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ANSI/IEEE C57.12.

00-1980

general requirements for


liquid-immersed distribution, power,
and regulating transformers

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Nouember28,1980 SH07625
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Foreword

(This foreword is not a part of ANSI/IEEE C 5 7 . 1 2 . 0 0 - 1 9 8 0 , IEEE Standard General Requirements for Liquid-
Immersed Distribution, Power, and Regulating Transformers.)

This revision o f A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 0 0 includes several significant changes including general re-organiza-


tion and rearrangement, incorporation of previous A N S I s u p p l e m e n t s concerning short-circuit
requirements and temperature testing, incorporation of n e w technical information from the IEEE
Transformers C o m m i t t e e , and removal of data relating t o dry-type transformers. Dry-type trans-
former data is being placed in a n e w series o f p r o p o s e d American National Standards C 5 7 . 1 2 . 0 1 ,
C 5 7 . 1 2 . 5 0 , C 5 7 . 1 2 . 5 1 , C 5 7 . 1 2 . 5 2 , and C 5 7 . 1 2 . 9 1 .
The re-organization and other changes in C 5 7 . 1 2 . 0 0 - 1 9 8 0 are i n t e n d e d t o update various trans-
former t e r m i n o l o g y w o r d s and phrases, reduce and simplify tabular data, and arrange the c o n t e n t s
t o improve t h e ease and efficiency of use. Metric equivalents have been added in accordance with
ANSI policy.
This standard and A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 1 0 - 1 9 7 6 recognize that t h e distinction b e t w e e n " p o w e r " and
"distribution" transformers is n o longer a fixed line at 5 0 0 k V A since m a n y small p o w e r trans-
formers are being built w i t h distribution transformer c o n s t r u c t i o n features. While t h e line at 5 0 0
kVA still appears useful and necessary in determining certain standard requirements for tests,
accessories, e t c , b o t h C 5 7 . 1 2 . 0 0 and C57.12.1X) provide t h e flexibility n e e d e d t o allow users t o
obtain small p o w e r transformers w i t h distribution transformer c o n s t r u c t i o n features.
Certain data from A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 0 0 - 1 9 7 3 w h i c h related t o loading at altitudes above 3 3 0 0 feet
( 1 0 0 0 meters) is felt t o b e l o n g in loading guides, and is being temporarily placed in an appendix.
This American National Standards Institute d o c u m e n t is a voluntary consensus standard. Its use
m a y b e c o m e m a n d a t o r y o n l y w h e n required b y a duly c o n s t i t u t e d legal authority, or w h e n specified
in a contractual relationship. T o m e e t specialized n e e d s and t o allow i n n o v a t i o n , specific changes
are permissible w h e n m u t u a l l y determined b y t h e user and t h e producer, provided such changes
d o n o t violate existing laws, and are considered technically adequate for t h e f u n c t i o n intended.
When this standard is used o n a m a n d a t o r y basis, t h e w o r d s shall and must indicate mandatory
requirements; and t h e w o r d s should or may refer t o matters w h i c h are r e c o m m e n d e d or permissive,
but n o t m a n d a t o r y .
This standard was prepared b y a special task force o f t h e Transformers C o m m i t t e e of the Institute
of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, and f o l l o w i n g w h i c h , was approved b y the IEEE Transformers
C o m m i t t e e , t h e IEEE Standards Board and t h e A N S I C 5 7 C o m m i t t e e for Distribution and Power
Transformers and Regulators. T h e applicable rules and procedures of IEEE and A N S I for the prepa-
ration and approval o f voluntary consensus standards were f o l l o w e d . These specify procedures for
voting, review, and a t t e m p t e d reconciliation o f dissenting v i e w p o i n t s , a 60-day public review
period, and final review and approval b y the A N S I Board o f Standards Review.
Suggestions for i m p r o v e m e n t gained in t h e use of this standard will b e w e l c o m e d . They should
be sent t o t h e American National Standards Institute, Inc, 1 4 3 0 B r o a d w a y , N e w York, N Y 1 0 0 1 8 .
A t t h e time it approved this standard, C57 had t h e f o l l o w i n g m e m b e r s h i p :
H. D . L e w i s , Chairman C. R. Wilmore, Secretary

Organization Represented Name of Representative


Bonneville Power Administration George W. Iliff
Electric Light and Power Group R. P. Bast
I. O. Berkhan
I. H. Koponen
J. P. Markey (Alt)
P. H. Philippidis
B. F. Smith
Furnace Equipment Manufacturers Association
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers S. Bennon
W. P. Burt
J. C. Dutton
D. C. Johnson (Alt)
L. W. Long
D. E. Massey

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Organization Represented Name of Representative
Naval Facilities Engineering Command Leonard W. Johnson
National Electrical Manufacturers Association L. C. Aicher
W. R. Courtade
J. D. Douglass
W. C. Kendall
H. D . Lewis
G. W. Mayall (Alt)
W. J. McNutt
Norman M. Neagle (Alt)
R. L. Schwab
R. E. Uptegraff, Jr
G. C. Wilburn
Rural Electrification Administration J. C. Arnold, Jr
Tennessee Valley Authority L. R. Smith
Underwriters Laboratories W. A. Farquhar (Alt)
E. J. Huber
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation R. H. Richardson

T h e Transformers C o m m i t t e e o f t h e I E E E P o w e r Engineering S o c i e t y o f 1 9 7 8 r e v i e w e d and ap-


proved this standard.
T h e Working G r o u p w h i c h d e v e l o p e d this standard had t h e f o l l o w i n g m e m b e r s h i p :

J, C. B u t t o n , Chairman

When this standard w a s approved D e c e m b e r 1 4 , 1 9 7 8 , t h e I E E E Standards Board h a d t h e f o l l o w -


ing m e m b e r s h i p :

J o s e p h L. Koepfinger, Chairman Irvin N . H o w e l l , Jr, Vice Chairman

Ivan G. E a s t o n , Secretary

William E. Andrus Jay Forster Donald T. Michael


C. N. Berglund Ralph I. Hauser Voss A. Moore
Edward J. Cohen Loering M. Johnson William S. Morgan
Warren H. Cook Irving Kolodny Robert L. Pritchard
David B. Dobson William R. Kruesi Blair A. R o w l e y
R. O. Duncan Thomas J. Martin Ralph M. Showers
Charles W. Flint John E. May B. W. Whittington

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Contents

SECTION PAGE
1. Scope 7
2. Terminology 7
3 . References 7
4 . Service Conditions 9
4.1 Usual Service Conditions 9
4.2 Loading at Other Than R a t e d Conditions 10
4.3 Unusual Service Conditions 10
5. Rating Data 11
5.1 Cooling Classes of Transformers 11
5.2 Frequency 11
5.3 Phases 11
5.4 Rated k V A 12
5.5 Voltage Ratings and Taps 12
5.6 Connections 12
5.7 Polarity, Angular Displacement, and Terminal Markings 12
5.8 Impedance 13
5.9 Total Losses 13
5 . 1 0 Insulation Levels 13
5 . 1 1 Temperature Rise and Loading Conditions 19
5 . 1 2 Nameplates 19
6. Construction 24
6.1 Bushings 24
6.2 Transformer Accessories 24
6.3 Bushing Current Transformers 24
6.4 T h e r m o m e t e r Wells . . 24
6.5 Tank Pressure R e q u i r e m e n t s 24
6.6 Liquid Insulation S y s t e m 24
6.7 Grounding 25
7. Short Circuit Characteristics 25
7.1 Short Circuit R e q u i r e m e n t s 25
7.2 Components 28
7.3 Base k V A 28
7.4 Calculation o f Winding Temperature During a Short Circuit 29
8. Testing and Calculations 31
8.1 General 31
8.2 R o u t i n e , Design, and Other Tests for Transformers 31
8.3 Additional R o u t i n e Tests o n Transformers w i t h Load-Tap-Changing,
or Regulating Transformers 31
8.4 Calculations 31
9. Tolerances 31
9.1 Tolerances for Ratio 32
9.2 Tolerances for I m p e d a n c e 32
9.3 Tolerances for Losses 32
1 0 , C o n n e c t i o n of Transformers for S h i p m e n t 32

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FIGURES PAGE
Fig 1 Phase Relation o f Terminal Designations for Three-Phase Transformers 13
Fig 2 Designation o f Voltage Ratings of Three-Phase Windings (Schematic Representation) ... 20
Fig 3 Dimensions of T h e r m o m e t e r Well 24

TABLES
Table 1 Dielectric-Strength Correction-Factors for Altitudes Greater than
3 3 0 0 ft ( 1 0 0 0 m ) 10
Table 2 Preferred C o n t i n u o u s k V A Ratings 12
Table 3 Relationships of N o m i n a l S y s t e m Voltage t o M a x i m u m S y s t e m V o l t a g e
and Basic Lightning Impulse Insulation Levels (BILs) for S y s t e m s
1 1 0 0 k V and B e l o w 14
Table 4 Interrelationships o f Dielectric Insulation Levels for Transformers
Used o n S y s t e m s w i t h BILs 2 4 2 5 k V and B e l o w 15
Table 5 Minimum Insulation Levels at Neutral 16
Table 6 Minimum Phase-to-Phase Insulation Levels for Three-Phase P o w e r Transformers .... 19
Table 7 Nameplate Information 22
Table 8 Electrical Characteristics of Transformer Bushings 23
Table 9 Distribution Transformer Short-Circuit Withstand Capability 26
Table 10 Values ofK . 27
Table 11 Short-Circuit Apparent Power of t h e S y s t e m t o be Used
Unless Otherwise Specified 27
Table 12 Subtransient R e a c t a n c e o f Three Phase S y n c h r o n o u s Machine 28
Table 13 Base Current Calculation Factors - 30
Table 14 R o u t i n e , Design, and Other Tests for Liquid-Immersed Transformers 30
Table 15 Additional Tests 31
Table 16 Tolerances for Single-Phase and Three-Phase Transformer Losses 32

APPENDIXES
Appendix A Unusual Temperature and A l t i t u d e Conditions 33
Appendix A l Unusual Temperatures and Altitude Service Conditions 33
Appendix A 2 Effect of A l t i t u d e o n Temperature Rise 33
Appendix A 3 Operation at Rated k V A 33
Appendix A 4 Operation at Less than R a t e d kVA 33
Appendix B Specification F o r m s 34

APPENDIX TABLES
Table A l M a x i m u m A l l o w a b l e Average Temperature of Cooling Air
for Carrying R a t e d k V A 33
Table A 2 Rated k V A Correction Factors for Altitudes Greater than 3 3 0 0 ft ( 1 0 0 0 m ) 33

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An American National Standard
IEEE Standard General Requirements for
Liquid-Immersed Distribution,
Power, and Regulating Transformers

1. Scope Other electrical terms are defined in A N S I /


IEEE Std 1 0 0 - 1 9 7 7 , Dictionary of Electrical
1.1 This standard is i n t e n d e d as a basis for t h e and Electronics Terms.
establishment o f performance, limited electrical
and mechanical interchangeability, and safety
requirements o f e q u i p m e n t described; and for
assistance in t h e proper selection of such 3. References
equipment.
3 . 1 Standards References. When the follow-
1.2 This standard describes electrical, m e c h -
ing A N S I standards and guides referred t o in
anical, and safety requirements of liquid-
this standard are superseded b y a revision
immersed distribution a n d p o w e r transformers,
approved b y t h e American National Standards
and autotransformers a n d regulating trans-
Institute, t h e latest revision shall apply.
formers; single and p o l y p h a s e , w i t h voltage
6 0 1 V or higher in t h e highest voltage winding. A N S I B l . 1 - 1 9 7 4 , Unified Inch Screw Threads 1

1.3 This standard applies t o all liquid-immersed A N S I B 2 . 1 - 1 9 6 8 , Pipe Threads ( e x c e p t Dryseal)


distribution, p o w e r , a n d regulating trans-
A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 1 0 - 1 9 7 7 , Requirements for Trans-
formers e x c e p t as indicated b e l o w :
formers, 2 3 0 0 0 0 V o l t s and B e l o w , 8 3 3 / 9 5 8
( 1 ) Instrument transformers
through 8 3 3 3 / 1 0 4 1 7 kVA, Single-Phase; and
(2) Step-voltage and i n d u c t i o n voltage regu-
7 5 0 / 8 6 2 t h r o u g h 6 0 0 0 0 / 8 0 0 0 0 / 1 0 0 0 0 0 kVA,
lators
Three-Phase
(3) Arc furnace transformers
( 4 ) Rectifier transformers A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 1 0 a - 1 9 7 8 , (supplement t o A N S I
(5) Specialty transformers C57.12.10-1977)
(6) Grounding transformers
A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 2 0 - 1 9 7 4 , Requirements for Over-
(7) Mobile transformers
head-type Distribution Transformers, 67 0 0 0
(8) Mine transformers
V o l t s and B e l o w ; 5 0 0 kVA and Smaller
1.4 When this standard is used o n a m a n d a t o r y
A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 2 0 a - 1 9 7 8 (supplement t o A N S I
basis, t h e words shall a n d must indicates man-
C57.12.20-1974)
datory requirements; and t h e w o r d s should and
may refer t o matters w h i c h are r e c o m m e n d e d A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 2 1 - 1 9 8 0 , Requirements for Pad-
or permissive, but n o t m a n d a t o r y . M o u n t e d , C o m p a r t m e n t a l - T y p e , Self-Cooled,
Single-Phase Distribution Transformers with
NOTE: The Foreword of this voluntary consensus
standard describes the circumstances under which High-Voltage Bushings; High-Voltage, 3 4 5 0 0
the standard may be used on a mandatory basis. G r d Y / 1 9 9 2 0 V o l t s and B e l o w ; Low-Voltage
2 4 0 / 1 2 0 V o l t s ; 1 6 8 kVA and Smaller.

2. Terminology

ANSI documents are available from The American


Standard transformer t e r m i n o l o g y available National Standards Institute, 1 4 3 0 Broadway New
in A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 2 . 8 0 - 1 9 7 8 shall apply. York, N.Y. 1 0 0 1 8 .

