unique concerns of individuals with disabilities and special needs. There is no standard
method for prioritizing school hazards. All risk determinations are subjective and may vary
depending on the community and factors unique to the school. Assessment data must be
routinely gathered and analyzed by the CMT and the Facility Crisis Management Security Plan
should be updated as necessary.

Emergency Management
Every classroom in FCPS is equipped with a Crisis Management Plan: Classroom Guide for
Teachers. It is commonly referred to as the “Red Book.” It contains terms and procedures for
emergency situations and drills, along with a red vest for teachers to wear during a crisis
situation. Teachers are required to review this book with students each year.

A school-centered emergency management program examines potential emergencies and


disasters based on the risk posed by likely hazards; develops and implements programs and
actions with the aim of reducing the impact of these events on the individual school; prepares
for those risks that cannot be eliminated; prescribes the actions required to deal with the
consequences of the events and takes action to quickly recover from the event. Crisis and
security plans contain procedures for implementing emergency procedures, to include:

Lockdown: used to describe enhanced security measures taken to protect against


potentially violent intruders who may be inside the building or on the school site. The
response secures students and staff, usually in classrooms, to prevent access or harm
to the occupants of the lockdown locations. This may also involve quickly moving
students and staff from unsecured locations, such as the cafeteria or gymnasium, to
secure locations or outside and away from the threat. School staff will advise the
Department of Public Safety Communications (DPSC) (911) and public safety workers
on the scene if lockdowns procedures are enacted.
1. All students stay in place with a teacher or staff member.
2. Students and teachers remain in locked classrooms, unobservable from
outside the classroom (lights off, window blinds closed, door windows
obscured with paper) and outside potential lines of fire.
3. Students and staff members disregard fire alarms.
4. Students and staff in trailers remain in locked trailers.
5. The individual teacher or staff member may evacuate if it can be done so
safely. The decision should be made based on all available information.

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Secure the building: used to prevent unauthorized entry if the threat is outside the
building, such as a robbery in proximity to the school. Outside activities are cancelled
and all exterior doors are secured.
1. No students are allowed outside of buildings and trailers (no P.E., recess,
etc.).
2. Staff members and students are free to move about inside buildings and
trailers.
3. All building and trailer exterior doors are closed and locked.
4. Staff members are posted at the building’s main entrance to control visitor
access, issue passes, and direct to reunification area, if applicable.
5. Normally, people in trailers remain in locked trailers. They may be brought
into the main building if the movement is supervised and with the approval of
the principal or designee.

Shelter-in-place: used to temporarily separate people from a hazardous outdoor


atmosphere, such as in a hazmat or Weapons of Mass Destruction incident, such as
chemical, biological, or radiological agent releases. The building is placed in a secure
the building status and measures are taken to shut down the intake of outside air. No
one is allowed to enter the school until public safety officials give the “all clear.” School
staff will advise DPSC (911) and public safety workers on the scene if shelter-in-place
procedures are enacted.
1. Shelter-in-place announcement is made via public address system and radio.
2. Students and staff members are moved into the main building from trailers,
unless such movement might be life-threatening due to outside environmental
contamination.
3. All windows and doors are closed, locked, and sealed with tape, towels, and
other materials that will hinder air flow.
4. Elevators are not used (elevator movement may pump outside air into
building).
5. Staff members shut off main power to the building. This will shut down the
HVAC, exhaust, and roof ventilators.
6. Signs are placed on the front door providing notification of a shelter-in-place
emergency.
7. No one is allowed to enter the building until public safety officials arrive and
give the “all clear.”
8. Exposed or contaminated people will be kept separate from the rest of the
school population and directed to wash with soap and water.

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9. If possible, alternate clothing for exposed individuals will be provided, and
contaminated clothing will be removed and sealed in plastic bags.
10. Administrators will listen to local emergency management officials through
media and emergency fan-out messages and follow directions of these
responding public safety officials.

Stay put, stay tuned: implemented at the request of public safety officials to limit the
impact on the transportation infrastructure, such as a staged or phased evacuation of
residents, police or fire incident that impacts the roadway system, or a tornado warning
issued by the National Weather Service. Normal end-of-day release will not occur until
authorized by competent authority.
1. A stay put, stay tuned announcement is made via public address system and
radio.
2. No unsupervised release of students is to occur until direction is provided by
appropriate authority. Normal end-of-day release will not occur.
3. Staff members will monitor local media and messaging systems for updates.
4. Keep in Touch (KIT) message shall be initiated for affected schools.
5. Students are released to parents with proper identification.
6. Parents and guardians are allowed to pick up their students.