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID

A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 2 2 - 1 9 8 0 , R e q u i r e m e n t s for Pad- A N S I C 8 4 . 1 - 1 9 7 7 , V o l t a g e Ratings for Elec-


M o u n t e d , Compartmental-Type, Self-Cooled, tric Power S y s t e m s a n d E q u i p m e n t ( 6 0 H z )
Three-Phase Distribution Transformers w i t h
A N S I C 9 2 . 1 - 1 9 7 1 , ( R 1 9 7 8 ) , Voltage Values
High-Voltage Bushings; High-Voltage, 3 4 5 0 0
for Preferred Transient Insulation Levels
G r d Y / 1 9 9 2 0 V o l t s and B e l o w ; 2 5 0 0 kVA
and Smaller A N S I C 9 2 . 2 - 1 9 7 8 , Preferred Voltage Ratings
for Alternating-Current Electrical S y s t e m s and
ANSI C57.12.23-1978, Requirements for
E q u i p m e n t Operating at V o l t a g e s above 2 3 0
Underground-Type Single-Phase Distribution
kV Nominal
Transformers, with Separable Insulated High-
Voltage Connectors, High-Voltage 24 940 A N S I / A S M E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
G r d Y / 1 4 4 0 0 V o l t s and B e l o w , L o w - V o l t a g e (BPV), 1 9 7 7 Edition
2 4 0 / 1 2 0 : 1 0 0 kVA and Smaller A N S I / A S T M D 1 1 7 - 1 9 7 8 , Standard M e t h o d s of
ANSI C57.12.24-1978, Requirements for Testing Electrical Insulating Oils
Underground-Type Three-Phase Distribution
A N S I / A S T M D 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 6 4 ( R 1 9 7 4 ) , Specifica-
Transformers, 2 5 0 0 kVA and Smaller, High-
t i o n s for Nitrogen Gas as an Electrical Insulat-
Voltage 24 940 GrdY/14 400 Volts and
ing Material
B e l o w , L o w Voltage 4 8 0 V o l t s and B e l o w
A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 2 5 - 1 9 7 5 , R e q u i r e m e n t s for Pad- A N S I / A S T M D 3 4 8 7 - 1 9 7 9 , Specifications for
Mounted Compartmental-Type Single-Phase Mineral Insulating Oil U s e d in Electrical
Distribution Transformers w i t h Separable In- Apparatus
sulated High-Voltage C o n n e c t o r s ; High-Voltage A N S I / C G A - V I - 1 9 7 7 , Compressed Gas Cylinder
2 4 9 4 0 G r d Y / 1 4 4 0 0 V o l t s and B e l o w ; L o w - Valve O u t l e t and Inlet C o n n e c t i o n s
Voltage 2 4 0 / 1 2 0 ; 1 6 7 kVA and Smaller
A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 2 . 1 1 - 1 9 8 0 , Guide for Instal-
A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 2 6 - 1 9 7 5 , R e q u i r e m e n t s for Pad- lation o f Oil-Immersed Transformers, 1 0 MVA
Mounted Compartmental-Type, Self-Cooled, and Larger, 6 9 k V t o 2 8 7 k V
Three-Phase Distribution Transformers for Use
A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 2 . 1 2 - 1 9 8 0 , Guide for Instal-
with Separable Insulated High-Voltage C o n n e c -
lation and Maintenance o f Extra-High-Voltage
tors, High-Voltage 2 4 9 4 0 G r d Y / 1 4 4 0 0 V o l t s
Power Transformers ( A p p e n d i x )
and Below; 2 5 0 0 kVA and Smaller
A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 3 0 - 1 9 7 7 , R e q u i r e m e n t s for Load- A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 2 . 8 0 - 1 9 7 8 , T e r m i n o l o g y for
Tap-Changing Transformers, 2 3 0 0 0 0 V o l t s and Power and Distribution Transformers
B e l o w , 3 7 5 0 / 4 6 8 7 through 6 0 0 0 0 / 8 0 0 0 0 / A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 2 . 9 0 - 1 9 8 0 , Test Code for
1 0 0 0 0 0 kVA, Three-Phase Liquid-Immersed Distribution, Power, and
A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 4 0 - 1 9 7 5 , R e q u i r e m e n t s for Sec- Regulating Transformers and Guide for Short-
ondary N e t w o r k Transformers, S u b w a y and Circuit Testing of Distribution and Power
Vault T y p e s , (liquid-immersed) Transformers.

A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 7 0 - 1 9 7 8 , Terminal Markings and ANSI/IEEE C57.13-1978, Requirements for


Connections for Distribution and P o w e r Instrument Transformers
Transformers
A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 9 8 - 1 9 6 8 , Guide for Trans-
A N S I C 5 7 . 9 1 - 1 9 7 4 , Guide for L o a d i n g Min-
former Impulse Tests ( A p p e n d i x t o C 5 7 . 1 2 . 9 0 -
eral Oil-Immersed Overhead-Type Distribution
1968)
Transformers w i t h 55°C or 6 5 ° C Average
Winding Rise A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 0 4 , Guide for t h e D e t e c t i o n
A N S I C 5 7 . 9 2 - 1 9 6 2 , Guide for Loading Oil- and D e t e r m i n a t i o n of Generated Gases in Oil-
Immersed Distribution and P o w e r Transformers Immersed Transformers and their Relation
(appendix t o A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 Standards) t o t h e Serviceability o f t h e E q u i p m e n t

A N S I C 6 2 . 2 - 1 9 6 9 , Guide for A p p l i c a t i o n of A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 0 5 - 1 9 7 8 , Guide for Appli-


Valve-Type Lightning Arresters for Alternating- c a t i o n of Transformer C o n n e c t i o n s in Three-
Current S y s t e m s Phase Distribution S y s t e m s

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ANSI/IEEE
IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER A N D REGULATING T R A N S F O R M E R S C57.12.00-1980

A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 0 6 - 1 9 7 7 , Guide for A c c e p - 4 . 1 . 2 . 2 The t o p liquid temperature of t h e


tance and Maintenance of Insulating Oil in transformer ( w h e n operating) shall n o t be
Equipment l o w e r than - 2 0 °C. Starting temperatures
b e l o w - 2 0 °C are n o t considered as usual
A N S I / I E E E Std 1 0 0 - 1 9 7 7 , Dictionary of
service c o n d i t i o n s .
Electrical and Electronics Terms
4 . 1 . 2 . 3 If water c o o l e d , t h e temperature of
A N S I / I E E E Std 2 8 - 1 9 7 4 , Standard Surge t h e c o o l i n g water ( a m b i e n t temperature) shall
Arresters for A C P o w e r Circuits n o t e x c e e d 3 0 °C and t h e average temperature
of t h e c o o l i n g water for a n y 2 4 h period shall
IEEE Std 4 - 1 9 7 8 , Standard Techniques for
n o t e x c e e d 2 5 °C. M i n i m u m water temperature
High-Voltage Testing shall n o t be l o w e r than 1 °C, unless the cooling
A N S I / I E E E Std 2 1 - 1 9 7 6 , General Require- water includes antifreeze suitable for - 2 0 °C
m e n t s and Test Procedures for O u t d o o r A p - operation.
paratus Bushings 4 . 1 . 3 A l t i t u d e . T h e altitude shall n o t e x c e e d
3300 f (1000 m).
A N S I / I E E E Std 2 4 - 1 9 7 7 , Standard Electrical,
4 . 1 . 4 S u p p l y V o l t a g e . The supply-voltage
Dimensional and Related R e q u i r e m e n t s for
wave shape shall be approximately sinusoidal,
Outdoor Apparatus Bushings
and t h e phase voltages supplying a polyphase
A N S I / I E E E Std 3 1 5 - 1 9 7 5 , Graphic S y m b o l s transformer shall be approximately equal in
for Electrical and Electronics Diagrams magnitude and t i m e displacement.
4 . 1 . 5 L o a d Current. The load current shall
IEEE Std 3 2 - 1 9 7 2 , ( R 1 9 7 8 ) , Requirements,
be a p p r o x i m a t e l y sinusoidal. The harmonic
T e r m i n o l o g y , and Test Procedure for Neutral factor shall n o t e x c e e d 0 . 0 5 per unit.
Grounding Devices
NOTE: harmonic factor is defined in ANSI/IEEE
IEEE Std 7 6 - 1 9 7 4 , Guide for A c c e p t a n c e and C57.12.80-1978.
Maintenance of Transformer Askarel in Equip-
ment
4 . 1 . 6 Operation A b o v e R a t e d Voltage or
IEEE Std 2 6 2 B - 1 9 7 7 , Trial-Use Standard Test Below Related Frequency.
Requirements for Dielectric, P o w e r Trans- 4 . 1 . 6 . 1 Transformers shall be capable of:
formers for Operation o n Effectively Grounded ( 1 ) Operating c o n t i n u o u s l y above rated volt-
S y s t e m s , 3 4 5 kV and A b o v e age or b e l o w rated frequency, at m a x i m u m
rated kVA for any tap, w i t h o u t e x c e e d i n g limits
3 . 2 Applicable D o c u m e n t in Preparation 2
of observable temperature rise in accordance
with 5 . 1 1 . 1 w h e n all of t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s
4 . Service C o n d i t i o n s prevail:
(a) S e c o n d a r y voltage and volts per Hertz
4.1 Usual Service C o n d i t i o n s d o n o t e x c e e d 1 0 5 % of rated values
4 . 1 . 1 General. Transformers c o n f o r m i n g t o (b) L o a d p o w e r factor is 8 0 % or higher
this standard shall be suitable for operation at (c) F r e q u e n c y is at least 95% of rated value
rated kVA under t h e f o l l o w i n g usual service ( 2 ) Operating c o n t i n u o u s l y above rated volt-
conditions. age or b e l o w rated frequency on any tap at
4 . 1 . 2 Temperature n o l o a d , w i t h o u t e x c e e d i n g limits o f observable
4 . 1 . 2 . 1 If air c o o l e d , the temperature of temperature rise in accordance with 5 . 1 1 . 1
the c o o l i n g air (ambient temperature) shall n o t w h e n neither t h e voltage nor volts per Hertz
e x c e e d 4 0 °C and the average temperature of e x c e e d 1 1 0 % o f rated values.
the c o o l i n g air for any 2 4 h period shall n o t 4 . 1 . 6 . 2 T h e m a x i m u m c o n t i n u o u s trans-
e x c e e d 3 0 °C. former operating voltage should n o t e x c e e d
When the following documents are completed, ap-
2 t h e levels specified in A N S I C 8 4 . 1 - 1 9 7 7 .
proved, and published, they will b e c o m e part of this
listing.
NOTE: System conditions may require voltage trans-
(1) Guidelines for Handling and Disposal of Capacitor and formation ratios involving tap voltages higher than the
Transformer-Grade Askarels Containing Polychlorinated Bi- maximum system voltage for regulation purposes.
phenyls.
However, the appropriate maximum system voltage
(2) Transformer Through Fault Current Duration Guide.
should be observed under operating conditions. (ANSI
(3) Techniques for Switching Impulse Testing (ANSI C68.1). C92.2-1978)

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID

4 . 1 . 7 O u t d o o r Operation. Unless otherwise and A p p e n d i x A provide information o n rec-


specified, transformers shall b e suitable for o m m e n d e d practices.
o u t d o o r operation. 4 . 3 . 2 Insulation at High A l t i t u d e . The di-
4 . 1 . 8 S t e p - D o w n Operation. Unless other- electric strength o f transformers, w h i c h d e p e n d
wise specified, transformers shall be for step- in w h o l e or in part u p o n air for insulation,
d o w n operation. decreases as t h e altitude increases d u e t o t h e
4 . 1 . 8 . 1 Transformers identified as genera- effect o f decreased air d e n s i t y . When specified,
tor step-up transformers shall b e designed for transformers shall b e designed w i t h larger air
step-up operation. spacings using t h e correction factors of Table 1
4 . 1 . 8 . 2 Transformers identified as s y s t e m t o obtain adequate air dielectric strength at
tie autotransformers (or transformers) shall b e altitudes a b o v e 3 3 0 0 f ( 1 0 0 0 m ) .
designed for either s t e p - d o w n operation, or
step-up operation, or b o t h ; as specified b y t h e
Table 1
user.
Dielectric-Strength Correction-Factors for
4 . 1 . 9 Tank or Enclosure Finish. Tempera-
A l t i t u d e s Greater t h a n 3 3 0 0 ft ( 1 0 0 0 m )
ture limits and tests shall b e based o n t h e use
of a non-metallic p i g m e n t surface paint finish.
Altitude Correction
NOTE: Metallic flake paints, such as aluminum, zinc, Altitude Factor for
etc, have properties which increase the temperature (feet) (meters) Dielectric Strength
rise of transformers except in direct sunlight.
3300 1000 1.00
4000 1200 0.98
4 . 2 Loading at Other T h a n R a t e d Conditions.
5000 1500 0.95
A N S I C 5 7 . 9 1 - 1 9 7 4 and A N S I C 5 7 . 9 2 - 1 9 6 2 6000 1800 0.92
provide guidance for loading at o t h e r than 7000 2100 0.89
8000 2400 0.86
rated c o n d i t i o n s including:
9000 2700 0.83
( 1 ) A m b i e n t temperatures higher or l o w e r 10 0 0 0 3000 0.80
than t h e basis o f rating 12 0 0 0 3600 0.75
14 0 0 0 4200 0.70
( 2 ) Short-time loading in e x c e s s of n a m e - 0.67
15 0 0 0 4500
plate kVA with normal life e x p e c t a n c y
( 3 ) Loading that results in r e d u c e d life NOTE: An altitude of 15 0 0 0 ft ( 4 5 0 0 m ) is con-
expectancy. sidered a maximum for transformers conforming to
this standard.
NOTE: The guides are not standards. They provide
the best k n o w n general information for loading of
transformers under various conditions based o n typical . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1 T h e insulation level at 3 3 0 0 f
winding insulation systems, and are based u p o n the ( 1 0 0 0 m ) multiplied b y t h e correction factor
best engineering information available at the time of
from Table 1 m u s t be n o t less than t h e required
preparation. The guides discuss limitations of ancillary
components other than windings which m a y limit the insulation level at t h e required altitude.
capability of transformers. When specified, ancillary 4 . 3 . 2 . 2 Bushings w i t h additional length or
components and other construction features (cables,
bushings, tap changers, oil expansion space, etc)
creep distance shall be furnished w h e n neces-
shall be supplied such that they in themselves will sary for operation a b o v e 3 3 0 0 f ( 1 0 0 0 m ) .
not limit the loading t o less than the capability of the 4 . 3 . 3 Other Unusual Service Conditions.
windings.
( 1 ) Damaging f u m e s or vapors, excessive or
4 . 3 Unusual Service Conditions. C o n d i t i o n s abrasive dust, explosive m i x t u r e s o f dust or
other than t h o s e described in 4 . 1 are considered gases, steam, salt spray, excessive moisture, or
unusual service a n d w h e n prevalent s h o u l d b e dripping water, etc
brought t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h o s e responsible ( 2 ) A b n o r m a l vibration, tilting, s h o c k , or
for t h e design and application of t h e apparatus. seismic c o n d i t i o n s
Examples of s o m e o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s are listed ( 3 ) A m b i e n t temperatures outside of normal
below. range
4 , 3 . 1 Unusual Temperature and A l t i t u d e Con- ( 4 ) Unusual transportation or storage con-
ditions. Transformers m a y be u s e d at higher or ditions
lower ambient temperatures or at higher alti- ( 5 ) Unusual space limitations
tudes than t h o s e specified in 4 . 1 . 3 b u t special ( 6 ) Unusual m a i n t e n a n c e p r o b l e m s
consideration m u s t b e given t o these applica- ( 7 ) Unusual d u t y or f r e q u e n c y o f operation,
tions. A N S I C 5 7 - 9 1 - 1 9 7 4 , A N S I C 5 7 . 9 2 - 1 9 6 2 impact loading

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ANSI/IEEE
IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER A N D REGULATING T R A N S F O R M E R S C57.12.00-1980

( 8 ) Unbalanced alternating-current voltages, 5 . 1 . 2 Liquid-immersed Air-Cooled / F o r c e d -


or departure o f alternating-current s y s t e m s Liquid C o o l e d
voltages from a substantially sinusoidal wave ( 1 ) Liquid-immersed, self-cooled/forced-air-
form c o o l e d / f o r c e d - l i q u i d - c o o l e d : class O A / F A / F O A
( 9 ) L o a d s involving abnormal harmonic ( 2 ) Liquid-immersed, self-cooled/forced-air-
currents such as t h o s e w h i c h m a y result w h e r e forced -liquid - c o o l e d / forced-air - forced - liquid -
appreciable load currents are controlled b y c o o l e d : class O A / F O A / F O A
solid-state or similar devices. Such harmonic 5 . 1 . 3 Liquid-Immersed Water-Cooled
currents m a y cause excessive losses and ab- (1) Liquid-immersed, water-cooled: class OW
normal heating ( 2 ) Liquid-imm ersed^ water-cooled/selfcooled:
( 1 0 ) Specified loading c o n d i t i o n s (kVA out- class O W / A
puts and power factors) associated w i t h multi- 5 . 1 . 4 Liquid-Immersed F o r c e d L i q u i d C o o l e d
winding transformers o r autotransformers (1) L i q u i d - i m m e r s e d , forced-liquid-cooled
( 1 1 ) E x c i t a t i o n e x c e e d i n g either 1 1 0 % rated w i t h forced-air cooler: class F O A
voltage or 1 1 0 % rated volts per Hertz ( 2 ) Liquid-immersed, forced-liquid-cooled,
( 1 2 ) Planned short circuits as a part o f water-cooled: class FOW
regular operating or relaying practice 5 . 2 F r e q u e n c y . Unless otherwise specified,
( 1 3 ) Unusual short-circuit application con- transformers shall be designed for operation
ditions differing from t h o s e described as usual at a frequency o f 6 0 H z .
in S e c t i o n 7
( 1 4 ) Unusual voltage c o n d i t i o n s including 5 . 3 Phases
transient overvoltages, resonance, switching 5 . 3 . 1 General. Transformers described in this
surges, etc, w h i c h m a y require special con- standard are either single phase or three phase.
sideration in insulation design Standard ratings are included in t h e product
( 1 5 ) Unusually strong magnetic fields standards for particular t y p e s of transformers.
When specified, other phase arrangements m a y
NOTE: Solar magnetic disturbances may result in the be provided.
flow of telluric currents in transformer neutrals.
5 . 3 . 2 Scott- or T-Connected Transformers
( 1 6 ) Large transformers with high-current 5 . 3 . 2 . 1 These m a y b e provided t o ac-
isolated phase b u s d u c t s . complish three-phase or two-phase transforma-
t i o n , or vice versa; or t o accomplish three-
NOTE: High current isolated phase bus ducts with phase t o three-phase transformation. Several
accompanying strong magnetic fields may cause unan-
arrangements c o m m o n l y utilized t o accomplish
ticipated circulating currents in transformer tanks and
covers, and in the bus ducts. The losses resulting from such transformations are described here.
these unanticipated currents may result in excessive 5 . 3 . 2 . 2 T w o single-phase transformers are
temperatures if corrective measures are not included in
the design.
assembled in an enclosure, permanently inter-
c o n n e c t e d , w i t h t h e following characteristics:
( 1 7 ) Unusually high nuclear radiation ( 1 ) Performance characteristics shall be based
( 1 8 ) Parallel operation o n bank o p e r a t i o n of three-phase t o two-phase
NOTE: While parallel operation is not unusual, it is
transformation or vice versa.
desirable that users advise the manufacturer if parallel- (2) T h e single-phase transformers may n o t b e
ing with other transformers is planned, and the identifi- identical or interchangeable.
cation o f the transformers so involved.
5 . 3 . 2 . 3 A n assembly utilizing a three-legged
core w i t h main and teaser coil assemblies lo-
cated o n t h e t w o o u t e r legs, and w i t h a center
leg that has n o coil assembly and provides a
5 . R a t i n g Data c o m m o n magnetic circuit for the t w o outer
legs.
5.1 Cooling Classes o f Transformers 5 . 3 . 2 . 4 When specified, t w o identical single-
5 . 1 . 1 Liquid-Immersed Air-Cooled phase transformers shall b e furnished.
(1) Liquid-immersed, self-cooled: class O A ( 1 ) T h e kVA rating of each transformer shall
( 2 ) Liquid-immersed, self-cooled/forced-air- be o n e half t h e bank o u t p u t required, and t h e
c o o l e d : class O A / F A rating o f t h e individual units shall agree w i t h
(3) Liquid-immersed, self-cooled/forced-air- t h e ratings established for single-phase trans-
cooled/forced-air-cooled: class O A / F A / F A formers.

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID

(2) Performance characteristics, e x c e p t heat- Table 2


ing, shall b e based o n single-phase operation. Preferred C o n t i n u o u s k V A Ratings
( 3 ) The temperature rise shall b e based o n
delivering t h e required bank capacity w h e n Single-Phase Transformers Three-Phase Transformers
transforming from three-phase t o t w o - p h a s e or 15
5
from two-phase t o three-phase, as specified. 10 30
(4) Transformers shall b e interchangeable 15 45
25 75
as main and teaser. 37.5 112.5
( 5 ) Regulating taps are n o t usually supplied 50 150
o n transformers for three-phase t o t w o - p h a s e 75 225
100 300
or from two-phase t o three-phase service. When 167 500
taps are required, t h e teaser t a p shall b e 8 6 . 6 % 250 750
of the m e a n regulating taps. ("Mean," as used 333 1000
500 1500
here, refers t o t h e m i d p o i n t o f t h e range o f 2000
regulating taps.) 833 2500
1250 3750
5 . 4 Rated kVA 1667 5000
5 . 4 . 1 General. T h e rated kVA of a trans- 2500 7500
3333 10 0 0 0
former shall be t h e o u t p u t t h a t can be delivered 12 0 0 0
for t h e t i m e specified at rated secondary volt- 5000 15 0 0 0
age and rated frequency w i t h o u t e x c e e d i n g 6667 20 000
8333 25 000
t h e specified temperature-rise limitations under 10 0 0 0 30 000
prescribed c o n d i t i o n s of test, and w i t h i n t h e 12 5 0 0 37 5 0 0
limitations o f established standards. 16 667 50 000
20 000 60 000
5 . 4 . 2 Preferred C o n t i n u o u s kVA Ratings. 25 0 0 0 75 000
Preferred c o n t i n u o u s kVA ratings o f single- 33 3 3 3 100 000
phase and three-phase distribution and p o w e r
transformers are based o n an average w i n d i n g
rise b y resistance o f 6 5 °C in accordance w i t h
5 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 and are listed in Table 2 . 5 . 7 . 1 Polarity o f Single-Phase Transformers.
Single-phase transformers in sizes 2 0 0 kVA
5.5 Voltage Ratings and Taps and b e l o w having high-voltage ratings 8 6 6 0 V
5 . 5 . 1 General. Standard nominal system and b e l o w (winding voltage) shall have additive
voltages and maximum system voltages are polarity. All other single-phase transformers
included in A N S I C 8 4 . 1 - 1 9 7 7 , and are listed shall have subtractive polarity.
in Table 3 . 5 . 7 . 2 Angular D i s p l a c e m e n t ( N o m i n a l ) Be-
5 . 5 . 2 Voltage Ratings. The voltage ratings t w e e n V o l t a g e s of Windings for Three-Phase
shall be at n o load and based o n t h e turn ratio. Transformers. T h e angular displacement be-
5 . 5 . 3 Ratings o f Transformer Taps. When- t w e e n high-voltage and low-voltage phase
ever a transformer is provided w i t h taps from voltages o f three-phase transformers with
a winding t h e y shall b e full capacity taps. A—A or Y—Y c o n n e c t i o n s shall be zero degrees.
When specified, other than full capacity taps The angular d i s p l a c e m e n t b e t w e e n high-
may be provided, and this shall b e stated o n voltage and low-voltage phase voltages of three-
t h e nameplate. phase transformers w i t h Y—A or A—Y c o n -
n e c t i o n s shall be 3 0 ° , w i t h t h e low-voltage
NOTE: Transformers with load-tap-changing equip-
lagging t h e high-voltage as s h o w n in Fig 1.
ment c o m m o n l y have reduced capacity taps for taps
below rated winding voltage. The angular d i s p l a c e m e n t o f a p o l y p h a s e trans-
former is t h e t i m e angle expressed in degrees
5 . 6 C o n n e c t i o n s . Standard c o n n e c t i o n arrange- b e t w e e n t h e line-to-neutral voltage of t h e
ments are included in t h e standards for particu- reference identified high-voltage terminal H j
lar t y p e s o f transformers, and in ANSI and the line-to-neutral voltage o f the corre-
C57.12.70-1978. s p o n d i n g identified low-voltage terminal X . t

5.7 Polarity, Angular D i s p l a c e m e n t , and Ter- NOTE: Additional phasor diagrams are described in
minal Markings ANSI C 5 7 . 1 2 . 7 0 - 1 9 7 8 .

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ANSI/IEEE
IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER A N D REGULATING T R A N S F O R M E R S C57.12.00-1980

Y-Y CONNECTION A - Y CONNECTION

Figl
Phase Relation o f Terminal Designations for
Three-Phase Transformers

5 . 7 . 3 Terminal Markings. Terminal markings identity o f a s e t o f c o o r d i n a t e d levels shall be


shall b e in accordance w i t h A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 7 0 - its basic lightning impulse insulation level (BIL).
1978. When specified, transformers shall also b e
designed t o provide c o o r d i n a t e d front-of-wave
5.8 I m p e d a n c e . T h e i m p e d a n c e shall b e impulse insulation levels.
referred t o a temperature equal t o t h e s u m 5 . 1 0 . 1 Line Terminals
of t h e rated average winding temperature rise 5 . 1 0 . 1 . 1 Each line terminal o f a winding
by resistance, plus 2 0 °C. Preferred standard shall b e assigned a basic lightning impulse
values o f i m p e d a n c e are included in t h e prod- insulation level (BIL) from Table 3 .
u c t standards for particular t y p e s of trans- 5 . 1 0 . 1 . 2 Each line terminal shall have a
formers. l o w frequency insulation level from terminal-
to-ground ( n o t necessarily t o neutral) that is
5.9 Total Losses. T h e total losses o f a trans-
c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h its BIL as s h o w n in Table 4.
former shall b e t h e s u m o f t h e no-load losses
5 . 1 0 . 1 . 3 When applicable, each line termi-
and t h e load losses.
nal shall have a switching impulse insulation
Power required for c o o l i n g fans, oil p u m p s ,
level that is c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h its BIL as s h o w n
space heaters, a n d o t h e r ancillary e q u i p m e n t is
in Table 4 .
n o t included in t h e total loss. When specified,
5 . 1 0 . 1 . 4 A u t o transformers w i t h grounded
loss data o n such ancillary e q u i p m e n t shall b e
neutrals c a n n o t a l w a y s b e tested at t h e assigned
furnished.
low-frequency insulation levels; however, t h e
The standard reference temperature for t h e
windings shall b e insulated for t h e specified
load loss o f p o w e r and distribution transformers
insulation levels.
shall b e 8 5 ° C .
5 . 1 0 . 2 Neutral Terminals
5 . 1 0 Insulation Levels. Transformers shall be 5 . 1 0 . 2 . 1 T h e neutral terminal o f a winding
designed t o provide c o o r d i n a t e d low-frequency, i n t e n d e d for Y c o n n e c t i o n o n l y m a y have an
lightning impulse, a n d switching impulse insula- insulation level l o w e r than that for t h e line
tion levels o n line terminals; and low-frequency terminal in accordance w i t h t h e following
insulation levels o n neutral terminals. T h e paragraphs.

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R LIQUID

Table 3
Relationships of Nominal System Voltage t o Maximum System
Voltage and Basic Lightning Impulse Insulation Levels (BILs)
for Systems 1 1 0 0 kV and Below

Nominal Maximum System Voltage


System (from ANSI C84.1-1977 Basic Lightning Impulse
Voltage and ANSI C92.2-1978) Insulation Levels (BILs)
Application (kV rms) (kV rms) in Common Use (kV crest)

Distribution 1.2 30
2.5 45
5.0 60
8.7 75
15.0 95
25.0 150 125
34.5 200 150 125
*46.0 48.3 250 200
69.0 72.5 350 250

Power 1.2 45 30
2.5 60 45
5.0 75 60
8.7 95 75
15.0 110 95
25.0 150
34.5 200
*46.0 48.3 250 200
69.0 72.5 350 250
115.0 121.0 550 450 350
138.0 145.0 650 550 450
*161.0 169.0 750 650 550
230.0 242.0 1050 900 825 750 65C
345.0 362.0 1175 1050 900 825
500.0 550.0 1675 1550 1425 1300
765.0 800.0 2050 1925 1800
1100.0 1200.0 2425 2300 2175 2050

* Non-preferred voltage (ANSI C84.1-1977)


NOTES: (1) BIL values in bold type-face are listed as standard in ANSI C57.12.10-1977, C57.12.20-1974, C57.12.21-
1980, C57.12.22-1980, C57.12.23-1978, C57.12.24-1978, C57.12.25-1975, and C57.12.26-1975, and C57.12.30-
1977.
(2) When specified, and when suitable surge protection and effective grounding are provided, lower insulation
levels may be used in transformers. For high-voltage systems it is common to use insulation dependent on the degree
of surge protection obtainable. For example, in 230 kV systems, BILs with corresponding low-frequency tests of
1050, 900, 825, 750, and 650 kV have been used. Application of reduced BILs is most common on grounded Y-
connected systems. In applying A-connected transformers with reduced BILs the system should be reviewed for
effective grounding adequacy.
(3) When reduced BILs are involved, internal and external phase-to-phase low-frequency insulation levels should
not be reduced below the values listed in Table 6.
(4) Single-phase distribution and power transformers and regulating transformers for voltage ratings between
terminals of 8.7 kV and below are designed for both Y and A connection and are insulated for the test voltages
corresponding to the Y connection, so that a single line of transformers serves for the Y and A applications. The
test voltages for such transformers when operated A-connected are, therefore, higher than needed for their voltage
rating.
(5) For series windings in transformers such as regulating transformers, the test values to ground shall be deter-
mined by the BIL of the series windings rather than by the rated voltage between terminals.

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IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER A N D REGULATING T R A N S F O R M E R S C57.12.00-1980

Table 4
Interrelationships of Dielectric Insulation
Levels for Transformers Used on Systems with
BILs 2 4 2 5 kV and Below

Low * Impulse Levels *Switching Surge


Frequency — T Front-of-Wave Level (line-to-
Voltage Chopped Wave Impulse Levels ground)
Insulation — (kV
Level Full Minimum Minimum Specific Crest)
(kVrms) Wave Time to Crest Time to
BIL (kV Flashover Voltage Sparkover
Application kV Crest) (kV Crest) (/is) (kV) (p&)
Distribution 30 10 30 36 1.0 —

45 15 45 54 1.5 — —
60 19 60 69 1.5 — — —
75 26 75 88 1.6 — — —
95 34 95 110 1.8 - - -

125 40 125 145 2.25 — — —


150 50 150 175 3.0 — —
200 70 200 230 3.0 — — —
250 95 250 290 3.0 — — —
350 140 350 400 3.0 — — —
Power 45 10 45 54 1.5 — ho
60 15 60 69 1.5 - — f35
75 19 75 88 1.6 --
95 26 95 110 1.8 165 0.5 f 55
110 34 110 130 2.0 195 0.5
150 50 150 175 3.0 260 0.5 tioo
200 70 200 230 3.0 345 0.5 tl40
250 95 250 290 3.0 435 0.5 1190
350 140 350 400 3.0 580 0.58 ?280
450 185 450 520 3.0 710 0.71 375
550 230 550 630 3.0 825 0.825 460
650 275 650 750 3.0 960 0.96 540
750 325 750 865 3.0 1070 1.07 620
825 360 825 950 3.0 1150 1.15 685
900 395 900 1035 3.0 1240 1.24 745
975 430 975 1120 3.0 _ _ 810
1050 460 1050 1210 3.0 1400 1.40 870
1175 520 1175 1350 3.0 1530 1.53 975
1300 575 1300 1500 3.0 — — 1080
1425 630 1425 1640 3.0 - - 1180
1550 690 1550 1780 3.0 — 1290
1675 750 1675 1925 3.0 — - 1390
1800 800 1800 2070 3.0 — — 1500
1925 860 1925 2220 3.0 - — 1600
2050 920 2050 2360 3.0 - - 1700
2175 980 2175 2500 3.0 — — 1800
2300 1040 2300 2650 3.0 — _ 1900
2425 1090 2425 2800 3.0 - - 2010
*Test made only when specified.
^Must be specified prior to transformer design.
TWhen specified, switching surge tests are normally specified only on one winding of 450 kV BIL and higher^
These voltage values shall be used to establish the limiting induced switching surge voltage in low-voltage windings
when a high-voltage winding is tested.