Evacuation: used when locations outside of the school building are safer than inside the
school. It involves the controlled movement of students from the building to a pre-
specified safe location, either to an area on the school grounds or to an off-site location.

1. On-Site Evacuation: the movement of the students and staff members


outside the building to remove them from a potential hazard. If inclement
weather is a factor, a request to the Office of Transportation Services may be
made to stage students and staff members on buses. In such an event, the
decision to arrange the buses in a way that will facilitate rapid departure from
school grounds should be made.

2. Off-site Evacuation: the movement of the students and staff members at a


facility to another location, typically one that has been predesignated. An off-
site evacuation requires authorization from the Division Superintendent, the
deputy superintendent, the chief operating officer, or their designee (See
regulation 8613.) to facilitate the coordination and mobilization of resources
required for such movement.

Training for Preparedness


Crisis plans should include preparedness plans, which ready schools to respond in a rapid,
coordinated and effective manner to an emergency. Because it is not possible to completely

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mitigate against every hazard that poses a risk, preparedness measures can help to reduce the
impact of the remaining hazards by taking specific actions before an emergency event occurs.
Preparedness activities should include:

 Establishment and institutionalization of an Incident Command System


 Lists identifying CMT members and their respective roles, school staff not assigned
students and/or not assigned specific duties, and the staff contact list;
 Identification of inside and outside command posts, media staging area, parent
reunion areas and evacuation areas;
 Standardization of school-based emergency response and protective procedures for
evacuations, lock downs, secure the building, stay put-stay tuned, and shelter in
place;
 Integration of students with disabilities and special needs into emergency response
and crisis management planning, such as a fire evacuation staging area and a list of
the names and room numbers of students requiring special assistance;
 Drill, exercise and training schedules, requirements and documentation procedures;
 Detailed floor plans, site maps, location of utility cutoffs, and exterior door
numbering system are provided to all schools. Maps depicting hazardous material
site buffer zones and flood inundation zones should be distributed to affected
schools;
 Identification of communications protocol and redundant systems to warn and
communicate with occupants in school buildings, the community, and local
response agencies. Typical methods of communication are bell and fire alarm
systems, portable radio, public safety radio, telephone, cell phone,
callback/intercom system, email, bullhorn, FCPS School Alerts, Keep-In-Touch
(KIT), electronic mass media outlets and the FCPS webpage. After-school and
athletic programs will contact local emergency response agencies directly in case of
emergency;
 Locations of Automated External Defibrillators (AED), Go-Kit, public safety radio on-
site;
 A list of crisis intervention services (FCPS Crisis Response Teams, local and state
victim services agencies) available to help students and staff members affected by a
crisis;
 Identification of school-based staff trained to render emergency medical aid, such
as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), AED, first aid, glucagon and epinephrine
administration;
 Conduct debriefing to analyze how school personnel and first responders function
during an exercise or actual emergency. Lessons learned can be used to

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proactively develop and enhance plans and procedures to ensure the safety of the
entire school community.
Training for preparedness includes conducting critical incident drills and emergency exercises
involving the CMT, teachers, support staff, including food service, custodial, transportation,
health workers and students. Trainings are essential for the successful implementation of crisis
plans. They offer opportunities for everyone to evaluate what works, what needs to be
improved, and how well students and staff respond and cooperate during the drills and
emergencies. By participating in different types of exercises, schools can identify the
appropriate methods for preventing, preparing for, responding to, and recovering from crises.

FCPS conducts and participates in five types of critical incident training and emergency
exercises:

Orientations are introductions to the Facility Crisis Management Security Plan. The
purpose of an orientation is to familiarize the CMT and staff with roles, responsibilities,
plans, procedures and equipment operation. Orientations can also resolve questions of
coordination, assignment of responsibilities, chain of command, and prioritization of
objectives. An orientation session should be conducted prior to the start of the school
year.

Drills test a specific operation or function of crisis and emergency plans. The goal of a
drill is to practice aspects of the response plan and prepare CMT, staff and students for
more extensive exercises in the future. Schools are required to conduct fire, lockdown,
bus evacuation and tornado drills to demonstrate the steps they should take in an
emergency. The procedures as well as the responsibilities of all involved (i.e., students,
teachers, staff and emergency personnel) are addressed. These exercises may include
local public safety agencies.

Tabletop exercises analyze an emergency event in an informal, stress-free environment.


They provide participants with an emergency scenario to analyze and increase their
awareness of the roles and responsibilities of individuals who need to respond, stabilize,
mitigate, resolve and help others recover from emergencies. They are designed to
prompt a constructive discussion about existing emergency response plans as
participants identify, investigate and resolve issues.

Functional exercises test one or more functions of a school’s emergency response plan
during an interactive, time-pressured, simulated event. The exercise is facilitated by
controllers and role players, participants respond to simulated emergency events.
Evaluators observe exercise play and critique the exercise and the participants’
performance. Functional exercises can also be conducted in a Department Operations
Center.

Full-scale exercises evaluate the operational capability of emergency management


systems in a highly stressful environment that simulates actual conditions. Full-scale

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exercises test and evaluate most functions of the emergency response-operational plan,
including the mobilization of emergency personnel, equipment and resources.

Drills
Recognizing and responding to a crisis takes practice. The more a plan is practiced, reviewed
and improved, the better that plan will be implemented. In addition to the FCPS required
drills/training outlined in the Facility Crisis Management Security Plan template, the CMT and
staff should continue to review the roles, responsibilities, relationships, communication
strategies and resources that would be critical should an actual crisis occur.

To ensure students and staff receive regular practice of security procedures, the following
schedule of drills is maintained:

 Fire drills: Once a week for first twenty (20) school days and monthly thereafter
 Tornado drills: in March of each academic year
 Bus evacuation drills: in September and February of each academic year
 Lockdown drills: Two within the first twenty (20) school days plus two additional drills,
one of which must occur in January

Mental Health Supports for Students


Threat Assessments
When a student makes an explicit or implicit threat, or if the student’s behavior indicates that a
threat is reasonably likely, FCPS conducts a threat assessment. A threat assessment is a
structured process for gathering information regarding a threat made by a student to harm
someone else. The goal of the threat assessment is to provide assistance to the student being
assessed, to support victims or potential victims, and to take appropriate preventative or
corrective measures to maintain a safe and secure school environment.

The student who communicated the threat, the recipient(s) of the threat, and witnesses are
interviewed by the school administrator as expeditiously as possible to obtain specific
information regarding the threat. A threat assessment team is then assembled to evaluate the
data and to determine whether the threat is transient or substantive, and what actions are
needed to prevent an act of violence from taking place. A threat assessment team may consist
of the principal or assistant principal, the school resource officer, a counselor, a psychologist, a
social worker, and a teacher. If the threat is found to be substantive a mental health
assessment is completed by the psychologist or social worker to maintain the safety and well-
being of the student making the threat and the potential victim(s).

A threat assessment is not a disciplinary action and is not a prerequisite to disciplinary action.
However, disciplinary action and referral to law enforcement may occur as required by the

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current version of Regulation 2601, Student Rights and Responsibilities Booklet, and/or the
Code of Virginia.

Partnerships for Mental Health Supports


In partnership with the Children’s Behavioral Health Collaborative, which includes members
from county agencies, non-profits, George Mason University (GMU), and the schools, several
initiatives have been started to coordinate prevention efforts and increase access to mental
health care for those with limited income or other barriers. These and other recommendations of
the Children’s Behavioral Health Blueprint will be implemented in the coming year.
 GMU, the Fairfax County Government, and FCPS have established a consortium to
provide training for school-based staff members and private providers treating youth
mental health issues. Two trainings have been offered to date: Cultural Competency on
LGBT Issues and Evidence-based Practice for Suicide Risk Assessment and Safety
Planning. Training promotes the use of evidence-based risk assessments, safety plans,
and treatments for youth with suicidal ideation and behavior in response to findings from
the YSRT.
 Short-term Behavioral Health Project provides access for youth in families up to 400
percent of poverty within five days to a private provider, who will provide six to eight
therapy sessions at no cost to parents. This service fills a gap in the need for rapid
access to treatment for individuals who do not need hospitalization, but are in crisis.
Over 100 youth accessed services in the first two years of the program. In SY2018-19
there is a plan to extend access to this program to elementary school families, following
identification of a sufficient number of appropriate and willing providers.
 Give an Hour is a new program which will start in SY2018-19, and provide ongoing
treatment by private providers for youth referred by school counselors, school
psychologists, and school social workers. These providers will be vetted and organized
by the Give an Hour foundation, and agree to provide pro bono services to youth from
families up to 400 percent of poverty.
 Family Support Partners are available through the National Alliance on Mental Illness
(NAMI) Northern Virginia to help other parents who have recently found that their child is
experiencing a significant mental health concern, and need assistance navigating the
complex system of doctors, therapy, medications, and school services that are
sometimes needed.
 A database of providers and services available within Fairfax County, including
insurance information, languages spoken, and other key information is being created to
improve the ability for families to navigate existing resources to get assistance when
needed.
 A public awareness campaign around the Fairfax County Youth Survey results and the
value and importance of assets for youth is under development. The campaign will
target youth, families, schools, and community members.