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C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID

Table 5
M i n i m u m Insulation Levels a t Neutral

Nominal Minimum L o w Frequency Voltage


System Insulation Level (kV RMS)
Voltage Grounded Through
Grounded
(kV)* a Ground Fault
Solidly or Grounded
Through a Through a Neutralize^ or
Current Regulating Isolated but
Application Transformer Transformer Impulse Protected
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4

Distribution 1.2 10 10 10
2.5 15 15 15
5.0 19 19 19
8.7 26 26 26
15.0 26 26 26

25.0 26 26 34
34.5 26 26 40
46.0 34 34 70
69.0 34 34 95

Power 1.2 10 10 10
2.5 15 15 15
5.0 19 19 19
8.7 26 26 26
15.0 26 26 26

25.0 26 26 34
34.5 26 26 50
46.0 34 34 70
69.0 34 34 95

* F o r higher line terminal system voltages than shown above, the insulation level
at the neutral shall be specified t o conform with service requirements, but in n o
case shall be less than the insulation levels listed.
NOTE: When specified, Y—Y connected transformers using a c o m m o n , solidly
grounded neutral may use a neutral bushing selected in accordance with the require-
ments of the LV winding.

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IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER A N D REGULATING TRANSFORMERS C57.12.00-1980

When specified, neutrals shall b e designed than that specified in c o l u m n 4 o f Table 5.


for a specific BIL instead o f a l o w frequency 5.10.2.6 T h e insulation level o f t h e neutral
insulation level. end of a winding m a y differ from t h e insula-
t i o n level o f t h e neutral bushing furnished, or
NOTE: IEEE Std 3 2 - 1 9 7 2 , ( R 1 9 7 8 ) , includes addi-
tional information on neutral insulation, application, for w h i c h provision is m a d e for future instal-
etc. lation. In this case, t h e dielectric tests o n t h e
neutral shall b e d e t e r m i n e d by whichever is
5.10.2.2 A transformer for Y c o n n e c t i o n
l o w e r , t h e insulation o f t h e neutral e n d o f t h e
o n l y with t h e neutral brought o u t a n d solidly
winding, or t h e insulation level of t h e neutral
grounded directly or through a current trans-
bushing shipped w i t h t h e transformer.
former shall b e assigned l o w frequency insula-
t i o n levels at t h e w i n d i n g neutral a n d neutral 5.10.3 Windings
terminal (if present) n o t less t h a n t h o s e speci- 5.10.3.1 Windings-to-ground insulation lev-
fied in c o l u m n 2 o f Table 5 . els ( l o w f r e q u e n c y , lightning impulse and
switching i m p u l s e ) o f ungraded windings shall
5.10.2.3 A transformer winding designed
be maintained t h r o u g h o u t t h e winding.
for Y c o n n e c t i o n o n l y w i t h t h e neutral brought
5.10.3.2 Windings w i t h grounded neutrals
o u t and c o n n e c t e d t o ground through t h e series
and w i t h ratios o f assigned (or specified) BILs
winding o f a regulating transformer shall have
different than t h e w i n d i n g turns ratios shall b e
a low-frequency insulation level a t t h e neutral
insulated for t h e assigned (or specified) insula-
as determined b y t h e m a x i m u m voltage (phase
t i o n levels.
t o neutral) o f t h e regulating transformer e x c e p t
that t h e low-frequency insulation level shall 5.10.3.3 T h e l o w frequency turn-to-turn
n o t be less than specified in c o l u m n 3 o f Table insulation level o f a w i n d i n g shall b e twice t h e
5. T h e same insulation level shall apply t o t h e rated turn-to-turn voltage.
series winding o f t h e regulating transformer. 5.10.3.4 Windings With No Terminals
If t h e neutral of t h e regulating transformer is Brought Out. Windings that have n o terminals
brought o u t , i t shall have a BIL n o t less than brought o u t shall b e capable o f withstanding
t h e value specified in c o l u m n 2 o f Table 5. t h e induced voltages resulting from lightning
5.10.2.4 A transformer winding designed impulse or switching impulse voltages applied
for Y c o n n e c t i o n o n l y , w i t h t h e neutral brought t o other windings o f t h e transformer at their
o u t and c o n n e c t e d t o ground through t h e series respective BILs.
winding o f a regulating transformer a n d a
separate neutral i m p e d a n c e , shall have a l o w - NOTE: It is suggested that connections of surge
frequency insulation level at t h e neutral as arresters be made t o any tertiary windings which have
terminals brought out.
determined from t h e addition o f t h e m a x i m u m
voltage (phase-to-neutral) o f t h e regulating
transformer a n d t h e m a x i m u m low-frequency 5.10.3.5 Series Windings. Series windings
voltage across t h e separate neutral i m p e d a n c e ; in transformers such as regulating transformers,
e x c e p t that t h e low-frequency insulation level and preventive reactor autotransformers, shall
shall n o t be less than specified in c o l u m n 3 o f have a l o w frequency voltage insulation level
Table 5. T h e same low-frequency insulation t o ground as governed b y t h e BIL of t h e series
level shall apply t o t h e series winding of t h e winding terminals irrespective of the rated
regulating transformer. T h e neutral o f t h e voltage b e t w e e n terminals.
regulating transformer shall b e determined 5.10.3.6 Taps. Transformer windings m a y
b y t h e m a x i m u m low-frequency voltage across be provided with taps for voltages above rated
the neutral i m p e d a n c e b u t shall n o t be less voltage w i t h o u t increasing t h e insulation level
than specified in c o l u m n 2 o f Table 5. provided t h e maximum system voltage is n o t
5.10.2.5 A transformer winding designed exceeded.
for Y c o n n e c t i o n o n l y , w i t h t h e neutral brought 5.10.4 B e t w e e n Line Terminals. A phase-to-
o u t and c o n n e c t e d t o ground through a ground phase insulation level shall b e provided b e t w e e n
fault neutralizer, or with t h e neutral brought line terminals o f each three-phase transformer
o u t and isolated a n d impulse p r o t e c t e d , shall in accordance w i t h Table 4 , or Table 6 where
have a l o w frequency insulation level n o t less applicable.

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C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID

5 . 1 0 . 5 Other Insulation Levels. Additional full wave, c h o p p e d - w a v e , a n d full-wave tests.


information regarding other insulation levels ( 2 ) Front-of-Wave Lightning Impulse Tests.
associated w i t h t h e various BILs is s h o w n in When specified, front-of-wave lightning impulse
Table 4 . The l o w e s t BIL, 3 0 kV, applies d o w n tests shall b e p e r f o r m e d in a d d i t i o n t o t h e
t o and including 1 2 0 V windings. tests o f 5 . 1 0 . 6 . 3 ( 1 ) above.
5 . 1 0 . 6 Dielectric Test Capability Require- 5 . 1 0 . 6 . 4 Lightning Impulse Voltage Tests
m e n t s . Transformers shall b e designed t o w i t h - — Exceptions
stand l o w frequency, lightning impulse and ( 1 ) Impulse tests shall n o t b e m a d e o n wind-
switching impulse tests, as described in S e c t i o n ings that d o n o t have terminals brought o u t
8; e x c e p t as n o t e d in 5 . 1 0 . 6 . 2 and 5 . 1 0 . 6 . 4 . through t h e tank or cover.
When specified, t h e y shall be designed t o with- ( 2 ) Front-of-wave tests are n o t r e c o m m e n d e d
stand front-of-wave impulse tests at levels o n low-voltage or tertiary windings that are n o t
s h o w n in Table 4 . For test procedures, see e x p o s e d t o lightning and t h a t are c o n n e c t e d
ANSI/IEEE C57.12-90-1980. directly t o user e q u i p m e n t having l o w impulse
5 . 1 0 . 6 . 1 L o w - F r e q u e n c y V o l t a g e Tests — strengths. This includes low-voltage windings
General of generator transformers, and transformer
( 1 ) A voltage-to-ground ( n o t necessarily t o windings t h a t operate at 5 0 0 0 V or less.
neutral) shall be d e v e l o p e d at each terminal ( 3 ) Front-of-wave lightning impulse test
in accordance w i t h Table 4 . For ungraded tolerances. In order t o provide s o m e tolerance
windings, this voltage shall be maintained in practical testing, a negative tolerance of 0.1
throughout t h e winding. JUS t o t h e tabulated t i m e s in Table 4 shall be
( 2 ) A phase-to-phase voltage shall be devel- permitted. Since t h e t e s t is m o r e severe w i t h
o p e d b e t w e e n line terminals o f each three-phase duration, a permissible limit shall b e a positive
winding in accordance w i t h Table 4 , or Table tolerance of 0 . 3 jus. If in m a k i n g a n y front-of-
6, where applicable. wave test, t h e negative tolerance of - 0 . 1
( 3 ) T w o t i m e s rated turn-to-turn voltage is e x c e e d e d , t h e test m a y b e considered as hav-
shall be d e v e l o p e d in each winding. ing b e e n m e t provided t h e crest voltage attained
5 . 1 0 . 6 . 2 L o w - F r e q u e n c y V o l t a g e Tests — in such t e s t shall have equalled or e x c e e d e d t h e
Exceptions voltage d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n :
( 1 ) Subject t o t h e limitation t h a t t h e voltage-
to-ground test m u s t b e performed as specified Voltage = Specified M i n i m u m Crest Voltage

( (I^p)
in 5 . 1 0 . 6 . 1 ( 1 ) o n t h e line terminals of t h e
winding with the l o w e s t ratio o f t e s t voltage
x lt
t o m i n i m u m turns; t h e t e s t levels m a y other-
wise be reduced such that n o n e o f the three
tests required in 5 . 1 0 . 6 . 1 n e e d b e e x c e e d e d in
order t o m e e t t h e requirements o f the other where
t w o , or such that n o winding n e e d be t e s t e d T = specified t i m e t o sparkover in ixs
above its specified level in order t o m e e t t h e T x = actual t i m e measured in /zs
test requirements of a n o t h e r winding. A = 4 for 6 9 kV n o m i n a l s y s t e m voltage
(2) For A windings, t h e voltage-to-ground and a b o v e
developed at each terminal shall be in ac- = 3 for 4 6 kV n o m i n a l s y s t e m voltage
cordance with Table 4 for t h e BIL specified; and b e l o w
however, the voltage within t h e w i n d i n g m a y
NOTE: For minimum test voltages, see Table 4.
be reduced t o 87% o f the voltage d e v e l o p e d
at t h e terminals, a n d m a y be further r e d u c e d 5 . 1 0 . 6 . 5 S w i t c h i n g Impulse V o l t a g e Tests
t o 67% w h e n specified b y t h e user and w h e r e — General. When specified, switching impulse
the transformer is i n t e n d e d for application o n voltage tests shall be performed.
an effectively grounded s y s t e m (X /X 0 p less
NOTE: Since this test is a turns ratio test, the specifi-
than three and R /X less than o n e ) .
Q P
cation of t w o or more switching surge values, if not
5 . 1 0 . 6 . 3 Lightning Impulse V o l t a g e Tests coordinated, will result in over-insulating windings.
— General The selection of the highest voltage winding switching
surge level only is recommended with the other wind-
( 1 ) Lightning Impulse Tests. When specified, ings being checked by turns ratio for the adequacy
t h e lightning impulse t e s t shall include r e d u c e d of the resulting switching surge at these terminals.

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IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER A N D REGULATING T R A N S F O R M E R S C57.12.00-1980

Table 6 5 . 1 1 . 2 C o n d i t i o n s U n d e r Which Tempera-


M i n i m u m Phase-to-Phase Insulation ture Rise Limits A p p l y . Temperature limits
Levels for Three-Phase P o w e r Transformers shall n o t be e x c e e d e d w h e n the transformer is
operating o n t h e c o n n e c t i o n that will produce
*f Minimum t h e highest w i n d i n g temperature rise above
•Nominal Low-Frequency
a m b i e n t temperature and is delivering:
System Phase-to-Phase
Voltage Voltage Insulation ( 1 ) R a t e d kVA o u t p u t at rated secondary
(kV) Level (kV rms) voltage if there are n o taps
( 2 ) R a t e d kVA o u t p u t at t h e rated second-
25.0 42
34.5 57 ary voltage for that c o n n e c t i o n if it is rated
46.0 76 kVA tap c o n n e c t i o n
69.0 115 ( 3 ) A t t h e rated secondary voltage of that
115.0 185
138.0 230 c o n n e c t i o n , t h e kVA o u t p u t corresponding t o
t h e rated current of t h e tap if the c o n n e c t i o n
161.0 275 is a r e d u c e d kVA tap c o n n e c t i o n
230.0 395
345.0 575 (4) A specified c o m b i n a t i o n o f kVA outputs
500.0 825 at specified p o w e r factors (for each winding)
765.0 1260
1100.0 1815
for multi-winding transformers.
( 5 ) R a t e d kVA o u t p u t at rated volts per
• F o r nominal system voltages not in the table, use a Hertz.
voltage insulation level not less than 1.65 times the
nominal system voltage. NOTE: As used here, the term rated secondary volt-
t T h e low-frequency voltage insulation requirement be- age or rated current means the value assigned by the
tween phases shall not be lower than the low-frequency manufacturer and s h o w n o n the nameplate.
voltage insulation level requirement from line-to-ground.
5.12 Nameplates
5 . 1 2 . 1 N a m e p l a t e s . A durable metal name-
plate shall b e affixed t o each transformer b y
t h e manufacturer. Unless otherwise specified,
5 . 1 1 Temperature Rise and Loading Con- it shall b e m a d e of corrosion-resistant material.
ditions It shall bear t h e rating and other essential
5 . 1 1 . 1 Limits o f Observable Temperature operating data as specified b e l o w .
Rise
5 . 1 1 . 1 . 1 Winding Rise. The average wind- NOTE: Although this standard recognizes the possi-
ing temperature rise above a m b i e n t tempera- bility of using SI (System International) units as an
alternative to the system of units used in the past,
ture shall n o t e x c e e d 6 5 °C w h e n measured b y it is not intended that both appear on the specific
resistance, and t h e winding h o t t e s t s p o t t e m - nameplate.
perature shall n o t e x c e e d 8 0 °C.
5 . 1 1 . 1 . 2 Other Winding Rises. Other wind- 5 . 1 2 . 2 N a m e p l a t e Information. Unless other-
ing rises m a y be r e c o g n i z e d for unusual ambient wise specified, t h e m i n i m u m information
c o n d i t i o n s , or for special applications. These s h o w n o n t h e nameplate shall be that specified
are specified in appropriate applications, or in in Table 8 and associated n o t e s , and in ac-
certain product standards. cordance w i t h t h e following categories:
5 . 1 1 . 1 . 3 Rises o f Metallic Parts, Other ( 1 ) N a m e p l a t e A shall be used o n trans-
than Windings. Metallic parts in c o n t a c t w i t h formers rated 5 0 0 kVA or less w i t h high-
current-carrying c o n d u c t o r insulation shall n o t voltage basic impulse insulation level (BIL)
attain a temperature rise in e x c e s s of t h e less than 1 5 0 kV
winding h o t t e s t s p o t temperature rise. ( 2 ) N a m e p l a t e B shall be used on trans-
Metallic parts other than t h o s e described in formers rated 5 0 0 kVA or less which are n o t
the preceding paragraph shall n o t attain e x c e s - covered a b o v e
sive temperature rises at m a x i m u m rated ( 3 ) N a m e p l a t e C shall be used o n trans-
load. formers rated m o r e than 5 0 0 kVA
The temperature rise o f t h e insulating liquid 5 . 1 2 . 3 S c h e m a t i c Representation. Windings
shall n o t e x c e e d 6 5 °C w h e n measured near t h e shall be represented as s h o w n in Fig 2.
t o p of t h e main tank.

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C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID

Fig 2
(a) Designation of Voltage Ratings of Single-Phase Windings (Schematic Representation)

Identifi-
cation Nomenclature Nameplate Marking Typical Winding Diagram Condensed U s a g e Guide

LJ
UMa) E 34500 E shall indicate a winding o f E volts which is
suitable for A c o n n e c t i o n o n an E volt s y s t e m .

LJ
E / E ] Y shall indicate a winding of E volts
(1Mb) E/EiY 2400/4160Y which is suitable for A connection on an E volt
s y s t e m or for Y connection on an Ei volt system.

E / E ) G r d Y shall indicate a winding of E volts


having reduced insulation which is suitable for
II Mc) E/EiGrdY 3 9 8 4 0 / 6 9 OOOGrdY A connection on an E volt s y s t e m or Y connec-
tion on an Ej volt s y s t e m , transformer neutral
effectively grounded.

E i G r d Y / E shall indicate a winding of E volts


with reduced insulation at the neutral end. The
(lMd) E GrdY/E
I
12 4 7 0 G r d Y / 7 2 0 0 neutral end may be connected directly to the tank
for Y or for single-phase operation on an Ei volt
s y s t e m , provided the neutral end of the winding
is effectively grounded.

E / 2 E shall indicate a winding, the sections of


which can be c o n n e c t e d in parallel for operation
at E volts, or which can be connected in series
{lite) E/2E 120/240, 240/480 for operation at 2E volts, or connected in series
with a center terminal for three-wire operation
at 2E volts between the extreme terminals and E
volts between the center terminal and each of
the extreme terminals

2 E / E shall indicate a winding for 2E volts,


two-wire full kVA between extreme terminals,
(I) if) 2E/E 240/120 or for 2 E / E volts three-wire service with Vfe
kVA available only, from midpoint to each ex-
treme terminal.

240 X 480 V X V shall indicate a winding for parallel


x

UMg) VXV, 2 4 0 0 / 4 1 6 0 Y X 4800/8320Y or series operation only but not suitable for three-
wire service.

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IMMERSED D I S T R I B U T I O N , POWER A N D R E G U L A T I N G T R A N S F O R M E R S C57.12.00-1980

Fig 2
( b ) D e s i g n a t i o n o f V o l t a g e R a t i n g s o f Three-Phase Windings ( S c h e m a t i c R e p r e s e n t a t i o n )

Identify
cation Nomenclature Nameplate Marking Typical Winding Diagram Condensed Usage Guide

E shall indicate a winding which is perman-


(2)la) E 2400 ently A connected for operation on an E volt
system.

E Y shall indicate a winding which is perman-


t

(2)lb) EtY 4160Y ently Y connected without a neutral brought out


(isolated) for operation on an Ei volt system.

E , Y / E shall indicate a winding which is perma-


(2) (c) E,Y/E 4160Y/2400
uuu nently Y connected with a fully insulated neutral
brought out for operation on an E volt system,
with E volts available from line t o neutral.
t

E / E , Y shall indicate a winding which may be


(2)id) E/E,Y 2400/4160Y A connected for operation on an E volt system,
or may be Y connected without a neutral brought
out (isolated) for operation on an Ei volt system.

E / E ) Y / E shall indicate a winding which may


be A connected for operation on an E volt system
(2) (e) E/E,Y/E 2400/4160Y/2400 or may be Y connected with a fully insulated
neutral brought out for operation on an E, volt
s y s t e m with E volts available from line to neutral.

E | G r d Y / E shall indicate a winding with re


duced insulation and permanently Y connected,
i2) it) E,GrdY/E 69 000GrdY/39 840 with a neutral brought out and effectively
L} U) grounded for operation on an E, volt system with
E volts available from line to neutral.

E / E G r d Y / E shall indicate a winding, having


t

(2) (g) E/E,GrdY/E 39 840/69 000GrdY/39 840 reduced insulation, which may be A connected
for operation on an E volt system or may be con
nected Y with a neutral brought out and effec-
oj frl, - oj tively grounded for operation on an E , volt sys-
tem with E volts available from line to neutral

V X V shall indicate a winding, the sections


t

7200 X 14 400 of w h i c h may b e c o n n e c t e d in parallel t o obtain


one of the voltage ratings (as defined in a. b, c, d,
(2)in) V X V, e, f, and g ) of V. or may be connected in series t o
obtain one of the voltage ratings (as defined in
4 1 6 0 Y / 2 4 0 0 X 12 470Y/7200 a. b, c. d. e, f. and g) of V,, Windings are per-
manently A or Y connected.

(3) EmGrdY/EH-EixGrdY/Ex-Ey

138 000GrdY/79 6 8 0 - 6 9 000GrdY/39 8 4 0 - 1 3 800

|"w*y\
Example of three-winding autotransformer
with a A tertiary.

NOTES: (1) E = line-to-neutral voltage of a Y winding, or line-to-line voltage of a A winding.


(2) E = y/3 E
x

(3) Additional subscripts H, X, and Y (when used) identify high voltage, low voltage, and tertiary voltage windings.
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C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID

Table 7
Nameplate Information

NAMEPLATE A NAMEPLATE B NAMEPLATE C

Serial Number (1)* Serial Number (1) Serial Number (1)


Class (OA, OA/FA, etc) (2) Class (OA, OA/FA, etc) (2) Class (OA, OA/FA, FOA, etc) (2)
Number of phases Number of phases Number of phases
Frequency Frequency Frequency
kVA rating (1), (2) kVA rating (1), (2) kVA rating (or MVA) (1), (2)
Voltage ratings (1), (3) Voltage ratings (1), (3) Voltage ratings (1), (3)
Tap voltages (4) Tap voltages (4) Tap voltages (4)
Temperature rise, degrees C Temperature rise, degrees C Temperature rise, degrees C (2)
Polarity (single-phase transformers) Polarity (single-phase transformers) Polarity.(single-phase transformers)
Phasor diagram (polyphase Phasor diagram (polyphase Phasor diagram (polyphase
transformers) transformers) transformers)
Percent impedance (5) Percent impedance (5) Percent impedance (5)
Approximate total mass in pounds Basic lightning impulse insulation Basic lightning impulse insulation
(Kg) (7) levels (BIL) (6) levels (BIL) (6)
Connection diagram (9) Approximate masses in pounds Approximate masses in pounds
Name of manufacturer (Kg) (8) (Kg) (8)
Installation and operating Connection diagram (9) Connection diagram (9)
instructions reference Name of manufacturer Name of manufacturer
The word transformer or Installation and operating Installation and operating
autotransformer instructions reference instructions reference
Type of insulating liquid The word transformer or The word transformer or
(generic name preferred) autotransformer au to transformer
Conductor material (of each Type of insulating liquid Step-up operation suitability (10)
winding) (generic name preferred) Tank, pressure, and liquid data (11)
Conductor material (of each Type of insulating liquid
winding) (generic name preferred)
Conductor material (of each
winding)

•Numbers in parentheses refer to the Notes below and on Page 23.


NOTES: (1) The letters and numerals showing kVA, serial number, and voltage ratings shall have a minimum height
of 0.156 in (3.97 mm) whether engraved or stamped. The height of other letters and numerals shall be optional with
the manufacturer.
(2) Where the class of transformer involves more than one kVA (or MVA) rating, all ratings shall be shown.
Any winding, such as tertiary, which has a different rating shall have its kVA (or MVA) suitably described.
Where the transformer has more than one temperature rating, the additional rating shall be shown on the nameplate.
Provision for future forced-cooling equipment shall be indicated.
(3) The voltage ratings of a transformer or autotransformer shall be designated by the voltage rating of each wind-
ing separated by a dash (—), or voltages may be listed in tables. The winding voltage ratings shall be designated as
specified in Fig 2.
If the transformer is suitable for Y connection the nameplate shall be so marked except that, on a two-winding
single-phase transformer which is insulated for Y connection on both windings, the nameplate shall show the Y
voltage on the high-voltage side only for such transformers having high-voltage ratings above 600 V.
(4) The tap voltages of a winding shall be designated by listing the winding voltage of each tap, separated by a
slant (/), or shall be listed in tabular form, the rated voltage of each tap shall be shown in volts, except that for
transformers 500 kVA and smaller with taps in uniform 2.5% or 5% steps, they may be shown as percentages of
rated voltage.
The taps shall be identified on the transformer nameplate by means of letters in sequence, or arabic numerals. The
numeral 1 or letter A shall be assigned to the voltage rating providing the maximum ratio of transformation with
tap changers for deenergized operation.
NOTE: The ratio of transformation is defined as the high-voltage volts divided by low voltage volts.
The normal position shall be designated by the letter N for load-tap-changers. The raise range positions shall be
designated by numerals in ascending order, corresponding to increasing output voltage, followed by the suffix R,
such as If?, 2R, etc. The lower range positions shall be designated by numerals in ascending order, corresponding
to decreasing output voltage, followed by the suffix L, such as 1L, 2L, etc. (this applies to the relationship between
two windings of a transformer only, such as the H and X windings).
This applies to two-winding transformers only.
The rated currents of all windings at the highest kVA rating and on all tap connections shall be shown for trans-
formers 501 kVA and larger.
Any reduced capacity taps shall be identified.
(5) The percent impedance shall be given between each pair of windings, and shall be the tested value for trans-
formers 501 kVA and larger. The voltage connection shall be stated following each percent impedance and, if the
transformer has more than one kVA rating, the kVA base shall be given.
(6) Full wave BIL in kilovolts of line terminals shall be designated as in the following example:
HV Winding 450 BIL
HV Winding Neutral 110 BIL
HV Winding Neutral Bushing 95 BIL
LV Winding 95 BIL
(7) For transformers rated less than 37.5 kVA single-phase or less than 30 kVA polyphase, the mass may be omitted
from the nameplate. Supplemental data shall be available showing volume of oil required and the approximate mass
of the transformer for ratings smaller than those for which the data are shown on the nameplate.

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IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER A N D REGULATING T R A N S F O R M E R S C57.12.00-1980

Table 8
Electrical Characteristics o f Transformer Bushings
(Applies o n l y t o bushings 3 4 . 5 kV and b e l o w n o t listed i n A N S I / I E E E Std 2 4 - 1 9 7 7 )

Outdoor Bushings

Power Transformers^ Distribution Transformers^"


Indoor Bushingsf
60 Hz Impulse 6 0 Hz Impulse
Withstand Full Wave Withstand Full Wave 6 0 Hz Impulse
Minimum With- Full Wave
System Creepage Dry With- Dry With- stand, Dry With-
Voltage Distance 1 min 10 s stand (kV) 1 min 10 s stand (kV) 1 min stand (kV)
(kV)* in m m Dry (kV) W e t ( k V ) ( 1 . 2 X 50fis) Dry(kV) W e t ( k V ) ( 1 . 2 X 50*te) Dry (kV) (1.2 X SOjLts)

1.2 — — — — 10 6 30 —
2.5 — 21 20 60 15 13 45 20 45
5.0 — 27 24 75 21 20 60 24 60
8.7 — — — — 27 24 75 30 75
8.7 7 178 35 30 95 — — — — —
15.0 — — — — 35 30 95 50 §
110 §

18.0 —
— — — 42 36 125 — —
25.0 — — — — — — — 60 150
34.5 — — — — — 80 200

• T h e nominal system voltage values given above are used merely as reference numbers and d o n o t necessarily imply
a relation t o specific operating voltages.
t Power transformers indicate transformers rated above 5 0 0 kVA and distribution transformers indicate transformers
rated 5 0 0 kVA and below.
f Indoor bushings are those intended for use o n indoor transformers. Indoor bushing test values d o not apply t o
bushings used primarily for mechanical protection o f insulated cable leads. Wet test values are not assigned to indoor
bushings.
* Small indoor transformers may be supplied with bushings for a dry test of 3 8 kV and impulse test of 95 kV.

Notes for Table 7 (Continued)

(8) The approximate masses shall be shown as follows:


Core and coils
Tank and fittings
Liquid
Total mass
Untanking mass (heaviest piece)
(9) All winding terminations shall be identified on the nameplate or on the connection diagram.
A schematic plan view shall be included, preferably indicating orientation by locating a fixed accessory such as the
tap changer handle, the load-tap-changer, instruments, or other prominent items. All termination or connection
points shall be permanently marked to agree with the schematic identification. In general, the schematic view should
be arranged to show the low-voltage side at the bottom and the Hi high-voltage terminal at the top left. (This arrange-
ment may be modified in particular cases, such as multi-winding transformers equipped with terminal locations not
conforming to the suggested arrangement.)
Indication of potential transformers, potential devices, current transformers, winding temperature devices, etc,
when used, shall be shown.
Polarity and location identification of current transformers shall be shown if used for metering, relaying, or line-
drop compensation. Polarity need not be shown if current transformers are used for winding temperature equipment
or cooling control.
All internal leads and terminals that are not permanently connected shall be designated or marked with numbers or
letters in a manner which will permit convenient reference and will obviate confusion with terminal and polarity
markings.
Where development of windings is shown, the scallop symbol shall be used in accordance with ANSI/IEEE Std
315-1975.
(10) If the transformer is suitable for step-up operation, the nameplate shall so state.
(11) Provide the following tank, pressure, and liquid data for transformers larger than 500 kVA:
(a) Maximum operating pressures of liquid preservation system psi (kPa) positive and psi (kPa) negative.
(b) Tank designed for psi (kPa) vacuum filling.
(c) Liquid level below top surface of the highest point of the highest manhole flange at 25 °C in (mm).
Liquid level changes in (mm) per 10 °C change in liquid temperature. (This applies only to transformers which
have a gas cushion above the liquid in the transformer.)
The volume of insulating liquid in gallons (m ) and type shall be shown for the main tank and for each liquid-filled
3

compartment.
NOTE: It is suggested that when SI units are used, that liters be used for volumes less than 1000 liters; and cubic
meters for volumes 1000 liters and larger.