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Additional information on FCPS initiatives regarding student and staff mental health can be
found in the Goal 2: Caring Culture report, presented to the School Board on June 14, 2018.

Focus Areas for Recommendations


Training
Training is the foundation that guides human behavior in stressful situations towards positive
outcomes. In school systems the basic security training of staff followed by the training of
students through drills and exercises keeps this foundation strong. Keeping security training
simple is key.

Physical and Technical Security


Physical and technical security systems are fundamental to a security program. At the core is
physical security and basic “brick and mortar” programs that can be the first and last layer of
defense required. A variety of other physical security programs can provide effective layers of
security but must be considered carefully. Technical security today is equally as fundamental as
its physical security counterpart. Technical systems not only tie in and react to physical security
programs, but they provide an additional layer of support resulting in effective communications,
coordination, and assistance to the operational side of security programs, specifically, security
staff response.

Human Capital
The success of any school security program is the appropriate amount and competency of
security personnel to provide security training, operate and maintain security systems, and
provide an operational security presence. At the core of managing security personnel and
programs successfully is the structure and staffing of the Office of Safety and Security (OSS).

Mental Health
Strengthening mental health supports to students is a necessary component of ensuring school
security.

Methodology
Given the scope, this review was conducted internally by managers and staff assigned to the
OSS and focused on compliance to security regulations, improvements to existing programs,
review of new programs and an increased security presence. During this process staff worked
with emergency response partners (law enforcement and fire officials) as well as school security
professionals and state officials with the VA DCJS.

Important to this process was the input from others within FCPS, primarily principals and
students. The OSS solicited and received security concerns and recommendations from

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principals, staff, students, vendors, and the community. Participants were asked to discuss
safety and security issues amongst their groups and provide a prioritized list of concerns and
topics for discussion and review. This process was accomplished through interactive meetings,
one-on-one conversations, client responses, and responsive data collection.

Meetings were held separately at each principal level (elementary, middle and high) with both
their executive boards and full membership. Input from students was accomplished by meeting
with the representative Student Advisory Counsel and receiving responsive data through a
“Google docs” process. The responses support OSS’ three focus areas for recommendations:
training, physical and technical security, and human capital.

Stakeholder Input
A main concern from all stakeholders, especially students, was the need for additional training
and direction for lockdown procedures. This training should include a module for substitutes.
Students are concerned with what actions they should take in a lockdown when not in
classrooms. Students in trailers and academy classes would like additional instruction on what
to do in an emergency situation. Teachers would like explicit instruction on what age-
appropriate conversations look like when practicing for lockdown drills in the elementary school.

Additional training concerns included: a safety and security module for all employees to
complete, best practices documents from safety and security, videos for students with security
scenarios, teacher training on crisis team members, and ongoing tabletop exercises.

Door locks were also included as a point of concern. Both students and principals voiced the
concern that dual-keyed doors may not be secure, especially if there is a substitute in the
classroom. Teachers were concerned that all schools staff, including specialists, be given
classroom keys. Additional training was recommended to ensure all staff understands the
importance of door safety.

Principals expressed the need for more closed-circuit television cameras, especially in the
elementary and middle schools.

Additional staff was requested by principals. Elementary principals in particular were interested
in more behavior specialists, psychologists, or social workers to help address mental health
issues and family needs when they arise. Additional security staff, or having substitute security
staff available, was also requested.

Front door monitoring was a concern for principals and teachers. Both groups expressed the
need to ensure that all visitors are instructed to come through the main office for check-in. The
need for additional support to monitor the main entrance was mentioned.

Additional comments from principals included the need to update the public address system;
especially the ability to access the public announcement system from multiple locations. Issuing
IDs to students was mentioned as a possible solution by the students.

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Recommendations
Training Recommendations
1. Further train and engage students and staff during lockdown drills.
Current Process
Lockdown drills are conducted four times a year. During these drills teachers are
required to participate and cover the content contained in the Crisis Management and
Security Plan Classroom Guide for Teachers, “Red Book” with students. The Red Book
is reviewed annually by OSS.

Timeline
Short Term Provide additional guidance on lockdown options and procedures
(within 1 year) through standardized scripts and video (grade level specific).
Require all teachers to follow the guidance during lockdown drills.
Long Term Work with principals to formalize comprehensive student and staff
(1-3 years) lockdown training drill requirements as follows:
 Provide permanent grade level appropriate training scripts and
videos
 Extend lockdown drill duration
 Require one lockdown drill during a lunch period and/or
between classes
 Require teachers to review the script, video and Red Book
content with students during lockdown drills
 Require teachers to cover other relevant safety and security
topic; “See Something Say Something,” Tipline information and
conduct a Q&A session as part of the lockdown drill

2. Reinforce proper electronic door access (main door) and use of Aiphone video
intercoms. Main door visitor control continues to be problematic.

Current Process
While school is in session, all visitors (to include students and staff) must use the
Aiphone video intercom to gain entry into schools. Once in the school, visitors are
required to go directly to the front office for visitor processing and use of the visitor
management system. At times, visitors are able to enter the building without proper
screening or “piggy back” in and not report to the office.

Timeline
Short Term Provide existing training content on proper visitor management
(within 1 year) protocols, supported by regulation and OSS fact sheets, and assign
additional school staff to enhance visitor management operations.

FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAFETY AND SECURITY REPORT, JUNE 2018 Page | 13
Long Term Provide OSS customized training on a request or case by case
(1-3 years) basis, and assign additional local school staff to assist with visitor
management.

3. Conduct tabletop exercises annually. Table top exercises are a vital means of training,
exercising, discussing, and evaluating each school’s crisis management plan based upon a
variety of crisis and emergency management scenarios.

Current Process
OSS conducts tabletop exercises every three years at elementary schools and every
other year as middle and high schools.

Timeline
Short Term Continue compliance with current table top exercises, and develop a
(within 1 year) plan for these exercises to be conducted annually at all schools.
Long Term Conduct table top exercises in a stepped approach as follows:
(1-3 years) a. Biannually at elementary schools
b. Annually at all schools.

4. Require annual safety and security training. OSS would provide training for all new
administrators (principals, assistant principals (AP), directors of student activities, etc.),
teachers, and substitutes teachers. In addition, sessions will be held for all school-based
employees. This training will consist of a combination of mandatory play list videos and in-
person group sessions. In-person group sessions could occur during the following
orientation events typically conducted in August:
 Great Beginnings (New Teachers)
 New administrator briefing/orientation
 Principal/AP briefing/orientation

Current Process
Other than tabletop exercises, OSS does not provide formal safety and security training
during orientations for new or existing employees. Prior to 2008, OSS provided a full day
of training to new administrators. This training covered critical safety, security and
environmental health information imperative for all administrators to know to safely
operate a school.

Timeline
Short Term Reinstate safety and security training for new administrators and
(within 1 year) other groups. Those completing this training would be eligible to
receive licensure and certification credit points in accordance with
VA Department of Education established criteria.
Long Term Formalize the training content and requirements for annual
(1-3 years) deployment.

FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAFETY AND SECURITY REPORT, JUNE 2018 Page | 14
5. Require principals to include a safety and security briefing during the first week of
teachers’ contracts. Assisted by content provided by OSS, the briefing would cover safety
and security programs, updates, and issues/concerns, followed by a question and answer
session.

Current Process
Staff briefings held during the first week of teacher contracts may not cover adequate
safety and security content.

Timeline
Short Term Work with principals to develop content for the all staff meetings.
(within 1 year)
Long Term Require principals to conduct a safety and security briefing during
(1-3 years) the first week of teacher contracts.

6. Review and evaluate the school based threat assessment process. Threat
assessments are conducted by OSS and the Department of Special Services in
collaboration with the police department, State and Local mental health officials, FCPS
human resources (HR) and academic partners. A threat assessment is a structured process
for gathering information regarding a threat made by a student to harm someone else.

Current Process
Threat assessments are conducted on students that are guided by regulation and
reviewed by OSS for compliance and follow up.

Timeline
Short Term Review the entire program and process to ensure compliance and to
(within 1 year) consider changes that would better identify and monitor the potential
for future student violent behavior.
Long Term Incorporate suggested changes from the review to the student threat
(1-3 years) assessment process. Consider staff and adult threat assessment
and work place violence into the existing threat assessment
paradigm.