23

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS F O R LIQUID

| I N - I 4 U N F 2 THREAD
0.407 12.4 mm
DIA
0402
12.5 mm

152 mm
— 6 IN —
FROM END OF J IN THREAD TO
12.7 mm ± 1 5 9 mm
INSIDE BOTTOM OF WELL

Fig 3
D i m e n s i o n s o f T h e r m o m e t e r Well

6. Construction t h e requirements o f applicable s e c t i o n s o f t h e


A N S I / A S M E Boiler a n d Pressure Vessel C o d e
6 . 1 Bushings. Transformers shall b e e q u i p p e d ( B P V ) , 1 9 7 7 E d i t i o n , are m e t .
w i t h bushings with an insulation level n o t less 6 . 5 . 2 Specific pressure limits a n d tests are
than that o f t h e w i n d i n g terminal t o w h i c h included in standards applying t o particular
t h e y are c o n n e c t e d , unless o t h e r w i s e specified. t y p e s o f transformers.
Bushings for use in transformers shall have
6 . 6 Liquid Insulation S y s t e m
impulse and low-frequency insulation levels
6 . 6 . 1 Insulating Liquids. Transformers shall
as listed in Table 8 a n d A N S I / I E E E S t d 2 4 -
b e filled w i t h a suitable insulating liquid such
1977.
as:
Transformers using bushings having d i m e n -
( 1 ) Mineral Oil. N e w , u n u s e d mineral oil
sions in accordance w i t h A N S I / I E E E S t d 2 4 -
shall m e e t t h e requirements o f A N S I / A S T M
1 9 7 7 shall have bushing m o u n t i n g h o l e s
D3487-79.
adequate t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e m a x i m u m P
dimensions for t h o s e bushings, as s h o w n in t h e NOTE: ANSI/IEEE C 5 7 . 1 0 6 - 1 9 7 7 provides informa-
applicable tables. tion concerning the acceptance and maintenance of
mineral oil, including dielectric test break-down
6.2 Transformer Accessories. Specific informa- criteria according t o oil application, age, and test
method.
tion o n accessories is c o n t a i n e d in t h e standards
applying t o particular t y p e s o f transformers. ( 2 ) Askarel

6 . 3 Bushing Current Transformers. Bushing NOTES: ( 1 ) Introduction of n e w askarel transformers


in the U S ceased in 1 9 7 7 as a result of new laws and
current transformers u s e d with bushings hav- regulations.
ing dimensions in accordance w i t h A N S I / I E E E ( 2 ) IEEE Std 7 6 - 1 9 7 4 provides guidance concerning
Std 2 4 - 1 9 7 7 , shall have an inside diameter the acceptance and maintenance of transformer askarel.
adequate t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e m a x i m u m D
6 . 6 . 2 Insulating Liquid Preservation. Trans-
dimensions for those bushings, s h o w n in t h e
formers shall be e q u i p p e d w i t h an insulating
applicable tables.
liquid preservation s y s t e m such as t h e follow-
6 . 4 T h e r m o m e t e r Wells. Unless otherwise ing:
specified in t h e standard applying t o t h e par- ( 1 ) Sealed Tank
ticular t y p e s o f transformers, d i m e n s i o n s for ( 2 ) Gas-oil Seal
thermometer wells shall b e as s h o w n in Fig 3 . ( 3 ) Conservator
T h e t h e r m o m e t e r well shall b e p o s i t i o n e d in ( 4 ) Conservator/diaphragm
such a w a y that it is at least o n e inch b e l o w t h e
NOTE: The various insulating liquid (oil) preservation
liquid level at m i n i m u m operating temperature systems are described and defined in ANSI/IEEEE
(either - 2 0 °C, or as specified b y t h e user). C57.12.80-1978.

6.5 Tank Pressure R e q u i r e m e n t s 6 . 6 . 3 N i t r o g e n Inert-gas Pressure S y s t e m .


6 . 5 . 1 Tank pressure under rated c o n d i t i o n s The nitrogen for use w i t h inert-gas-protected
of sealed transformers shall n o t e x c e e d t w o transformers shall b e in accordance w i t h
atmospheres ( 2 0 3 kPa) absolute pressure unless A N S I / A S T M D 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 6 4 , ( R 1 9 7 4 ) , T y p e III.

24

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ANSI/IEEE
IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER A N D REGULATING T R A N S F O R M E R S C57.12.00-1980

T h e nitrogen shall b e supplied in 2 0 0 cubic 7 . 1 . 2 Transformer Categories. F o u r cate-


ft ( 5 . 6 6 cubic m ) cylinders e q u i p p e d w i t h gories for t h e rating o f transformers are recog-
C o n n e c t i o n N o 5 8 0 o f A N S I / C G A - V I - 1 9 7 7. nized:
The filling pressure shall be 2 2 0 0 psi ( 1 5 . 2
MPa) at 7 0 ° F ( 2 1 . 1 °C).
Single-Phase Three-Phase
6.7 Grounding
Category kVA kVA
6 . 7 . 1 Transformer Grounding. Transformer
grounding facilities shall b e furnished in I* 5 to 500 15 to 500
accordance w i t h t h e standards for particular II 501 to 1667 501 to 5000
t y p e s o f transformers. III 1668 to 10 000 5001 to 30 000
6 . 7 . 2 Grounding o f Core. T h e transformer IV Above 1 0 0 0 0 Above 3 0 0 0 0
core shall be g r o u n d e d for electrostatic pur-
poses t o t h e transformer tank. NOTE: All kVA ratings are minimum nameplate kVA
for the principal windings.
•Category I shall include distribution transformers
manufactured in accordance with ANSI C57.12.20-
7. Short-Circuit Characteristics 1 9 7 4 up through 5 0 0 kVA, single phase or three phase.
In addition, auto transformers of 5 0 0 equivalent two-
winding kVA or less, that are manufactured as dis-
tribution transformers in accordance with ANSI
7 . 1 Short-Circuit R e q u i r e m e n t s C 5 7 . 1 2 . 2 0 - 1 9 7 4 shall be included in Category I, even
though their nameplate kVAs may exceed 5 0 0 .
7 . 1 . 1 General. Liquid-filled transformers shall
be designed and c o n s t r u c t e d t o withstand t h e
mechanical and thermal stresses p r o d u c e d b y
external short-circuits under t h e c o n d i t i o n s 7 . 1 . 3 Short-Circuit Current Duration
specified in 7 . 1 . 3 , 7 . 1 . 4 , and 7 . 1 . 5 . The ex- 7 . 1 . 3 . 1 General. For Category I, distribu-
ternal short-circuits shall i n c l u d e three-phase, t i o n transformers, t h e duration of t h e short-
single line-to-ground, d o u b l e line-to-ground, circuit current shall b e determined b y t h e
and line-to-line faults o n any o n e set of ter- formula:
minals at a t i m e . Multiwinding transformers
shall be considered t o have s y s t e m fault p o w e r . 1 2 5 0
supplied at n o m o r e t h a n t w o sets of unfaulted
1
I 2

terminals and o n l y at terminals rated m o r e


than 3 5 % o f t h e terminal kVA o f t h e highest where t is t h e duration in seconds and / is
capacity winding. F o r o t h e r fault c o n d i t i o n s , defined in 7 . 1 . 5 . 1
the requirements m u s t be specified b y t h o s e For Category II, III, and IV units, the duration
responsible for t h e application o f the trans- of t h e short-circuit current as defined in 7 . 1 . 4
former. is limited t o 2 s e c o n d s , unless otherwise speci-
It is recognized t h a t short-circuit withstand fied b y t h e user.
capability can be adversely affected b y t h e When u s e d o n circuits having reclosing fea-
cumulative effects of repeated mechanical and tures transformers in all categories shall be
thermal over-stressing, as p r o d u c e d b y short- capable o f withstanding t h e resulting successive
circuits and loads above t h e nameplate rating. short-circuits, w i t h o u t c o o l i n g t o normal
Since m e a n s are n o t available t o c o n t i n u o u s l y operating temperatures b e t w e e n successive oc-
m o n i t o r and quantitatively evaluate t h e de- curence o f t h e short-circuit, provided the
grading effects of such d u t y , short-circuit a c c u m u l a t e d duration of short-circuit d o e s n o t
tests, w h e n required, s h o u l d be performed e x c e e d t h e m a x i m u m duration permitted for
prior t o placing transformer(s) in service. single short-circuits as defined above.
It is n o t t h e i n t e n t i o n of this paragraph that
every transformer b e short-circuit tested t o
demonstrate adequate c o n s t r u c t i o n . NOTES: (1) See 3.2 ( 1 ) for coordination information
When specified, short-circuit tests shall relating t o over current protection of transformers.
( 2 ) For currents between rated current and maxi-
be performed as described in A N S I / I E E E m u m short-circuit current the allowable time duration
C57.12.90-1980. should be obtained by consulting the manufacturer.

25

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS F O R LIQUID

A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 2 . 9 0 - 1 9 8 0 defines a pro- windings in three phase transformers (A-


cedure b y w h i c h t h e mechanical capability c o n n e c t e d windings w i t h n o external terminals)
o f a transformer t o w i t h s t a n d short-circuit shall b e capable of w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e current
stresses may b e d e m o n s t r a t e d . T h e prescribed resulting f r o m a n y o f t h e s y s t e m faults speci-
tests are n o t designed t o verify thermal per- fied in 7 . 1 . 1 , r e c o p i i z i n g t h e s y s t e m grounding
formance. C o n f o r m a n c e t o short-circuit thermal c o n d i t i o n s . A n appropriate stabilizing winding
requirements shall be b y calculation in accord- kVA, voltage a n d i m p e d a n c e shall b e provided.
ance w i t h 7.4 o f this standard. 7 . 1 . 5 Short-Circuit-Current Calculations
7 . 1 . 3 . 2 Duration o f Short-Circuit Tests. 7 . 1 . 5 . 1 Symmetrical Current ( 2 winding
When short-circuit t e s t s are performed t h e transformers)
duration o f each t e s t shall b e 0 . 2 5 s e x c e p t NOTE: For multiwinding transformers and auto-
that o n e test satisfying t h e symmetrical current transformers, the required rms value o f symmetrical
requirement shall b e m a d e for a longer duration current in each winding shall be determined by calcu-
lation based o n applicable system conditions and fault
o n Category I, II, and HI transformers. The types.
duration of t h e l o n g test in each case shall b e
as f o l l o w s : J R

7 = ^ — = s y m m e t r i c a l short-circuit
Category I: SC

T s
current, in rms amperes
1250
where
I2

J = rated current o n t h e given t a p c o n n e c -


R

w h e r e t is t h e duration in seconds. t i o n , in rms a m p e r e s


Z = transformer i m p e d a n c e o n the given
Category II: T

t a p c o n n e c t i o n , in per unit o n the


t = 1.0 s same apparent p o w e r base as 7 R

Z = i m p e d a n c e o f t h e s y s t e m or perma-
Category HI: s

n e n t l y c o n n e c t e d apparatus, in per
t = 0.5s unit o n t h e same apparent p o w e r base
as J
For special applications w h e r e longer fault R

durations will b e c o m m o n in service, special I = j- ~c =


symmetrical short-circuit current,
long duration tests m u s t b e specified at pur- R
in multiples o f normal base cur-
chase. When making consecutive tests w i t h o u t rent
allowing t i m e for winding c o o l i n g , care m u s t b e
exercised t o avoid e x c e e d i n g t h e temperature
limits for transformers under short-circuit Table 9
conditions w h i c h are specified in 7 . 3 . 5 . Distribution Transformer
7 . 1 . 4 Short-Circuit Current Magnitude Short-Circuit Withstand Capability
7 . 1 . 4 . 1 Category I: T h e symmetrical short-
Withstand Capability*
circuit current shall b e calculated using trans- Per Unit of
former impedance o n l y e x c e p t that t h e maxi- Single-Phase Three-Phase Base Current
m u m symmetrical current magnitudes shall n o t kVA kVA (Symmetrical)
e x c e e d t h e values listed in Table 1 0 . 40
5-25 15-75
7 . 1 . 4 . 2 Category II: T h e symmetrical short- 37.5-100 112.5-300 35
circuit current shall be calculated using trans- 167-500 500 25
former impedance o n l y .
•This table applies to all distribution transformers
7 . 1 . 4 . 3 Category III and IV: T h e s y m m e t - with secondaries rated 6 0 0 V and below and to distri-
rical short-circuit current shall be calculated bution autotransformers with secondaries rated above
6 0 0 V. T w o winding distribution transformers with
using transformer i m p e d a n c e plus s y s t e m im-
secondaries rated above 6 0 0 V should be designed to
pedance, as specified b y t h e transformer user. withstand short circuits limited only by the trans-
When system i m p e d a n c e is n o t specified, data former's impedance. Autotransformers having name-
plate kVA's greater than 5 0 0 that are built as distribu-
from 7 . 1 . 5 . 3 , S y s t e m Characteristics, shall be
tion transformers in accordance with ANSI C57.12.20-
used. 1 9 7 4 shall have withstand capabilities of 25 per unit of
7 . 1 . 4 . 4 Stabilizing Windings. Stabilizing base current (symmetrical).

26

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IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER A N D R E G U L A T I N G T R A N S F O R M E R S C57.12.00-1980

7.1.5.2 Asymmetrical Current. T h e first- p e d a n c e shall b e assumed equal t o


cycle asymmetrical peak current w h i c h t h e t h a t o f t h e transformer, if n o t speci-
transformer is required t o withstand shall b e fied.
determined as f o l l o w s : Values o f i f are given in Table 10.
7.1.5.3 S y s t e m Characteristics. F o r Cate-
-^sc (pk asym) "~ ^-^sc gories III and IV t h e characteristics o f t h e
s y s t e m o n each s e t o f terminals o f t h e trans-
where former ( s y s t e m fault capacity and t h e ratio o f
K = [1 + (e +
*0>r/*) sin 0] XQ/XI) should b e specified. For terminals con-
and n e c t e d t o rotating m a c h i n e s , t h e impedance o f
t h e c o n n e c t e d e q u i p m e n t should b e specified.
e = base o f natural logarithm
In lieu o f specified s y s t e m fault capacities a n d
0 = arc tan in radians rotating m a c h i n e i m p e d a n c e s , values shall b e
selected f o r each source from Tables 12 and
— = ratio o f effective alternating-current
reactance t o resistance, b o t h in o h m s , 13. In lieu o f a specified X /X 0 X ratio, a value
in t h e total i m p e d a n c e w h i c h limits of 2.0 shall b e used.
t h e fault current for t h e transformer 7.1.5.4 Current Limitations. Conventional
c o n n e c t i o n s w h e n t h e short circuit transformer materials a n d constructions have
occurs. When t h e s y s t e m i m p e d a n c e inherent short-circuit withstand capability limi-
is included in t h e fault-current calcula- tations. A n e x a m p l e is t h e tensile withstand
t i o n , t h e x/r ratio o f t h e external im- capability o f annealed c o p p e r , which places a
limit o n t h e permissible h o o p tensile stress in
t h e outer w i n d i n g o f a core form transformer.
N e w materials a n d construction techniques
Table 10 have b e e n , a n d will c o n t i n u e t o b e , developed
Values o f K t o e x t e n d t h e withstand capability limitations.
H o w e v e r , in certain circumstances it may n o t
r/x x/r K be possible t o provide t h e requisite strength in
2.824
t h e transformer and in such situations it w o u l d
0.001 1000
0.002 500 2.820 b e c o m e necessary t o limit t h e fault current
0.003 333 2.815 b y m e a n s o f additional i m p e d a n c e external t o
0.004 250 2.811
t h e transformer windings. F o r e x a m p l e , it m a y
0.005 200 2.806
0.006 167 2.802 n o t b e possible t o design a reduced capacity
0.007 143 2.798 auxiliary w i n d i n g t o withstand a fault directly
0.008 125 2.793 o n its terminals. If t h e current requirements o f
0.009 111 2.789
0.010 100 2.785
0.02 50 2.743
0.03 33.3 2.702
0.04 25 2.662
0.05 20 2.624 Table 11
0.06 16.7 2.588 Short-Circuit Apparent P o w e r o f the S y s t e m
0.07 14.3 2.552
0.08 12.5 2.518 t o b e U s e d Unless Otherwise Specified
0.09 11.1 2.484
0.10 10 2.452
System Fault Capacity
0.2 5 2.184
Maximum S y s t e m
0.3 3.33 1.990
Voltage — kV kA (rms) MVA
0.4 2.5 1.849
0.5 2 1.746
Below 4 8 . 3 — 4300
0.6 1.67 1.669
48.3 54 4300
0.7 1.43 1.611
72.5 82 9800
0.8 1.25 1.568
121.0 126 25100
0.9 1.11 1.534
145.0 160 38200
1.0 1 1.509
169.0 100 27900
242.0 126 50200
NOTE: The expression of K is an approximation. The 362.0 84 50200
tabulated values o f K given in Table 1 0 are calculated 550.0 80 69300
from this approximation and are accurate t o within 800.0 80 97000
0.7% o f the values calculated by exact methods.

27

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID

Table 1 2 ( 6 ) Station auxiliary transformers or main


Subtransient R e a c t a n c e o f Three generator step-up transformers directly con-
Phase S y n c h r o n o u s Machine n e c t e d t o a generator w h i c h m a y b e subjected
t o prolonged duration terminal faults as a
Subtransient result of t h e inability t o r e m o v e t h e voltage
Most C o m m o n Reactance source quickly.
Reactance Range
Per Unit
( 7 ) Faults initiated b y circuit breakers m a y
Type of Machine Per Unit
under certain c o n d i t i o n s cause fault current in
2-Pole Turbine Generator 0.10 0.07-0.20 excess of t h o s e calculated in accordance w i t h
4-Pole Turbine Generator 0.14 0.12 - 0.21 this s e c t i o n
Salient Pole Generators
0.20 0.13 - 0 . 3 2 7.2 Components. Transformer components
and Motors with Dampers
Salient Pole Generators such as leads, bushings, load tap changers
0.30 0.20 - 0.50
Without Dampers (LTC), de-energized tap changers, current trans-
Condensers — Air Cooled 0.27 0.19 - 0.30 formers, etc w h i c h carry current c o n t i n u o u s l y
Condensers — Hydrogen shall c o m p l y w i t h all t h e requirements of
0.32 0 . 2 3 - 0.36
Cooled 7 . 1 . 3 and 7 . 1 . 4 . H o w e v e r , if n o t explicitly
specified, load-tap changers are n o t required
•Assumptions of rotating machine impedances should
be defined by the transformer manufacturer. t o change taps successfully under short-circuit
conditions.
7.1.4 can n o t be m e t , limits of fault current
capability o f t h e transformer shall be specified 7.3 B a s e k V A
by the manufacturer in his proposal and in- 7 . 3 . 1 Base kVA o f a Winding. This is t h e self-
corporated o n t h e transformer nameplate. c o o l e d rating of t h a t w i n d i n g as specified b y
For distribution transformers, t h e short- t h e n a m e p l a t e , or as d e t e r m i n e d in accordance
circuit withstand capability limits of Table 9 w i t h Table 1 3 .
have been accepted as being representative for For a transformer w i t h n o self-cooled rating
conventional materials and constructions. t h e applicable m u l t i p l y i n g factor from Table
7 . 1 . 5 . 5 Application C o n d i t i o n s Requiring 1 3 shall b e applied t o t h e m a x i m u m nameplate
Special Consideration. The f o l l o w i n g situations kVA rating t o obtain equivalent base kVA rating.
affecting fault current magnitude, duration, or 7 . 3 . 2 Base Current o f Windings Without
frequency o f occurrence require special c o n - Autotransformer C o n n e c t i o n s . For transformers
sideration and should be identified in trans- with t w o or m o r e windings w i t h o u t autotrans-
former specifications. former c o n n e c t i o n s , t h e base current of a wind-
(1) Regulating transformers w i t h e x t r e m e l y ing is obtained b y dividing the base kVA of
l o w impedance w h i c h d e p e n d o n t h e i m p e d a n c e t h e winding by t h e rated kV o f the winding o n
of directly c o n n e c t e d apparatus t o limit fault a per phase basis.
currents 7 . 3 . 3 Base Current o f Windings With A u t o -
(2) Generator transformers susceptible t o ex- transformer C o n n e c t i o n s . For transformers
cessive overcurrents p r o d u c e d b y c o n n e c t i o n o f with t w o or m o r e windings, including o n e or
t h e generator t o t h e s y s t e m o u t o f s y n c h r o n i s m m o r e autotransformer c o n n e c t i o n s , t h e base
( 3 ) Transformer terminals c o n n e c t e d t o ro- current and base kVA of any winding other
tating machines (such as m o t o r s or s y n c h r o n o u s than the series and c o m m o n windings are
condensers) w h i c h can a c t as generators t o feed determined as described a b o v e .
current into t h e transformer under s y s t e m fault The base current o f t h e series winding is
conditions equal t o the base kVA per phase at t h e series
(4) Operating voltage higher than rated
Table 1 3
maintained at t h e unfaulted terminal(s) during
a fault c o n d i t i o n
Type of Transformer Multiplying Factor
* (5) Frequent overcurrents arising from t h e
m e t h o d of operation or t h e particular appli- Water-Cooled (OW) 1.0
cation (for e x a m p l e , furnace transformers, Forced-Liquid-Cooled with 0.60
starting taps, applications using grounding either Forced-Air-Cooler
or Forced-Water Coolers
switches for relay purposes, traction feeding ( F O A or FOW)
transformers)

28

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IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER A N D REGULATING TRANSFORMERS C57.12.00-1980

line terminal (H) divided b y t h e m i n i m u m full T = (T


t k + T ) m(l+E
s + 0.6m) + T s

capacity tap voltage at t h e series line terminal


where
(H) in kV line t o neutral.
The base current of t h e c o m m o n winding is Wt s
equal t o t h e line current at t h e c o m m o n wind- m
~ C(T + Tj
ing terminal ( X ) , m i n u s t h e line current at t h e k

series winding terminal ( H ) under loading5 These e q u a t i o n s are approximate formulas,


c o n d i t i o n s resulting in the m a x i m u m phasor and their use should be restricted t o values of
difference. All c o n d i t i o n s of simultaneous m - 0.6 and less.
loading authorized b y t h e nameplate m u s t b e For values o f m in e x c e s s o f 0.6, the follow-
considered t o obtain t h e m a x i m u m value. Base ing m o r e nearly e x a c t formula should be used:
currents are calculated based on self-cooled
loading c o n d i t i o n s or equivalent. (Use multi- T = (T + T ) [Ve ™ + £ ( e ™ - l ) - l ]
{ k s
2 2
+T s

plying factors.)
where
NOTE: The following base current definitions are
applicable only to windings designed for connection T = 2 3 4 . 5 for c o p p e r
to load.
k

= 2 2 5 for EC grade aluminum. The ap-


propriate values for other grades may
7.3.4 Base Current in Windings o f a Regu- be used.
lating Transformer. T h e base current for each T = starting temperature. It is equal t o :
s
winding o f a regulating transformer is the maxi- ( 1 ) 3 0 ° C ambient temperature plus
m u m current w h i c h can occur in that winding the average winding rise plus the
for any loading c o n d i t i o n authorized by the manufacturer's r e c o m m e n d e d h o t t e s t
nameplate. Base currents are calculated based
s p o t allowance; or
on self-cooled loading c o n d i t i o n s or equiva-
( 2 ) 3 0 ° C ambient temperature plus
lent. (Use multiplying factors.)
the limiting winding h o t t e s t spot
7.3.5 Temperature Limits o f Transformers temperature rise specified for the ap-
for Short-Circuit C o n d i t i o n s . The temperature propriate t y p e o f transformer.
of the c o n d u c t o r material in t h e windings of e = base of natural logarithm, - 2.718
transformers under t h e short-circuit c o n d i t i o n s E = per-unit eddy-current loss, based on
specified in 7.1.1 through 7 . 1 . 4 , as calculated
resistance loss W , at the starting s
by m e t h o d s described in 7 . 4 , shall n o t e x c e e d
temperature
2 5 0 ° C for c o p p e r c o n d u c t o r or 2 0 0 ° C for EC
aluminum c o n d u c t o r . A m a x i m u m temperature „ fr + r ] k r
2

of 2 5 0 ° C shall be allowed for aluminum alloys


that have resistance t o annealing properties at
2 5 0 ° C equivalent t o EC aluminum at 2 0 0 ° C ,
E - per-unit eddy-current loss at reference
or for applications o f EC a l u m i n u m where the r

temperature.
characteristics o f t h e fully annealed material
T = reference temperature;
satisfy the mechanical requirements. In setting r

= 2 0 ° C a m b i e n t temperature plus rated


these temperature limits t h e following factors
average winding rise.
were considered:
W = short-circuit resistance loss of the
(1) Gas generation from oil or solid insula-
s

winding at the starting temperature,


tion
in watts per p o u n d of c o n d u c t o r ma-
( 2 ) Conductor annealing
terial
(3) Insulating aging.
7.4 Calculation of Winding Temperature
During a Short Circuit. The final winding
temperature T at t h e e n d of a short circuit of
W
>~ M X
U T ] + r
{

duration t shall be calculated on the basis of all


heat stored in t h e c o n d u c t o r material and its W x = resistance loss of winding at rated cur-
associated turn insulation. All temperatures are rent and reference temperature, in
in degrees Celsius. watts

29

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.00-1980 IEEE S T A N D A R D G E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUID

Table 1 4
R o u t i n e , D e s i g n , a n d Other Tests for Liquid-Immersed Transformers

Test Classifications
5 0 0 k V A and Smaller 5 0 1 k V A and Larger
Tests Routine Design Other Routine Design Other

Resistance Measurements
Of all windings o n the rated voltage tap
and at the tap extremes of the first
unit made o n a new design. N o t e : ( 1 )
Ratio
Tests on the rated voltage connection
and on all tap connections. For LTC
units, see 8 . 3 . 1 .
Polarity and Phase Relation
Tests on the rated voltage connection
No-Load Losses and Excitation Current
At rated voltage and frequency o n the
rated voltage connection
Impedance Voltage and Load Loss
At rated current and rated frequency
on the rated voltage connection, and
at the tap extremes of the first unit
of a new design. For LTC units, see
8.3.2. Notes: (1), ( 2 )
Zero-Phase-Sequence Impedance Voltage
Temperature Rise
At minimum and maximum ratings of
the first unit o n a n e w design. May be
omitted if test of thermally duplicate
or essentially duplicate unit is available
Dielectric Tests
L o w Frequency N o t e : ( 3 )
Lightning impulse
front-of-wave lightning impulse
Switching impulse, phase-to-ground
( 4 5 0 kV BIL and higher)
Radio influence voltage
Insulation power factor
Insulation resistance
Audible Sound Level
N o t e : (4)
Short-Circuit Capability
N o t e : (5)
Mechanical
Lifting & Moving Devices
Pressure
Leak

NOTES: (1) Resistance, impedance, and load-loss tests are design tests for distribution transformers 5 0 0 k V A and
smaller and shall be omitted when a record of such tests made o n a duplicate or essentially duplicate unit in accord-
ance with this standard are available.
(2) For duplicate units, these measurements shall be taken only at the rated voltage connection for a two-winding
unit, and for three or more rated voltage connections for the case of a three or more winding unit.
(3) Low frequency tests are performed using the applied voltage and induced voltage tests described in ANSI
C 5 7 . 1 2 . 9 0 - 1 9 8 0 , or combinations thereof.
(4) The transformer shall be connected for, and energized at rated voltage, frequency, and at n o load. Noise con-
tributing elements of the transformer such as pumps and fans shall be operated as appropriate for the rating being
tested. When it is impractical or undesirable t o include the appropriate cooling equipment, the self-cooled sound
level may be corrected for cooling noise contribution, if suitable corrections are available and it is mutually agree-
able to those concerned.
(5) Testing of large transformers may n o t be practical because of test facility limitations.

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ANSI/IEEE
IMMERSED DISTRIBUTION, POWER A N D REGULATING T R A N S F O R M E R S C57.12.00-1980

N = symmetric short-circuit magnitude, in Table 1 5


times normal rated current A d d i t i o n a l Tests
M = weight of winding c o n d u c t o r , in
pounds Voltages for which Tap
C = average thermal capacitance per p o u n d Changers are Set
of c o n d u c t o r material and its associ- Tap Changer for
ated turn insulation, in watt-seconds Test De-energized Load-Tap
per degree Celsius. It shall be deter- Number Operation Changer
mined by iteration from either of the 1 Rated voltage tap pos Max voltage tap pos
following empirical equations: Rated voltage tap pos Min voltage tap pos
2*
C = 174 + 0.0225 (T + T ) 3 Max voltage tap pos Max voltage tap pos
s f

4* Max voltage tap pos Min voltage tap pos


+ 1 1 0 — for copper 5 Min voltage tap pos Max voltage tap pos
6* Min voltage tap pos Min voltage tap pos
C = 4 0 5 + 0.1 ( T + s T)
{

*For tests 2, 4 , and 6 the current held may be such


Ai that the current in the winding corresponds to the
+ 3 6 0 — for aluminum rated kilovolt-amperes and the rated winding voltage,
A c if the transformer has been so designed with the load-
A x = cross-sectional area of turn insulation. tap-changer. All other tests shall be made at currents
corresponding t o the rated kilovolt-amperes and the
A c = cross-sectional area of c o n d u c t o r . voltage of the tap position being tested.