7. Continue compliance with the following required safety and security drills and programs:
 Fire, Lockdown, Bus Evacuation and Tornado drills
 Crisis plan process
 Tabletop exercises
 VA safety audit check list and wellness survey

Current Process
Virginia Code requires participation and logging of all drills. An administrator’s checklist
for drills and crisis plans is available on the OSS intranet site along with additional
training information on other safety and security programs. OSS currently conducts all

FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAFETY AND SECURITY REPORT, JUNE 2018 Page | 15
tabletop exercises, during which the importance of drills and emergency management
procedures are emphasized. The status of drill compliance for 2016-17 and 2017-18 is:
FCPS Emergency Management (EM) Compliancy Table
SY 16/17 SY 17/18
EM Area (# Required) Compliancy % EM Area (# Required) Compliancy %
Fire Drills (2548) 99.6 Fire Drills (2548) TBD
Lockdown Drills (784) 99 Lockdown Drills (784) TBD
Tornado Drills (196) 100 Tornado Drills (196) 96.4
Table Top Exercises (~75) 100 Table Top Exercises (~75) 100
Crisis Plan Completion (196) 100 Crisis Plan Completion (196) 100
VA Safety Audit (196)* 100 VA Safety Audit (196)* 100
*Conducted and Reported For Previous SY

Timeline
Short Term Continue compliance and consider revisions to the drill schedule
(within 1 year) based on stakeholder feedback.
Long Term Continue compliance and incorporate suggested drill changes.
(1-3 years)

8. Increase communication and collaboration with principals by meeting and discussing


safety and security issues.

Current Process
OSS attends meetings at the request of principal association representatives and
facilities managers.

Timeline
Short Term Meet consistently every quarter with principals via their executive
(within 1 year) board and full member association meetings.
Long Term Present safety and security briefings yearly at an All County
(1-3 years) Administrator Meeting covering core security programs.

9. Increase communication with school communities on safety and security matters via
the client system, FCPS messaging, meetings and social media.

Current Process
Communication with the internal and external members of the school community is
accomplished through FCPS’ basic messaging formats.

Timeline
Short Term Develop a communication plan and update the OSS Intra/Internets.
(within 1 year) Add safety and security to the client portal. Participate in more PTA
community functions related to safety and security.
Long Term Partner with OCCR in its review of procedures for emergency
(1-3 years) communication response. Incorporate social media as a part of
OSS’ communication plan.

FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAFETY AND SECURITY REPORT, JUNE 2018 Page | 16
Physical and Technical Security Recommendations

1. Upgrade interior classroom door locks. Install push button locks on all doors outside
of the renovation cycle. Doors installed prior to the implementation of the current ed
specs require keys when locking. This can delay the locking of doors in a lockdown
situation, should the keys not be readily available. Push button locks allow for a swift
lockdown protocol. Elementary schools would be scheduled first.

Current Process
Updated door locks are installed during renovation.

Timeline
Short Term Conduct lock survey and review renovation ed specs. Replace
(within 1 year) keyed locks with push button locks.
Long Term Continual review of lock technology and systems.
(1-3 years)

2. Update and install exterior and interior cameras (CCTV) systemwide. CCTV is
fundamental to any school security program. CCTV systems drive the deployment of
other technical and physical security systems like electronic door access, shot detection
systems, fire alarm pulls, etc. FCPS is the only school system in the entire region without
system-wide deployment of CCTV.

Current Process
External CCTV is installed if it existed prior to renovation and on an ad hoc basis.
Internal CCTV is installed during a renovation only if it existed prior to renovation. A
community review and approval process is required for any new internal CCTV
installation. Other CCTV systems are installed and funded through grants, OSS
operating funds, School/PTA funding efforts, etc., on an ad hoc basis with no centralized
funding mechanism.

Timeline
Short Term Provide detailed plan and identify funding.
(within 1 year)
Long Term Deploy CCTV systemwide and eliminate approval process. See
(1-3 years) Appendix A for details.

FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAFETY AND SECURITY REPORT, JUNE 2018 Page | 17
Human Capital Recommendations
1. Add eight training positions to increase the frequency of tabletop exercises, further
train and engage students and staff, and increase monitoring and reinforcement of
security protocols.
Current Process
OSS currently has no positions devoted to conduct a comprehensive training program.
There are two positions to conduct tabletop exercise training. They perform
approximately 80 tabletop exercises a year.
Timeline
Short Term Add three positions to create and conduct a comprehensive safety
(within 1 year) and security training program. Add five positions to support the
increased frequency of tabletop exercises.
Long Term Continue to review staffing for optimum performance.
(1-5 years)
2. Add two specialist positions to install and monitor CCTV systemwide. The
installation and maintenance of interior and exterior closed-circuit television cameras
systemwide will require two technical specialist positions.