8. Testing and Calculations Impedance-voltage and load-loss tests as listed


in Table 1 5 shall b e m a d e o n o n e unit of a given
rating w h e n p r o d u c e d by o n e manufacturer
8 . 1 General. Unless otherwise specified, all at t h e same t i m e .
tests are defined and shall be m a d e in accord- 8 . 3 . 2 . 1 I m p e d a n c e Testing o n Regulating
ance w i t h A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 2 . 9 0 - 1 9 8 0 . Unless Transformers. T h e i m p e d a n c e of regulating
otherwise specified, tests shall b e m a d e at t h e transformers shall be tested at the m a x i m u m
factory o n l y . and m i n i m u m rated voltage positions and at
8 . 2 R o u t i n e , Design, a n d Other Tests for t h e neutral p o s i t i o n of t h e l o a d tap changer.
Transformers. These are listed in Table 1 4 . 8 . 3 . 2 . 2 Test R e p o r t . When a test report
Definitions o f these various tests are included is specified, t h e i m p e d a n c e values of 8 . 3 . 2 or
in A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 2 . 8 0 - 1 9 7 8 . 8 . 3 . 2 . 1 shall be i n c l u d e d in it.
8 . 2 . 1 Routine tests shall be m a d e o n all 8 . 4 Calculations
transformers in accordance w i t h the require- 8 . 4 . 1 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Transformer Regu-
m e n t s of Table 1 4 . lation. When specified, transformer regulation
8 . 2 . 2 When specified (as individual tests), shall b e d e t e r m i n e d for t h e rated voltage, kVA,
other tests shall be m a d e o n transformers as and frequency b y m e a n s o f calculations based
listed in Table 1 4 . o n the t e s t e d i m p e d a n c e and load losses in
8 . 3 Additional R o u t i n e Tests o n Transformers accordance w i t h t h e procedure given in A N S I /
with Load-Tap-Changing, or Regulating Trans- IEEE C 5 7 . 1 2 . 9 0 - 1 9 8 0 . Regulation calculations
formers shall be based o n a reference temperature equal
8 . 3 . 1 R a t i o T e s t s o n Load-Tap-Changing t o t h e rated average winding temperature rise,
Transformers. R a t i o t e s t s shall be made (1) at plus 2 0 °C.
all c o n n e c t i o n p o s i t i o n s of t h e t a p changer for
de-energized operation w i t h the load-tap-
changer o n t h e rated voltage p o s i t i o n , and ( 2 )
9 . Tolerances
at all load-tap-changer p o s i t i o n s with t h e tap
changer for de-energized operation o n t h e
rated-voltage p o s i t i o n . 9 . 1 Tolerances for R a t i o . With t h e transformer
8 . 3 . 2 Impedance-Voltage and Load-Loss at n o load and w i t h rated voltage impressed
Tests o n Load-Tap-Changing Transformers. o n o n e winding o f a transformer, all other

31

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.00-1980

rated voltages shall b e correct w i t h i n 0.5% Table 1 6


of the nameplate markings, e x c e p t in cases Tolerances for Single-Phase and Three Phase
where t h e rated voltage or t a p voltage cor- Transformers Losses
responds t o t h e voltage o f t h e nearest turn
but still e x c e e d s 0.5% o f t h e desired voltage No-Load Total
because t h e volts per turn of t h e u n i t e x c e e d s Number of Units Basis of Losses Losses
on One Order Determination (%) (%)
this tolerance.
1 1 unit 10 6
9 . 2 Tolerances for I m p e d a n c e . T h e tolerances
2 or more Each unit 10 6
for impedance shall be as f o l l o w s :
2 or more Average of 0 0
(1) T h e impedance o f a t w o - w i n d i n g trans- all units
former with impedance voltage larger than
2.5% shall have a tolerance o f ± 7.5% of t h e
specified value, and t h e tolerance for t h o s e
w i t h impedance voltage 2.5% or less shall have graphs, provided turns ratios and other con-
a tolerance o f ± 10% o f t h e specified value. trolling characteristics are suitable for such
Differences of i m p e d a n c e b e t w e e n duplicate operation.
two-winding transformers w h e n t w o or m o r e
9 . 3 Tolerances for Losses. Unless otherwise
units of a given rating are p r o d u c e d b y o n e
specified, t h e losses represented b y a test o f a
manufacturer at t h e same t i m e shall n o t e x c e e d
transformer, or transformers, o n a given order,
7.5% o f t h e specified value.
shall n o t e x c e e d t h e specified losses b y m o r e
( 2 ) The i m p e d a n c e of a transformer having
than t h e percentages in Table 1 6 .
three or m o r e windings, or having zigzag wind-
ings, shall have a tolerance of ± 10% of t h e
specified value.
Differences o f i m p e d a n c e b e t w e e n duplicate 1 0 . C o n n e c t i o n o f Transformers
three-winding or zigzag transformers, w h e n t w o for S h i p m e n t
or more units of a given rating are p r o d u c e d b y
o n e manufacturer at t h e same t i m e , shall n o t Single-phase a n d three-phase transformers
e x c e e d 10% of t h e specified value. shall be shipped w i t h b o t h h i g h - a n d low-voltage
( 3 ) The impedance o f an autotransformer windings c o n n e c t e d for their rated voltage.
shall have a tolerance o f ± 1 0 % o f t h e specified Unless otherwise specified, single-phase trans-
value. formers designed for b o t h series-multiple and
Differences of i m p e d a n c e b e t w e e n duplicate three-wire o p e r a t i o n shall be shipped con-
autotransformers, w h e n t w o or m o r e units of n e c t e d in series w i t h t h e m i d p o i n t o u t for
a given rating are p r o d u c e d b y o n e manufac- three-wire operation. Single- and three-phase
turer at t h e same t i m e , shall n o t e x c e e d 1 0 % of transformers designed for series-multiple opera-
the specified value. t i o n o n l y shall be shipped c o n n e c t e d in series.
(4) Transformers shall be considered suitable Unless otherwise specified, three-phase trans-
for operation in parallel if reactances c o m e formers designed for b o t h A and Y operation
within the limitations o f t h e foregoing para- shall be shipped c o n n e c t e d for t h e Y voltage.

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Appendix 4

(This Appendix is not a part of ANSI/IEEE C 5 7 . 1 2 . 0 0 - 1 9 8 0 , IEEE Standard General Requirements for Liquid-
Immersed Distribution, Power, and Regulating Transformers.)

Unusual Temperature and A l t i t u d e C o n d i t i o n s

Table A I
M a x i m u m A l l o w a b l e Average Temperature* o f Cooling Air for Carrying R a t e d kVA

1 0 0 0 Meters 2 0 0 0 Meters 300044eters 4 0 0 0 Meters


Method of Cooling Apparatus ( 3 3 0 0 Feet) ( 6 6 0 0 Feet) ( 9 9 0 0 Feet) ( 1 3 2 0 0 Feet)

Degrees C
Liquid-Immersed Self-Cooled 30 28 25 23
Liquid-Immersed Forced-Air-Cooled 30 26 23 20
Liquid-Immersed Forced-Oil-Cooled
with Oil-to-Air Cooler 30 26 23 20

• I t is recommended that the average temperature of the cooling air be calculated by averaging 24 consecutive
hourly readings. When the outdoor air is the cooling medium, the average o f the maximum and minimum daily
temperatures may be used. The value obtained in this manner is usually slightly higher, b y not more than 0.3 °C,
than the true daily average.

A I . Unusual Temperatures and A l t i t u d e NOTES: ( 1 ) See A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 2 . 0 0 - 1 9 8 0 , 4.3.2


for transformer insulation capability at altitudes above
Service C o n d i t i o n s 3 3 0 0 ft ( 1 0 0 0 m ) .
( 2 ) Operation in l o w ambient temperature with the
Transformers m a y b e applied at higher ambi- t o p liquid at a temperature lower than - 2 0 °C may
reduce dielectric strength between internal energized
e n t temperatures or at higher altitudes than c o m p o n e n t s b e l o w design levels.
specified in A N S I C 5 7 . 1 2 . 0 0 - 1 9 8 0 , b u t perfor-
mance m a y be affected and special considera-
tion should b e given t o these applications. A 4 . Operation at Less than R a t e d kVA

Transformers m a y b e operated at altitudes


A 2 . Effect o f A l t i t u d e o n Temperature Rise greater than 3 3 0 0 ft ( 1 0 0 0 m ) w i t h o u t exceed-
ing temperature limits, provided t h e load t o be
T h e effect o f t h e decreased air density d u e t o carried is r e d u c e d b e l o w rating b y t h e percen-
high altitude is t o increase t h e temperature rise tages given in Table A 2 for each 3 3 0 ft ( 1 0 0 m )
of transformers since t h e y are d e p e n d e n t u p o n that t h e altitude is a b o v e 3 3 0 0 ft ( 1 0 0 0 m ) .
air for the dissipation o f h e a t losses.

Table A 2
A 3 . Operation at R a t e d kVA R a t e d kVA Correction Factors for Altitudes
Greater t h a n 3 3 0 0 ft ( 1 0 0 0 m )
Transformers m a y b e operated a t rated kVA
at altitudes greater than 3 3 0 0 ft ( 1 0 0 0 m ) with- Derating Factor
Types o f Cooling (%)
o u t e x c e e d i n g temperature limits, provided
the average temperature of t h e c o o l i n g air d o e s Liquid-immersed air-cooled 0.4
n o t e x c e e d t h e values of Table A I for t h e re- Liquid-immersed water-cooled 0.0
spective altitudes. Liquid-immersed forced-air-cooled 0.5
Liquid-immersed forced-liquid-cooled
'The data in this Appendix will be placed in Guide with liquid-to-air cooler 0.5
for Loading Distribution and Power Transformers,
Liquid-immersed forced-liquid-cooled
ANSI C57.91 and ANSI C 5 7 . 9 2 when the documents
with liquid-to-water cooler 0.0
are revised.

33

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Appendix B

Specification F o r m s

(This Appendix is n o t a part of American Standard General Requirements for Liquid-immersed Distribution, Power,
and Regulating Transformers, C 5 7 . 1 2 . 0 0 - l 9 8 0 . )
For the manufacturer's use, the following specification form (or equivalent) for power transformers is suggested:
Power Transformer Specification
For Date
Proposal No Spec No Item N o

RATING
Type Class H Winding X Winding Y Winding
Phase V V V
Hertz kVA kVA kVA
Temp Rise kVA kVA kVA
Insul Liquid kVA kVA kVA

ADDITIONAL TAP VOLTAGES


H Winding
X Winding

CONNECTIONS FOR OPERATION


Transformers in Bank To Transformer From Phase Connected To Transformer To Phase Connected

PERFORMANCE BASED INSULATION LEVELS


DIELECTRIC TESTS
ON A L O A D I N G O F Basic Lightning Low Frequency
Impulse Insula- Voltage
H Winding kV kVA H Winding kV ITEMS tion Level Insulation Level
Applied Voltage H line —
X Winding kV kVA (To other wind- X Winding kV
H neutral —
Y Winding kV kVA ings and ground) Y Winding kV Xline —
Line to Line kV X neutral —
Induced Voltage
Line to Ground kV Yline —

PERFORMANCE D A T A , Based o n ° C Reference Temperature


L o s s e s and E x c i t i n g Current Regulation*
Excitation % Ex 1 N o Load Total Loss Power Factor % Regulation
100% 1.0
110% 0.8

AUXILIARY LOSSES *
Transformer k V A Class W a t t s A u x Loss MECHANICAL DATA
w N o t for Construction P u r p o s e s
w
Outline Dwg No_
w
Dimensions (Approximate) Ft (m)
Average Sound Level Height (A)
Width (B)
PERCENT IMPEDANCE VOLTS Depth (C)
Between At Between At H e i g h t over Cover (D> .
%/Z
Windings kVA Windings kVA
U n t a n k i n g {Plus S l i n g s ) <E)
H X
H Y Masses (Approximate) pounds (kg)

XY Core and Coils


Tank and Fittings
EFFICIENCIES * Liquid . Gallons ( m ) 3

Full Total Mass


Load /4 Load
3
4 Load V Load
Load 4

Shipping Mass lb (kg)


% Shipped lb (kg)

*Data to be furnished only w h e n requested.

NOTE: It is suggested w h e n SI units are used, that liters be used for volumes less than 1 0 0 0 liters and cubic meters for
volumes 1 0 0 0 liters and larger.

34

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For manufacturers' use, the following specification form (or equivalent) for distribution transformers is suggested:

Manufacturer's Name Distribution Transformer Specification

For D a t e

Proposal N o Spec No

RATINGS*

Class Type Phase Hertz H Winding X Winding Winding Temperature Rise


V V V

Additional Approximate Voltages

H Winding
X Winding

CONNECTIONS FOR OPERATION


Transformers in Bank To Transform From Phase Connected To Transform To Phase Connected

PERFORMANCE—Basic Lightning Impulse Insulation Levels

High Voltage kV: Low Voltage

DIELECTRIC T E S T S

Applied Voltage (To other windings and ground)


X Winding Winding Induced Voltage
H Winding
Times Normal Voltage
kV kV kV

Losses in Watts % Regulation* % Exciting Current % Impedance Volts

kVA No Load Total 1 0 0 % PF 8 0 % PF 1% Fxc M 1% / / I


Item

REFERENCE T E M P E R A T U R E — 8 5 ° C

APPROXIMATE D I M E N S I O N S AND WEIGHTS (Not for Construction Purposes!

Dimensions in In ( m m ) Net Mass in Pounds (kg) Gallons m of 3

Including Liquid Insulating Liquid


Item kVA Outline No A B C D

*Data to be furnished only when requested.

Page of Pages Prepared b y .

NOTE: It is suggested when SI units are used, that liters be used for volumes less than 1 0 0 0 liters, and cubic meters for
volumes 1 0 0 0 liters and larger.

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IEEE Standards of Special Interest
to the Power Engineer
IEEE Title
Std
Test Procedure for Airborne S o u n d Measurements o n Rotating Electric Ma-
85-1973 chinery
Test Procedure for Evaluation of S y s t e m s of Insulation for Specialty Trans-
259-1974 formers
Test Procedure for Evaluation of Insulation S y s t e m s for Electronics Power
266-1969 Transformers (Reaff 1 9 7 5 )
Definitions in P o w e r Operations Terminology Including Terms for Reporting
346-1973 and Analyzing Outages o f Electrical Transmission and Distribution Facilities
and Interruptions t o Customer Service
430-1976 Procedures for t h e Measurement o f Radio N o i s e from Overhead Power Lines
454-1973 R e c o m m e n d e d Practice for the D e t e c t i o n and Measurement o f Partial Dis-
charges (Corona) During Dielectric Tests
ANSI C2 National Electrical Safety C o d e , 1 9 8 1 e d i t i o n

ANSI/IEEE
C37.91-1972 Guide for Protection Relay Applications t o P o w e r Transformers
C37.95-1973 Guide for Protective Relaying o f Utility-Consumer Interconnections
Standard General Requirements for Liquid Immersed Distribution, Power
C57.12.00-1980 and Regulating Transformers (Revision of A N S I / I E E E C 5 7 . 1 2 . 0 0 - 1 9 7 3 )
Standard General Requirements for Dry-Type Distribution and Power Trans-
C57.12.01-1979 formers
Terminology for Power and Distribution Transformers
C57.12.80-1978
Standard for Dry-Type Transformers
C57.12.91-1979
Standard Requirements for Instrument Transformers (Revision of A N S I
C57.13-1978 C57.13-1968)
C57.98-1968 Guide for Transformer Impulse Tests
C57.100-1974 Test Procedure for Thermal Evaluation o f Oil-Immersed Distribution Trans-
formers
C57.104-1978 Guide for t h e D e t e c t i o n and Determination o f Generated Gases in Oil Im-
mersed Transformers and their Relation t o t h e Serviceability of the Equip-
ment
C57.105-1978 Guide for Application o f Transformer C o n n e c t i o n s in Three-Phase Distri-
bution Systems
C57.106-1977 Guide for Acceptance and Maintenance o f Insulating Oil in E q u i p m e n t
(Revision o f IEEE Std 6 4 - 1 9 6 9 )

For a free catalog o f IEEE Standards write t h e


Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, U.S.A.

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