Current Process
Currently, OSS has five technician positions to monitor and install all electronic security
systems such as CCTV, electronic door management, visitor management systems, and
intrusion alarm systems.

Timeline
Short Term Add two positions for CCTV installation and maintenance.
(within 1 year)
Long Term Continue to review staffing for optimum performance.
(1-5 years)

FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAFETY AND SECURITY REPORT, JUNE 2018 Page | 18
Mental Health Recommendations
1. Increase staffing by eighteen mental health specialists (psychologists or social
workers). These positions could support the necessary follow-up work for threat
assessments as well as provide enhanced mental health support for students.
Current Process
The current ratio is 1:2325 points for psychologists and 1:2360 points for social workers.
Points are generated for each school based on: school level, free and reduced-price
meals eligibility, and special education services.
Timeline
Short Term Add eighteen mental health positions (psychologists or social
(within 1 year) workers).
Long Term Continue to review staffing for optimum performance.
(1-5 years)

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Summary of Recommendations with Costing

FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAFETY AND SECURITY REPORT, JUNE 2018 Page | 20
Considerations Reviewed but Not Recommended
Physical and Technical Security Considerations

1. Install security film. Fortify windows on classroom doors (9,400 doors) and main
entrance doors (200) by installing security film to classroom door vision panel glass and
front entrance door and window glass.

Current Process
Security film not utilized. Developed and tested by OSS with Underwriter’s Laboratory
(UL).

2. Initiate a magnetometer program. Metal detectors can be a valid defense against


weapons being brought into schools. They must be closely supervised and reinforced
through regulations. Additionally, the security integrity of the building after hours must be
considered. Industry standards list the pros and cons as:

Pros
 Weapons confiscation
 Deterrence
 Community safety perception
Cons
 Costs in equipment and personnel
 Community safety perception
 Need for armed presence

Current Process
Used on a case by case basis for discipline hearings with hand held devices at the
Gatehouse Center. Metal detectors are used at the courthouse Alternative Learning
Center location.

3. Enhance Visitor Management System (VMS). Practice good visitor management,


assisted by the VMS and front office operations. Guided by Regulation 4215.8, all
schools have automated VMS that provides temporary paper badging and performs
checks against the nationwide registered sex offender database. There are fact sheets,
continuous service and support for VMS, protocols, and effective training for the use of
VMS.

Current Process
VMS in place at all schools

4. Require student identification badges at the middle and high school levels.

Current Process
Not issued or required to display

FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAFETY AND SECURITY REPORT, JUNE 2018 Page | 21
5. Additional physical and technology security systems. There are myriad physical and
technical systems and products to consider. Security professionals warn to proceed with
caution and properly vet new technologies and products and suggest equally addressing
mental health programs.

Additional physical and technical security systems are an option that should be
considered after the deployment of fundamental systems like door locks, CCTV and
electronic door management. Some examples of these additional systems and
programs include:
 Centralized electronic key access
 Shot detection
 Centralized access control
 Emergency notification and communication
 Ballistic shields and shelters

Current Process
Reviewed for consideration

6. Utilize door barricade devices (Fire Code Change). The Fire Code does not allow the
use of door barricade devices. This proposal would require vetting through the Fairfax
County Fire Department Office of the Fire Marshal and a possible change in the Fire
Code.

Current Process
Commercial barricade devices are not used as they conflict with the Fire Code.

7. Change fire alarm protocols. Allow three minute fire alarm annunciation delay at
middle and elementary schools. This delay is for when a single pull station is either
intentionally or accidentally pulled.

This delay allows local security staff to investigate the pull and if no cause is found the
alarm can be manually reset to prevent the sounding of the fire alarm requiring the
school to be evacuated.

Additionally, the delay would allow security staff to investigate a malicious pull of the fire
alarm system as part of an active violence scenario to bring students into the hallway.
The investigating staff member would be able to initiate a lockdown. An activation of a
sprinkler or smoke detector is not part of this delay system.

Current Process
All high schools have a three minute pull station alarm delay. Elementary and middle
school fire systems do not have this delay. Implementation of these protocols is
dependent on the existence of CCTV and the presence of security personnel.

FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAFETY AND SECURITY REPORT, JUNE 2018 Page | 22
Human Capital Considerations
1. Staff Elementary Schools with a security presence. Currently, elementary schools do
not have a permanent security presence. Optional models could be considered for
consideration to increase security at all Elementary schools.

a. School Resource Officers (Police Department Program)


b. School Education Officers (Police Department Program-Reinstate)
c. Armed security specialists
d. Unarmed security specialists
e. Armed uniformed school security officers
f. Unarmed uniformed school security officers
g. Armed regional uniformed school security officers
h. Unarmed regional uniformed school security officers

Current Process
Other than school staff, elementary schools do not have permanent security staffing.
School security provides a routine patrol presence. Security training is provided by OSS
as required by regulation.

2. Consider arming school security personnel in accordance with state law. Further
research and surveys are needed in this area, and there are a variety of
questions/concerns.

Current Process
VA law allows arming school security personnel under a program of verification,
certification and authorization. Requires school board approval.

3. Increase OSS personnel. OSS needs to increase its personnel to address the
management of safety and security programs in the short and long term with immediate
attention required for emergency management training and security assessments.

Current Process
OSS is permanently staffed with forty-eight personnel including twenty uniformed
security officers and supervisors to operate a 24-hour call, patrol, and response center
for all FCPS schools and administrative centers.

4. Reorganize OSS to better manage safety and security programs. The reorganization
is needed to better manage current programs, as well as those associated with the
implementation of this security review.

Current Process
Reorganization is being discussed with HR.

FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAFETY AND SECURITY REPORT, JUNE 2018 Page | 23
5. Convert six OSS temporary positions to FTE. Currently, OSS has two Security Patrol
Officers and four Security Systems Monitors funded through a trade position process
(one year only positions). This one year only status makes the recruitment and retention
of qualified applicants difficult. These positions are at the core of our 24-hour operation
which provides emergency support to all schools. When vacant, it requires using security
officers to staff, resulting in reduced security coverage and response at schools.

Current Process
Six positions are temporary and are “one year only.”

6. Increase school based security personnel at middle and high schools. Given
increased student enrollment, staff, schools size, security systems and requirements, an
increase in school based safety and security staffing is suggested as follows:

Middle Schools

Current Process
Middle schools are staffed with one safety and security assistant (supervised by
Principal or AP) and at times a second assistant depending on student numbers and
programs.

High Schools

Current Process
High schools are staffed with one safety and security specialist and four safety and
security assistants.

7. Reassign school based Safety and Security personnel under OSS (part of
reorganization). Assign school based S&S personnel to OSS will provide a centrally
based safety and security program that will provide uniformity in scope and duties.

Current Process
Safety and security specialists and assistants report to and are managed by the principal
at each school. OSS provides required training and certification to all security specialists
and assistants as well as guidance on safety and security programs and issues.

FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS SAFETY AND SECURITY REPORT, JUNE 2018 Page | 24
Summary of Considerations Reviewed but Not Recommended
with Costing
Considerations Reviewed but Not Recommended Cost Estimate

Install Security Film $3.5 million


One-time equipment: $1.0 million
Initiate a Magnetometer Program
Recurring: $1.0 million per school
Security

Enhance Visitor Management Program TBD


Require Student Identification Badges $0.6 million

Additional physical and technology security systems TBD

Utilize Door Barricade Devices TBD


Change Fire Alarm Protocols $0.9 million
School Resource Officers at Elementary Schools (FCPD) $18.0 million
Education Officers at Elementary Schools (FCPD) TBD

Armed Security Specialists at Elementary Schools $9.0 million


Unarmed Security Specialists at Elementary Schools $8.0 million
Armed Uniformed School Security at Elementary Schools $11 million

Unarmed Uniformed School Security at Elementary Schools $10 million

Armed Regional School Security at Elementary Schools $6.0 million


Human Capital

Unarmed Regional School Security at Elementary Schools $5.0 million


Arm Current Security Staff TBD
Increase OSS Staffing 26 positions: ~$2.4 million

Process OSS Classification TBD

Reorganize OSS TBD


Convert temporary traded positions to permanent cost neutral
Increase Security Assistants at High Schools $2.2 million

Increase Security Specialists at Middle School $1.5 million


6 positions: ~$0.7 million
Staff OSS to Manage School Security Specialists (Short Term)
Equipment: ~$0.2 million
Reassign School Specialists to OSS (Long Term) TBD

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